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1611 Submissions

[391] viXra:1611.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 16:52:52

Propositional Logic: An Extension Nary Anthropic

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 6 Pages. new foundations

The proposed extension of propositional logic exhibits a striking similarity to generalized games with a chance player while pointing to accidental applications in quantum computing.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[390] viXra:1611.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 20:49:24

Establishing The Second Task of PHPR

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 10 Pages.

Problems, objectives, and resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[389] viXra:1611.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:08:07

Quantum Obstacle Changes Superconductor to Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers from Brown University have demonstrated an unusual method of putting the brakes on superconductivity, the ability of a material to conduct an electrical current with zero resistance. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[388] viXra:1611.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:42:40

TRL Universal Truth Distillation Engineering. Rig-True Engineering (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Truth Distillation Engineering, i.e., Rig-True Engineering'.
Category: General Mathematics

[387] viXra:1611.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:48:39

The ABC Conjecture Does Not Hold Water ( Revised Version )

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 18 Pages.

The ABC conjecture seemingly is difficult to carry conviction in the face of satisfactory many primes and satisfactory many odd numbers of 6K±1 from operational results of computer programs. So we select and adopt a specific equality 1+2N(2N-2)=(2N-1)2 with N≥2 satisfying 2N-1>(Rad(2N-2))1+ ε. Then, proceed from the analysis of the limits of values of ε to find its certain particular values, thereby finally negate the ABC conjecture once and for all.
Category: Number Theory

[386] viXra:1611.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:58:45

Unknown Source of Positrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of researchers known as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Collaboration has found evidence of a possible unknown source of positrons making their way through the universe to Earth. [9] Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[385] viXra:1611.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 08:27:51

Walking Proteins in Soft Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Tiny "walking" proteins could be used to investigate mechanical deformations in soft materials according to Hokkaido University researchers. [25] Water has profound implications in our world. From its known, yet not fully understood role in mediating protein folding dynamics and proton transport in membranes, water is a key player, influencing the mechanics of many biological and synthetic processes. [24] A team of mechanical engineers at the University of California San Diego has successfully used acoustic waves to move fluids through small channels at the nanoscale. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[384] viXra:1611.0406 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-09 06:26:50

Vector Lorentz Transformations

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 3 Pages. Version 3 in English.

This article presents the vector Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[383] viXra:1611.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 12:57:34

Gravitation Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 48 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“To oscillate photons need energy, that is why they emit Gravitons with negative energy and negative impulse.” Adrian Ferent From Newton, Maxwell, Einstein…you learned that light, photons are perpetual motion machines, are in perpetual motion. “My Nobel Prize - Discovery: the Photon – Graviton pair (coupled) has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy, is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν “ Adrian Ferent The most important properties in my view of the Gravitons: 1.Gravitons help photons (and all the particles) to oscillate. 2.Gravitons collapse matter, bring everything together. 3.Gravitons transfer energy, transfer mass. The Higgs boson is not involved. Because of these properties the Graviton is the most important particle, is the God particle; not the Higgs boson.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[382] viXra:1611.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 22:40:10

Universal Consciousness Intelligence

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Consciousness Intelligence'.
Category: General Mathematics

[381] viXra:1611.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 01:09:05

Fluorescence for Experimental Biology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[380] viXra:1611.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 04:59:17

Water-Wave Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[379] viXra:1611.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:04:27

So Feynman Was Right

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 4 Pages.

The curious relationship between the Planck Length and the Bohr Radius enables one to write down the mass of the electron in terms of the Planck Mass, the fine structure constant and pi. Building on the relationship between the GUT scale and the mass of the electron, the fine structure constant is shown to be related to both pi and e, as Richard Feynman surmised.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[378] viXra:1611.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 13:25:47

Pioneer Anomaly Re-visited

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 7 Pages.

This mysterious effect has been given considerable thought as to its nature. Some have thought that the effect is due to unknown spacecraft effects, such as gas leaks or anisotropic thermal radiation. Others hold out for some fundamental physics that might alter the theory of gravitation. Recently, a complete analysis of rediscovered spacecraft data provides a credible story for spacecraft engineering being the cause. However, more fundamental physics has not been absolutely ruled out. This paper will relook at the anomaly from a fundamental perspective by applying a recently published physical theory to the Pioneer anomaly, and will show that a new theory can explain the effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[377] viXra:1611.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:02:24

Existence of Polarons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Many people picture electrical conductivity as the flow of charged particles (mainly electrons) without really thinking about the atomic structure of the material through which those charges are moving. But scientists who study "strongly correlated electron" materials such as high-temperature superconductors and those with strong responses to magnetism know that picture is far too simplistic. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[376] viXra:1611.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:29:22

Making a Crystal Lattice

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The treatment, described this week in Applied Physics Letters, creates the effect known as piezoelectricity, where electricity results from mechanical stress, in the material which did not originally see piezoelectric effects. [14] Many people picture electrical conductivity as the flow of charged particles (mainly electrons) without really thinking about the atomic structure of the material through which those charges are moving. But scientists who study "strongly correlated electron" materials such as high-temperature superconductors and those with strong responses to magnetism know that picture is far too simplistic. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[375] viXra:1611.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:48:51

Rorschach Ink-Blots Are Multifractals and a Corresponding Multifractal Strucure is Realized in Humans During Their Perception as Measured by the GSR (Galvanic Skin Response) Neurological and Psycho-Pysiological Signal

Authors: Leonardo Mendolicchio, Ferda Kaleagasioglu, Fang Wang, Rich Norman, Francesco Casciaro Losito, Anna Maria Losito, Elio Conte, Franco Orsucci
Comments: 21 Pages.

We demonstrate that the Rorschach ink-blots are multifractals. Normal subjects submitted to their perception for two minutes have been studied recording their GSR neurological and psychophysiological signal during the observation of the ink blots. It has resulted that also the induced perceptive dynamics in the subject is a multifractal. In the framework of the theory of complexity we elaborate that the intrinsic complexity of the ink-blots induces in the subjects an emotive and cognitive condition of profound inner conflict that may be estimated by the generalized Hurst exponent of the subject as arising from the GSR recording. We expect that the results are important not only in the theory of complexity but also in the clinical study of cases of neurological, psychological and psychiatric interest.
Category: Mind Science

[374] viXra:1611.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 10:18:43

On Scale Invariance and Particle Localization in Quantum Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is known that microcausality is a cornerstone principle of relativistic Quantum Field Theory (QFT). It requires commutativity of local fields defined at space-like separations and prohibits physical effects to propagate at superluminal speeds. However, it is also known that the exact localization of quantum fields fails to apply to quantum particles, which behave as non-local entities (the Reeh-Schlieder and Malamert theorems). Over the years, challenges associated with the point-wise description of quantum particles have inspired many attempts to revisit the particle interpretation of QFT. All these proposals suffer from specific limitations and have not gained universal acceptance. Here we suggest that a field theory approaching scale invariance near the fixed points of the Renormalization Group flow blurs the distinction between locality and non-locality. In particular, self-similarity resolves the issue of particle localization in QFT, while reinforcing microcausality by default.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[373] viXra:1611.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 07:00:01

TRL Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Normalization Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[372] viXra:1611.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 07:27:34

One-Way Street for Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at FOM institute AMOLF and the University of Texas at Austin have created a compact one-way street for light. [18] Any number can, in theory, be written as the product of prime numbers. For small numbers, this is easy (for example, the prime factors of 12 are 2, 2, and 3), but for large numbers, prime factorization becomes extremely difficult—so difficult that many of today's cryptography algorithms rely on the complexity of the prime factorization of numbers with hundreds of digits to keep private information secure. [17] How can quantum information be stored as long as possible? An important step forward in the development of quantum memories has been achieved by a research team of TU Wien. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[371] viXra:1611.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 07:36:23

Cutting-Off Einstein’s Special Relativity Theory by Occam’s Sickle (How the Mountain (Large Hadron Collider) Has Brought Forth a Mouse)

Authors: Mamaev A.V.
Comments: 22 Pages.

In this paper it is shown that Einstein’s special relativity theory is a self- contradictory theory. The contradiction between two Einstein’s postulates is eliminated by refusal from the Einstein’s second postulate, basing upon the Occam’s advice to decrease the quantity of basic postulates to a single one. From this single postulate a law of dependence of the speed of light propagation in vacuum on the speed of light source motion was derived. Then a new transformation without invariance of light speed and without prohibition of superlight speeds is derived instead of Lorentz’s transformation followed by discovery of particle electric charge dependence upon speed of a particle motion. Dissimilarities between the new space-time theory and Einstein’s Special Relativity theory are considered. They are the following: 1) speed of light in vacuum dependence in a moving inertial reference frame on the speed of moving inertial reference frame motion; 2|) absence of superlight speeds prohibition; 3|) absence of time dilation; 4) availability of a particle electric charge dependence on the particle motion speed. Then the formulas of new particle dynamics are derived from new theory transformation. The experiment by Neddermeyer and Anderson in 1938 is interpreted as a confirmation of superlight speeds and dependence of electric charge upon particles speed existence in nature. It is shown that according to the NRSTT accelerated protons in the Large Hadron Collider have the energy below 400 MeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[370] viXra:1611.0391 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-29 08:19:39

PAN-Theory

Authors: Carmine D'Errico
Comments: 11 Pages.

A unified theory of fundamental interactions represents today one of the most advanced research sectors. To it are linked the expectations about new worldviews and new implications on the technological and industrial processes for the evolution of the human species. At this unification process, it is assigned a general understanding of phenomena. In this article, we present an alternative theory we call PAN-Theory. The PAN-Theory provides a simple mechanical-algebraic model that proves to be exactly the Coulomb's interaction; therefore we demonstrate the elementary charge e and Planck's constant h to be expression of other constants with negligible errors. By the definition of a mass–time relation the presented Theory obtains and interprets in a new way the fine-structure constant \alpha and predicts the proton radius in an agreed extent with the most complex and current models. By the use of PAN-Theory a relativistic mass–energy relation is demonstrate and the wave-particle duality is presented in a new aesthetic. The final product of the presented theory is the expression of Newtonian gravity model as isomorphism of Coulomb model with negligible errors. In appendix a short demonstration for Doppler effect and for quantum entanglement is given.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[369] viXra:1611.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-08 03:13:44

Proof of Bunyakovsky's Conjecture

Authors: Robert Deloin
Comments: 10 Pages. This is version 2 with important changes.

Bunyakovsky's conjecture states that under special conditions, polynomial integer functions of degree greater than one generate innitely many primes. The main contribution of this paper is to introduce a new approach that enables to prove Bunyakovsky's conjecture. The key idea of this new approach is that there exists a general method to solve this problem by using only arithmetic progressions and congruences. As consequences of Bunyakovsky's proven conjecture, three Landau's problems are resolved: the n^2+1 problem, the twin primes conjecture and the binary Goldbach conjecture. The method is also used to prove that there are infinitely many primorial and factorial primes.
Category: Number Theory

[368] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 18:14:53

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 2 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-positron & Proton-antiproton Event Horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[367] viXra:1611.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 18:25:17

History of Electricity

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper was written in order to examine the order of discovery of significant developments in the history of electricity. The history of electricity reveals a series of discoveries with the simplest discoveries being made first and more complex discoveries being made later. Some discoveries could not be made without certain prior discoveries having been made. The earliest forms of electricity to be experienced by people were those that occur naturally such as lightning and those resulting from simple activities like rubbing an object which causes electricity by means of friction. Systematic experimentation concerning electricity began after the scientific revolution with scientists constructing simple machines to create electricity and conducting simple experiments that showed electric charges could be positive or negative and that insulating material could stop an electric charge being lost from a charged object. Current electricity required the prior discovery of a battery such as the voltaic pile, and only when current electricity could be made, was it possible to discover the connection between electricity and magnetism. Once current electricity was produced, it was soon discovered that an electric current affected the behavior of a compass needle, leading to the invention of the electromagnet and eventually to Faraday’s invention of the electric motor and the electric generator. When practical electric generators and motors were invented, and the generation of electricity became economic, helped considerably by the invention of the electric light, the use of electricity began to spread throughout the first world and eventually the rest of the world. The order in which these discoveries were made was inevitable and given how valuable electricity is to human beings, it was also inevitable, that sooner or later in some society open to new ideas and technology, that electricity would be used to meet human needs. The order of discovery was inevitable and is an example of how social and cultural history has to follow a particular course determined by the structure of the world around us.
Category: Social Science

[366] viXra:1611.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 19:56:37

The Discovery of Steam Power

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper was written in order to examine the conditions needed, and the order of the discoveries made, for the invention of the steam engine. There were a number of conditions necessary for the invention of the steam engine. A vital one was the presence of a need, initially that of how to get water out of mines and later how to drive the new machinery that was being produced as part of the industrial revolution. But needs are common and they are not always met. The reasons why those needs were met was due to the scientific progress that was going on in 16th and 17th century Europe concerning the knowledge of atmospheric pressure, how to create vacuums and of the properties of gases. Allied to this scientific progress was a belief in Europe at the time that progress could be made and problems could be solved. The inventors at the time applied scientific knowledge to solving the problems that existed and after long periods of trial and error, including the development of new and better materials, were able to produce a working steam engine. Crucial to the progress made by the inventors was the diffusion of scientific and engineering knowledge which enabled them to build on each other’s work. The earlier development of printing was important to the diffusion process and the role of organizations such as the Royal Society was also important.
Category: Social Science

[365] viXra:1611.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 13:44:27

Quantum Number Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Any number can, in theory, be written as the product of prime numbers. For small numbers, this is easy (for example, the prime factors of 12 are 2, 2, and 3), but for large numbers, prime factorization becomes extremely difficult—so difficult that many of today's cryptography algorithms rely on the complexity of the prime factorization of numbers with hundreds of digits to keep private information secure. [17] How can quantum information be stored as long as possible? An important step forward in the development of quantum memories has been achieved by a research team of TU Wien. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[364] viXra:1611.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 14:44:16

New Lower Bounds for Van Der Waerden Numbers Using Genetic Algorithm

Authors: Alexey V. Komkov
Comments: Pages.

Genetic algorithm is a good tool for finding the global minimum in many discrete problems. In particular, it has proven itself in problems where there is no any apriori information about the possibilities of narrowing the search, or the specifics of the problem do not involve such. This work describes the procedure of using a genetic algorithm as applied to the search of van der Waerden numbers. Some new lower bounds of van der Waerden numbers were found using this procedure.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[363] viXra:1611.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 10:29:05

Mystery of Glass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[362] viXra:1611.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 12:45:40

Dual Atomic Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have combined two experimental atomic clocks based on ytterbium atoms to set yet another world record for clock stability. [24] JILA physicists have demonstrated a novel laser design based on synchronized emissions of light from the same type of atoms used in advanced atomic clocks. The laser could be stable enough to improve atomic clock performance a hundredfold and even serve as a clock itself, while also advancing other scientific quests such as making accurate "rulers" for measuring astronomical distances.[23] A newly developed laser pulse synthesizer that generates femtosecond pulses at mid-infrared (IR) wavelengths promises to provide scientists with a better view of the inner workings of atoms, molecules and solids. [22] An optically-driven mechanical oscillator fabricated using a plasmomechanical metamaterial. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[361] viXra:1611.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 09:46:12

Single-Photon Converter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A Polish-British team of physicists has constructed and tested a compact, efficient converter capable of modifying the quantum properties of individual photons. The new device should facilitate the construction of complex quantum computers, and in the future may become an important element in global quantum networks, the successors of today's Internet. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[360] viXra:1611.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 06:43:11

TRL Calculation Of Centroid And Rate Of Change Of Centrois Of Any Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series). ISSN 1751-3030.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation the author has detailed about 'Calculation Of Centroid And Rate Of Change Of Centrois Of Any Primality Of Concern'. Also, the author has slated the definition of the Life Coefficient of Any Aspect Primality of concern.
Category: General Mathematics

[359] viXra:1611.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 20:36:11

Gravitational Redshift Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 46 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift” Adrian Ferent I discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν All physicists were not capable to explain Gravitational time dilation, gravitational redshift. Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy. “Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent Only my Gravitation theory explains the gravitational redshift.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[358] viXra:1611.0379 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-28 06:18:51

A Conformal Preon Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: Published in: Open Access Library Journal, 3: e3262. Link on front page.

I consider a preon model for quarks and leptons based on massless constituents having spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0. The color and weak interaction gauge structures can be deduced from the three preon states. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Baryon number non-conservation mechanism is obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[357] viXra:1611.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 23:26:36

TRL Least Count Of Non-Measurability Potential Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Least Count Of Non-Measurability Potential Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[356] viXra:1611.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 23:28:59

Truth. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed an important Notion about 'Truth'.
Category: General Mathematics

[355] viXra:1611.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 01:23:10

Mathematical Proof of a Feasible Warp Drive and Time Travel Mechanism

Authors: Dr Gautam Narayan Baruah
Comments: 8 Pages.

When a body say a toy car slides down an inclined plane with angle of inclination less than 45 degree the downward and forward motion of the toy car can be restricted by a thread or support perfectly parallel to the horizontal.It can mathematically proved based on the law of conservation of energy that a portion of the weight of the toy car is unsupported even at the position of rest and sinks down in the same relative space causing compression of spacetime below the toy car.This is a mathematical proof of a plane solid surface where an object can rest with part of it's weight not supported even at the position og rest enabling a novel warp drive and time travel mechanism that can work without causing any physical harm to human subjects.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[354] viXra:1611.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 11:37:49

Dark Force of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[353] viXra:1611.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 07:54:18

High-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[352] viXra:1611.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 08:39:53

Nonlinear Curve as Proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem: a Graphical Method

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 4 Pages. This paper will be submitted to Annals of Mathematics

In this paper we will give an outline of proof of Fermat’s Last Theorem using a graphical method. Although an exact proof can be given using differential calculus, we choose to use a more intuitive graphical method.
Category: Number Theory

[351] viXra:1611.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 08:42:07

Capillarity Effects in Ideal Gases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A Mathematician from the University of Leicester, Alexander Gorban, along with a physicist from ETH Zürich, Ilya Karlin, have challenged traditional concepts of micro and macro worlds and demonstrated how ideal gas unexpectedly exhibits capillarity properties. [13] Post-doctoral researchers, Karim Essafi, Owen Benton and Ludovic Jaubert in the Theory of Quantum Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[350] viXra:1611.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 05:34:14

Challenges Einstein's Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[349] viXra:1611.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 06:35:11

Universal Con-Volution Intelligence. {Rendition To Completeness}.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Universal Con-Volution Intelligence'.
Category: General Mathematics

[348] viXra:1611.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 17:26:04

Hydrogenation During Stellar Evolution/Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis it is theorized that star evolution is planet formation itself. This being said, much of the hydrogen of the star combines with other elements and molecules. This can happen even more effectively through hydrogenation.
Category: Chemistry

[347] viXra:1611.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 20:05:27

Infinite Product Representations for Gamma Function and Binomial Coefficient

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, I demonstrate one new infinite product for binomial coefficient and news Euler's and Weierstrass's infinite product for Gamma function among other things.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[346] viXra:1611.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 20:58:07

The Basic Base Foundational Theory Of Everything ©

Authors: Jason Robert Lewis Sentinella
Comments: 3 Pages. The files associated with this dataset are licensed under a Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported licence.

•MRF – means, Magnetic Resonance Field (Dark Energy/Matter) created from previous resonance times by 2 •fg– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations divided by 2 (resonance = 1,079,252,849) •f – means, Forces’ and represents the MRF (resonance = 2,158,505,698) •fh– means, an external MRF equal to the same base equations time by 2 (resonance = 4,317,011,395) •b – means, Black holes •c – means, the speed of light •d – means, time •da– means, Distance within light •e – means, Energy •r – means, rotation •m – means, Matter •g – means, Gravity •u – means, universe equilibrium •dm- means, Dark Matter f = c2 b=c(e-f)c c= f/2 d=(da/c)/2 da= dc2 e= f(dc2) r= (ef)/(f(dc2) m= r/((ef)( f(dc2)) g=r/m u=c(b-e)/c dm=(rg)/m MRF=MRF2 As photons move at the speed of light(c) the Magnetic Resonance Fields’ (MRF also known as f in the equations) moves at the same rate times 2 but reduce by 2 equal (b/r)(f/2). Photons are created at the point of the beginning which is an inconsistent resonance to the MRF resonance created by the collision of two MRF mats which created a different resonance at the beginning which created the photon which is the first confused multiple resonance which can alternate between matter and resonance/MRF which produce the Higgs Boson when other photon collisions happen a very short time after the beginning. The MRF is the base foundation for non-rotational matter and light and consist of many multiple layers of 2 dimensional mats which stack 360o in all directions to create a 2-dimentional stack and within the 2-dimentional stack now exists a 3-dimentional universe. Therefore, the universe runs and is full of many, two dimensional MRF mats which is what we call as Zero Point Energy or the Higgs Field or Dark Energy or Dark Matter which is the first force created which is non-changing, every expanding and creating. Therefore, the MRF’s will remain constant with the speed of light from the force of fg consistent with (b/e)fg2. With multiple collisions between photons and MRF’s, the first component of the Higgs is created which is first creation of matter (m) from the change in the resonance which creates a domino effect for matter itself. As matter begins to form, mass is created therefore slows down at the rate of the mass created. e=mc2 is not correct as energy already exists from the MRF’s created from a singularity therefore, e=f(dc2) which is a result of the previous MRF2. mc2 is an atomic calculation consistent with the speed of light squared.   Matter/Mass is the incredible absorption of energy (e) captured and created at the point of slowing down from the speed of light at the time of transformation from a resonance to matter which in turn creates and draws in gravity. As matter cannot maintain the velocity of the speed of light, in which the force from the MRF is trying to push matter to the speed of light matter absorbs the energy trying to push it to the speed of light and now rotation (r) is created (which is quantum gravity), therefore matter and gravity follow resulting in r=(ef)/(f(dc2) “then” m=r/(ef)(f(dc2) “now” g=r/m. As the building blocks of matter begin the process of increasing matter/mass, the mass of each building block of matter reduces its velocity and increase’s its mass equal to the matter created from r/(ef)(f(dc2), therefore r/(ef)(f(dc2) reoccurring to the maximum different reoccurring resonance governed by the maximum reoccurring r/m equivalent to r/((ef)f(dc2)). So “e” is already applied to m= r/(ef)(f(dc2) and already exists from the MRF therefore e=f(dc2). The Higgs Field is the MRF’s which is the constant 2-dimensional resonance contained within the physics it created from the preceding MRF but is not a Higgs Boson itself as the Higgs Boson is matter not the MRF derived from the previous MRF2. Matter is a complex combination of many resonance which create our Standard Model yet our Standard Model does not go as deep as resonance therefore our Standard Model is incomplete. There is no outer membrane of our universe to create any sort of opposite force on our expanding universe, therefore, the shell around the outer most limits of our expanding universe is the laws of physics itself created from the beginning and therefore gave our universe the laws in which it abides and the MRF in which all our universe is contained and expanding. When the energy released from the previous MRF, it created our MRF2 in which at the same time of the release from the previous MRF, the photon was recreated from our MRF. The photon reduces back into the MRF at entry into the Black Hole inline with b=c(e-f)c as light cannot increase inline with the rate required to enter the Black Hole therefore reduces back to its foundation which is the MRF. Therefore, light is part MRF and part matter which is then the ultimate perfect imbalance between a two dimensional and three-dimensional universe which now allows the beginning for (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/((ef)( f(dc2)) and r/m. Our universe with the increased energy physics created from the previous MRF now creates its own sustainable energy input and output which in turn is the process of MRF2. This is the process of sustainable multi universal physics. Everything is maybe within a 1 dimension infinite entity (Creation itself) which is the real unknow singularity. All dimensions/MRF2 maybe within this 1 dimensional singularity. This singularity has no area, all area is contained within it which allows multi dimensions/universes which are derived by MRF’s at a different energy level. Any conceived space between universes is not an area of space, it is this 1 dimensional singularity. All Universes are connected through the many Black Holes it creates. Once the new energy level stabilises to that universe equilibrium, the Black Hole will close off with a burst of energy back through the Black Hole equal to the previous universes MRF. These bursts are predicated in my equations with a fluctuation in energy and then stabilised back to it's equilibrium with the creation of another Black Hole. Each universe creates more energy than it can hold, therefore, there is many other universes with the same physics as ours. Dark Matter is the MRF’s but a distorted portion of The MRF’s closest to the matter that is creating the distortion. Dark Energy is also the MRF’s it is just the undistorted portion that is further away from the matter. The area of the MRF’s closest to the mass of matter (galaxy) assists gravity to keep the mass in equilibrium with itself. The indented distortion of the MRF’s (also known as Dark Matter) is now the distorted/indent within the MRF’s required to keep matter together. Therefore (rg)/m is Dark Matter which is equal to the MRF. The distortion (Dark Matter) in the MRF’s is approximately 200% more distortion (Dark Matter) than there is matter. Dark Energy is equal to f which again, is the MRF. Dark Energy is equal to MRF which again, is the MRF’s. This paper shows the universe is expanding and the energy within it increases. This theory brings together general relativity and quantum theory, it also proves string theory. Matter is moving within the MRF’s but does not increase in velocity it is contained within r/((ef)( f(dc2), however, it is the area of the universe that is increasing in area therefore the distance between matter increases. Matter never increases outside of the universe equilibrium, matter is formed equal to the universe equilibrium. Therefore, the equations of (ef)/(f(dc2) and r/(ef)(f(dc2) and r/m remain the same but in equilibrium with f(dc2) and c(e-f)c = c(b-e)/c. A black hole is like a drain to reduce the incredible build-up of f(dc2), therefore we get c(e-f)c resulting in c(b-e)/c. After our universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c approximately 946 years after exiting the previous Black Hole from the previous MRF, our universe equalised. The new physical laws created now would not protect us from amalgamation with other universes of the same physical laws. If our universe was to combine with another universe with the same laws, it would be like what we see with merging galaxies. The indication that our universe is merging with another would be a rush of matter in our universe towards the mass in which the collision/merger will take place, therefore, would merely be a merger of equal MRF’s. At the time of exiting the previous MRF, the universe was organising itself within the new physical laws it created. Around 943 years after the exit, the universe began to stabilise as a result of f(dc2) and c(e-f)c. at around 946 years after the exit, the universe reached its equilibrium c(b-e)/c and continues in line with the physics described in this paper. The energy in the universe has stabilised as per c(b-e)/c, this is the basic base foundational theory of everything. Fig1 – 3 multiverses of different energy
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[345] viXra:1611.0364 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-12 00:35:02

Prediction for the Dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant, of 137.035999097020, and the mass ratios of the Electron and Proton to the Neutron. In the following papers by Michael John Sarnowski , “Serendipitous Hints at Shape of Electron and Electron/Neutron Mass Ratio” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1508.0027v4.pdf and “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1601.0234v2.pdf and “An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Proton to Neutron” @ http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0302v1.pdf . He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the neutron and proposes a value for the fine structure constant that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the dimensionless Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[344] viXra:1611.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 03:32:42

Quantum Cryptography

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 4 pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

The culmination of quantum entanglement, which can be measured, transformed, and purified, a lively and speculative domain of research, may serve as the foundation of the information-processing capabilities of quantum systems and provide one pillar of quantum information theory. A quantum information channel can be used to perform computational and cryptographic tasks. What is extraordinary about this phenomenon is that a possible alteration of the properties of a distant system (receiver, instantaneously or the probabilities of these properties) by acting on a local system (sender) should be impossible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[343] viXra:1611.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 08:27:40

Formulation of Energy Momentum Tensor for Generalized Fields of Dyons

Authors: Gaurav Karnatak, P. S. Bisht, O. P. S. Negi
Comments: 12 Pages. Vixra is very good journal of Physics.

The energy momentum tensor of generalized fields of dyons and energy momentum conservation laws of dyons has been developed in simple, compact and consistent manner. We have obtained the Maxwell’s field theory of energy momentum tensor of dyons (electric and magnetic) of electromagnetic field, Poynting vector and Poynting theorem for generalized fields of dyons in a simple, unique and consistent way.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[342] viXra:1611.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 08:14:32

Graphene Textiles for Wearable Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[341] viXra:1611.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:24:49

The 1600 Kelvin Gap in Astrophysics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots

In the accepted astronomy literature, and collected, publicly disbursed data there is a large temperature gap in the young stars which host older stars. It is apparent that specific data is ignored so that accepted models and theories do not receive unwanted attention by critical eyes. A prediction is therefore made concerning the presence of evolved stars (planets/exoplanets) around younger stars between the temperature range 540 – 2100 Kelvin, of which no public exoplanet data exists.
Category: Astrophysics

[340] viXra:1611.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:55:08

16 Psyche in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The asteroid 16 Psyche is claimed to be a protoplanet that did not continue its formation process in the “early solar system”. This is false. The asteroid is a piece of the core of a dead star according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[339] viXra:1611.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 22:32:55

Continuous Production of Matter Instead of Big Bang

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context of an alternative to the Big Bang theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[338] viXra:1611.0357 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-05 13:56:34

Integer, Fractional, and Anomalous Quantum Hall Effect Explained with Eyring's Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Hall effect, especially integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effect, has been addressed with the Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as e^2/h with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems
Category: Condensed Matter

[337] viXra:1611.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 02:40:38

TRL Natural Converses Of Any Order Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. {Rendition To Completeness}. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Natural Converses Of Any Order Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[336] viXra:1611.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 03:03:28

Null and Zero: What Does Algebra Tell us About Physics, the Universe, and Everything?

Authors: Alexander Balatsky
Comments: 33 Pages.

The universe is considered to be a logical system amenable to description in terms of dimensionless physically meaningful quantities united by common algebraic relationships. This insight allows us to reveal that: (i) time and space are interrelated via a certain causal order; (ii) this order arises via self-organization of void underlying the quantum structure of time-space; (iii) the corresponding symmetry and conservation law are manifest in the principles of causality, least time and least action; (iv) the causal relationship between void, time and space is amenable to analytical description in terms of a basic scale invariance of the universe.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[335] viXra:1611.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 03:10:04

Universal Con-Volution Intelligence

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Universal Con-Volution Intelligence'.
Category: General Mathematics

[334] viXra:1611.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 04:52:17

Photonic Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[333] viXra:1611.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 05:11:34

Proof of Collatz' Conjecture

Authors: Robert Deloin
Comments: 16 Pages.

Collatz' conjecture (stated in 1937 by Collatz and also named Thwaites conjecture, or Syracuse, 3n+1 or oneness problem) can be described as follows: Take any positive whole number N. If N is even, divide it by 2. If it is odd, multiply it by 3 and add 1. Repeat this process to the result over and over again. Collatz' conjecture is the supposition that for any positive integer N, the sequence will invariably reach the value 1. The main contribution of this paper is to present a new approach to Collatz' conjecture. The key idea of this new approach is to clearly differentiate the role of the division by two and the role of what we will name here the jump: a = 3n + 1. With this approach, the proof of the conjecture is given as well as generalizations for jumps of the form qn + r and for jumps being polynomials of degree m >1.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[332] viXra:1611.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:26:29

Rest of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Much of the universe is made of of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[331] viXra:1611.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:49:17

Single-Molecule Graphene Switches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers have discovered how to control molecules attached to graphene, paving the way for tiny biological sensors and devices to hold information. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[330] viXra:1611.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 12:35:52

Mysterious Dark Photon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[329] viXra:1611.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 07:29:53

Quantum Computers Radically Simplified

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[328] viXra:1611.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 08:05:22

The Wave Function in the Kaluza-Klein Theory

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, based on the Kaluza-Klein theory, we present a geometric interpretation of the wave function of a quantum particle through a fifth dimension, fluctuation metric.
Category: Quantum Physics

[327] viXra:1611.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 04:40:31

TRL Natural Converses Of Any Order Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series). ISSN 1751-3030.

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Natural Converses Of Any Order Of Any Given Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[326] viXra:1611.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 04:45:21

Repairs Brain Damage in Stroke

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[325] viXra:1611.0344 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-05 23:38:02

Apparent Source Theory a Link Between the Michelson-Morley Experiment and Free Energy, Reactionless Thrust, 'anti-Gravity', the Biefeld-Brown Effect

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 12 Pages.

Apparent Source Theory ( AST ) is a new interpretation of absolute motion already proposed by this author. AST easily explains many light speed experiments, including the Michelson-Morley experiment, the Sagnac effect and moving source experiments. AST has also been extended to electrostatics, revealing a mysterious nature of electrostatic fields. After I completed developing the major part of AST, I came across an idea that, if two oppositely charged spheres are fixed to the two ends of a rigid rod , and the system is in absolute motion, according to AST, the charge-rod system will be subjected to a net electrostatic force and hence accelerate, implying free energy and reactionless thrust ! Obviously such a possibility would be very exciting, if it really existed. But I was also disappointed because, if free energy doesn’t really exist, this would imply that my theory (AST ) is wrong. I had never heard of such an effect before. Later I found in the internet that such an effect in fact exists and is known as the Biefeld-Brown effect and with unknown origin. Although AST neatly predicts this effect and can be a very compelling explanation, I feel that it still needs to be developed . The purpose of this paper is to invite and inspire theoretical and experimental researchers to work on this exciting technology. Exciting possibilities have been presented for this purpose. For example, according to AST, it is possible to produce by a small free energy device, made by stacking large number of capacitors, a net force that can lift an object as massive as an aircraft carrier. It is shown that the net force on the capacitor is directly proportional to the square of the applied voltage, inversely proportional to the square of plate separation distance, directly proportional to the area of the capacitor plates, directly proportional to the relative permittivity of the dielectric material, and directly proportional to absolute velocity for absolute velocities much less than the speed of light. That the net force is directly proportional to the square of the electric field strength implies that dielectric materials with the highest dielectric strength are vital to the realization of free energy devices. Diamond is the most promising material for this, with dielectric strength of 2000 MV/m.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[324] viXra:1611.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 06:39:15

Examination of Initial Time Step in the Neighborhood of a Planckian to Pre Planckian Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages.

Using the early universe Heisenberg Uncertainty principle derived by the author, the HUP and also dE/dt = ( function of force, acceleration) are utilized , where E is the energy, F is a force equation, and m is mass and a acceleration. From here, we will be utilizing all of the above to derive a minimum time step . Which is pertinent to the Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time regime.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[323] viXra:1611.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 19:05:27

A Spectral Wave on a Spectrum – a New Discovery from an Experiment Which Allows Precision Spectroscopy

Authors: H. Singh Dhaliwal
Comments: 4 Pages.

A wavelike pattern is produced across the spectrum when a paper slit is positioned across the spectroscope slit. The "peaks" of the wave separates each spectral line. Emission lines have a "positive" amplitude and absorption lines have a "negative" amplitude. This spectral wave can be extrapolated and be a signature form for any object, the same as a spectrum provides information, but more precise. With this method, the slit can be very large, and the emission lines can be very thick, and with the spectral wave, it is easy to differentiate the emission lines and absorption lines because the spectral wave flips for absorption and emission lines. With this experiment, the first order spectrum can be used for precision spectroscopy.
Category: Quantum Physics

[322] viXra:1611.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 00:58:51

New Exact Solutions of Einstein and Qmoger Equations as Alternative to Big Bang

Authors: Evgeny A. Novikov
Comments: 4 Pages.

New exact analytical solutions of Einstein and Qmoger (quantum modification of general relativity) equations are obtained in the context an alternative to the Big Bang theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[321] viXra:1611.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 02:09:57

SUPREME and Quantum Cosmology

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

Assert the dominance of SUPREME using quantum topology at the cosmological scale.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[320] viXra:1611.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 14:01:00

Super-Fast Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Following a decade of intensive research into graphene and two-dimensional materials a new semiconductor material shows potential for the future of super-fast electronics. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[319] viXra:1611.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 14:44:23

Quantum Droplets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Experiments with ultracold magnetic atoms reveal liquid-like quantum droplets that are 20 times larger than previously observed droplets. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[318] viXra:1611.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 10:12:19

Redefine the International System of Units

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 9 Pages.

Through its measurements of Planck's constant, a quantity at the heart of quantum physics, the NIST-4 watt balance is contributing to an effort to define all base measurement units in terms of fundamental constants of nature. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[317] viXra:1611.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 10:44:26

Kannada Spell Checker with Sandhi Splitter

Authors: Akshatha A N, Chandana G Upadhyaya, Rajashekara Murthy S
Comments: Number of pages is 7

Spelling errors are introduced in text either during typing, or when the user does not know the correct phoneme or grapheme. If a language contains complex words like sandhi where two or more morphemes join based on some rules, spell checking becomes very tedious. In such situations, having a spell checker with sandhi splitter which alerts the user by flagging the errors and providing suggestions is very useful. A novel algorithm of sandhi splitting is proposed in this paper. The sandhi splitter can split about 7000 most common sandhi words in Kannada language used as test samples. The sandhi splitter was integrated with a Kannada spell checker and a mechanism for generating suggestions was added. A comprehensive, platform independent, standalone spell checker with sandhi splitter application software was thus developed and tested extensively for its efficiency and correctness. A comparative analysis of this spell checker with sandhi splitter was made and results concluded that the Kannada spell checker with sandhi splitter has an improved performance. It is twice as fast, 200 times more space efficient, and it is 90% accurate in case of complex nouns and 50% accurate for complex verbs. Such a spell checker with sandhi splitter will be of foremost significance in machine translation systems, voice processing, etc. This is the first sandhi splitter in Kannada and the advantage of the novel algorithm is that, it can be extended to all Indian languages.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[316] viXra:1611.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 11:10:01

Multiplexing Single Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[315] viXra:1611.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 07:17:48

Elusive Spectrum of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Quantum Physics

[314] viXra:1611.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-25 07:06:49

Show Structure and Constituent Density Images of Protons and Neutrons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing the images of the most fundamental structure and constituents density distribution of a proton and a neutron.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[313] viXra:1611.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 08:56:03

Computing the Mystery of Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[312] viXra:1611.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 04:20:28

Ultra Neutrosophic Crisp Sets and Relations

Authors: Hewayda Elghawalby, A. A. Salama
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we present a new neutrosophic crisp family generated from the three components’ neutrosophic crisp sets presented by Salama [4]. The idea behind Salam’s neutrosophic crisp set was to classify the elements of a universe of discourse with respect to an event ”A” into three classes: one class contains those elements that are fully supportive to A, another class contains those elements that totally against A, and a third class for those elements that stand in a distance from being with or against A. Our aim here is to study the elements of the universe of discourse which their existence is beyond the three classes of the neutrosophic crisp set given by Salama. By adding more components we will get a four components’ neutrosophic crisp sets called the Ultra Neutrosophic Crisp Sets. Four types of set’s operations is defined and the properties of the new ultra neutrosophic crisp sets are studied. Moreover, a definition of the relation between two ultra neutrosophic crisp sets is given.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[311] viXra:1611.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 06:40:34

Time Space and Identity

Authors: 姚嵩
Comments: 10 pages in Chinese.If you have any comments,please contact braveislife@sina.com

时间的度量必需现象有一个稳定的背景,能回到原来的方向。我们没有宇宙之外的钟表,没有绝对的时间标准,能够作为给出相等时间间隔的钟表的,并不是绝对的准确,而是与世界上绝大多数给出时间单位的周期现象,有着相对非常稳固的比值关系。时间只是在一个点上涌现,变化向前,只有周而复始的现象给出了相等的时间单位。当我们说,一切事物都在变化时,能使我们认识到变化前后还是同一个事物的,正是不变的东西。
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[310] viXra:1611.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 06:35:11

Next Generation Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[309] viXra:1611.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 16:16:31

A Neutrosophic Graph Similarity Measures

Authors: Shimaa Fathi, Hewayda Elghawalby, A.a. Salama
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper is devoted for presenting new neutrosophic similarity measures between neutrosophic graphs. We proposetwo ways to determine the neutrosophic distance between neutrosophic vertex graphs. The two neutrosophic distances are based on the Haussdorff distance,and a robust modified variant of the Haussdorff distance, moreover we show that they both satisfy the metric distance measure axioms. Furthermore, a similarity measure between neutrosophic edge graphs that is based on a probabilistic variant of Haussdorff distance is introduced. The aim is to use those measures for the purpose of matching neutrosophic graphs whose structure can be described in the neutrosophic domain.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[308] viXra:1611.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 02:58:02

Foundation for Neutrosophic Mathematical Morphology

Authors: Eman.m.el-Nakeeb, H. Elghawalby, A.a.salama, S.a.el-Hafeez
Comments: 17 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce a new approach to Mathematical Morphology based on neutrosophic set theory. Basic definitions for neutrosophic morphological operations are extracted and a study of its algebraic properties is presented. In our work we demonstrate that neutrosophic morphological operations inherit properties and restrictions of Fuzzy Mathematical Morphology
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[307] viXra:1611.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 03:16:38

Visualising Hypersphere Vorticitation

Authors: Peter J Carroll.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract. This paper provides a method of visualising the rotation of a hypersphere (3-sphere or 4 ball) on the inside. As such, it may represent the actual behaviour of the universe and this paper gives figures which may apply to the universe and which await observational confirmation. As a hypersphere will ‘rotate’ in a more complex way than a simple ordinary sphere (2-sphere), we can refer to it as a vorticitation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[306] viXra:1611.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 03:27:16

Neutrosophic Crisp Closed Region and Neutrosophic Crisp Continuous Functions

Authors: A.a.salama, I.m.hanafy, Hewayda Elghawalby, M.s.dabash
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce and study the concept of "neutrosophic crisp closed set "and "neutrosophic crisp continuous function. Possible application to GIS topology rules are touched upon.
Category: Topology

[305] viXra:1611.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 13:15:37

Selection of Partners by DNA Influences

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A study co-led by the University of East Anglia (UEA) has found that people with genes for high educational achievement tend to marry, and have children with, people with similar DNA. [8] A new trend taking shape in psychological science not only uses quantum physics to explain humans' (sometimes) paradoxical thinking, but may also help researchers resolve certain contradictions among the results of previous psychological studies. According to Zheng Joyce Wang and others who try to model our decision-making processes mathematically, the equations and axioms that most closely match human behavior may be ones that are rooted in quantum physics. [7] The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with " Spooky Activation at Distance " formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word's associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Mind Science

[304] viXra:1611.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 10:46:03

Molecular Chameleons in Bacterial Biofilms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[303] viXra:1611.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 11:20:55

Haptic Interfaces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Haptic interfaces have been readily adopted because of their intuitive ease of use and convenience. Obvious examples are the screens for your mobile phone or other computing devices where keyboards have been eliminated. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[302] viXra:1611.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 11:44:25

The Meaning of the Postulates of the Special Relativity

Authors: Valery P. Skorobogatov
Comments: 4 Pages. I made a lapse in my surname :(

It is shown the cause of the invariant value of the light speed on the ground of 4D model.
Category: Classical Physics

[301] viXra:1611.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 07:32:14

Better Quantum Memories

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

How can quantum information be stored as long as possible? An important step forward in the development of quantum memories has been achieved by a research team of TU Wien. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[300] viXra:1611.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 08:10:08

Minds for Machine Intelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[299] viXra:1611.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 08:47:27

New AI Algorithm Learns Beyond its Training

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[298] viXra:1611.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 09:38:36

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn.
Category: Astrophysics

[297] viXra:1611.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 09:57:34

Living Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

It sounds like something out of the Borg in Star Trek. Nano-sized robots self-assemble to form biological machines that do the work that keeps one alive. And yet something like this really does go on. [13] In a landmark experiment at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists used an X-ray laser to capture the first snapshots of a chemical interaction between two biomolecules in real time and at an atomic level. [12] An international team of scientists has learned how to determine the spatial structure of a protein obtained with an X-ray laser using the sulfur atoms it contains. This development is the next stage in the project of a group led by Vadim Cherezov to create an effective method of studying receptor proteins. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[296] viXra:1611.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 06:11:32

Magnetic Reconnection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[295] viXra:1611.0310 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-25 14:43:38

The Universe is Static

Authors: David F. Crawford
Comments: 9 Pages. Replacement to correct two references (Crawford 2009a & Crawford 2009b)

It is shown that the light curve widths of type Ia supernovae do not have time dilation and that their magnitudes are consistent with a static universe. The standard analysis for type Ia supernovae uses a set of templates to overcome the intrinsic variation of the supernova light curves with wavelength. The reference light curves derived from this set of templates contain an anomaly in that at short wavelengths the width of the light curve is proportional to the emitted wavelength. Furthermore this anomaly is exactly what would be produced if supernovae at different redshifts did not have time dilation and yet time dilation corrections were applied. It is the specific nature of this anomaly that is evidence for a static universe. The lack of time dilation is confirmed by direct analysis of the original observations. It is also found that the peak flux density of the light curves in the reference templates had a strong dependence on wavelength that could be due to the use of an incorrect distance modulus. This dependence is investigated by computing the peak absolute magnitudes of type Ia supernovae observations from the original observations using a static cosmological model. The results support the hypothesis of a static universe. It is also argued that the photometric redshift relation and spectroscopic ages are consistent with a static universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[294] viXra:1611.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 03:41:27

Time for Climate Normalization Research

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 8 Pages.

Forget mighty Brasilian butterflies that can send tornadoes to Texas with a flap of their wings. There is no chaos in nature - only in some sciences. The connection between the turbulence of Earth’s mantle, outer space, and climate has become more and more obvious. I will revisit old errors, forgotten artifacts, and abandoned theories as a nourishment for independent and interdisciplinary brains.
Category: Climate Research

[293] viXra:1611.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 12:19:30

The Theoretical Value of the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the theoretical value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on Einstein’s gravitational field equations, Hubble’s law, and Friedmann-Robertson-Walker model of the universe. The theoretical value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(2Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant. The theoretical value is very close to the observational value. Open space (k=-1) and closed space (k=+1) most likely coexist in our universe. The study implies that the expansion of the universe is an inherent property of vacuum space, not by dark matter and dark energy.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[292] viXra:1611.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 07:15:41

Converting Heat into Electricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[291] viXra:1611.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 05:19:12

Valence Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[290] viXra:1611.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 06:00:30

High-Temperature Superconductivity Pseudogap

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[289] viXra:1611.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 06:53:33

Interactions Between Electrons in Solids and Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Jyväskylä in collaboration with research groups in Italy, England and Germany have developed a new method to study interactions between electrons in solids and molecules. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[288] viXra:1611.0303 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-14 02:45:54

On the Lorentz Transformation and Time Dilation

Authors: Per Hokstad
Comments: 19 pages

The special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The Lorentz transformation provides the magnitude of this time dilation. The present work focuses on the fact that the time observed on the ‘other’ system will depend on the location of the clocks used for time comparisons, and we refer to positional (location specific) time. The paper points to the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. the specification of which clocks to apply, and we present a unified framework for these principles. It is argued that the total picture of the observed time dilations is more informative than the usual approach of focusing on one specific expression for time dilation, apparently based on a specific observational principle and a somewhat arbitrary definition of simultaneity. The motivation of the paper is to challenge the current narrative regarding time dilation occurring under the conditions of the STR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[287] viXra:1611.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-21 14:04:13

Information and Nature

Authors: Gene H. Barbee
Comments: 29 Pages. Please contact genebarbee@msn.com with comments

Most of nature is not hard to understand using the right approach. Understanding involves correlating data in a different way. Information (N) is defined by the negative natural logarithm of probability (N= - ln P) but the key equation is a new relationship between energy and information. The equation is E=e0*exp(N) where e0 is an energy constant and exp(N) stands for the natural number 2.718 to the power N. N values are found from data gathered by high energy labs. This paper describes how nature originates from these values. Nature repeatedly uses an operation involving separation of some information from other information. But there are important properties that are maintained and thought to be initial conditions. One property is probability one and another is zero energy. Separation occurs between N for the mass and N for field energy in a neutron. This causes an individual neutron to very improbable. But probability one is maintained by the creation of a huge number of neutrons. A mass model of the neutron was developed using information values that represent its components. The model is based on information separation between components of the neutron. Zero net energy is maintained. Mass with kinetic energy is positive balanced by negative field energy. It will be shown that the model contains energy values that unify nature’s four fundamental interactions. An information value associated with the electromagnetic field is of interest to biology. Combined with a quantum mechanical equation for light absorption multiples of this value can be used to model our human color vision system. This links internal observations with information and is a clue regarding signaling and response in our brain’s neural networks. Specifically the author proposes that there may be molecular level storage and interaction involved in perception. There are observations in physics that require explanation beyond physical networks. The dual slit experiment, instantaneous action at a distance (EPR) and collapse of a wave-function can be explained if perception is information gain occurring at the quantum level in a zero based system (zero energy and probability one). Four types of time are involved. Frequency is associated with fundamental particles and field energy. Time that repeats around a quantum orbit is defined by mass with kinetic energy attracted to field energy. A third kind of time repeats and moves forward. It is related to an information operation that underlies gravitation and cosmological space and time. Nature positions particles in space by giving them kinetic energy to expand. The freedom to move is due to time dilation associated with kinetic energy. Expansion is another separation process. As particles expand, groups of particles form clusters, galaxies, stars and planets under the influence of gravity, then form chemicals under the influence of electromagnetic fields. Overall, separation leads to components that fit together, similar to a picture puzzle and its individual pieces.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[286] viXra:1611.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-21 14:21:46

Natural Susy Particles Are not Allowed in Our E8-Broken Symmetry Epoch: Instead We Have 8-Fold Composite Particles of Life

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: In our present E8 broken symmetry epoch we are limited to 248 particles and antiparticles; this limit has been reached seemingly without including any natural SUSY particles. However, 8-fold composite particles indicative of life have been included. This report also contains correction of an error.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[285] viXra:1611.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-21 08:27:36

Can We Split the Quantum?

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 7 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

Today's mass production of antimatter (current, electrons (negatively charged matter) ) has changed the way we live and communicate. Still, the same is to some extent very simple and primitive. A question of far reaching importance is can we split the quantum to develop a more powerful technology to enable a more effective industrial mass production of antimatter?
Category: Condensed Matter

[284] viXra:1611.0299 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-08 08:24:57

Universal Economic Plan Based Law Constitutions of Kingdom and Nations

Authors: Mesut Kavak
Comments: 28 Pages.

In this work, touched on some social issues whatever the result, and a raising awareness was aimed by some new technological upgrades for vital infrastructures of states, social order and economic plan. The main aim is one world order which has no king and accepts nations as local governances as a requirement of hierarchical order. It is completely based on economic benefits of all nations as there is no alternative to establish a healthy economic order as economic management is directly related with laws. As the important is a law exists or not, or is just or not for justice, also it encourages to develop organic laws in state institutions as it recognizes any state institution as autonomous. This building is a building which is actually dependent of economy, counts states of the world as local governances as a requirement of one world order; does not stipulate working and military service; promises that no charge for houses, energy, education, judgment, security, health care, public transport, marriage; promises removing armies limited manner, removing nuclear weapons and establishing in space but the special conditions. Also there are many new technological upgrades for vital infrastructure of states.
Category: Social Science

[283] viXra:1611.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 16:50:54

A Static Cosmological Model, MOND, and the Galactic Rotation Curve

Authors: Kathleen A. Rosser
Comments: 17 Pages.

A static cosmological metric is derived that accounts for observed cosmic redshift without the requirement for an expanding universe. The metric is interpreted in such a way as to predict a universal potential that accounts the anomalous acceleration of outlying stars of spiral galaxies (the galactic rotation curve), obviating the need for dark matter or modifications to general relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[282] viXra:1611.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 21:01:02

Einstein Equivalence Principle is Wrong

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 41 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy” Adrian Ferent Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong. What is the difference between time dilation in Special theory of relativity and Gravitational time dilatation? Time dilation in Special theory of relativity is caused by positive energy. “Gravitational time dilatation is caused by negative energy” Adrian Ferent
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[281] viXra:1611.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 23:20:53

Relativistic Cosmology and Einstein’s ‘Gravitational Waves’

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 42 Pages. This article is the Author's invited contribution (a chapter) to a new book. No copyright limitations.

The mathematical theory of Relativity is riddled with violations of the rules of pure mathematics, logical contradictions, and conflict with a vast array of experiments. These flaws are reviewed herein in some detail. Claims for the discovery of black holes, Einstein's gravitational waves and the afterglow of the Big Bang, are demonstrably false. There are two conditions that any physical theory must satisfy: (a) logical consistency, (b) concordance with reality as determined by experiment and observation. Einstein's General Theory of Relativity fails on both counts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[280] viXra:1611.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-21 02:59:04

Dasha Maha Vidya: Wisdom from the Ten Directions

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 9 Pages.

A tradition unique to Indian Spirituality views the Universal Mother as ten ‘Wisdom Goddesses’ or ‘Dasha Maha Vidya’, each representing a concept related to a particular way of life, outlook and mindset, whose ultimate goal is to direct the aspirant towards spiritual progress. By virtue of the concepts represented the Maha Vidyas are associated with the ten directions. This article explores the philosophy and directions of the Wisdom Goddesses.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[279] viXra:1611.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 13:15:56

The Galactic Dark Matter As Relativistic Necessity

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

It will be demonstrated in this paper that dark mass is a necessary consequence of the relativistic mechanics. This demonstration disregards the forces of physics and is therefore a purely mechanical explanation. The Tully-Fisher relation will be deduced naturally, without appealing to any new physics, and it is therefore possible to derive this law without modifying the Newtonian gravity or general relativity. In addition, a theoretical prediction on a new form of frequency shift will be carried out which makes it possible to refute or confirm this theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[278] viXra:1611.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 14:48:32

Discussing a New Way to Conciliate Large Scale and Small Scale Physics

Authors: Jérémy Kerneis
Comments: 31 Pages.

Interactions are produced, at small scale, by Lorentz transformations around extra dimensions. As a simple example, we include simultaneously a "Kaluza-Klein fth dimension" and minimal coupling in Klein-Gordon equation applied to Hydrogen (all equations can be written in dimensionless form). Instead of solving the last separable equation for f(R), we require one more eigeinvalue equation, and require that the eccentricity of the system vanishes, to deduce the energy levels. With 4 spatial dimensions, there are naturally 6 rotations and 2 angular momenta (a classical one with parity+ and a spin with parity-). The SO(4) degeneracy and Schrodinger's energy levels are deduced, but the ne structure requires a modication : we give an example with a linear equation. We observe that the extra degree of freedom naturally disappears at classical scale (objects made of a large number of elementary particles). We then observe that the quantum principle of minimal coupling (here produced by Lorentz transformations) is analogous to a modication of the metric inside the wave function. We use the corresponding metric (no coordinate singularity, the central one being naturally solved by the Lorentz transformation with extra dimensions) to describe gravitation : the deduced equation of motion reduces, in the low eld approximation, to the equation given by general relativity. More generally, extra dimensions may be usefull in particles physics : conservation of lepton numbers could be understood as conservation of momentum along other dimensions, and unconvenient divergences could be solved.
Category: Quantum Physics

[277] viXra:1611.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 08:33:01

X-ray Pulsars Propeller Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[276] viXra:1611.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 09:05:30

New Way Heat Travels Between Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

A new model, developed by University of Pennsylvania chemists, could be the first step towards better harnessing heat energy to power nanoscale devices. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[275] viXra:1611.0288 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-17 02:13:54

Spacetime and Matter as Emergent Phenomena, Unified Field Theory (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 46 Pages.

A radical deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter is proposed. In this theory it is assumed that spacetime and matter are the emergent properties of a more fundamental entity. It is shown what properties such a fundamental entity should possess. An approach is proposed to find emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties in such an entity. It is shown how the nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields appear in the deterministic model of a more fundamental entity. The proposed theory of emergent spacetime and matter (further ESTM theory), as shown in this article, is compatible with special and general theories of relativity, as well as with quantum mechanics and cosmology. Quantum mechanics was reformulated into background independent one. The derivation of Schrödinger equation for quantum mechanics is given. It is shown how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle appears from the determinism of a more fundamental entity. Changes in the locality principle are proposed. Equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is substantiated. The corrections to equations of the general theory of relativity, as well as the change in the conceptual model of gravitation, are proposed. The ESTM theory predicts the absence of a quantum of gravity. The ESTM theory unites all the fundamental forces, including gravity. All fundamental forces are derived from one field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[274] viXra:1611.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 14:19:40

Magnetism, Interpreted as a Multi-Particle Effect

Authors: Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.
Comments: 8 Pages. replace r with c

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.
Category: Classical Physics

[273] viXra:1611.0286 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 06:29:30

Fine-Structure Constant and Matter Evolution

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Discussing for the origin of fine-structure of the Universe’s space and the Matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[272] viXra:1611.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 06:10:43

Photonic Neural Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Neural networks using light could lead to superfast computing. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[271] viXra:1611.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 21:36:58

HrudKamala Vaibhavam: The Temple of the Heart

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 35 Pages.

There is a temple, far more powerful than Srirangam, Chidambaram, Badrinath, Kasi or Tirupati. That is the Hrud-Kamalam, or the lotus of the heart. The Absolute Brahman, the one that plays (Lalitha) manifests as the young playful Baalaa, taking the form of Venkatesha, for the sole purpose of Kali Yuga Varada, and is manifest in the Hrud Kamalam. The form of Venkatesha itself is a huge temple, enshrining no less than 300 deities. |Om Sri Sai Venkateshaya Namah|
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[270] viXra:1611.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 22:59:30

An Introduction to Isaac's Laws

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 11 Pages.

A summary of a literary text.
Category: Social Science

[269] viXra:1611.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 15:50:20

Communication Through Entanglement Transfer

Authors: Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein
Comments: 8 Pages. 8

In our previous paper [1] we claim that based on conservation laws (e.g. spin, angular momentum, gravity, time dilation etc.) in some cases, matter and antimatter pairs (e.g. electron and positron pair) produced from photonic pure energy are entangled. Furthermore, if there are two identical pair production procedures ,A & B ,and an electron from entangled pair A annihilates with the positron of entangled pair B ,from conservation laws consideration the left behind positron from pair A and the left behind electron from pair B become entangled and we will refer to this event as entanglement transfer (Fig. 1).This phenomena can be examined at the LHC and if proven to be correct it is another proof that entanglement is truly a “spooky action at a distance” (EPR paradox) .As we will explain in this paper, This phenomena of entanglement transfer can be used for non-local communication applications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[268] viXra:1611.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 11:31:44

An Introduction to F-Notation and the Prove of the Cartesian Product of Natural Number is Countably Infinite

Authors: Damodar Rajbhandari
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper will introduce a new notation named as F-notation. This notation will help us to prove the statement, "The cartesian product of natural numbers is countably infinite".
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[267] viXra:1611.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 12:30:20

The Meaning of ‘flat’: Deducing General Relativity from Newtonian Physics.

Authors: G. N. N. Martin
Comments: 17 Pages.

In an earlier paper I showed that Newton's laws generalise to the theory of special relativity. In this paper I show that special relativity in turn implies general relativity. I have two audiences in mind. I hope it will help those who, like me, left school decades ago but still like to understand today's physics and are dissatisfied with inexact analogies. The second target audience are those academic physicists who do not realise how readily relativity can be derived using only those assumptions that are implicit in Newton's laws. The paper consists of a fairly short argument, followed by a number of appendices. Some of the appendices make supporting calculations, the rest explain ideas that will be obvious to some readers but not to others.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[266] viXra:1611.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 15:06:08

Coherent Detection of Signals below Noise Level

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 5 Pages.

The search for a phase coherent signal near 50.93 µHz in the data set of the super­conducting gravimeter H1 indicates a weakly damped signal 14 dB below noise. It might belong to the long-sought Slichter triplet.
Category: Geophysics

[265] viXra:1611.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-23 09:42:58

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn \\ Шестиугольный шторм на Сатурне

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn. \\ На северном полюсе Сатурна уже более 30 лет существует гигантский шторм в форме шестиугольника, каждая сторона которого больше диаметра Земли. Этот шестиугольник не перемещается на планете, вращается и сохраняет свою форму. Это явление до сих пор не имеет объяснения. Ниже предлагается математическая модель такого шторма, аналогичная математической модели океанского водоворота (предложенной автором ранее). При этом показывается, что источником энергии, позволяющей шторму длительное время вращаться, является гравитационное поле Сатурна.
Category: Astrophysics

[264] viXra:1611.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 09:05:32

Small, Non-Expensive Electric Impulse Thermonuclear Reactor with Collising Jets

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 23 Pages.

In last sixty years, the scientists spent the tens billion dollars attempting to develop useful thermonuclear energy. However, they cannot yet reach a stable thermonuclear reaction. They still are promising publically, after another 15 – 20 years, and more tens of billions of US dollars to finally design the expensive workable industrial installation, which possibly will produce electric energy more expensive than current heat, wind and hydroelectric stations can in 2015. The author offers the new, small cheap electric cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product. Chief among them in electric thermonuclear reactors are using electric voltage 50 ÷ 1000 kV (an electric condenser discharge), which allows to heat the compressed fuel in special pellet by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature. In electric cumulative vertion of AB thermonuclear reactors the fuel nucleus are heated by high electric voltage (50 ÷ 1000 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the special cylindrical fuel cartridge. The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from electric pinch-effect and heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge cover. The main advantages of the offered method are very small electric fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) and small of the full reactor installation (reactor has the spherical diameter 0.3 - 3 m), using the many thermonuclear fuels at room temperature and possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors. Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust. Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition, fusee) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[263] viXra:1611.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 01:12:06

Metaanalysis of Psychoanalysis

Authors: Andrej Poleev
Comments: 101 Pages. Language: German

The perspective revolution of Sigmund Freud: An update.
Category: Mind Science

[262] viXra:1611.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 01:18:23

Form and Informality

Authors: Andrej Poleev
Comments: 63 Pages. Language: German

No abstract
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[261] viXra:1611.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 01:54:58

Эффект Солошенко-Янчилина гравитационное ускорение времени против гравитационного замедления времени. Научно-техническая перспектива применения эффекта, в т.ч. в темпоральных технологиях.

Authors: Soloshenko M.V., Yanchilin V.L.
Comments: 48 Pages.

В октябре 2016 г. в Москве (МГУ им. Ломоносова) состоялся открытый доклад Института Специальных Исследований по вопросу гипотезы о существовании нового физического эффекта – Эффекта Солошенко-Янчилина и перспектив новой физики для темпоральных технологий. Эффект Солошенко-Янчилина: частота излучения атома увеличивается в поле гравитации - время ускоряется в поле гравитации в связи с уменьшением значения постоянной Планка вблизи большой массы. The Effect of Soloshenko-Yanchilin: an atomic frequency (atomic oscillation frequency) is increased in a gravitational field - time goes faster in the field of gravity and the value of Planck’s constant decreases with the increase of the absolute value of the gravitational potential. www.is-si.ru/atomic-pp.pdf, www.is-si.ru/timerate_eng.pdf Со стр. 30 доклада рассматривается вопрос принципиальной физической возможности создания Машины Времени (первого и второго рода). Специалистами Института Специальных Исследований предлагается новый взгляд на проблему континуума и физическая основа для появления в будущем Института Времени.
Category: Quantum Physics

[260] viXra:1611.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 02:45:02

Wet Molecules Change Shape

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Water has profound implications in our world. From its known, yet not fully understood role in mediating protein folding dynamics and proton transport in membranes, water is a key player, influencing the mechanics of many biological and synthetic processes. [24] A team of mechanical engineers at the University of California San Diego has successfully used acoustic waves to move fluids through small channels at the nanoscale. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[259] viXra:1611.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 13:37:37

Quantum Information Flow

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A Yale-led group of researchers has derived a formula for understanding where quantum objects land when they are transmitted. [16] The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[258] viXra:1611.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 14:03:40

Diamonds are Forever

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

They say diamonds are forever, but diamonds in fact are a metastable form of carbon that will slowly but eventually transform into graphite, another form of carbon. [12] Scientists at Lehigh University, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have demonstrated the fabrication of what they call a new class of crystalline solid by using a laser heating technique that induces atoms to organize into a rotating lattice without affecting the macroscopic shape of the solid. [11] The geometry and topology of electronic states in solids plays a central role in a wide range of modern condensed-matter systems including graphene or topological insulators. However, experimentally accessing this information has proven to be challenging, especially when the bands are not well-isolated from one another. As reported in last week's issue of Science, an international team of researchers has devised a straightforward method to probe the band geometry using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[257] viXra:1611.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 15:18:26

Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I.
Comments: 18 Pages. In English by Google

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[256] viXra:1611.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 10:52:29

Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[255] viXra:1611.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 11:22:19

Photoreceptor 50 Times Efficient than Human Eye

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

An international team of scientists led by the University of Michigan has discovered a new type of photoreceptor—only the third to be found in animals—that is about 50 times more efficient at capturing light than the rhodopsin in the human eye. [19] An elusive biological cycle in the eye - the daily disposal and regeneration of the end tips of photoreceptor cells - has been captured in images for the first time in a living human eye. Photoreceptors are light-sensitive cells responsible for initiating vision. This glimpse into the inner workings of the eye will help scientists better understand, prevent and manage major eye diseases that affect photoreceptors like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. [18] A protein found within the powerhouse of a cell could be the key to holding back the march of time, research by scientists at The University of Nottingham has shown. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[254] viXra:1611.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 12:59:54

Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) and the Fatal Timeline

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 2 Pages.

When a timeline was established related to events that lead to and following Heinrich Hertz's discovery that electromagnetic waves can propagate through the air, a potentially fatal chronology was identified. It is quite possible that the cause of Hertz's early death was exposure to damaging levels of electromagnetic radiation.
Category: Classical Physics

[253] viXra:1611.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 13:08:00

Archimedes' Screw of Quantum Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The scheme is based on the ideas of physicist David J. Thouless, who won half the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics for his work on topological effects in materials. Topological effects are to do with geometry, and their use in quantum computing can help protect fragile quantum states during processing. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[252] viXra:1611.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 06:07:51

New Theory of Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[251] viXra:1611.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 16:01:10

Game of Tradeoffs: Beyond Imaginary Games, Bargaining in General, and Games with Games

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages. generalized games

The proposed approach generalizes beyond the no cooperative versus cooperative game dichotomy
Category: Economics and Finance

[250] viXra:1611.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 14:14:19

Case Report. On the Importance of Performing HRV Analysis on Subjects Using Narcotic Drugs.

Authors: Elio Conte, Rich Norman, Leonardo Mendolicchio, Franco Orsucci, Francesco Casciaro Losito, Anna Maria Losito, Gabriele De Masi De Luca
Comments: 5 pages

We demonstrate the potential value of performing an HRV analysis at rest and in the condition of controlled respiration as a basic test for subjects suspected of using narcotic drugs.
Category: Mind Science

[249] viXra:1611.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 11:18:04

Deng Entropy in Hyper Power Set and Super Power Set

Authors: Bingyi Kang, Yong Deng
Comments: 18 Pages.

Deng entropy has been proposed to handle the uncertainty degree of belief function in Dempster-Shafer framework very recently. In this paper, two new belief entropies based on the frame of Deng entropy for hyper-power sets and super-power sets are respectively proposed to measure the uncertainty degree of more uncertain and more flexible information. Directly, the new entropies based on the frame of Deng entropy in hyper-power sets and super-power sets can be used in the application of DSmT.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[248] viXra:1611.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 11:37:27

Axions Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[247] viXra:1611.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 07:26:56

Quantum Order Manipulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[246] viXra:1611.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 08:31:26

Dirac Large-Numbers Hypothesis in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Contrary to the mainstream theories, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) the dimensionless physical-constants/numbers are calculated. Here we show that two large physical-constants/numbers are very important. First of the two large numbers relates ratio of the fine-structure constant and the coupling constant of gravitational interaction of the components of the electron-positron pairs to ratio of densities of the gravitating Einstein spacetime and the non-gravitating Higgs field (HF) which has inertial mass only - it is some 42 powers of ten. The second one relates the mass/size cosmological scales and proton scales - it is some 40 powers of ten. SST shows that since the end of the inflation the gravitational constant is invariant. Gravity and quantum entanglement emerged during the inflation as a result of phase transitions of large part of the Higgs field. Due to the properties of the quantum entanglement, controlling or removing quantum decoherence is impossible. SST shows that we cannot explain correctly both gravity and quantum entanglement neglecting the two size scales below the Planck scale i.e. the HF scale and the quantum-entanglement scale.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[245] viXra:1611.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 05:20:21

Quantum Dot LEDs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[244] viXra:1611.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 06:44:05

Superlattice Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[243] viXra:1611.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 07:04:54

Life Engineering {Rendition To Completion}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Life Engineering'.
Category: General Mathematics

[242] viXra:1611.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 18:03:50

Metamorphic Space

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 15 Pages.

A Guide Through Metaspace.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[241] viXra:1611.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 03:43:03

Chimera Synchrony and Asynchrony

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Order and disorder might seem dichotomous conditions of a functioning system, yet both states can, in fact, exist simultaneously and durably within a system of oscillators, in what's called a chimera state. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[240] viXra:1611.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 03:49:36

Why Iphones Cause Cancer \\ Почему айфоны вызывают рак

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

The article describes a range of abnormal focuses sharing the same cause. This cause is shown to be a harmful radiation of iPhones. \\ В статье описан комплекс патологических очагов, объединенных одной причиной. Как показано, данной причиной являются вредоносные излучения смартфонов типа айфон.
Category: Physics of Biology

[239] viXra:1611.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 03:52:28

Diabetes and Sweets \\ Диабет и сладости

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 4 Pages. in Russian

The article shows author’s simply method that allows patients suffering from type 2 diabetes to eat various sweets. \\ В статье приведена простейшая созданная автором, позволяющая больным, страдающим диабетом 2-го типа, употреблять различные виды сладостей.
Category: Physics of Biology

[238] viXra:1611.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-17 03:55:31

What Genes Whisper About \\ О чем шепчутся гены

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 11 Pages. in Russian

The article shows the history of mapping on the human genome. Results of the experiments conducted by various researchers confirming the wave structure of the human genome are considered. The results of genome research by the author are shown in terms of Information-Wave Medicine. \\ В статье приведена история расшифровки генома человека. Рассмотрены результаты экспериментов различных авторов, подтверждающие волновую структуру генома человека. Описаны результаты исследований генома автором статьи с позиции информационно-волновой медицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[237] viXra:1611.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 13:24:32

Multiphoton Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

An entangled polarization state of ten photons sets a new record for multiphoton entanglement. [20] Experimentalists from three groups have used small clouds of cold atoms to mediate strong interactions between pulses of light containing as little as one photon. [19] But University of Utah electrical and computer engineering associate professor Rajesh Menon and his team have developed a cloaking device for microscopic photonic integrated devices—the building blocks of photonic computer chips that run on light instead of electrical current—in an effort to make future chips smaller, faster and consume much less power. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons.
Category: Quantum Physics

[236] viXra:1611.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 10:02:37

TRL Natural Quantum Coupling

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Natural Quantum Coupling'.
Category: General Mathematics

[235] viXra:1611.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 10:12:03

Screws of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

University of Vienna research team has succeeded in breaking two novel records while experimenting with so-called twisted particles of light. These results, now published in the journal PNAS, are not only of fundamental interest but also give a hint towards the enormous information capacity a single particle of light may offer in future applications. [20] Experimentalists from three groups have used small clouds of cold atoms to mediate strong interactions between pulses of light containing as little as one photon. [19] But University of Utah electrical and computer engineering associate professor Rajesh Menon and his team have developed a cloaking device for microscopic photonic integrated devices—the building blocks of photonic computer chips that run on light instead of electrical current—in an effort to make future chips smaller, faster and consume much less power. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[234] viXra:1611.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 10:13:36

TRL The Uncertainity Of The Conscious Mind. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'The Uncertainity Of The Conscious Mind'.
Category: General Mathematics

[233] viXra:1611.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 11:26:03

Unusual Origins of High-Energy Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

High above the surface, Earth's magnetic field constantly deflects incoming supersonic particles from the sun. These particles are disturbed in regions just outside of Earth's magnetic field-and some are reflected into a turbulent region called the foreshock. New observations from NASA's THEMIS mission show that this turbulent region can accelerate electrons up to speeds approaching the speed of light. Such extremely fast particles have been observed in near-Earth space and many other places in the universe, but the mechanisms that accelerate them have not yet been concretely understood. [8] The scientists analyze the magnetic field strengths and show that, even in the least massive fragment the field is not strong enough to inhibit gravitational collapse. In fact, they find indications that gravity, as it pulls material inward, drags the magnetic field lines along. [7] Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars-small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[232] viXra:1611.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 09:15:10

Optical Quantum Logic Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Experimentalists from three groups have used small clouds of cold atoms to mediate strong interactions between pulses of light containing as little as one photon. [19] But University of Utah electrical and computer engineering associate professor Rajesh Menon and his team have developed a cloaking device for microscopic photonic integrated devices—the building blocks of photonic computer chips that run on light instead of electrical current—in an effort to make future chips smaller, faster and consume much less power. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[231] viXra:1611.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 09:54:08

Emerging Asset Networks: A Model of Comovement

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 40 Pages. be the judge of it

An unabridged and original version of the preceding summary.
Category: Economics and Finance

[230] viXra:1611.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 09:55:32

TRL Universal Natural Hole Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern. (Universal Engineering Series)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about 'Universal Natural Hole Of Any Aspect Primality Of Concern'.
Category: General Mathematics

[229] viXra:1611.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 05:00:04

Non-Perturbative Resonances of the Electromagnetic Interaction

Authors: Andrea Gregori
Comments: 14 Pages.

We discuss enhancements of the cross section in particle-antiparticle scattering, of a type not expected in quantum field theory, however predicted in the quantum gravity theoretical framework discussed in Refs [1, 2, 3]. The first events of this kind are to be found in the energy range between some 111 GeV and 130 GeV, with a stronger peak around 125-126 GeV, and weaker ones around 114 GeV and 130 GeV. The strongest peak turns out to correspond to the resonance which is usually interpreted as due to a Higgs boson, whereas the other ones are compatible with astrophysical observations devoted to inspect the presence of Dark Matter. This approach provides a no-Higgs, no Dark Matter explanation for the observed excess of photon production, which does not result from fine-tuning of parameters chosen ad-hoc in a particular model, but naturally fits within the theoretical scenario described in [1]–[3]. Further peaks are expected to appear at higher energy. They show up separated from each other by energy steps much wider than a typical resonance width. Being isolated and of moderate intensity, they may be more difficult to single out over the statistical fluctuations of background events.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[228] viXra:1611.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 05:17:13

Proposed Modifications to Tidal Accelerations and Implications for Geodesic Deviation in General Relativity

Authors: David Berkahn
Comments: 2 Pages. I had to add the letter "f" "i"

An approach to deriving tidal accelerations is presented using a modified solution approach based on velocity dependence of acceleration for a weak feld. Further explorations of this approach are investigated using general relativity to see how it might fit into its framework and whether any modifications may need to be suggested.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[227] viXra:1611.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 07:01:24

Quantum Simulator at the Atomic Level

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Sciences, Japan) and a group of collaborators have developed the world's fastest simulator for the quantum mechanical dynamics of a large number of particles interacting with each other within one billionths of a second. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[226] viXra:1611.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 03:24:16

What is a Photon? Photon Kinetic and Electromagnetic Structure Simplified and Explained and How One Photon Can go Through Two Different Holes at the Same Time.

Authors: Colin James
Comments: 51 Pages.

To attempt to answer the question 'What is a photon?' we combine the kinetic and electromagnetic aspects of a photon and derive a straightforward picture of the photon that appears to readily explain a number of phenomena including some of the strange features of the double-slit experiment. By considering the kinetic properties of a photon first, we look at wave-particle duality from the point of view of a particle system behaving with wavelike properties as the kinetic complement of a wave-packet. We find that the photon is contained by the vacuum by a force that is more than 200 times stronger than electrostatic.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[225] viXra:1611.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 13:03:45

Implied Intra-Industry Trade in Information: Modified Expositions

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 4 Pages. new microfoundations

Trade in information is inherently implicit--more so for intra-industry setups giving rise to modified HOS as well as to ordual underpinning, aside from hands-on applications.
Category: Economics and Finance

[224] viXra:1611.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 13:38:29

Bright Future of Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Invisible to the human eye, terahertz electromagnetic waves can "see through" everything from fog and clouds to wood and masonry—an attribute that holds great promise for astrophysics research, detecting concealed explosives and many other applications. [22] "The lasers that we produce are a far cry from ordinary laser pointers ," explains Rolf Szedlak from the Institute of Solid State Electronics at TU Wien. "We make what are known as quantum cascade lasers. They are made up of a sophisticated layered system of different materials and emit light in the infrared range." [21] Researchers at ETH Zurich have discovered a peculiar feature in oscillations similar to that of a child's swing. As a result, they have succeeded in outlining a novel principle for small, high-resolution sensors, and have submitted a patent application for it. [20] A collaboration including researchers at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) has developed a tuneable, high-efficiency, single-photon microwave source. The technology has great potential for applications in quantum computing and quantum information technology, as well as in studying the fundamental reactions between light and matter in quantum circuits. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17] To date, researchers have realised qubits in the form of individual electrons (aktuell.ruhr-uni-bochum.de/pm2012/pm00090.html.en). However, this led to interferences and rendered the information carriers difficult to programme and read. The group has solved this problem by utilising electron holes as qubits, rather than electrons. [16] Physicists from MIPT and the Russian Quantum Center have developed an easier method to create a universal quantum computer using multilevel quantum systems (qudits), each one of which is able to work with multiple "conventional" quantum elements – qubits. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[223] viXra:1611.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 14:21:08

[Emerging] Asset Networks: A Microfoundations Model of Comovement

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 13 Pages. new microfoundations

The present theoretical framework capture comovement beyond Shleifer & Barberis (2003) while bridging in an early effort areas as diverse as, Strategic Rationality, Ordinalcy, and Residuality.
Category: Economics and Finance

[222] viXra:1611.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 10:24:55

Biological Materials and Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

One of the biggest challenges in cognitive or rehabilitation neurosciences is the ability to design a functional hybrid system that can connect and exchange information between biological systems, like neurons in the brain, and human-made electronic devices. [15] Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[221] viXra:1611.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 11:04:28

Controlling Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[220] viXra:1611.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 12:16:02

Non-Conservativeness of Natural Orbital Systems

Authors: Slobodan Nedic
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Newtonian mechanic and contemporary physics model the non-circular orbital systems on all scales as essentially conservative, closed-path zero-work systems and circumvent the obvious contradictions (rotor-free ‘field’ of ‘force’, in spite of its inverse proportionality to squared time-varying distance) by exploiting both energy and momentum conservation, along specific initial conditions, to be arriving at technically more or less satisfactory solutions, but leaving many of unexplained puzzles. In sharp difference to it, in recently developed thermo-gravitational oscillator approach movement of a body in planetary orbital systems is modeled in such a way that it results as consequence of two counteracting mechanisms represented by respective central forces, that is gravitational and anti-gravitational accelerations, in that the actual orbital trajectory comes out through direct application of the Least Action Principle taken as minimization of work (to be) done or, equivalently, a closed-path integral of increments (or time-rate of change) of kinetic energy. Based on the insights gained, a critique of the conventional methodology and practices reveals shortcomings that can be the cause of the numerous difficulties the modern physics has been facing: anomalies (as gravitational and Pioneer 10/11), three or more bodies problem, postulations in modern cosmology of dark matter and dark energy, the quite problematic foundation of quantum mechanics, etc. Furthermore, for their overcoming, indispensability of the Aether as an energy-substrate for all physical phenomena is gaining a very strong support, and based on recent developments in Aetherodynamics the Descartes' Vortex Physics may become largely reaffirmed in the near future.
Category: Classical Physics

[219] viXra:1611.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-16 02:56:59

The Planck Mass Must Always Have Zero Momentum – Relativistic Energy-Momentum Relationship for the Planck Mass.

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a short paper on the maximum possible momentum for subatomic particles, as well as on the relativistic energy-momentum relationship for a Planck mass. This paper builds significantly on the maximum velocity for subatomic particles introduced by [1, 2, 3] and I strongly recommend reading an earlier paper [1] before reading this paper. It is important that we distinguish between Planck momentum and the momentum of a Planck mass. The Planck momentum can (almost) be reached for any subatomic particles with rest-mass lower than a Planck mass when accelerated to their maximum velocity, given by Haug. Just before the Planck momentum is reached, the mass will turn into a Planck mass. The Planck mass is surprisingly at rest for an instant, and then the mass will then burst into pure energy. This may sound illogical at first, but the Planck mass is the very turning point of the light particle (the indivisible particle) and it is the only mass that is at rest as observed from any reference frame. That the Planck mass is at rest as observed from any reference frame could be as important as understanding that the speed of light is the same in every reference frame. The Planck mass seems to be as unique and special among masses (particles with mass) as the speed of light is among velocities. It is likely one of the big missing pieces towards a unified theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[218] viXra:1611.0229 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-08 13:59:47

Derivation of Potentially Important Masses for Physics and Astrophysics by Dimensional Analysis

Authors: Dimitar Valev
Comments: 9 Pages.

The Hubble constant has been added in addition to the three fundamental constants (speed of light, gravitational constant and Planck constant) used by Max Planck, for derivation of the Planck mass by dimensional analysis. As a result, a general solution is found for the mass dimension expression m = γ^p•mP, where mP is the Planck mass, γ ≈ 1.23×10^(-61) is a small dimensionless quantity and p is an arbitrary parameter in the interval [–1, 1]. The Planck mass m1 ≡ mP = 2.17×10^(-8) kg, mass of the Hubble sphere m2 ~ 10^53 kg, minimum quantum of mass/energy m3 = 2.68×10^(-69) kg, Weinberg mass m5 = 1.08×10^(-28) kg, Eddington mass limit of stars M3 = 6.6×10^32 kg, mass of hypothetical quantum gravity atom M2 = 3.8×10^12 kg and some more masses potentially important for the physics and astrophysics represent particular solutions for values of p, expressed as fractions with small numerators and nominators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[217] viXra:1611.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 09:51:51

Are Quazars White Holes?

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on the mechanistic interpretation of J. Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept, which allows for transitions between distant regions of space, it was suggested that a quasar is a cosmological object, i.e. a white hole, where gravitational forces are replaced with dynamic ones with together the balance of electric and magnetic forces. Thus, a schematic model of a typical quasar was proposed. Its parameters (calculated on the basis of this model) are consistent with the observational data on quasars.
Category: Astrophysics

[216] viXra:1611.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 04:42:50

Acoustic Waves Move Fluids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A team of mechanical engineers at the University of California San Diego has successfully used acoustic waves to move fluids through small channels at the nanoscale. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[215] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-02 04:03:06

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 31 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[214] viXra:1611.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 06:29:31

Terahertz Scanning Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Wearable terahertz scanning device for inspection of medical equipment and the human body. [14] Optical microscopy experts at Colorado State University are once again pushing the envelope of biological imaging. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[213] viXra:1611.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 18:05:57

Sieve of Collatz

Authors: Jonas Kaiser
Comments: 11 Pages.

The sieve of Collatz is a new algorithm to trace back the non-linear Collatz problem to a linear cross out algorithm. Until now it is unproved.
Category: Number Theory

[212] viXra:1611.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 20:12:06

A Model for Topological Manipulations on Manifolds

Authors: Vincenzo Nardozza
Comments: 13 Pages.

The definition of an essential n-dimensional compact manifold is given. A tensor-like object used as an invariant for compact n-dimensional spaces and a model for describing topological manipulations based on the above invariants is proposed. The proposed theory is not fully proven and therefore this paper rather then being a proper formal paper has to be considered a note that gives some hints for further formal mathematical research.
Category: Topology

[211] viXra:1611.0222 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-30 17:46:07

Geometric Model of Time

Authors: [Alik] Vitali Perakh
Comments: 29 Pages. Removed reference to "The Problem of Time" as it did not fit the common definition of that term (thanks to Ilya Valmianski of UCSD for pointing this out).

The purpose of this article is to provide an alternative, strictly geometric, interpretation for the observed phenomenon of time. This Geometric Model of Time (GMT) is consistent with both Theories of Relativity but goes beyond current explanations for the nature of and the apparent one-directness of time - the so-called Arrow of Time. Key elements of the model are: 1. Our physical space (not space-time) is a 4-dimensional phenomenon. The notion of a dimension of time that is distinct from space is not necessary for a complete description of our universe. All dimensions are identical and symmetrical. No one dimension can be singled out to be universally or uniquely labeled as "time" or be otherwise unique. 2. All physical objects in our universe are endowed with an axiomatic vectorial property we call velocity. The scalar value of this property (speed) is invariable and identical for all objects and is labeled as c (speed of light). 3. The experience of time as we know it, or, more precisely, of sequential causality, results from each observer's motion through space at c. "Time" is the term given by each observer to their own individual direction of travel in our physical four-space. This model is a better t with observed phenomena than current ones as well as being simpler and more elegant, elegance being defined as having symmetry (in the sense that it treats no dimension as being singular).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[210] viXra:1611.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 00:53:18

Dark Energy Does not Exist

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 36 Pages. I discovered a new gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale.

Dark energy does not exist! I discovered Big Bang and Big Crunch oscillation from Ferent wall. The majority of Dark matter is the core of supermassive black holes. Our Milky Way galaxy will be absorbed by a supermassive black hole from Ferent universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[209] viXra:1611.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 13:06:22

Light Detector Revolutionize Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[208] viXra:1611.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 13:39:46

Atomic Beltway and Cosmic Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

A new theoretical paper from scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland suggests that intentionally creating just such a traffic jam out of a ring of several thousand ultracold atoms could enable precise measurements of motion. If implemented with the right experimental setup, the atoms could provide a measurement of gravity, possibly even at distances as short as 10 micrometers-about a tenth of a human hair's width. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[207] viXra:1611.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 11:02:33

Interaction Between Two Biomolecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In a landmark experiment at SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory, scientists used an X-ray laser to capture the first snapshots of a chemical interaction between two biomolecules in real time and at an atomic level. [12] An international team of scientists has learned how to determine the spatial structure of a protein obtained with an X-ray laser using the sulfur atoms it contains. This development is the next stage in the project of a group led by Vadim Cherezov to create an effective method of studying receptor proteins. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[206] viXra:1611.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 07:24:48

Alternative Super-Current

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Researchers have discovered that electrons that spin synchronously around their axes remain superconductive across large distances within magnetic chrome dioxide. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[205] viXra:1611.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 07:45:19

Life Engineering

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed all about 'Life Engineering'.
Category: General Mathematics

[204] viXra:1611.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 09:17:40

Refraction or Diffraction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[203] viXra:1611.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 10:00:31

Periodic Solutions for Nonlinear Oscillations in Elastic Structures Via Energy Balance Method

Authors: L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, D. K. K. Adjaï, J. Akande, B. Rath, P. Mallick, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 11 pages

A mathematical model describing the nonlinear oscillations in elastic structures is proposed. The Energy Balance Method (EBM) is applied to solve the generalized nonlinear Duffing equation obtained in absence of excitation. The numerical results show an excellent agreement with the periodic solutions obtained through the Energy Balance Method. Finally the effects of different parameters on the system behavior are studied.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[202] viXra:1611.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 10:15:29

Superparamagnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Superparamagnetism Electron micrographs of tiny superparamagnetic crystals of magnetite at different resolutions. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[201] viXra:1611.0212 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-15 18:11:29

The Divergence Myth in Gauss-Bonnet Gravity

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 5 Pages. Minor changes in v2

In Riemannian geometry there is a unique combination of the Riemann-Christoffel curvature tensor, Ricci tensor and Ricci scalar that defines a fourth-order Lagrangian for conformal gravity theory. This Lagrangian can be greatly simplified by eliminating the curvature tensor term, leaving a unique combination of just the Ricci tensor and scalar. The resulting formalism and the associated equations of motion provide a tantalizing alternative to Einstein-Hilbert gravity that may have application to the problems of dark matter and dark energy without the imposition of the cosmological constant or extraneous scalar, vector and spinor terms typically employed in attempts to generalize the Einstein-Hilbert formalism. Gauss-Bonnet gravity specifies that the full Lagrangian hides an ordinary divergence (or surface term) that can be used to eliminate the curvature tensor term. In this paper we show that the overall formalism, outside of surface terms necessary for integration by parts, does not involve any such divergence. Instead, it is the Bianchi identities that are hidden in the formalism, and it is this fact that allows for the simplification of the conformal Lagrangian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[200] viXra:1611.0211 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-01 04:59:33

A Variable Order Hidden Markov Model with Dependence Jumps

Authors: Anastasios Petropoulos, Stelios Xanthopoulos, Sotirios P. Chatzis
Comments: 33 Pages.

Hidden Markov models (HMMs) are a popular approach for modeling sequential data, typically based on the assumption of a first- or moderate-order Markov chain. However, in many real-world scenarios the modeled data entail temporal dynamics the patterns of which change over time. In this paper, we address this problem by proposing a novel HMM formulation, treating temporal dependencies as latent variables over which inference is performed. Specifically, we introduce a hierarchical graphical model comprising two hidden layers: on the first layer, we postulate a chain of latent observation-emitting states, the temporal dependencies between which may change over time; on the second layer, we postulate a latent first-order Markov chain modeling the evolution of temporal dynamics (dependence jumps) pertaining to the first-layer latent process. As a result of this construction, our method allows for effectively modeling non-homogeneous observed data, where the patterns of the entailed temporal dynamics may change over time. We devise efficient training and inference algorithms for our model, following the expectation-maximization paradigm. We demonstrate the efficacy and usefulness of our approach considering several real-world datasets. As we show, our model allows for increased modeling and predictive performance compared to the alternative methods, while offering a good trade-off between the resulting increases in predictive performance and computational complexity.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[199] viXra:1611.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 05:51:02

Concerning Early Diagnosis and Treatment of Prostate Malignant Tumors \\ О ранней диагностике и лечении злокачественных новообразований простаты

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian

This article describes an approach that allows to early diagnose and treat prostate cancer in terms of the Information-Wave Medicine. \\ В статье описан подход к ранней диагностике и лечению рака простаты с позиции информа-ционно-волновой медицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[198] viXra:1611.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 05:55:50

Why Humans Become Old \\ От чего человек стареет

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 6 Pages. in Russian

The article considers the telomere theory which authors were awarded the Nobel Prize in 2009. The aging process is explained from the point of view of Information-Wave Medicine (IWM). The aging program is shown to be a multi-level genetic structure controlled by the body’s internal biological clock. \\ В статье рассмотрена теория теломеров, авторам которой присуждена Нобелевская премия в 2009 году. Приведено объяснение процесса старения с позиции информационно-волновой медицины (ИВМ). Показано, что программа старения представляет собой многоуровневую генетическую структуру, управляемую внутренними биологическими часами организма.
Category: Physics of Biology

[197] viXra:1611.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-14 06:17:47

"Patch" for DNA \\ «Заплатка» для ДНК

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 5 Pages. in Russian

The article reviewed a technique of diagnosing and treating gene viral diseases by way of identification and subsequent recovery (repair) of abnormal chromosomes. \\ В статье рассмотрена техника диагностики и лечения геновирусных заболеваний путем выявления и последующего восстановления (репарации) аномальных хромосом.
Category: Physics of Biology

[196] viXra:1611.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:21:15

An Attempt to Resolve the Quantum Paradox of 720 Degrees Rotation

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 4 Pages.

Postulating a new Planck constant, the Planck circumference, symbol (P), where its diameter equals the Planck length. Utilizing the Planck circumference as the lynch pin in the schematic of the Planck constants and associated dimensionless constants hierarchy ,i.e., The Planck time, Planck length, Planck circumference, half of the reduced Planck constant, reduced Planck constant and the Planck constant. It will be shown that the reduced Planck constant (h-bar) inherently consists of two Planck circumferences multiplied by their respective ratio (half of h-bar)/(P) = 1.038499006. Therefore, the two Planck circumferences of 360 degrees constitutes the 720 degrees manifest in quantum calculations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[195] viXra:1611.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:30:32

Fusion Reactors – a Dream that Can Never Come True

Authors: Jose P Koshy
Comments: 5 Pages.

Nuclear fusion is primarily a process of 'system becoming dense', rather than 'fusion of two nuclei'. It is spontaneous in stars, which are light and are moving at high speeds. Earth is dense and moves at a comparatively slow speed. So on Earth, nuclear fusion is non-spontaneous – the energy input required to maintain the reaction will be greater than energy released. So it is practically impossible to produce energy from nuclear fusion reactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[194] viXra:1611.0205 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 21:25:42

Cosmology and Cancer in the Post-Star-Trek Centuries

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 24 Pages.

This is definitely not a work of science fiction. It's a serious 9,000 words detailing what today's philosophy and science (in areas like physics, computer science, cosmology, biology and mathematics) are likely to evolve into. I've always been totally fascinated by the future – the more distant, the better! So the adventures of the Star Trek movies and TV shows, based in the 23rd and 24th centuries, are a good starting point. They're not documentaries by any stretch but are a tremendous boost to the sense of wonder about the universe. Superman and Doctor Who are also great at making a person wonder about new possibilities in other centuries and other parts of the cosmos. Putting together the marvels of science fiction and the marvels of science results in the following picture of what lies in store for humanity and the cosmos. In the end, this new science and philosophy is my opinion and only time can determine its accuracy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[193] viXra:1611.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 08:57:49

Game of Trade: A Portfolio Approach to Theorizing on Trade & Investment as Entangled Domains

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 5 Pages. new micro- & int'l economics foundations

A new trade theory or social-planning paradigm is proposed merging portfolio- and game-theoretic accounts.
Category: Economics and Finance

[192] viXra:1611.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 09:16:55

Dark Matter and Intergalactic Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A correlation between the cosmic microwave background and hydrogen absorption lines may reveal a connection between dark matter and intergalactic gas clouds. [19] Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[191] viXra:1611.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 13:31:15

Dirac Equation in 24 Irreducible Representations

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 15 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2016), ‘Dirac Equation in 24 Representations’, PSTJ, Apr. 5, Vol. 7(5) Article 5, pp.500 − 513. (ISSN: 1530998026; EAN13: 9781530998029)

We demonstrate that if one adheres to a method akin to Dirac's method of arriving at the Dirac equation -- then, the Dirac equation is not the only equation that one can generate but that there is a whole new twenty four equations that Dirac left out. Off these new equations -- interesting is that; some of them violate C, P, T, CT, CP, PT and CPT-Symmetry. If these equations are acceptable on the basis of them flowing from the widely -- if not universally accepted Dirac prescription, then, the great riddle of why the preponderance of matter over antimatter might find a solution.are acceptable on the basis of them flowing from the widely -- if not universally accepted Dirac prescription, then, the great riddle of why the preponderance of matter over antimatter might find a solution.
Category: Quantum Physics

[190] viXra:1611.0200 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 13:28:46

Dirac Equation for General Spin Particles Including Bosons

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 8 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2016), ‘Dirac Equation for General Spin Particles Including Bosons’, PSTJ, Feb. 12, Vol. 7(2) Article 20, pp.397− 404. (ISSN: 2153-8301; EAN13: 9781530161683)

We demonstrate (show) that the Dirac equation – which is universally assumed to represent only spin 1/2 particles; can be manipulated using legal mathematical operations – starting from the Dirac equation – so that it describes any general spin particle. If our approach is acceptable and is what Nature employs, then, as currently obtaining, one will not need a unique and separate equation to describe particles of different spins, but only one equation is what is needed – the General Spin Dirac Equation. This approach is more economic and very much in the spirit of unification – i.e., the tie-ing together into a single unified garment – a number of phenomenon (or facets of physical and natural reality) using a single principle, which, in the present case is the bunching together into one theory (equation), all spin particles into the General Spin Dirac Equation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[189] viXra:1611.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 13:14:41

On Anderson at al. (2015)'s Supposed Sinusoidal Time Variation of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 10 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2016), ‘On Sinusoidal Time Variation of the Newtonian Gravitational Constant’, PSTJ, Mar. 10, Vol. 7(3) Article 18, pp.650− 659. (ISBN: 1530633834 ; EAN13: 9781530633838)

In a recent publication [J. D. Anderson at al. (2015)', Europhys. Lett. 110, 10002] presented a strong correlation between the measured values of the Newtonian gravitational constant G and the 5.9 year oscillation of the length of day. Following this publication of Anderson at al. (2015)'s publication, S. Schlamminger at al. [Phys. Rev. D 91, 121101(R)] compiled a more complete set of published measurements of G made in the last 35 years where they performed a least-squares regression to a sinusoid with period 5.9 years and found this fit to still yields a reasonable fit to these data thus somewhat putting credence to this claim of Anderson at al. (2015). However, it is yet to be established as to whether or not this signal is gravitational in origin. In this brief communication, we point-out that -- in principle -- this sinusoidal signal has a place in the gravitomagnetic model that we currently working on.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[188] viXra:1611.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 04:27:41

Anti Bohr – Quantum Theory and Causality.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 37 Pages. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY:International Journal of Applied Physics and Mathematics vol. 7, no. 2, pp. 93-111, 2017. doi: 10.17706/ijapm.2017.7.2.93-111

The political attitude and the ideology of a very small elite of physicists (Niels Bohr, Werner Heisenberg, Max Born and view other) played a major role in the construction of the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics in the 1920s. Lastly, the hegemonic standard acausal Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum mechanics abandoned the principle of causality in quantum mechanics and opened a very wide door to mysticism, logical fallacies and wishful thinking in physics and in science as such. Historically, the Second International Congress for the Unity of Science (Copenhagen, June 21-26, 1936) tried to solve the problem of causality within physics but without a success. Thus far, 80 years after the Second International Congress for the Unity of Science this contribution at the Linnaeus University in 2016 in Växjö Sweden will make an end too Bohr's and Heisenberg's dogma of non-causality within quantum mechanics and re-establish the unrestricted validity of the principle of causality at quantum level and under conditions of relativity theory by mathematizing the relationship between cause and effect in the form of the mathematical formula of the causal relationship k. In contrast to Bohr, Heisenberg and other representatives of the Copenhagen interpretation quantum mechanics, a realistic interpretation of quantum theory grounded on the unrestricted validity of the principle of causality will expel any kind of mysticism from physics and enable a quantization of the gravitational field.
Category: Quantum Physics

[187] viXra:1611.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 01:20:31

Relativistic Time Correction on Movement of Distant Galaxies Makes the Present Age of the Universe as 28.2 Billion Years

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 5 Pages. It changes the age of the universe from 14.1 to 28.2 billion years.

The relativistic approach gives us the apparent time of the events happening on a fast moving object away from us. It is called scale factor. It is given by Scale factor = 1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of moving object and c= speed of light in vacuum. This paper aims to illustrate that the above relativistic time correction when applied to Hubble’s law, gives us the age of the universe as 2/H0 and not 1/H0, where H0 is the present Hubble constant. This makes the age of the universe to a value double that of the present estimate. That is from 14.1 billion light years to 28.2 billion light years. Linear expansion of the universe is assumed.
Category: Astrophysics

[186] viXra:1611.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:14:33

On the Secular Recession of Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 13 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., & Tsoka, W., (2015), ‘On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon’, Astrophys. & Space Sci., Jun. 2, Vol. 358(1): pp.1-12. (doi:10.1007/s10509-015-2394-4)

We here apply the ASTG-model to the observed anomalous secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances. For the recession of the Earth-Moon system, in agreement with observation, we obtain a recession of about 11.20 ± 0.20 cm/yr. The ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be absolute time constant. Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004) reported for the Earth-Moon system, an orbital recession from the Sun of about (15.00 ± 4.00) cm/yr; while Williams et al. (2004); Williams and Boggs (2009); Williams et al. (2014) report for the Moon, an orbital recession of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth. The predictions of the ASTG-model for the Earth-Moon system agrees very well with those the findings of Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004). The lost orbital angular momen-tum for the Earth-Moon system – which we here hypothesize to be gained as spin by the two body Earth-Moon system; this lost angular momentum accounts very well for the observed lunar drift, therefore, one can safely safely say that the ASTG-model does to a reasonable degree of accuracy predict the observed lunar drift of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[185] viXra:1611.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:18:07

On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon (II)

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 4 Pages. Work in Progress

We here apply – albeit, with improved assumptions compared to our earlier work (Nyambuya et al., Astron. & Astro-phys. S. Sci. 358(1) : pp.1 − 12, 2015); the ASTG-model to the observed secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances thereby providing an alternative explanation as to what the cause of this secular trend may be. For the semi-major axis rate of the Earth-Moon system, we now obtain a new value of about +3.00 cm/yr while in the earlier work we obtained a value of about 5.00 cm/yr. This new value of +3.00 cm/yr is closer to that of of Standish (2005)'s measurement of (7.00 ± 2.00) cm/yr. Our present value accounts for only 43% of Standish (2005)'s measurement. The other 57% can be accounted for by invoking the hypothesis that the θ-component of the angular momentum maybe non-zero. In the end, it can be said that the ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be an absolute time constant
Category: Astrophysics

[184] viXra:1611.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:20:24

Dirac Equation for the Proton (I) -- Why Three Quarks for Muster Mark?

Authors: G. G. Nyambuya
Comments: 8 Pages. Work in Progress

The present reading is the first in a series where we suggest a Dirac equation for the Proton. Despite its great success in explaining the physical world as we know it, in its bare form, not only is the Dirac equation at loss but fails to account e.g. for the following: (1) Why inside hadrons (Proton in this case) there are three, not four or five quarks; (2) Why quarks have fractional electronic charges; (3) Why the gyromagnetic ratio of the Proton is not equal to two as the Dirac equation requires. In the present reading, we make an attempt to answer the first question of why inside the proton, there are three, not four or five quarks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[183] viXra:1611.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:21:49

Dirac Equation for the Proton (II) -- Why Fractional Charges for Muster Mark's Quarks?

Authors: G. G. Nyambuya
Comments: 4 Pages. Work in Progress

The present reading is the second in a series where we suggest a Dirac equation for the Proton. Despite its great success in explaining the physical world as we know it, in its bare form, not only is the Dirac equation at loss but fails to account e.g. for the following: (1) Why inside hadrons there are three, not four or five quarks; (2) Why quarks have fractional charges; (3) Why the gyromagnetic ratio of the Proton is not equal to two as the Dirac equation requires. In the present reading, we make an attempt to answer the second question of why quarks have fractional charges. We actually calculate the exact values of the charges of these quarks.
Category: Quantum Physics

[182] viXra:1611.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:23:12

Dirac Equation for the Proton (III) -- Gyromagnetic Ratio

Authors: G. G. Nyambuya
Comments: 8 Pages. Work in Progress

The present reading is the third in series where we suggest a Dirac equation for the Proton. Despite its great success in explaining the physical world as we know it, in its bare form, not only is the Dirac equation at loss but fails to account e.g. for the following: (1) Why inside hadrons there are three, not four or five quarks; (2) Why quarks have fractional charges; (3) Why the gyromagnetic ratio of the Proton is not equal to two as the Dirac equation requires. In the present reading, we make an attempt to answer the third question of why the gyromagnetic ratio of the Proton is not equal to two as the Dirac equation requires. We show that from the internal logic of the proposed theory -- when taken to first order approximation, we are able to account for 55.7% [2.000000000] of the Proton's excess gyromagnetic ratio [3.585 694 710(50)]. The remaining 44.3% [1.585 694 710(50)] can be accounted as a second order effect that has to do with the Proton having a finite size.
Category: Quantum Physics

[181] viXra:1611.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:24:58

High Energy Photons as Product Superposed Massive Particle-Antiparticle Pairs

Authors: G. G. Nyambuya
Comments: 3 Pages. Work in Progress

Our present understanding as revealed to us from Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity (STR) and experimental philosophy, informs us that a massive particle can never ever attain the light speed barrier: c. Massive particles are (according to the STR) eternally incarcerated to travel at sub-luminal speeds. On the other hand, Einstein's STR does not forbid the existence of particles that travel at superluminal speeds. Only massless particles can travel at the speed of light and nothing else. In the present reading, we demonstrate that it should in-principle be possible to have massive particles travel at the speed of light. Our investigations suggest that all light (Electromagnetic radiation or any particle for that matter that travels at the speed of light) may very well be comprised of two massive particle-antiparticle coupled pair.
Category: Quantum Physics

[180] viXra:1611.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 13:10:57

A Prediction of Quantized Gravitational Deflection of Starlight

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 7 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘A Prediction of Quantised Gravitational Deflection of Starlight’, PSTJ, Vol. 7(13), pp.1827 − 1833. (ISSN: 2153-8301)

In an earlier reading, it is argued that the pivotal, all-important, critical, crucial and supposedly watershed factor " 2 " emerging from Einstein's General Theory of Relativity (GTR) and used in Solar eclipse measurements by Sir Arthur S. Eddington as the clearest indicator yet that Einstein's GTR is indeed a superior theory to Newton's theory of gravitation may not be adequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory. In the present reading, using ideas from research that we have carried out over the years – research whose endeavour is to obtain a General Spin Dirac Equation in Curved Spacetime (GS-Dirac Equation); we present yet another " surprising " result, namely that – if the ideas leading to the GS-Dirac Equation and as-well those presented in the reading rendering the factor " 2 " as being inadequate as an arbiter to decide the fate of Newtonian gravitational theory, then, the gravitational deflection of a photon may very well depend on its spin in such a manner that if photons of different spins where to be observed undergoing gravitational deflection by a massive object such as the Sun, the resulting deflection may very well be seen exhibiting distinct deflection quantization as a result of the quantized spins.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[179] viXra:1611.0187 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 12:42:02

Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2015): Oct. 11, ‘Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon’, Oct. 10, Vol. 6(10) Article 18, PSTJ, pp.1015 − 1022. (ISBN: 1518674054; EAN13: 9781518674051)

We consider a possible scenario that we strongly believe has never been considered before in the quest to understand the origins of the Pioneer Anomaly (PA). If our investigation is anything to go by, then, perhaps we have made an omission in our application of Newton's second to the spacecrafts. That is – in the region 20 − 70 AU (and perhaps beyond), there may very well be an Interplanetary Medium (IPM) through which the spacecrafts ac-crete mass as they swim through it. If this simple idea is correct description of physical and natural reality, then, we find that the accretion rate of the spacecrafts required to account for the PA is ∼ 6.00 × 10 −4 kgyr −1. Additionally, we find that in-order to explain the non-existence of the PA in the region (1 − 20 AU), the IPM must have an opacity that is two orders of magnitude larger than the average Interstellar Medium (ISM). In the perhaps very narrow margin of the likelihood that the our suggested idea has anything at all to do with reality, then, the present findings suggest that opacity, which is a frequency dependent quantity, it may very well have a density dependence as-well.
Category: Astrophysics

[178] viXra:1611.0186 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 13:03:42

Dirac Wavefunction as a 4 × 4 Component Function

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 10 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘On the Dirac Wavefunction as a 4 × 4 Component Function’,May, PSTJ, 7 (8) Article 16, pp.1232− 1243.

Since it was discovered some 84 years ago, the Dirac equation is understood to admit 4x1 component wavefunctions. We demonstrate here that this same equation does admit 4x4 component wavefunctions as-well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[177] viXra:1611.0185 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 12:59:50

Pauli Exclusion Principle, the Dirac Void and the Preponderance of Matter over Antimatter

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 5 Pages. Published: Nyambuya, G. G. (2016), ‘On the Dirac Void, Pauli Exclusion Principle and the Preponderance of Matter over Antimatter’, May, PSTJ, 7(8) Article 2, pp.1123− 1130.

In the year 1928, the pre-eminent British physicist -- Paul Adrien Maurice Dirac, derived his very successful equation now popularly known as the Dirac equation. This unprecedented equation is one of the most beautiful, subtle, noble and esoteric equations in physics. One of its greatest embellishments is embedded in that this equation exhibits a perfect symmetry -- which amongst others -- requires, that the Universe contain as much matter as antimatter, or that, for every known fundamental particle, there exists a corresponding antiparticle. We show here that the Dirac theory in its bare form -- without the need of the Pauli Exclusion Principle; can -- via, its internal logic -- beautifully explain the stability of the Dirac Void -- i.e., the empty Dirac Sea. There is no need for one to `uglify' Dirac's otherwise beautiful, self-contained and consistent theory by indiscriminately stuffing the Dirac vacuum with an infinite amount of invisible negative energy in-order to prevent the positive energy Electron from falling into the negative energy state.
Category: Quantum Physics

[176] viXra:1611.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 15:54:05

Theoretical Prediction of the Fine Structure Constant Within Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 6 Pages.

QED has predicted a relationship between the amplitude of an electron, the coupling constant (e), and the fine structure coupling constant (α); yet this prediction has never been theoretically achieved even though QED enjoyed enormous success in experimental tests that proven the predicted values of the fine structure constant. For the first time, this paper will make such a theoretical prediction regarding the relationship of (e) and (α) and constitute a new dimensionless constant (Д). Other methods of achieving theoretical predictions for a rough value of the fine structure constant will be debated as well.
Category: Quantum Physics

[175] viXra:1611.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 12:56:31

Quantum Cognition Explain Irrational Behaviors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

An emerging theory takes principles from quantum physics and applies them to psychology. [7] The hypothesis that there may be something quantum-like about the human mental function was put forward with " Spooky Activation at Distance " formula which attempted to model the effect that when a word's associative network is activated during study in memory experiment; it behaves like a quantum-entangled system. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[174] viXra:1611.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 07:13:04

Finding Patterns in Corrupted Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team, including researchers from MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory, has created a new set of algorithms that can efficiently fit probability distributions to high-dimensional data. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[173] viXra:1611.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 09:30:49

On the Time Evolution of Dual Orthogonal Group-Systems

Authors: Jakob Fleischpeitsch, Ralf Immerhart
Comments: 4 Pages.

As it has been conjectured for a long time, dual orthogonal group-systems (DOGs) exhibit a non-static behaviour in the low temperature-limit. This article aims to explore the unitary transformations corresponding to the time-evolution of such systems in the limit of $\beta\rightarrow \infty$.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[172] viXra:1611.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 09:44:39

Football Fans Can Win the Home Match—Collective Psychosis Has Physics

Authors: Tamas Lajtner
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to chaos theory (nonlinear dynamic), the single flap of a butterfly’s wings can lead to unexpectedly great consequences. This sentence does not stress the force of flap of a butterfly, its goal is to allow us to picture how a small input causes big changes in the output. But we may understand it in a more concrete form. We can measure the energy of the flap of a butterfly’s wing. This energy is about as great as the measurable energy of thought. The butterfly effect can manifest itself as a thought effect. Based on the chaos theory we may say: a small change of the input caused by thought force causes a disproportional change in the output of the system, if the system is a nonlinear system. This paper was meant as a short presentation of an given aspect of thought force; it's about the physics of collective psychosis.
Category: Social Science

[171] viXra:1611.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 09:51:56

多与少的个数区别永远会造成二个质数的距离=2

Authors: Aaron Chau
Comments: 3 Pages.

十分幸运,本文应用的是永不改变的定律(多与少),而不再是重复那类受局限的定理。 感谢数学的美妙,因为多与少的个数区别永远会造成二个质数的距离= 2。简述,= 2。
Category: Number Theory

[170] viXra:1611.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 04:50:24

Machines Learn by Simply Observing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

It is now possible for machines to learn how natural or artificial systems work by simply observing them, without being told what to look for, according to researchers at the University of Sheffield. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[169] viXra:1611.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 04:58:51

Conjecture that there Exist an Infinity of Even Numbers N for Which N^2 is a Harshad-Coman Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In a previous paper I defined the notion of Harshad-Coman numbers as the numbers n with the property that (n – 1)/(s(n) – 1), where s(n) is the sum of the digits of n, is integer. In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of even numbers n for which n^2 is a Harshad-Coman number and I also make a classification in four classes of all the even numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[168] viXra:1611.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 05:01:08

Conjecture that there Exist an Infinity of Odd Numbers N for Which N^2 is a Harshad-Coman Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 3 Pages.

In a previous paper I defined the notion of Harshad-Coman numbers as the numbers n with the property that (n – 1)/(s(n) – 1), where s(n) is the sum of the digits of n, is integer. In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of odd numbers n for which n^2 is a Harshad-Coman number and I also make a classification in three classes of all the odd numbers greater than 1.
Category: Number Theory

[167] viXra:1611.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 05:46:51

Social Emotions Test for Artificial Intelligence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

New evidence from brain studies, including cognitive psychology and neurophysiology research, shows that the emotional assessment of every object, subject, action or event plays an important role in human mental processes. And that means that if we want to create human-like artificial intelligence, we must make it emotionally responsive. But how do we know that such intelligence actually experiences real, human-like emotions? [17] It is now possible for machines to learn how natural or artificial systems work by simply observing them, without being told what to look for, according to researchers at the University of Sheffield. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[166] viXra:1611.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 06:46:28

AI System Surfs Web to Improve its Performance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Of the vast wealth of information unlocked by the Internet, most is plain text. The data necessary to answer myriad questions—about, say, the correlations between the industrial use of certain chemicals and incidents of disease, or between patterns of news coverage and voter-poll results—may all be online. But extracting it from plain text and organizing it for quantitative analysis may be prohibitively time consuming. [18] New evidence from brain studies, including cognitive psychology and neurophysiology research, shows that the emotional assessment of every object, subject, action or event plays an important role in human mental processes. And that means that if we want to create human-like artificial intelligence, we must make it emotionally responsive. But how do we know that such intelligence actually experiences real, human-like emotions? [17] It is now possible for machines to learn how natural or artificial systems work by simply observing them, without being told what to look for, according to researchers at the University of Sheffield. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[165] viXra:1611.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 15:58:33

Three Conjectures Regarding Poulet Numbers and Harshad Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) If P is both a Poulet number and a Harshad number, than the number P – 1 is also a Harshad number; (II) If P is a Poulet number divisible by 5 under the condition that the sum of the digits of P – 1 is not divisible by 5 than P – 1 is a Harshad number; (III) There exist an infinity of Harshad numbers of the form P – 1, where P is a Poulet number.
Category: Number Theory

[164] viXra:1611.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 16:00:16

Conjecture that there Exist an Infinity of Poulet Numbers Which Are Also Harshad-Coman Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

OEIS defines the notion of Harshad numbers as the numbers n with the property that n/s(n), where s(n) is the sum of the digits of n, is integer (see the sequence A005349). In this paper I define the notion of Harshad-Coman numbers as the numbers n with the property that (n – 1)/(s(n) – 1), where s(n) is the sum of the digits of n, is integer and I make the conjecture that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which are also Harshad-Coman numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[163] viXra:1611.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 17:51:36

Lambda-Omega Calculus under Scrutiny

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 4 Pages. a bridge should never be too abstract, if you mean to try one

A bridge over many shaky bridges should make for a safer pathway. Just a calculus as part of a new series.
Category: General Mathematics

[162] viXra:1611.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-12 04:07:06

Brain-Inspired Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[161] viXra:1611.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 13:02:49

Levels of Variableness Elaborated

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 3 Pages. perhaps a roadshow for a serial calculomania

A rather accidental bridge to new calculi, one showing inherent congruency between narrowing versus azimuthality, and recovery of completeness versus Gradiency and ordinalization.
Category: General Mathematics

[160] viXra:1611.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 13:16:13

Reflection of Light from a Moving Mirror

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 4 Pages. submetted to all scientific journals

We demonstrate the fulfilment of the conservation laws with respect to fluxes of momentum, energy, spin, and photons when a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave reflects from a receding mirror at normal incidence
Category: Classical Physics

[159] viXra:1611.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 07:14:53

Quantum Transfer of Information Between Matter and Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

From stationary to flying qubits at speeds never reached before…. This feat, achieved by a team from Polytechnique Montréal and France's Centre national de la recherche scientifique (CNRS), brings us a little closer to the era when information is transmitted via quantum principles. [19] But University of Utah electrical and computer engineering associate professor Rajesh Menon and his team have developed a cloaking device for microscopic photonic integrated devices—the building blocks of photonic computer chips that run on light instead of electrical current—in an effort to make future chips smaller, faster and consume much less power. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[158] viXra:1611.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 07:55:37

Cancer Moon Shot

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 8 Pages.

During his State of the Union address on January 12, 2016, (USA) President Barack Obama announced the establishment of a Cancer Moonshot to accelerate cancer research. The initiative—led by (USA) Vice President Joe Biden—aims to make more therapies available to more patients, while also improving our ability to prevent cancer and detect it at an early stage. (https://www.cancer.gov/research/key-initiatives/moonshot-cancer-initiative). Here's an interdisciplinary approach to defeating cancer – indeed, illness and death regardless of cause – that puts together a lot of previously written material of mine. It relies not only on biology but also on physics, mathematics - and even topics such as gravity, cosmology and radioactivity. Albert Einstein, one of the world's greatest physicists, once said he regretted not being able to make a bigger contribution to medical science. Over 60 years after his death, the time may be ripe for his theories to take part in solving perhaps the greatest challenge facing modern clinical medicine – cancer.
Category: Physics of Biology

[157] viXra:1611.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 07:59:33

Phonon States for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

A proposed method of generating phonon states for quantum applications uses a single electron trapped in a suspended carbon nanotube. [19] But University of Utah electrical and computer engineering associate professor Rajesh Menon and his team have developed a cloaking device for microscopic photonic integrated devices—the building blocks of photonic computer chips that run on light instead of electrical current—in an effort to make future chips smaller, faster and consume much less power. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[156] viXra:1611.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 08:42:21

Scrutiny of Droste’s Original Solution (1917)

Authors: M.E. Hassani
Comments: 8 Pages;8 References

In 1916, Johannes Droste independently found an exact (vacuum) solution to the Einstein's (gravitational) field equations in empty space. Droste's solution is quasi-comparable to Schwarzschild's one . Droste published his paper entitled “The field of a single centre in Einstein's theory of gravitation, and the motion of a particle in that fieldˮ. The paper communicated (in the meeting of May 27, 1916) by Prof. H.A. Lorentz, and published in ʻProceedings of the Royal Netherlands Academy of Arts and Science. 19 (1): 197-215 (1917)ʼ. In the present article, the Droste's solution is scrutinized and proven to be invalid purely and simply because the procedure used by Droste is mathematically questionable since he had systematically, deliberately, and without any justification ‒removed the constant coefficient ʻ2ʼ from the differential term (v'w') in Eq.(6) and added the differential term (wv'') to the same Eq.(6) in order to obtain Eq.(7) which was and is his principal objective, that is, the desired solution. Consequently, Eqs.(6,7) had clearly been falsified.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[155] viXra:1611.0162 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-13 07:30:24

A General type of Liénard Second Order Differential Equation: Classical and Quantum Mechanical Study

Authors: Biswanath Rath, Pravanjan Mallick, Jean Akande, D.K.K. Adjay, L.H. Koudahoun, Y.J.F Kpomahou, Marc D. Monsia
Comments: 18 pages

We generate a general model of Liénard type of second order differential equation and study its classical solution. We also generate Hamiltonian from the differential equation and study its stable eigenvalues.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[154] viXra:1611.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-22 08:13:31

On Plausible Role of Classical Electromagnetic Theory and Submicroscopic Physics to Understand and Enhance Low Energy Nuclear Reaction (Lenr): a Preliminary Review

Authors: Victor Christianto, Yunita Umniyati, Volodymyr Krasnoholovets
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Foundations of Physics (FOOP)

In this paper we will discuss how we can study some effects associated with LENR from the principles of classical electromagnetic theory and also from a very new approach based on the submicroscopic concept of physics. Perhaps our considerations have their own risks because the majority of mainstream physicists consider nuclear fusion rather as a phenomenon associated with tunneling through a Coulomb barrier, which is a pure quantum effect. We will discuss that there are some aspects of Classical electromagnetic theories which may have impact on our understanding on LENR phenomena, including: a. nonlinear electrostatic potential as proposed by Eugen Andreev, b. vortex sound theory of Tsutomu Kambe, c. nonlinear ponderomotive force, and d. submicroscopic consideration.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[153] viXra:1611.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 09:48:39

Neurons Sample Probability Distributions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

For observations based on sensory data, the human brain must constantly verify which "version" of reality underlies the perception. The answer is gleaned from probability distributions that are stored in the nerve cell network itself. [10] Biology students will be able to tell you that neural signals are sent via mechanisms such as synaptic transmission, gap junctions, and diffusion processes, but a new study suggests there's another way that our brains transmit information from one place to another. [9] Physicists are expected to play a vital role in this research, and already have an impressive record of developing new tools for neuroscience. From two-photon microscopy to magneto-encephalography, we can now record activity from individual synapses to entire brains in unprecedented detail. But physicists can do more than simply provide tools for data collection. [8] Discovery of quantum vibrations in 'microtubules' inside brain neurons supports controversial theory of consciousness. The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[152] viXra:1611.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 10:13:30

A Levels-of-Narrowness Existentialism

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 4 Pages. good aulde new foundations

Evil is about excessive specificity--be it higher-order narrowing-down or syllogistic implications taken too far. All emanations of evil share one consistent nature.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[151] viXra:1611.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 10:27:17

Dark Matter in a Hidden Sector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[150] viXra:1611.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 05:18:08

Unfamiliar Medicine \\ Незнакомая медицина

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 11 Pages. in Russian

The article summarizes the author’s concept of Information-Wave Medicine. It shows some remote diagnostics and therapies techniques enabling to heal even “incurable” diseases which classical medicine is incapable of treating. \\ В статье кратко изложена созданная автором концепция информационно- волновой медицины. Приведены некоторые технологии дистанционной диагностики и терапии, дающие возможность устранять даже "неизлечимые" патологии, что недоступно для классической медицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[149] viXra:1611.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 05:25:57

New Approaches to Etiology, Diagnosis and Treatment of Cancer \\ Новые подходы к этиологии, диагностике и лечению рака

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 10 Pages. in Russian

The article shows modern hypotheses of cancer cells division mechanism and results of author’s re-search to identify the etiology of cancer, as well as cancer cells division mechanism in terms of the Information-Wave Medicine. \\ В статье рассмотрены современные гипотезы по механизму деления раковых клеток и приведены результаты исследований автора по выявлению этиологии рака, а так же по механизму деления раковых клеток с позиции информационно-волновой медицины.
Category: Physics of Biology

[148] viXra:1611.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 05:38:13

Domestic Refrigerator: Unknown Cause of Known Diseases \\ Бытовой холодильник: неизвестная причина известных болезней

Authors: Mark M. Grinshtein
Comments: 8 Pages. in Russian

The article shows the mechanism of negative pathogenic fields occurrence inside refrigerator and their influence on the functional state of body. \\ В статье рассматривается механизм возникновения отрицательных болезнетворных полей внутри холодильника и их влияние на функциональное состояние организма.
Category: Physics of Biology

[147] viXra:1611.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 06:11:23

See Chemical Bonds Between Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[146] viXra:1611.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 06:53:26

Experiments Show that Einstein's Assumption is Wrong

Authors: Jixueshi
Comments: 3 Pages. Experiments show that Einstein's assumption is wrong

The relativistic derivation is based on Einstein's first and second hypotheses. These two hypotheses have no experimental basis. The two experiments in this paper can prove that these two assumptions do not hold. The coils with constant inertial motion in the magnetic field will generate electric current, and the stationary coil will not generate current. The Michelson-Morley Experiment with the Relative Motion to Earth is not a zero result, proving that Einstein's second hypothesis does not hold. The reliability of the experimental results need not be doubted. For those who have the knowledge of physics, as long as the thought experiment can determine the results of these two experiments is correct.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[145] viXra:1611.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 01:17:59

Quantum Fano Resonances

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

In the double slit experiment, a particle travels on two different paths at the same time. Something similar can be observed when a helium atom is ionized with a laser beam. [24] Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, physicists Gael Sentís et al. have taken the change point problem to the quantum domain. [23] When a quantum system changes its state, this is called a quantum jump. Usually, these quantum jumps are considered to be instantaneous. Now, new methods for high-precision measurements allow us to study the time evolution of these quantum jumps. On a time scale of attoseconds, there time structure becomes visible. It is he most accurate time measurement of quantum jumps to date. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[144] viXra:1611.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 02:40:49

Calculating Axion Masses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[143] viXra:1611.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 17:12:29

Grand Agnosia: The Peril of Meeting a Maytreya-Moshiah-Mahdy

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 7 Pages. grand agnosia as the flipside of superunification

The Grand Agnosia could be the Antichrists ultimate loophole.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[142] viXra:1611.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 19:12:33

The Discovery of Agriculture

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper is written to question the widespread belief among anthropologists that pre-historic hunter gatherers knew about agriculture long before agriculture began to be practiced. The paper suggests gradually accumulating human knowledge led to the development of agriculture rather than population pressure, favorable mutations or convenient climate, all of which would have occurred at various times long before agriculture was developed, without leading to the discovery of agriculture
Category: Social Science

[141] viXra:1611.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 20:05:58

Now the Experiment Data from Nist Indicates Quantum Entanglement May not Exist

Authors: Krishan Vats
Comments: 9 Pages.

This is a statistical analysis of the experimental data used in a recent paper [Lynden K. Shalm et al, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 250402 - Published 16 December 2015 at http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.250402. The data for this analysis has been made available by the authors at http://pml.nist.gov/belldata/belldata+processed_compressed+hdf5.html in hdf5 format. This article is not meant in any way to comment upon the originally published findings of the experiment. Abstract – Till date, all experiments prove non-locality of entanglement based upon overall statistical correlations and thus demonstrating that Bell’s inequality is violated. No detailed data analysis has been published yet. This article presents detailed data analysis of its kind and it indicates that there is a real chance that non-local entanglement may not exist. This is a huge claim by any means. But it is necessary to make such dramatic claim due to two reasons – 1) It is based upon experimental data and can be tested and verified. 2) So that the QM community makes an effort to analyze detailed data to scrutinize the locality of entanglement. This is second experiment that gives such an indication. The first of this kind data analysis was conducted on another recent experiment data and the observation is posted at http://vixra.org/abs/1609.0237. Due to large amount of data involved, experimentalists only analyze data at aggregate level and do not scrutinize the raw data in full detail. When data of this experiment was analyzed at detail level, it was observed that non-locality of entanglement can not be settled until this kind of analysis is completed on data from multiple such experiments. The natural and prompt reaction from many may be to look for faults with this analysis without presenting the evidence that such analysis has already been completed. For curious people, observation is odd enough to be probed further. The complacent ones will look only for the faults, but those who welcome scrutiny, will challenge it with evidence and/or their own analysis at this detailed level. All sound theories welcome scrutiny and refute it with evidence. This article does not claim “classical mechanics” to be the solution. Quantum Mechanics predictions are correct in terms of averages. This analysis indicates that the statistical correlation percent of entanglement may be guided/balanced by some real/local mechanism rather than being independently probabilistic and spooky. It presents an intuitive mechanism that can explain statistical correlations without entanglement being non-local or entanglement being defined in a different way then it currently is. The scope of this article is only statistical data. Anti correlation (Bell’s state, when measured in the same angle) is always true, therefore it is not statistical in nature and is left out of scope. Moreover perfect anti correlation can easily be explained as a direct consequence of conservation laws. In fact, perfect anti correlation is a big red flag to the probabilistic nature. There is no such thing as zero, or one probability. Zero or one probability would actually be a law, not probability. So, perfect anti correlation itself indicates that the outcomes of entanglement can not be probabilistic, they have to be governed by law, not probability. If some balancing mechanism is found to exist then (in terms of magnitude), it really operates within probabilistic limits thereby making it very difficult to differentiate it from probabilistic nature. Therefore a detailed data analysis on many such experiments is necessary to rule it in/out. In fact it would require special experiments for its independent investigation. This can also explain why the correlations have been considered probabilistic for such a long history. Therefore, this type of experimental investigation is a must in order to conclude existence/nonexistence of non-local entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[140] viXra:1611.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 23:02:52

Biofield Energy Signals, Energy Transmission and Neutrinos

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

There has been significant data published in peer-reviewed scientific journals about Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi exercising the biofield energy to change the behaviour and characteristics of living organisms including soil, seeds, plants, trees, animals, microbes, and humans, along with non-living materials including metals, ceramics, polymers, chemicals, pharmaceutical compounds and nutraceuticals, etc. This effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy on living beings and non-living materials is referred to as The Trivedi Effect ®. The changes are attributed to changes at the atomic level and the subatomic level. Changes in atomic/molecular weights are postulated to the changes in atomic mass and atomic charge through possible mediation of neutrinos. The recent discovery of neutrino oscillations seems to give credence to our postulates. This paper discusses briefly about the neutrinos and some of Mr. Trivedi’s results and attempts to link these to biofield energy and associated signal transmissions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[139] viXra:1611.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 00:07:25

Fractional Matrix :A New Eigenvalue Method on Spectral Analysis .

Authors: Biswanath Rath
Comments: 07 Pages. A new Eigenvalue mathod sing fractional matrix has been introduced .

A new member in Matrix representation has been introduced under the name Fractional − Matrix and defined properly. Further we show how one can address spectral analysis using this Fractional − Matrix. Interesting examples have been considerd .
Category: Mathematical Physics

[138] viXra:1611.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 13:17:46

Confinement Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

In physics, confinement of particles is such an important phenomenon that the Clay Mathematics Institute has even pledged an award of a million dollars to anyone who can give a convincing and exhaustive scientific explanation from a mathematical point of view. For example, the quarks are confined in pairs or threes by the strong interaction-the force which holds the nuclei of the atoms together-making up neutrons and protons. A recent study at SISSA adds a new chapter to what we know about confinement. Using a relatively simple method, it has been shown how to determine whether, in a system with ferromagnetic characteristics, the emerging "particles" are subject to confinement. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[137] viXra:1611.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 13:39:12

Will It Be Possible to Copy Minds?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is assumed that mind copying is the process of scanning mental state of a brain substrate and copying it to a computational device i.e. it is assumed that mind is a state of some brain components. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that mind is an independent structure that can act with brain via leptons because of advection. SST shows that there are two different states of groups of the entangled non-rotating-spin-1 Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the very stable neutrino-antineutrino pairs): the spins can be perpendicular to a surface defined by the ES components (such configuration is characteristic for tori that we can find in fermions) or the spins can be aligned in circles (such configuration is characteristic for the dark-matter (DM) circles). The DM solitons are the sets of the entangled DM circles. According to SST, minds are collections of the interacting DM solitons produced due to the brain activity. New DM solitons can be produced only due to the brain-mind interactions. Here we consider the conditions that have to be met to allow copying of the minds composed of the dark-matter structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[136] viXra:1611.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 10:09:29

Theory Of Evolution (Latest)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Scheme of the 'Theory Of Evolution'.
Category: General Mathematics

[135] viXra:1611.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 10:20:20

A Theory of the Muon; Explaining the Electron's Embarrassing Fat Cousin!

Authors: Stephen Joseph Kennedy
Comments: 24 Pages. copyright 1990, Stephen Joseph Kennedy, Library of Congress submitted to Physical Review letters(not accepted) manuscript #LD 5183

A theory of the muon is presented that explains the mass of the muon from a formula derived from the relativistic wave equations independently discovered by Lanczos, Weyl, and Van der Waarden using the Liénard- Wiechert potential, discussed in the appendix. The mean-life of the muon is also calculated in a way that differs from the beta-decay-like standard model mechanism but uses a spontaneous emission-like model using Heisenberg's spontaneous emission formula and the model of Weinberg and Salam with the Z0 Boson playing a role analogous to the photon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[134] viXra:1611.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 11:50:43

Note on Electromagnetic Superconducting Mass Gap Origin

Authors: Paris S. Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. Philosophically Oriented Approach to Understanding Superconductivity

None.
Category: Condensed Matter

[133] viXra:1611.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 12:06:17

Quark Gluon Plasma Simulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[132] viXra:1611.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 08:00:21

Restatement and Extension of Various Spin Particle Equations

Authors: S.R. Shi
Comments: 90 Pages.

This paper is based on my own previous articles. I improve research methods and add some new contents in this paper. A more rigorous, more analytical, more complete and more organized mathematical physical method is adopted. And I am as far as possible to make the whole article have a sense of beauty. Firstly, the mathematics foundation of constant tensors analysis methods is established rigorously in Chapter One. Some wonderful mathematical properties are found. Many important constant tensors are proposed. Then in Chapter Two I use constant tensors as a mathematical tool to apply to physics. Some important physical quantities are defined by using constant tensors. All kinds of relationships between them are studied in detail. The canonical, analytical and strict mathematical physical sign system is established in this chapter. In Chapter Three, I use the mathematical tools in the previous two chapters to study spinorial formalism of various spin particles classical equations. And the equivalence between spinorial formalism and classical one is proved strictly. I focuse to study electromagnetic field, Yang-Mills field and gravitational field etc. Especially, a new spinorial formalism of the gravitational field identity is proposed. In order to further explore, I study several important equations by contrast. Some new and interesting results are obtained. The Chapter Four is the most important part of this thesis. It is also my original intention of writing this paper. In this chapter, I put forward a new form of particle equations: Spin Equation. The equation is directly constructed by spin and spin tensor. And I note that spin tensor is also the transformation matrix of corresponding field representation. So the physical meaning of this equation is very clear. The corresponding particle equation can be simply and directly written according to the transformation law of the particle field. It correctly describes neutrino, electromagnetic field, Yang-Mills field and electron etc. And it is found that it is completely equivalent to full symmetry Penrose equation. A scalar field can be introduced naturally in this formalism. Thus, a more interesting equation is obtained: Switch Spin Equation. When the scalar field is zero, free particles can exist. When the scalar field is not zero, free particles can't exist. The scalar field acts as a switch. It can control particles generation and annihilation. This provides a new physical mechanism of particles generation and annihilation. At the same time, it can also answer the question: why the universe inflation period can be completely described by the scalar fields. And the equation itself has an inherent limitation to the scalar field. So that the scalar will be quantized automatically. Each quantized value of the scalar is corresponding to different physical equations. That provides a new idea and an enlightenment for unity of five superstring theories. Finally, in Chapter Five Bargmann-Wigner equation is analyzed thoroughly. It is proved that it is equivalent to Rarita-Schwinger equation in half integer spin case. And it is equivalent to Klein-Gordon equation in integer spin case. The profound physical meanings of Bargmann-Wigner equation are revealed. By contrast, it is found that Bargmann-Wigner equation is suitable to describe massive particles, but not too suitable to describe massless particles. Penrose spinorial equation or Spin Equation is more suitable to describe massless particles. Mathematics and physics of this paper have a stronger originality. Some mathematical and physical concepts, methods and contents also have a certain novelty. All of them are strictly calculated and established step by step by my own independent efforts. It takes me a lot of time and energy. I use spare time to finish the paper. Due to the limited time and my limited level, it is inevitable that there are a few mistakes. Comments and suggestions are welcome!
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[131] viXra:1611.0136 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 12:03:36

Size and Expansion of the Universe in Zero Energy Universe (Logical Defenses for the Model "We Are Living in a Black Hole")

Authors: Hyoyoung Choi
Comments: 14 Pages.

We can propose two models as an example for Zero Energy Universe Model. In this paper, we research that the total energy of the universe is zero, matters have a positive energy, and only gravitational potential energy is considered as a negative energy to offset this positive energy. In this model, to establish energy conservation law while the universe is expanding, energy needs to be increased, which increases R_gs or R_B of the universe. If a newly appeared energy has antigravity or negative pressure characteristics, it can be used as the model that can account for dark energy. There exists a zone that has a uniform energy density within R_gs due to the presence of gravitational potential energy with negative values. Base on this, I estimated the current size of the universe. And the model that I propose can solve some problems that the model “the universe is a black hole” had.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[130] viXra:1611.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 09:12:10

Quantum Breakthrough

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

How the 18th-century steam engine helped physicists make a quantum breakthrough. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[129] viXra:1611.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 09:57:55

The Problem of Motion in the Theory of Unified Field Asymmetric of Einstein

Authors: Wenceslao Segura González
Comments: 54 Pages. Spanish

We make a compilation of attempts to derive the law of motion of a particle from the field equation of the theory unified asymmetric of Einstein. The equation of motion to first order must contain the law of gravitation of Newton and Coulomb's law. To derive the law of motion we use the method with which Einstein, Infeld and Hoffmann solved the problem of motion in General Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1611.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 05:36:42

Quantum Hyperspheres

Authors: Peter J Carroll
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper explores the hypothesis that fundamental particles (both fermions and bosons) consist of Hyperspheres (3-Spheres or 4-balls) and that the wave – particle duality of fundamental particles arises from their having a certain extremely small minimum size rather than a dimensionless point-like nature; but that this minimum size can appear to have the characteristics of a wavelength due to ‘Spin’ and the Uncertainty Principle. This paper combines some extensions of Gödel’s rotating universe idea and Einstein-Cartan theory, both of which derive from General Relativity to yield a result that may have some relevance to our understanding of Quantum Mechanics and thus provide a bridge to some form of Quantum Geometry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[127] viXra:1611.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 05:38:42

Elegant and Accurate Quark Mass Equations - Evidence for Quantum Gravity

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 5 Pages.

The masses of the electron and the up-type quarks may be written elegantly in terms of the Planck Mass, the natural scale of quantum gravity. Since the quarks of each generation are evidently arranged symmetrically about mass levels that descend in geometric sequence from the Planck Mass, the masses of the down-type quarks may also be written in terms of the Planck Mass. The new (2016) central values of Particle Data Group quark mass evaluation lie very close to the values, divulged in 2013, of the Planck Model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[126] viXra:1611.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 06:47:12

Bright and Dark Sides of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Since dark matter is the main component of these galaxies—and thus the main determinant of galactic rotation—this finding implies that the distribution of conventional matter in the disk specifies the density profile of the surrounding dark matter halo. [18] A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[125] viXra:1611.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 16:46:27

The History of Medicine

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 35 Pages.

This paper was written to study the order of medical advances throughout history. It investigates changing human beliefs concerning the causes of diseases, how modern surgery developed and improved methods of diagnosis and the use of medical statistics. Human beliefs about the causes of disease followed a logical progression from supernatural causes, such as the wrath of the Gods, to natural causes, involving imbalances within the human body. The invention of the microscope led to the discovery of microorganisms which were eventually identified as the cause of infectious diseases. Identification of the particular microorganism causing a disease led to immunization against the disease. Modern surgery only developed after the ending of the taboo against human dissection and the discovery of modern anaesthesia and the discovery of the need for anti-septic practices. Modern diagnostic practices began with the discovery of x-rays and the invention of medical scanners. Improved mathematics, especially in probability theory, led to statistical studies which led to a much greater ability, to identify the causes of disease, and to evaluate the effectiveness of treatments. These discoveries all occurred in a necessary and inevitable order with the easiest discoveries being made first and the harder discoveries being made later. The order of discovery determined the course of the history of medicine and is an example of how social and cultural history has to follow a particular course determined by the structure of the world around us.
Category: Social Science

[124] viXra:1611.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 01:44:05

Crystal Vibrations Drives Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists now believe they can enhance superconductivity-the idea is to externally drive its underlying physical phenomena by changing how ions vibrating in the crystal lattice of the conductor material, called phonons, interact with electron flowing in the material. [29] Researchers at the University of Houston have reported a new method for inducing superconductivity in non-superconducting materials, demonstrating a concept proposed decades ago but never proven. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[123] viXra:1611.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 03:42:36

Lorentz Transformation and Relativistic Doppler Derived from a Particle Mechanics

Authors: Dirk J. Pons, Arion D. Pons, Aiden J. Pons
Comments: 28 Pages.

PROBLEM: General and special relativity provide the formulations for how an observer in one frame of reference perceives motion in another. These cosmological principles arise from application of continuum mechanics, and are inaccessible to the particle perspective. PURPOSE: This paper derives the relativity formulations from a particle perspective, using a non-local hidden-variable solution (Cordus theory). APPROACH: The theory assumes a flux tube of discrete force emissions, and this property is exploited to derive the Lorentz transformation. Then this is generalised to a formalism for time dilation, and the relativistic Doppler relationship. FINDINGS: We show it is straightforward to derive the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle perspective. However the equations are found to contain an additional term relating to the difference in fabric density between situations. For a homogenous fabric - which is the assumption of general relativity - the conventional formulations are recovered. ORIGINALITY: Deriving the Lorentz and relativistic Doppler from a particle theory is novel. Also novel is the proposition that fabric density is a covert variable. The implication is that inertial frames of reference are only situationally equivalent if they also have the same fabric density, and this has further implications for interpreting cosmological redshifts.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[122] viXra:1611.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 03:58:02

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions, and Genotypic Pattern of Biofield Treated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine such as biofield energy therapies are highly popular in biomedical health care. The study evaluates the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Methods: P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to biofield treatment and analyzed for antibiogram, biochemical reactions, and biotype number using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system on day 10. The treated sample was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship, the epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. Results: Data showed altered sensitivity pattern in antibiotic cefotaxime from intermediate to decreased β-lactamases activity, with four-fold decreased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), i.e. 32 to ≤8 µg/mL as compared to control. Similarly, cefotetan and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL-b Scrn) showed decrease in MIC values as compared to the control group. Nitrate reported for negative biochemical reaction i.e. positive (+) to negative (-) after biofield treatment on P. aeruginosa. The biotyping showed a change in biotype number (02063722) as compared to the control (02063726), without altering the microorganism. RAPD analysis showed an average range of 30 to 50% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA sequencing analyzed treated sample as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GenBank Accession Number: EU090892) with 99% identity of gene sequencing data. Conclusion: These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment on P. aeruginosa has an impact to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and MIC values, thus it can be used as an alternate integrative approach of energy medicine in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[121] viXra:1611.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 13:19:32

Essentials

Authors: Heyfetz Eduard
Comments: 12 Pages.

The author made conclusion about internal infinity of any physical object. He proposes a simple mathematical tool for its analysis and conclusions from the latter.
Category: Classical Physics

[120] viXra:1611.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 14:49:14

Computers Made of DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[119] viXra:1611.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 15:56:38

Theory of the Sphere Grid Aether

Authors: Matthias Kemeny
Comments: 55 Pages.

Much Time has passed since the Aether has been rejected as a possibility. Now I believe we have to go back to this way of thinking. This theory proposes an Aether that behaves like a liquid and is made of femtometer-sized units. The goal is to find similarities between an Aether and the behaviour of liquids so those principles can be combined. The description will include the most basic observations in Quantum Physics and try to integrate them into a model of a liquid aether. It can therefore be called a „Theory of Everything“. All the experimenta cruces will be considered. It will also combine the fundamental interactions into one origin. This model can be tested, and simulated.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[118] viXra:1611.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 10:55:33

Inner Workings of the Sun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

More than seven years later, that collaboration could result in an inexpensive tabletop device to detect elusive neutrinos more efficiently and inexpensively than is currently possible, and could simplify scientists' ability to study the inner workings of the sun. [9] Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US $66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[117] viXra:1611.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 07:08:26

U.s. Voted for Change in Approach to Politics – I Vote for Change in Approach to Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 13 Pages.

What kind of President will Donald Trump be? I don't know. It's possible that in the 22nd century, virtually nobody will remember his name. It's also possible that he'll be called a great man who gave America and the world exactly the kind of change the world of this time required. In an article for the 1967 World Book Encyclopedia ("How to Prepare for the Presidency"), President John F. Kennedy said, "… greatness depends on the times as well as the man." By the way - I once saw a photo of Bill Clinton, the former President and husband of the losing candidate Hillary Rodham Clinton, shaking hands with President Kennedy in the early 1960's. In his article, John has this advice for Hillary: "… if some chance keeps you from the presidency, you will still know that you are prepared to serve well your nation as a citizen." The President-elect has no previous experience in politics. Neither does he feel obligated to conform to political traditions. Little me has no formal qualifications in science – while I recognize the necessity of using the various branches of science and mathematics as an indispensable guide, there is no feeling that scientific tradition must be followed because the centuries show that today's science is often tomorrow's obsoleteness. I'm in the mood to stop taking baby steps, and to try and explain much of the universe in one message. I know it isn't considered scientific to try and explain so much in one sitting. But I'm not a professional scientist, so me and my intuition are free to explore all the outrageous ideas I feel like – they satisfy my curiosity and imagination and are interesting, if nothing else.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[116] viXra:1611.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 07:18:03

Photonic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

But University of Utah electrical and computer engineering associate professor Rajesh Menon and his team have developed a cloaking device for microscopic photonic integrated devices—the building blocks of photonic computer chips that run on light instead of electrical current—in an effort to make future chips smaller, faster and consume much less power. [18] In 1959 renowned physicist Richard Feynman, in his talk "Plenty of Room at the Bottom," spoke of a future in which tiny machines could perform huge feats. Like many forward-looking concepts, his molecule and atom-sized world remained for years in the realm of science fiction. [17] The race towards quantum computing is heating up. Faster, brighter, more exacting – these are all terms that could be applied as much to the actual science as to the research effort going on in labs around the globe. [16] For the first time, scientists now have succeeded in placing a complete quantum optical structure on a chip, as outlined Nature Photonics. This fulfills one condition for the use of photonic circuits in optical quantum computers. [15] The intricately sculpted device made by Paul Barclay and his team of physicists is so tiny it can only be seen under a microscope. But their diamond microdisk could lead to huge advances in computing, telecommunications, and other fields. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information,
Category: Quantum Physics

[115] viXra:1611.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 07:22:21

The Generalized Goldbach’s Conjecture : Symmetry of Prime Number

Authors: Jian Ye
Comments: 3 Pages.

Goldbach’s conjecture: symmetrical primes exists in natural numbers. the generalized Goldbach’s conjecture: symmetry of prime number in the former and tolerance coprime to arithmetic progression still exists.
Category: Number Theory

[114] viXra:1611.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 08:37:10

Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering have pioneered a method for growing an atomic scale electronic material at the highest quality ever reported. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[113] viXra:1611.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 08:39:17

Louis de Broglie

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 6 Pages.

Louis De Broglie is one of the principal architects of quantum theory. It is to him that we owe the idea of the particle as having some sort of wavelike functionality and the wave particle duality. Despite having invented this idea, de Broglie had his doubts and spent much of the rest of his life trying in vain to justify his assertion for which he had won the Nobel Prize. Essentially de Broglie’s notion of the particle as a wave is a restatement of the assumption adopted by Niels Bohr in his model for the hydrogen atom, notably that angular momentum is quantised. De Broglie does however provide us with two useful insights: that the energy levels of the atom are in some way associated with a harmonic sequence and that there is some sort of frequency multiplication process taking place within the atom.
Category: Quantum Physics

[112] viXra:1611.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 09:05:21

Active Galactic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In the 1970s, astronomers became aware of a compact radio source at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy – which they named Sagittarius A. After many decades of observation and mounting evidence, it was theorized that the source of these radio emissions was in fact a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Since that time, astronomers have come to theorize that SMBHs at the heart of every large galaxy in the Universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[111] viXra:1611.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 09:37:59

Quantum Change Point Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Now in a new paper published in Physical Review Letters, physicists Gael Sentís et al. have taken the change point problem to the quantum domain. [23] When a quantum system changes its state, this is called a quantum jump. Usually, these quantum jumps are considered to be instantaneous. Now, new methods for high-precision measurements allow us to study the time evolution of these quantum jumps. On a time scale of attoseconds, there time structure becomes visible. It is he most accurate time measurement of quantum jumps to date. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[110] viXra:1611.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 04:55:11

An Early Contribution to Vector Maximisation of De Finetti

Authors: Ate Nieuwenhuis
Comments: 9 Pages. 5 color figures

An achievement of De Finetti for which he has received little recognition thus far is his contribution to the field of vector maximisation in two articles published in 1937, Problemi di "optimum" and Problemi di "optimum" vincolato. The speech will put his contribution in historical perspective and will discuss its importance for economic theory.
Category: Economics and Finance

[109] viXra:1611.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 05:36:17

Frequency Shifts of Energy Particles into the Domain Space-Time (3+1)D

Authors: Daniele Sasso
Comments: 18 Pages.

Let us study at first the representation of energy of ordinary bodies and of massive elementary particles into the domain space-time (3+1)D, then let us consider energy particles represented by photons and by energy quanta. It is known that kinetic energy presents a factor 1/2 for ordinary force fields, but we will demonstrate that factor is absent in determinate physical conditions through the use of the Dirac impulsive function and this consideration can be useful also for energy particles. Frequency shifts of energy particles can be interpreted in the light of new considerations on energy, that prove cosmological shift is the overall outcome of different physical effects due whether to redshift or to blueshift.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[108] viXra:1611.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 05:42:07

Muon Rings and Frequecy

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 2 Pages.

One of the more convincing experiments in support of Einstein’s special theory of relativity was conducted at CERN in 1977. The experiment involved injecting particles called Muons into a 14 metre diameter ring at speeds approaching that of light and observing their behaviour. The experiment shows conclusively that time is dilated and distances are compressed for the orbiting Muon. There is one other aspect of the experiment which however is often overlooked and that is the effect of relativity on frequency. Here it is shown that the orbital frequency experienced by the Muon is multiplied by a factor Gamma compared to that seen by a stationary observer.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[107] viXra:1611.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 03:52:57

The Principle of Absolute Relativity

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Special Relativity Theory (SRT) is based on two, in 1905 by Einstein proposed, presumptions: the first one, labelled by Einstein as the Principle of Relativity, the second one defining the supposed property of the speed of light in vacuum. This article shows how close Einstein, as well as Lorentz, has been to a solid solution of the problems physicists encountered a century ago, observing electro-magnetic phenomena. It also shows that Einstein’s PoR is a fundamentally restricted version of the “now-a-days-PoR”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[106] viXra:1611.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 16:02:14

The Feynman-Dyson Propagators for Neutral Particles (Local or Non-local?)

Authors: Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov
Comments: 6 Pages. Abbreviated version of the talk at the ICGTMP-31, June 2016, Rio de Janeiro, Brasil

An analog of the S=1/2 Feynman-Dyson propagator is presented in the framework of the S=1 Weinberg's theory. The basis for this construction is the concept of the Weinberg field as a system of four field functions differing by parity and by dual transformations. Next, we analyze the recent controversy in the definitions of the Feynman-Dyson propagator for the field operator containing the S=1/2 self/anti-self charge conjugate states in the papers by D. Ahluwalia et al. and by W. Rodrigues Jr. et al. The solution of this mathematical controversy is obvious. It is related to the necessary doubling of the Fock Space (as in the Barut and Ziino works), thus extending the corresponding Clifford Algebra. However, the logical interrelations of different mathematical foundations with the physical interpretations are not so obvious (Physics should choose only one correct formalism - it is not clear, why two correct mathematical formalisms (which are based on the same postulates) lead to different physical results?)
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[105] viXra:1611.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 13:09:29

The New Concept to Understand How the Basic Universe Work

Authors: Jimmy Chiehmei Yang
Comments: 12 pages

Introduce a new concept of MS(motion in space) charges, this charge is fill up all the space move in all direction with speed C, when single direction charged to mass it create motion, when charge density changes it cause gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[104] viXra:1611.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 13:47:26

Spin Liquid Peak

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[103] viXra:1611.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 11:20:15

Electrons Exhibit their Quantum Nature

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

What would happen if an electric current no longer flowed, but trickled instead? This was the question investigated by researchers working with Christian Ast at the Max Planck Institute for Solid State Research. Their investigation involved cooling their scanning tunnelling microscope down to a fifteen thousandth of a degree above absolute zero. At these extremely low temperatures, the electrons reveal their quantum nature. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[102] viXra:1611.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 14:36:23

Dark Matter in Solar System

Authors: Manuel abarca hernandez
Comments: 9 Pages. II version has calculated DM up to Eris orbit and up to Proxima Centauri distance

For last two years I have published several papers about DM on galaxies and cluster of galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original hypothesis which states that DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal law. As consequence this hypothesis, gravitational field is calculated through a Bernoulli differential equation which gives rightly DM density named Bernoulli profile. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters which are supposed to be valid for every gravitational system. Parameters A&B come from calculus made in paper [7] Abarca, M.2016. Specifically were calculated in M31 galaxy from rotation curve data for radius bigger than 40 kpc and lower than 200 kpc. In this region gravitational field is lower than 10^-11 m/s^2. Whereas inside Solar System gravitational field is billions of times bigger. However if it is supposed that DM generation mechanism is Universal then the same parameters should be right to study Dark matter density inside Solar System. It is remarkable the fact that through the same method I have published successful results for cluster of galaxies scale and galaxy scale. Unfortunately there is not experimental measures for DM inside Solar System yet so it is not possible for now check theoretical results published in this paper. The main results this paper are DM enclosed by spherical coronas defined by radius of Sun and planetary orbits. Through mass of Earth as unit of mass, results are the following ones: DM up to Mercury orbit is 71,8 MEARTH , up to Venus orbit is 75.76 MEARTH , up to Earth orbit is 77.5 MEARTH , up to Mars orbit is 79.5 MEARTH , up to Jupiter orbit is 83.96 MEARTH , up to Saturn orbit is 85.56 MEARTH , up to Uranus orbit is 87.04 MEARTH , up to Neptune orbit is 87.82 MEARTH , up to Pluto orbit is 88.25 MEARTH, up to Eris orbit is 88.98 MEARTH, up to half distance to Proxima Centauri is 92.33 MEARTH and up to Proxima Centauri distance is 92.39 MEARTH
Category: Astrophysics

[101] viXra:1611.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 12:54:44

Artificial Atoms the Future of Security

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

From credit card numbers to bank account information, we transmit sensitive digital information over the internet every day. Since the 1990s, though, researchers have known that quantum computers threaten to disrupt the security of these transactions. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[100] viXra:1611.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 09:31:03

The Ancient and Modern Knowledge

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 7 Pages. in Serbian, Latin. Published under the title “Drevno i moderno znanje” (vol. 24, p.48, 1990) in the contemporary ex-Yugoslav journal “Cultures of the East” (Kulture Istoka, http://srednjiput.rs/knjige/#kulture).

This article rather bravely argues about a very strong parallel, if not even identity, between the so called three gunas i.e. rajas, tamas and sattwa (as accepted and explained through the teachings of almost all the ancient spiritual systems of India, both orthodox and unorthodox) and the three well known modern physical so called universal constants h, G and c, respectively. The idea, however, goes in contrast to the Bohm-Capra’s views of the parallelism. Also, a universal three-partition view of Nature is noticed and accepted. Few purely gnoseo-epistemological questions are raised on the same basis as well. The connection and parallel of gunas, i.e. the constants, with the ancient idea of both matter and space-time discontinuity on some very deep level is mentioned, too. The author is convinced that the main thesis of the existence of the huge, universal cultural cycles (or better say spiral) has been supported this way.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[99] viXra:1611.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:15:31

TRL Recursive Ultimate Quantization. (Universal Engineering Series).

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research Investigation, the author has presented a Fundamental Criterion of the 'Highest Concept' for use in Successful Quantization Engineering.
Category: General Mathematics

[98] viXra:1611.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:24:31

Observed Dual Higgs Mass 124-126 Gev and the Chirality of the Vacuum Lattice.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 9 Pages. 9

Observed dual LHC signals of 124-126 GeV Higgs The chirality of our material universal vacuum lattice formed by the massless Axion/Higgs oscillating dark energy field, is supposed to be the origin of these different masses. According to Quantum FFF Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[97] viXra:1611.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:28:35

Emergent Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[96] viXra:1611.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 16:57:02

Use of Smartwatch Technology for People with Dysarthria

Authors: Leslie Mahler, Harishchandra Dubey, Jon Cody Goldberg, Kunal Mankodiya
Comments: 2 Pages. In the Proceedings of Motor Speech Conference 2016, Madonna Rehabilitation Hospital, Newport Beach, California, USA.

Purpose: Dysarthria is caused by a variety of neurological diagnoses resulting in decreased communicative effectiveness. Treatment of dysarthria could be improved if speech-language pathologists (SLPs) had the ability to obtain speech data during exercises and typical daily activities outside the clinic. This study evaluated the feasibility of smartwatch technology to collect reliable speech data in ecologically valid environments outside of the clinical environment.
Category: Linguistics

[95] viXra:1611.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 17:54:21

The Discovery of the Atomic World and the Constituents of Matter

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 17 Pages.

The change from the traditional Western and Chinese view of the elements involving materials such as water, air, earth, wood, metal and fire, to the chemical elements making up the periodic table, to atoms, to particles such as protons, neutrons and electrons, and then to quarks was inevitable. The order of discovery of these ideas of the ultimate constituents of matter was necessary, in that they could not have been discovered in any other order. This was because nature has a particular structure and we have a particular place in nature. The traditional view of the elements could be obtained by naked eye observation, and the view of nature as being made up of the chemical elements in the periodic table was next discovered, as it involved the decomposition of traditional elements, such as air and water. This led to the idea there was a separate atom for each element which explained the differences between the elements. The sub atomic particles were discovered in a necessary order with the outer particles like the electron being discovered earlier, and inner particles such as quarks being discovered later. The order of discovery of particles is also affected by the properties of the particles. The charges of particles, their mass and ability to survive outside the particles they make up, and other properties will make a particle harder or easier to discover. The order of discover is inevitable and set by the structure of the universe. The structure of the universe includes the structure of the atom, and of the particles making up the atom, and the properties of the atom, and of the particles making up the atom.
Category: Social Science

[94] viXra:1611.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 02:08:21

Einstein's Theory of Relativity is Wrong & What is the World Made up Of?

Authors: Mahesh Khati
Comments: 67 Pages.

This paper proves that special theory of relativity is wrong & give answer to following problems. 1) What is dark matter? 2) Dual nature of particles (Wave & particle) 3) Why antimatter is not present in world abundantly? 4) Total energy of photon is kinetic energy, still it is moving of electromagnetic vibration & rest mass or energy of photon is zero & also, it has wave nature? How all this is possible at one time? 5) How can photon disintegrate into electron & positron pair and electron, positron get combine to form photon? 6) Why does charge less particles like photons & neutron have more velocity?
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[93] viXra:1611.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 03:33:30

Quantitative Prediction of Electoral Vote for United States Presidential Election in 2016

Authors: Gang Xu
Comments: 8 Pages. This work was originally completed by October 22, 2016. The manuscript draft was prepared on November 7, 2016.

In this paper I am reporting the quantitative prediction of the electoral vote for United States presidential election in 2016. This quantitative prediction was based on the Google Trends (GT) data that is publicly available on the internet. A simple heuristic statistical model is applied to analyzing the GT data. This is intended to be an experiment for exploring the plausible dependency between the GT data and the electoral vote result of US presidential elections. The model's performance has also been tested by comparing the predicted results and the actual electoral votes in 2004, 2008 and 2012. For the year 2016, the Google Trends data projects that Mr. Trump will win the white house in landslide. This paper serves as a document to put this exploratory experiment in real test, since the actual election result can be compared to the prediction after tomorrow (November 8, 2016).
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[92] viXra:1611.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 13:13:31

Time Evolution of Quantum Jumps

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

When a quantum system changes its state, this is called a quantum jump. Usually, these quantum jumps are considered to be instantaneous. Now, new methods for high-precision measurements allow us to study the time evolution of these quantum jumps. On a time scale of attoseconds, there time structure becomes visible. It is he most accurate time measurement of quantum jumps to date. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[91] viXra:1611.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 14:30:15

Antiproton Decelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A precise measurement of absolute beam intensity is a key parameter to monitor any losses in a beam and to calibrate the absolute number of particles delivered to the experiments. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[90] viXra:1611.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 14:39:59

Guttman Scale Analysis and Its Use to Explain Cultural Evolution and Social Change

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 6 Pages.

Guttman scale analysis is a very useful tool to understand the evolution of societies. It shows the accumulation of cultural traits throughout history in various societies and that those cultural traits were usually accumulated in the same order. The results of studies, by Robert Carneiro and others, shows the accumulation of cultural traits is not random and indicates a universal pattern in cultural evolution. The universal pattern is caused by increasing human knowledge of the environment we live in. Human societies usually acquire this knowledge in the same order, with easier discoveries concerning the natural world being made earlier than more complex discoveries. This means human social and cultural history, usually follows a particular course, a course that is determined by the structure of the human environment.
Category: Social Science

[89] viXra:1611.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 10:52:44

Anti-Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) have for the first time created a single device that acts as both a laser and an anti-laser, and they demonstrated these two opposite functions at a frequency within the telecommunications band. [16] Laser researchers boldly go into uncharted THz territory. [15] A new imaging technique developed by scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) aims to illuminate cellular structures in deep tissue and other dense and opaque materials. Their method uses tiny particles embedded in the material, that give off laser light. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[88] viXra:1611.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 11:12:48

A New Nature for Light

Authors: Djamel ABDELMOULA
Comments: 7 Pages.

This work is a part of unpublished ideas about the fundamental physics and there evolution over time. In this paper, I started by speaking about light and its nature as the cornerstone of physics. Then we describe the evolution of ideas about light and interpretations of its nature in terms of waves and particles; A duality which lead us to suggest a new nature of light at a halfway between these two interpretations. We reinvented the photon that we renamed 3photillon". However, it remains to test this new approach in the interpretation of light-related phenomena. An attempt to interpret Young's interference fringes is made on the basis of this new conception of light and a new interpretation of the Planck constant has emerged naturally from this new nature.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[87] viXra:1611.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 11:29:42

The 3n ± p Conjecture: A Generalization of Collatz Conjecture

Authors: W.B. Vasantha Kandasamy, K. Ilanthenral, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Collatz conjecture is an open conjecture in mathematics named so after Lothar Collatz who proposed it in 1937. It is also known as 3n + 1 conjecture, the Ulam conjecture (after Stanislaw Ulam), Kakutanis problem (after Shizuo Kakutani) and so on. Several various generalization of the Collatz conjecture has been carried. In this paper a new generalization of the Collatz conjecture called as the 3n ± p conjecture; where p is a prime is proposed. It functions on 3n + p and 3n - p, and for any starting number n, its sequence eventually enters a finite cycle and there are finitely many such cycles. The 3n ± 1 conjecture, is a special case of the 3n ± p conjecture when p is 1.
Category: Number Theory

[86] viXra:1611.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 07:25:12

Dynamic Programming

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Dynamic programming is a technique that can yield relatively efficient solutions to computational problems in economics, genomic analysis, and other fields. But adapting it to computer chips with multiple "cores," or processing units, requires a level of programming expertise that few economists and biologists have. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[85] viXra:1611.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 08:39:53

Ramon Llull’s Art and Structure of Nature

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 14 Pages.

Around 700 years ago Ramon Llull emerged from a cave in Mount Randa, Majorca, after receiving divine illumination inspiring him to produce a geometric art describing a universal science. The geometry of his art is an elaboration of IFA divination and the I Ching from the ancient past. Now it is clear that nature is described by General Relativity and the Standard Model, which are unified by E8 geometry in the art of Real Clifford Algebras not only with structure inherited from IFA and the I Ching but also with Llullian art geometry. Ramon Llull used his geometric art to show the unity of the religions he knew, Judaism, Christianity, and Islam, but he also knew that his art contained further possibilites, such as a unified model of the structure of nature, even though it would take 700 years for experimental and theoretical physics to advance enough to show clearly their relationship to Ramon Llull’s geometric art.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[84] viXra:1611.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 06:27:49

Neuromorphic Processor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Toshiba advances deep learning with extremely low power neuromorphic processor. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[83] viXra:1611.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-07 06:46:24

Research Project Primus

Authors: Predrag Terzic
Comments: 32 Pages.

Some theorems and conjectures concerning prime numbers .
Category: Number Theory

[82] viXra:1611.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-25 06:08:05

Hyperimaginary Numbers

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 20 Pages. Typos corrected.

The idea of hyperimaginary numbers is suggested as the first step toward the mathematical basis of res potentia (Plato), presented in the right-hand side of the evolution equation |w|2 = |m|2 + |mi|2. The real and imaginary (tachyonic) components in the right-hand side are always balanced, leading to |w|2 = 0 - the physicalized world is made of positive mass-energy only, |m|2, which is always balanced (not "conserved") by equal amount of |mi|2, once-at-a-time, ever since The Beginning (John 1:1). God is interpreted as mathematical (hyperimaginary) object residing "inside" the 4D instant here-and-now (Luke 17:21), and conceptual solutions to fundamental problems in point-set topology, set theory, and number theory are briefly described.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[81] viXra:1611.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 13:09:50

A Graphical Representation of NP-Completeness with One-Dimensional Cellular Automata

Authors: Giorgos Bougioukas
Comments: 7 Pages. 18 figures

This paper proves that for every instance of the (NP-complete or NP-hard, depending on the version) change-making problem (CMP) an one-dimensional cellular automaton can be constructed that solves it. As cellular automata are graphically represented as images or sequences of images - often resembling natural phenomena such as fluid flows - a possibly interesting graphical representation of NP-completeness can be obtained.
Category: General Mathematics

[80] viXra:1611.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 14:17:14

Laser THz Territory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Laser researchers boldly go into uncharted THz territory. [15] A new imaging technique developed by scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) aims to illuminate cellular structures in deep tissue and other dense and opaque materials. Their method uses tiny particles embedded in the material, that give off laser light. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[79] viXra:1611.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 14:21:58

H - Z Mass Difference Has Changed By 8.3% in 14 Billion Years

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: The H - Z boson particle mass difference has increased by 8.3% in the time interval since before the big bang. This finding indicates that these important type bosons (supersymmetric particle candidates) can be "fine-tuned" in mass to satisfy the needs of life.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[78] viXra:1611.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 15:17:38

MC Physics Model of Sub-Atomic Particles using Mono-Charges

Authors: Kenneth D. Oglesby
Comments: 11 Pages. Follow up to viXra paper 1609.0359v1.pdf by the same author

A new model of sub-atomic particles is proposed based on mono-charges. It is theorized that mono-charges form all matter and cause all force. Mono-charges are quantized electro-static charges by type (positive or negative) and strength / potential. Distribution of those mono-charges in the early Universe by their quantized properties is described. The process to form the elemental particles of quarks, electrons, neutrinos and photons is outlined. the process to then form composite particles of protons and neutrons, then leading up to atoms and molecules is also outlined.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[77] viXra:1611.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 06:48:50

Sets, Formulas and Electors

Authors: Max Null, Sergey Belov
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article is a mathematical experiment with the sets and the formulas. We consider new elements which are called the electors. The elector has the properties of the sets and the formulas.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[76] viXra:1611.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 17:24:07

Alternative Representations of X/2

Authors: Carauleanu Marc
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, we prove interesting alternative representations of the simple fraction x/2 where x is a real number using complex numbers.
Category: Algebra

[75] viXra:1611.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-28 19:38:34

Deductive Derivation of Lorentz Transformation for the Special Relativity Theory

Authors: Tsuneaki Takahashi
Comments: 9 Pages.

Lorentz transformation of special relativity theory has been derived inductively based on the constancy of light velocity for every inertia systems. The equation predicts possible important results. But many people might feel it is hard to understand these intuitively. The cause of it may be these have not been derived deductively from basic nature laws for over hundred years. This may mean we don’t know any basic nature laws for special relativity theory yet. Here we try to find these.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[74] viXra:1611.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 02:33:40

Neutrons Hologram

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Holography isn't just for photons anymore. Researchers now report their success in using neutrons to make holograms, which record patterns of interference between two coherent beams. [14] James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[73] viXra:1611.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-06 03:48:35

The Differences Between the Bright Matter, Dark Matter, a Virtual Energy, Energy and Dark Energy

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), there is the two-component spacetime composed of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field and the gravitating Einstein spacetime (ES) composed of the very stable non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs (NAPs) moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c. NAPs in ES do not rotate. The main feature of the bright matter (BM) is that it contains parts with mean distances between the NAPs smaller than the mean distance between the ES components because of the short-distance quantum entanglement or confinement - BM is not a part of ES. The main feature of the dark matter (DM) is that mean distances between the NAPs are equal or greater than the mean distance between the ES components because of the long-distance entanglement - DM is not a part of ES and NAPs do not rotate. Virtual energy (VE) appears due to creation of the virtual pairs (it has positive mass) from the local ES components so there appears as well a local virtual hole in ES (it has negative mass). Mean mass of such virtual structure is equal to zero. But due to the annihilations of the virtual pairs to real photons (they are the rotational energies of the ES components) that escape from surrounding of a real particle (BM), virtual processes decrease density of the ES. Virtual pairs, virtual holes and real photons (real photons carry real energy (E)), are not parts of ES. Interactions of virtual particles create BM that is the anomalous mass of a real bare particle. A decay of real object (BM) to DM (it happened about 100 million years before the beginning of the expansion of the Universe) causes that virtual processes disappear. Since mass density of the ES around the object was negative so there is an inflow of ES into the region with lowered density of ES. The inflowing ES is the dark energy (DE). DE is needed to accelerate expansion of the Universe at the beginning and next to maintain a constant expansion rate. DE is a part of ES.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] viXra:1611.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 14:49:21

Coefficient-of-determination Fourier Transform CFT

Authors: Matthew Marko
Comments: 13 Pages, English

This algorithm is designed to perform Discrete Fourier Transforms (DFT) to convert temporal data into spectral data. What is unique about this DFT algorithm is that it can produce spectral data at any user-defined resolution; existing DFT methods such as FFT are limited in resolution proportional to the temporal resolution. This algorithm obtains the Fourier Transforms by studying the Coefficient of Determination of a series of artificial sinusoidal functions with the temporal data, and normalizing the variance data into a high-resolution spectral representation of the time-domain data with a finite sampling rate.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[71] viXra:1611.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 12:35:36

May New Relativistic Effect Appear for Simultaneous Events?

Authors: Amine Benachour
Comments: 4 Pages.

We are examining the possible existence of new relativistic effect that might experimentally be detected in order to provide a rational explanation to thought experiments involving simultaneous events.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[70] viXra:1611.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 08:29:10

9 Series of Evidences of Periodical Bursts of Young Stars and Planets

Authors: GP Zhang
Comments: 12 Pages.

Fred Hoyle, the famous British astronomer, had the idea that matters explode from the Sun form planets. This paper develops this idea into the theory of periodical bursts of young stars and planets, provides 9 series of evidences to prove the theory, and explains many facts of the solar system and exoplanetary systems with the theory simplly, self-consistently, and systematically. First, the ratio of semi-major axes and stellar radius of three young exoplanets (V830 Tau b, K2-33 b and GJ674 b) increases with age, because they were born from the burst of their parent star and were pushed away by the strong stellar wind (Table 1). Second, there are many exoplanets and candidates with the ratio less than 5, such as K2-92 b, WASP-103 b and PTFO 8-8695 b. They are in the range of the contracting prostar and there were no enough nebular matters left in the range to accrete into planets. So they were born from the burst of their parent star (Table 2). Third, there is a law of semimajor axis of planets in multi-planet systems, such as Kepler-90’s system with 7 planets and HD 10180’s system with 6 planets. The law is similiar to Bode’s law in the solar system and it means that the planets were born from periodical bursts of their parent star in their youth (Table 3). Fourth, the jovian planets have density, composition and internal energy source similiar to the Sun, which mean they were once parts of the Sun (Table 4). Fifth, different classes of meteorites formed from very high temperature which cannot be reached with energy from accretion. They were once parts of the Sun. They were burst out from the Sun and they cooled down from the very high temperature. Sixth, Mars had widespread liquid water 3.7 billion years ago. Terrestrial and lunar rocks in early time recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. These evidences proved that the terrestrial planets then were much nearer to the Sun than they are now. Seventh, satellites of the terrestrial planets, Moon, Phobos and Deimos, have lower density than the terrestrial planets and there is a law of their density. They were burst from the boundary between the core and the mantle of their parent planet in their youth (Table 5). Eighth, Galilean satellites have different ages, of their surface and as a whole, which proved they were born from periodical bursts of Jupiter (Table 6). Ninth, there is a law of semimajor axis of satellites and rings of the jovian planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[69] viXra:1611.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 09:04:11

Color Images of Electron Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Imagine spending your whole life seeing the world in black and white, and then seeing a vase of roses in full color for the first time. That's kind of what it was like for the scientists who have taken the first multicolor images of cells using an electron microscope. [9] Magnetic waves are known as solitons—for solitary waves—and were theorized to occur in magnets in the 1970s. They form because of a delicate balance of magnetic forces—much like water waves can form a tsunami. Now physicists have used a specialized x-ray method to take pictures of them. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[68] viXra:1611.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 10:22:11

The Universe is Expanding with Acceleration Reasons.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. http://bolshoyforum.com/forum/index.php?action=felblog;sa=view;uid=17499

In the "General Theory of Relativity" power formula force. The decomposition of this force into components, interaction of the electric and magnetic forces. If a closer look at the possible expansion of this force, we can find the force that gives the accelerated expansion of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[67] viXra:1611.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 00:12:46

Time Multidimensional

Authors: GuagSan Yu
Comments: 6 Pages. The Chinese

Traditional idea, space is three dimension of, plus a the degree of dimension of time, be four the space of dimension. Then the time is a dimension. According to the relativity [theory], the time is inseparable with space. Therefore, the space is many dimensions of, so and why time, must not is also many dimension. Time and the dimension of the space, may be same. This paper put forward, the dimension of the time and the dimension of the space, is same.
Category: Classical Physics

[66] viXra:1611.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 03:06:25

Particles Emit Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A new imaging technique developed by scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and Massachusetts General Hospital (MGH) aims to illuminate cellular structures in deep tissue and other dense and opaque materials. Their method uses tiny particles embedded in the material, that give off laser light. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[65] viXra:1611.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 03:42:53

Antiproton Mass Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[64] viXra:1611.0065 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-07 08:50:57

Dark-Matter Structures: Mass, Sizes and Detection

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark-matter (DM) structures are built of the entangled (it is the superluminal quantum entanglement) Einstein-spacetime components moving with the invariant speed of light in “vacuum” c (they are the non-rotating-spin-1 neutrino-antineutrino pairs). The big DM structures, i.e. the DM halos and DM filaments, are built of the DM circles with the invariant 7 quantized masses with the upper limit about 47 powers of ten lower than 1 kg and very different sizes and angular momentums. Of course, two DM circles with antiparallel angular momentums can create a spin-0 structure that looks similar to the Scale-Symmetric-Theory (SST) pion or very early Universe - mass of such DM pion is two times higher than a single DM circle. But observed behaviour of DM structures suggests that most numerous are the DM circles. Lower limit for radius of DM circle with highest mass is about 13 powers of ten smaller than 1 m whereas upper limit can be arbitrary and is defined by distribution of baryonic matter (BM) with which the DM circles interact via leptons. The DM circles were produced at the beginning of expansion of the Universe. There, for example, are in existence the cosmological DM rulers/loops with a radius of 151 Mpc. Quantum entanglement is much stronger than the DM-BM interactions so even during collisions of galaxies, the DM circles cannot be destroyed (they can be separated from baryonic matter and they can change size). Since the Einstein-spacetime components in the DM circles/pions do not rotate and their speed is invariant whereas mass of the DM circles is very small, even indirect detection of DM structures is not an easy task.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[63] viXra:1611.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 06:20:08

New Class of Crystalline Solid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists at Lehigh University, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have demonstrated the fabrication of what they call a new class of crystalline solid by using a laser heating technique that induces atoms to organize into a rotating lattice without affecting the macroscopic shape of the solid. [11] The geometry and topology of electronic states in solids plays a central role in a wide range of modern condensed-matter systems including graphene or topological insulators. However, experimentally accessing this information has proven to be challenging, especially when the bands are not well-isolated from one another. As reported in last week's issue of Science, an international team of researchers has devised a straightforward method to probe the band geometry using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[62] viXra:1611.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 06:49:19

Outside the Equilibrium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Disturbing a mix of two liquids can yield some surprising effects. For example, if one portion of the mixture is brought to a different composition, it starts a process called diffusion, which continues until the liquid mix reverts to the resting point, which physicists refer to as equilibrium. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[61] viXra:1611.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 14:30:57

The Quantum Limit of Newton's Principle of Inertia

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper we study Newton's principle of inertia within semiclassical quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[60] viXra:1611.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 12:04:59

Chameleon Dark Energy Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[59] viXra:1611.0060 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-09 09:27:37

General Method for Solving Diophantine Equations for Two Equations in Quadratic in Two Variables II

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 2 Pages.

Diophantine equation existed since Diophantine around in ancient times and have shown that it is not trivial to solve in general. In general, they must be solved by inspection or numbers. In this article, we detail a specific method for the preparation of equations solvable using for infinitely parameter. This method allows to solve many types of such equations
Category: General Mathematics

[58] viXra:1611.0059 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-16 22:26:01

Demystifying Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Lukas Saul
Comments: 15 Pages. Preprint for peer review. Thanks!

The narrative around the various mathematical and physical techniques broadly known as quantum mechanics has suffered due to the influence of social pressures. The incredible strengths of the theories and their predictive powers have become subject to a number of sensationalized story lines, which we refer to here as “quantum mysticism”. In this paper we demonstrate a three-pronged counterattack which combats these forces. A precise use of terms coupled with an accurate and intuitive way to describe the behavior of discrete and microscopic phenomenon effectively demystifies quantum mechanics. We don't go into the mathematical details here to keep our discussion accessible to the layperson. After our demystification the discipline withholds its incredible predictive power without scaring away a rational thinker. In fact quantum mechanics is an entirely rational, intuitive, and accessible discipline. The world is full of mystery; however, a discipline devoted to quantifying and rationalizing behaviors of certain specific systems is hardly the place to go searching for mystery.
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1611.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 05:43:54

Lorentz-Invariant Theory of Gravitation (Summary)

Authors: Alexander G. Kyriakos
Comments: 29 Pages.

This article is a summary of the non-geometrical Lorentz-invariant theory of gravitation (LIGT) (references and citations here allow to familiarize oneself with known results from the theory of gravitation in more detail). In the framework of the proposed theory the physical meaning of the metric tensor and square of interval in pseudo-Euclidian space was clarified, all the exact solutions of GR were obtained, the violation on the law of conservation of energy-momentum was eliminated, as well as other difficulties have been overcome. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[56] viXra:1611.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 06:53:08

Gender Differences in Physics: A Comparative Study of Persistence

Authors: Ashiqul Islam Dip, Mohammad Tomal Hossain, Md Forman Ullah, Md Salah Uddin
Comments: 5 Pages.

We investigate the difference in persistence between male and female students while taking a physics course. We collected the data from three consecutive workshops on various topics of physics. After plotting the number of participations against the number of days attended, we calculate the decay rates for both male and female students on each workshop and compared them on a bar diagram. The comparative bar diagram of decay rates clearly shows that the decay rates of male students were significantly higher than that of female students. This leads us to the conclusion that the female students are more persistent than male students while taking a physics course.
Category: Education and Didactics

[55] viXra:1611.0056 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-10 10:15:26

How to Project Onto Extended Second Order Cones

Authors: O. P. Ferreira, S. Z. Németh
Comments: 12 Pages.

The extended second order cones were introduced by S. Z. Németh and G. Zhang in [S. Z. Németh and G. Zhang. Extended Lorentz cones and variational inequalities on cylinders. J. Optim. Theory Appl., 168(3):756-768, 2016] for solving mixed complementarity problems and variational inequalities on cylinders. R. Sznajder in [R. Sznajder. The Lyapunov rank of extended second order cones. Journal of Global Optimization, 66(3):585-593, 2016] determined the automorphism groups and the Lyapunov or bilinearity ranks of these cones. S. Z. Németh and G. Zhang in [S.Z. Németh and G. Zhang. Positive operators of Extended Lorentz cones. arXiv:1608.07455v2, 2016] found both necessary conditions and sufficient conditions for a linear operator to be a positive operator of an extended second order cone. This note will give formulas for projecting onto the extended second order cones. In the most general case the formula will depend on a piecewise linear equation for one real variable which will be solved by using numerical methods.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[54] viXra:1611.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 07:33:47

Improving the Accuracy of the Mass-Energy Equivalence Law as an Effective Answer for a Seemingly Finely Tuned Structure of the Universe

Authors: Nikola Perkovic
Comments: 8 Pages.

The question of the “finely tuned Universe” will be answered by defining a new dimensionless constant that is potentially fundamental for the future of physics. The constant will be named the “de Broglie constant” in honor of Louis de Broglie, and it will be defined with a symbol (Д). This is the constant that gives rise to the constant (α) known as the “fine structure constant” that defines the electromagnetic interaction but was mistakenly considered to be the constant that defines a “fine-tuned” Universe, it will be elaborated that it is the de Broglie constant that does so and that it arises from the fundamental law of mass-energy equivalence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1611.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 07:57:55

Quantum Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[52] viXra:1611.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 15:38:07

Escape Velocity at the Subatomic Level Leads to Escape Probability

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper we look at the escape velocity for subatomic particles. We suggest a new and simple interpretation of what exactly the escape velocity represents at the quantum level. At the quantum level, the escape velocity leads to an escape probability that is likely to be more useful at the subatomic scale than the escape velocity itself. The escape velocity seems to make simple logical sense when studied in light of atomism. Haug [1] has already shown that atomism gives us the same mathematical end results as Einstein’s special relativity. Viewed in terms of general relativity and Newtonian mechanics, the escape velocity seems to be simple to understand. It also seems to explain phenomena at the quantum scale if one maintains an atomist’s point of view. This strengthens our hypothesis that everything consists of indivisible particles and void (empty space). From an atomistic interpretation, our main conclusion is that the standard escape velocity formula likely is the most accurate formula we can generate and it appears to hold all the way down to the Planck scale. An escape velocity of ve > c simply indicates that an indivisible particle cannot escape from a fundamental particle (for example an electron) without colliding with the indivisible particles making up the fundamental particle. To understand this paper in detail, I highly recommend reading the article The Planck Mass Finally Discovered [2] first.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[51] viXra:1611.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 09:19:46

Азбука смысла жизни. Шкала Андреуса. Abc of the Meaning of Life. Scale Andreus.

Authors: Andreus A.I. Andreus A.I.
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian

Life. ABC of the meaning of life, the meaning of life - life - the meaning of life. Will be discontinued the notion of the meaning of life, the life eternal, infinite, isotropic, but the local, rather than homogeneous properties. The person needs to learn how to consist of regular isotopes and live with the correct isotopes, including eliminating radioactive isotopes, and of his environment to care, and use it all of his life. Жизнь. Азбука смысла жизни, смысл жизни - в жизни - смысл жизни. Будет снято понятие смысл жизни, жизнь вечная, бесконечная, изотропная, но локальная, вместо свойства однородная. Человеку нужно учиться, как состоять из правильных изотопов, и жить с правильными изотопами, в том числе, исключая радиоактивные изотопы, и об окружающей его среде заботиться, и применить всё это в своей жизни.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[50] viXra:1611.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 21:47:38

The Development of Agriculture and Pastoralism

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 6 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment, including plants and animals, to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of the plants and animals in their environment enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. The plants and animals in the human environment have particular properties, caused by their genetic make-up and these properties make some plants and animals more suitable for domestication than others. Humans learnt which were the best plants to domesticate, and how to cultivate them, in a particular order with the easiest crops to domesticate being domesticated first and with agricultural techniques improving over time as human knowledge increased. They also learnt which animals could be domesticated, and how to use and control them, in a particular order with the easiest to domesticate, being domesticated first, and the harder to domesticate being domesticated later. The knowledge of how to use and control domesticated animals, improved over time, with the simplest techniques being learnt first and more complicated techniques being learnt later. The order of discovery determines the course of human social and cultural history as knowledge of new and more efficient means of meeting human needs, such as agriculture and pastoralism, results in the development of new social and ideological systems. This means human social and cultural history, has to follow a particular course, a course that is determined by the properties of the materials, such as plants and animals, in the human environment.
Category: Social Science

[49] viXra:1611.0050 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-06 21:02:15

Black Hole X-Ray Sources

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers
Comments: 1 Page. Submitted to the editors of Nature on 4 Nov. 2016 for the purpose of publication.

Irwin et al recently reported on ultraluminous X-ray bursts in two ultracompact companions to nearby elliptical galaxies NGC 4697 and NGC 5128 (sources 1 and 2 respectively). Although they discuss a number of possibilities, they favour neutron stars and black holes as the likely sources: "the sources appear to be normal accreting neutron-star or black-hole X-ray binaries". However, there is no possibility for black holes to be associated with these X-ray sources because the mathematical theory of black holes contains a latent violation of the rules of pure mathematics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[48] viXra:1611.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 23:41:33

In nite Product Representations for Binomial Coefcient, Pochhammer's Symbol, Newton's Binomial and Exponential Function

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, I demonstrate one infinite product for binomial coefficient, Euler's and Weierstrass's infinite product for Pochhammer's symbol, limit formula for Pochhammer's symbol, limit formula for exponential function, Euler's and Weierstrass's infinite product for Newton's binomial and exponential function, among other things.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[47] viXra:1611.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 23:50:57

The History of Metallurgy

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 7 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment, including fire and metals, to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of fire and metals enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. Fire and metals have particular properties and human knowledge of those properties increases over time in a particular order. Increasing human knowledge of how to create higher and higher temperatures enables the smelting and melting of a wider range of ores and metals. Those ores and metals that could be smelted and melted at lower temperatures were used before the ores and metals which had higher smelting and melting points. This meant that copper, and its alloy bronze, were used before iron and its alloy steel. Pure metals, like copper and iron, were used before alloys such as, bronze and steel, as the manufacture of alloys is more complicated than the manufacture of pure metals. The simplest knowledge is acquired first and more complex knowledge is acquired later. The order of discovery determines the course of human social and cultural history, as knowledge of new and more efficient means of smelting ores and melting metals, results in new technology, which contributes to the development of new social and ideological systems. This means human social and cultural history, had to follow a particular course, a course that was determined by the properties of the materials in the human environment.
Category: Social Science

[46] viXra:1611.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 03:50:44

Individual Atom Qubit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

In recent years, scientists have come up with ways to isolate and manipulate individual quantum particles. But such techniques have been difficult to scale up, and the lack of a reliable way to manipulate large numbers of atoms remains a significant roadblock toward quantum computing. [25] If you're building a quantum computer with the intention of making calculations not even imaginable with today's conventional technology, you're in for an arduous effort. Case in point: You're delving into new problems and situations associated with the foundational work of novel and complicated systems as well as cutting-edge technology. [24] 'This would for example allow transferring information from superconducting quantum bits to the "flying qubits" in the visible light range and back', envision the creators of the theory for the device, Tero Heikkilä, Professor at the University of Jyväskylä, and Academy Research Fellow Francesco Massel. Therefore, the method has potential for data encryption based on quantum mechanics, i.e. quantum cryptography, as well as other applications. [23] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer. [22] Australian engineers have created a new quantum bit which remains in a stable superposition for 10 times longer than previously achieved, dramatically expanding the time during which calculations could be performed in a future silicon quantum computer. [21] Harnessing solid-state quantum bits, or qubits, is a key step toward the mass production of electronic devices based on quantum information science and technology. However, realizing a robust qubit with a long lifetime is challenging, particularly in semiconductors comprising multiple types of atoms. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[45] viXra:1611.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 04:31:28

Four-Neutron Resonance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

James Vary, a professor of physics and astronomy, and Andrey Shirokov, a visiting scientist, together with an international team, used sophisticated supercomputer simulations to show the quasi-stable existence of a tetraneutron, a structure comprised of four neutrons (subatomic particles with no charge). [13] Research conducted at the National Superconducting Cyclotron Laboratory at Michigan State University has shed new light on the structure of the nucleus, that tiny congregation of protons and neutrons found at the core of every atom. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can “feel” each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[44] viXra:1611.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 12:07:50

Quantum Turbulence in Bose-Einstein Condensates

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has succeeded in creating turbulence in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) and in the process, have possibly opened the door to a new avenue of research. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they achieved this feat and the evidence they found for a cascade. Brian Anderson with the University of Arizona offers a News & Views piece describing the work done by the team in the same journal issue and offers a brief overview of the characteristic distribution of kinetic energy in turbulent fluids. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[43] viXra:1611.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 09:36:56

Secure Quantum Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A protocol for secure quantum communications has been demonstrated over a record-breaking distance of 404 km. [16] Randomness is vital for computer security, making possible secure encryption that allows people to communicate secretly even if an adversary sees all coded messages. Surprisingly, it even allows security to be maintained if the adversary also knows the key used to the encode the messages. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they’ve done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6]
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1611.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 10:00:38

Space is Substance, Matter is Vacancy

Authors: Yin Kamoto, Uri Adams
Comments: 1 Page.

We used to believe the geocentric model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] viXra:1611.0042 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-07 01:22:13

From Cortical Microcolumns to Brain Barcodes

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Ottorino Ori
Comments: 12 Pages.

Artificial neural systems and nervous graph theoretical analysis rely upon the standpoint that the neural code is endowed in logic circuits, e.g., spatio-temporal sequences of ON/OFF spiking neurons. However, this assumption does not fully explain complex brain functions. Here we show how nervous activity, other than logic circuits, could instead depend on topological transformations and symmetry constraints occurring at the micro-level of the cortical microcolumn, e.g., the basic embryological, anatomical and functional unit of the brain. Tubular microcolumns can be flattened in guise of a fullerene-like two-dimensional lattices, equipped with about 80 nodes standing for pyramidal neurons, where neural computations take place. We show how the countless possible combinations of activated neurons embedded in the lattice resemble a barcode. Every different assembly of firing neurons might stand for diverse neural codes, each one responsible for single mental activities. A two-dimensional fullerene-like lattice not just simulates the real microcolumn’s microcircuitry, but also allows us to build an artificial network model that, because grounded just on simple topological changes corresponding to pyramidal neuronal activation, is equipped with robustness, plasticity and fastness.
Category: Mind Science

[40] viXra:1611.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 10:50:13

Quantum Computing Optimization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

New experiments find the fastest way to manipulate logic gates with two qubits as inputs. [17] A protocol for secure quantum communications has been demonstrated over a record-breaking distance of 404 km. [16] Randomness is vital for computer security, making possible secure encryption that allows people to communicate secretly even if an adversary sees all coded messages. Surprisingly, it even allows security to be maintained if the adversary also knows the key used to the encode the messages. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1611.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:37:15

Cosmic-Ray Showers and Muon Problem

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Pierre Auger Observatory has detected more muons from cosmic-ray showers (about 30% to 60% for centre-of-mass energies 110 TeV to 170 TeV) than predicted within the LHC models for the centre-of-mass energies about 10 times lower (i.e. below 13 TeV). It suggests that at the energies beyond LHC, there can dominate a phenomenon that is neglected at the LHC energies. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the observed excess of muons concerns energies above the threshold energy about 18 TeV for the nucleons. At such energies, in proton-proton collisions, production of the spin-1 proton-antiproton pairs or narrow resonances dominates. This leads to the 50% positive excess of muons in comparison with the LHC-models prediction that should be observed in the cosmic-ray showers. It is consistent with the Auger data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[38] viXra:1611.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:42:02

General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics as the Theories Dependent on the Observer/Detector

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Mechanics (QM) are the theories dependent on the observer/detector so they are not the theories of the independent from observer Nature. In GR it follows from the fact that each act of observation (the photon-detector interaction via exchanges of the invisible superluminal particles responsible for quantum entanglement i.e. there are exchanged the spin-1 entanglons) sets the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to the detector (the speed c is in relation to the emitter or a last-interaction object - sometimes it is a detector). In QM it results from the fact that we cannot observe the entanglons directly and because time of observation lasts much longer than the time of exchanges of the invisible superluminal entanglons so there appear wavefunctions, superposition of states, and probabilities to find a particle in different states. Simultaneity of different states of the same particle is an illusion that appears only in the theories dependent on the observer. There must be in existence a more fundamental theory, which should be a theory of Nature independent on the observer - it is the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST leads to the initial conditions applied in GR and QM and shows that these theories are dependent on the observer. Moreover, SST shows that we cannot unify GR and QM within the same methods. SST shows that Nature behaves classically in a deterministic way but it does not mean that the free will is not in existence.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[37] viXra:1611.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:57:57

PT Quantum Symmetry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Bender, the Wilfred R. and Ann Lee Konneker Distinguished Professor of Physics in Arts & Sciences, was cited "for developing the theory of PT symmetry in quantum systems and sustained seminal contributions that have generated profound and creative new mathematics, impacted broad areas of experimental physics, and inspired generations of mathematical physicists." [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1611.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 07:20:40

Subnormal Distribution Derived from Evolving Networks with Variable Elements

Authors: Minyu Feng, Hong Qu, Zhang Yi, Jürgen Kurths
Comments: 11 pages

During the last decades, Power-law distributions played significant roles in analyzing the topology of scale-free (SF) networks. However, in the observation of degree distributions of practical networks and other unequal distributions such as wealth distribution, we uncover that, instead of monotonic decreasing, there exists a peak at the beginning of most real distributions, which cannot be accurately described by a Power-law. In this paper, in order to break the limitation of the Power-law distribution, we provide detailed derivations of a novel distribution called Subnormal distribution from evolving networks with variable elements and its concrete statistical properties. Additionally, imulations of fitting the subnormal distribution to the degree distribution of evolving networks, real social network, and personal wealth distribution are displayed to show the fitness of proposed distribution.
Category: Statistics

[35] viXra:1611.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 08:18:47

Muon Telescope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope, the largest and most sensitive cosmic ray monitor recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays that indicated a crack in the Earth's magnetic shield. The burst occurred when a giant cloud of plasma ejected from the solar corona struck Earth at a very high speed causing massive compression of the Earth's magnetosphere and triggering a severe geomagnetic storm. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1611.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 18:56:08

On Hyperspiral R = A*exp(b/theta)

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 3 Pages.

This spiral (given in polar coordinates r, theta) can be seen as a missing member of the set of known spirals.
Category: Geometry

[33] viXra:1611.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-06 09:34:52

A More Coherent Big Bang Model

Authors: G. H. Mickey Thompson
Comments: 19 Pages.

Upon examining thousands of astrophysics papers and journal articles, one can’t help noticing the many researchers who are expressing a frustration that their well confirmed findings are not consistent with the Inflationary, Lambda Cold Dark Matter (ΛCDM) cosmic model. Their plea is for a simpler model that better explains these findings. This paper introduces such a model. It’s based on evidence that back in the 1930s Georges Lemaître erred when he made the unprovable assumption the big bang created the entire universe. Simply negating that assumption supports a new paradigm in which our big bang overlays part of a grander universe; one that’s perpetually consolidating residues of old big bangs and growing singularities that spark new ones. It’s this background litter that generates the anomalous behaviors observed by researchers. The paper shows how a dozen such popular complaints can easily be demystified. In addition to placing this unexamined model in the discussion, the paper also questions popular assumptions about dark matter and gravity, positing more logical magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) explanations. Keywords: black holes, cosmology theory, dark energy, dark matter, galactic super clusters, large-scale structure of the universe, missing antimatter, quasars, singularities, stars
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[32] viXra:1611.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 22:29:04

Local Realism Generalized, EPR Refined, Bell's Theorem Refuted

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 14 Pages.

This open letter challenges Annals of Physics' Editors and Bell's supporters on this front: in the context of Bell's theorem -- after AoP (2016:67) -- ‘it's a proven scientific fact that a violation of local realism has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally.' We show that such claims under the Bellian canon are curtailed by its foundation on a naive realism that is known to be false; ie, under Bohr's old insight (in our terms), a test may disturb the tested system. Further: (i) We define a general all-embracing local realism -- CLR, commonsense local realism -- the union of local-causality (no causal influence propagates superluminally) and physical-realism (some physical properties change interactively). (ii) Under CLR, with EPR-based variables (and without QM), a thought-experiment delivers a local-realistic account of EPRB and GHZ in 3-space. (iii) Under EPR, mixing common-sense with undergrad math/physics in the classical way so favored by Einstein, we interpret QM locally and realistically. (iv) We find the flaw in Bell's theorem: Bell's 1964:(14a) ≠ Bell's 1964:(14b) under EPRB. (v) EPR (1935) famously argue that additional variables will bring locality and causality to QM's completion; we show that they are right. (vi) Even more famously, Bell (1964) cried ‘impossible' against such variables; we give the shortest possible refutation of his claim. (vii) Using Bell's (1988:88) moot gloss on a fragment of von Neumann's work, we conclude: ‘There's nothing to Bell's theorem -- nor Bellian variants like CHSH (1969), Mermin (1990), Peres (1995); nor Bellian endorsements like those by Bricmont, du Sautoy, Goldstein et al., Maudlin, Norsen, Shimony -- it's not just flawed, it's silly; its assumptions nonsense; it's not merely false but foolish' and misleading. (viii) Our results accord with common-sense, QM, Einstein's principles, EPR's belief and Bell's hopes and expectations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1611.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 02:09:05

The Lorentz-Invariant Gravitation Theory (Short Book)

Authors: Alexander G. Kyriakos
Comments: 64 Pages.

The modern theory of gravity, which is called General Theory of Relativity (GTR or GR), was verified with sufficient accuracy and adopted as the basis for studying gravitational phenomena in modern physics. GR is the geometric theory of gravitation, in which the metric of Riemannian space-time plays the role of relativistic gravitational potential. Therefore it has certain features that make it impossible to connect it with others physics theories in which geometry plays only a supporting role. Another formal feature of general relativity is that the study and the use of its mathematical apparatus require much more time than the study of any of the branches of modern physics. This book is an attempt to build a non-geometrical version of the theory of gravitation, which is in the framework of the modern Lorentz-invariant field theory and would not cause difficulties when teaching students. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the quantum field theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-09 02:17:06

Rigid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes. These shapes permit the particles to have different functions like different masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Z particles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1611.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-11 13:57:49

Deriving E8 from Cl(8) Through Pairing up Elementary Cellular Automata Bits

Authors: John C. Gonsowski
Comments: 18 pages

Tony Smith relates the 256 dimensions of the Cl(8) Clifford Algebra to the 256 rules of Elementary Cellular Automata. The graded dimensions of Cl(8) correspond to graded dimensions of the E8 Lie Algebra used in Smith’s physics model. Six Cellular Automata (CA) rules with four one-bits are related to Smith’s 8-dim Primitive Idempotent bookended by the single rule with no one-bits and the single rule with all eight bits as ones. The 64 other four one-bit rules are related to E8’s 64-dim vector representation used by Smith for a spacetime 8-dim position by 8-dim momentum. The two 28-dim D4 subalgebras of E8 are used for bosons and their ghosts and relate to the CA rules with two one-bits and six one-bits. Paired up CA bits are related to the Cartan subalgebras of these D4s. The two remaining 64-dim spinor representations for E8 are used for eight component fermions/antifermions and relate to the CA rules with one, three, five and seven one-bits.
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1611.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 11:18:30

Laser Infrared Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A*STAR scientists have developed a unique fast-pulsing fiber laser that has the widest wavelength output to date. This type of laser could replace several fixed-wavelength lasers and form the basis of compact devices useful for a range of medical and military applications. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1611.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 12:12:46

Supercomputers in Biological Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Using the largest computer in Japan-one of the most powerful in the world-research led by an MSU scientist has achieved breakthroughs in understanding how proteins are affected by realistic biological environments. The work, published in the current issue of eLife, is a significant step forward in simulating biology in a computer. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[26] viXra:1611.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 13:59:32

Supercomputer Profile of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1611.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 08:20:12

Machine Learning for Cancer Treatment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicians have long used visual judgment of medical images to determine the course of cancer treatment. A new program package from Fraunhofer researchers reveals changes in images and facilitates this task using deep learning. The experts will demonstrate this software in Chicago from November 27 to December 2 at RSNA, the world's largest radiology meeting. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries - how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms - has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[24] viXra:1611.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 09:26:00

Quantum Infrared Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

By weaving some quantum wizardry, A*STAR researchers have achieved something that appears to be a contradiction in terms—using visible light to perform spectroscopy at infrared wavelengths. Even more mysterious is that the visible light does not even pass through the sample being measured. [18] Constructing quantum computers and other quantum devices requires the ability to leverage quantum properties such as superposition and entanglement – but these effects are fragile and therefore hard to maintain. Recently, scientists at Ecole Normale Supérieure in Paris demonstrated a novel method for controlling the quantum properties of light by probing a superconducting circuit in a cavity with microwave photons to control the energy levels that photon quanta can occupy. [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[23] viXra:1611.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 10:04:36

Quantum Dot Displays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Now in a new study, researchers have developed a method that overcomes this tradeoff by combining two conventional methods: photolithography, which uses light to pattern the quantum dots with a high resolution; and layer-by-layer assembly, which uses the electric charges of the quantum dots to uniformly deposit them in layers over a large area. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[22] viXra:1611.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 06:49:11

Transforming, Self-Learning Software

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[21] viXra:1611.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 07:06:29

Poiesis of Wisdom: Enhancing Relational Span

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 3 Pages. Poiesis--new foundations as the ultimate tradition

Wisdom and love are inseparable around their Poetic action. Securing higher-level relationships across otherwise conflicting truths is where Orduality meets Gradiency again.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[20] viXra:1611.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 07:45:06

Primordial Vision and Olfaction

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

A hypothesis on the origin of the senses.
Category: Physics of Biology

[19] viXra:1611.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 17:11:04

CMB is Red-Shifted Starlight

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.

Everyone knows the further back you look through a telescope into the Universe the more things appear red-shifted. If that same process continues the light would be shifted right off the visible spectrum and into the micro-wave. And that is what happened.
Micro-wave (or CMB) radiation is just light from stars that are very far away.
Remember Olbers' paradox? Why is the sky not bright if there is supposedly a star at the end of every point you look? There actually is -- but the light has been shifted.
This is why the CMB appears to be so smooth -- the Universe is filled (for all intents) evenly with stars so you will see just about the same things no matter were you look. A lot of it might be in a different spectrum though.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[18] viXra:1611.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 21:24:33

Strange Results Pertaining to Fermi’s Weak Coupling Constant, Strong Coupling Constant and Newtonian Gravitational Constant

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 2 Pages. Ref: ijmph.kaznu.kz/index.php/kaznu/article/.../pdf_10

Assuming that Planck scale plays a crucial role in Strong and Electroweak interactions, we made an attempt to inter-relate the Newtonian gravitational constant, Fermi’s weak coupling constant and Strong coupling constant.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1611.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 01:53:14

L'inéluctable Effondrement D'une Science Officielle Sans éthique

Authors: Francis M. Sanchez
Comments: 1 Page. in French

Dramatic violations of basic ethics result in the crash of the Modern Scientific System through elementary scientific refutations of the Big Bang model, directly checkable, even by the layman.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[16] viXra:1611.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 02:06:21

Cause of Radiation Belts of the Earth Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Hypothesis of the Cause of an Internal Radiation Belt of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cover of a Kernel and Its Contents is Made.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the cause of an internal radiation belt of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cover of a kernel and its contents is made.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1611.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 03:23:19

The Lorentz-Invariant Gravitation Theory (Full Book)

Authors: Alexander G. Kyriakos
Comments: 116 Pages.

The modern theory of gravity, which is conditionally called General Theory of Relativity (GTR), was verified with sufficient accuracy and adopted as the basis for studying gravitational phenomena in modern physics. However, it has certain features that make it impossible to connect with other theories, on which almost all the techniques and technology of modern civilization is built. Another formal disadvantage of general relativity is that the study and the use of its mathematical apparatus require much more time than the study of any of the branches of modern physics. This book is an attempt to build a version of the theory of gravitation, which is in the framework of the modern field theory and would not cause difficulties when teaching students. A characteristic feature of the proposed theory is that it is built on the basis of the nonlinear quantum field theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[14] viXra:1611.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 16:48:21

History of Writing and Record Keeping

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 4 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of the environment enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. The human environment includes the human being itself and the human ability to communicate by means of language and to make symbolic representations of the sounds produced by language, allowed the development of writing. Writing developed over time in a necessary and inevitable manner from logographic, to syllabic, to alphabetical systems. This development from simpler word based writing to more complex syllable based systems and then even more complex sound based writing systems was a logical progression from, simple less useful systems, to more complex, but more useful systems. This is an example of how the simplest knowledge is acquired first and more complex knowledge is acquired later. The order of discovery determines the course of human social and cultural history as knowledge of new and more efficient means of meeting human needs, results in new technology, which results in the development of new social and ideological systems. This means human social and cultural history, has to follow a particular course, a course that is determined by the structure of the human environment.
Category: Archaeology

[13] viXra:1611.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 11:58:12

Quantum Coherence On and Off

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[12] viXra:1611.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 12:34:16

Induced Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Houston have reported a new method for inducing superconductivity in non-superconducting materials, demonstrating a concept proposed decades ago but never proven. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1611.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 13:12:42

Addendum to- Image Comparisons of Black Hole vs. Neutron Dark Star Ray Tracing

Authors: DT Froedge
Comments: 19 Pages. Image using proper asymetric gravitational index of refraction.

In the previous paper computer programs were developed to illustrate the image comparison between a conservative local energy theory gravitational theory and a black hole. A local conservative theory of gravitation[1] does not generate a Black Hole, but a very heavy neutron star (NDS) having a radius only slightly larger than the gravitational radius [2],[3],[4],. The light propagation formula used in the original paper was the standard symmetric Shapiro propagation formula for flat space, well tested as the proper projection of the GR metric onto a flat space, for star grazing and Shapiro delay. Unfortunately due to the asymmetric nature of the propagation of light related, this expression does not properly represent photon trajectories near the gravitational radius. This paper redoes those projections and creates a star image consistent with the proper index of refraction for photons near a massive neutron star.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[10] viXra:1611.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 13:15:02

The Condensing Stirling Cycle Heat Engine

Authors: Matthew Marko
Comments: 18 Pages, English,

The Stirling thermodynamic heat engine cycle is modified, where instead of an ideal gas, a real, monatomic working fluid is used, with the engine designed so that the isothermal compression starts off as a saturated gas, and ends as a mixed-phase fluid. This cycle takes advantage of the attractive intermolecular Van der Waals forces of the working fluid to assist in compressing the working fluid partially into a liquid, reducing the input compression work and increasing the overall heat engine efficiency to exceed that of the Carnot efficiency.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[9] viXra:1611.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 13:32:05

Continuously Discrete -- Thunder : Lightning, Big Bang : CMB

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 1 Page.

If lightning strikes in your backyard you will hear an immediate and very loud clap of thunder. If there is NO rain it is easy to also hear the very low pitched thunder rolling smoothly away off into the distance.

A~~~~~~~~~B~~~~~~~~~C~~~~~~~~~D~~~~~

If you are at "A" and the lightning strikes and claps at "A" it starts an expanding shock wave in the air that expands away spherically.
The shock-wave is so powerful it disrupts the atmosphere and what you think you hear as thunder rolling away is actually the shock wave being reflected back.
The shock-wave traveled from A to B in one second and it keeps going.
But if you were standing at any point along the path for instance "B" you would still hear the initial strike and clap as it passed by you at the speed of sound..
So what you are think you are hearing as thunder is actually the instantaneous strike and clap happening over and over and over.
It is continuous but not being stretched.
You are hearing one instant thing but it is continuous
The sound of course is being Doppler shifted -- it is racing away at the speed of sound.
If you have good ears and think you hear the thunder at "B" it is already at "C".
In the time it took the sound from "B" to travel back to you at "A" the clap has already moved on to "C".

~~~~~~~~~~
Big Bang / CMB
~~~~~~~~~~
When the Big Bang happened it disrupted the fabric of space itself in the same way a one time thunder clap continuously disrupts the atmosphere.
When you detect the CMB you are actually detecting the "thunder" of the Big Bang. But It is happening as electromagnetic radiation of course.
The CMB is actually the Big Bang happening over and over and over but it is red-shifted down to microwave spectrum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[8] viXra:1611.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 13:37:51

Foundations As Inherently Trinitarian Holistics

Authors: Arthur Shevenyonov
Comments: 8 Pages. new foundations--back to tradition and Ursein

God being love, the latter is always relational or two-way rather than substantive. The Trinitarian perspective is fully supported by an Ordinal approach.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[7] viXra:1611.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 09:24:04

Super-Efficient Light Harvesting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In its billions of years on earth, plant life has become super-efficient at using light – and now it's showing how it does it. [19] An elusive biological cycle in the eye-the daily disposal and regeneration of the end tips of photoreceptor cells-has been captured in images for the first time in a living human eye. Photoreceptors are light-sensitive cells responsible for initiating vision. This glimpse into the inner workings of the eye will help scientists better understand, prevent and manage major eye diseases that affect photoreceptors like age-related macular degeneration and retinitis pigmentosa. [18] A protein found within the powerhouse of a cell could be the key to holding back the march of time, research by scientists at The University of Nottingham has shown. [ IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[6] viXra:1611.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 06:14:41

The Gravitation Theory Review

Authors: Alexander G. Kyriakos
Comments: 104 Pages.

The most advanced theory of gravitation is so far Einstein's general relativity theory. Some of its drawbacks are the source of attempts to construct a new theory of gravitation. The main drawback of general relativity theory is its incompatibility with the modern quantum theory of elementary particles, which does not allow to create a unified theory of matter. In the general relativity the cause of the gravitational field is the curvature of space-time, which is not a material object. The question of, how non-material space-time can cause a material gravitational field is still here unanswered. Different subdisciplines of classical physics generated different ways of approaching the problem of gravitation. The emergence of special relativity further increased the number of possible approaches and created new requirements that all approaches had to come to terms with. In this book we will survey various alternative approaches to the problem of gravitation pursued around the turn of the last century and try to assess their potential for integrating the contemporary knowledge of gravitation. Here different contributions are made to the discussion about the fundamentals of different approaches to gravitation and their advantages and drawbacks.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[5] viXra:1611.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-02 04:56:30

Electric Dark Matter Black Holes in the Moon (Orientale Basin)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

The multiple cliff-ringed lava plains on the moon are breath taking and how they came to be has puzzled scientists and even philosophers. However, multi-cliff ringed basins are also found in many different locations on other worlds. So, what created the basins? The suggestion of Quantum FFF Theory is that the double charged static electric fields assumed to be active concentric around new physics black holes should be the origin of circular cliff formation after the impact of a special comet which is only based on one nuclear black hole. Many comets however seem to be created around more than one new physics black hole as we may have observed in comets like 67P C-G and Shoemaker Levy 9. The resulting lava plains of such crashed comets are supposed to be represented by less circular gravity variations or less circular cliffed plains. Recent discussions around the foundation of black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about the nature of black holes and adjacent subjects.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1611.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 07:51:17

Qubits Coherence and Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

If you're building a quantum computer with the intention of making calculations not even imaginable with today's conventional technology, you're in for an arduous effort. Case in point: You're delving into new problems and situations associated with the foundational work of novel and complicated systems as well as cutting-edge technology. [24] 'This would for example allow transferring information from superconducting quantum bits to the "flying qubits" in the visible light range and back', envision the creators of the theory for the device, Tero Heikkilä, Professor at the University of Jyväskylä, and Academy Research Fellow Francesco Massel. Therefore, the method has potential for data encryption based on quantum mechanics, i.e. quantum cryptography, as well as other applications. [23] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing (IQC) at the University of Waterloo led the development of a new extensible wiring technique capable of controlling superconducting quantum bits, representing a significant step towards to the realization of a scalable quantum computer. [22] Australian engineers have created a new quantum bit which remains in a stable superposition for 10 times longer than previously achieved, dramatically expanding the time during which calculations could be performed in a future silicon quantum computer. [21] Harnessing solid-state quantum bits, or qubits, is a key step toward the mass production of electronic devices based on quantum information science and technology. However, realizing a robust qubit with a long lifetime is challenging, particularly in semiconductors comprising multiple types of atoms. [20] Researchers from Delft, the University of Wisconsin and Ames Laboratory, led by Prof. Lieven Vandersypen of TU Delft's QuTech discovered that the stability of qubits could be maintained 100 times more effectively in silicon than in gallium arsenide. [19] Researchers from MIT and MIT Lincoln Laboratory report an important step toward practical quantum computers, with a paper describing a prototype chip that can trap ions in an electric field and, with built-in optics, direct laser light toward each of them. [18] An ion trap with four segmented blade electrodes used to trap a linear chain of atomic ions for quantum information processing. Each ion is addressed optically for individual control and readout using the high optical access of the trap. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1611.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 01:37:29

The Hebrew Theorem

Authors: Brian Ekanyu
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper proves a geometric theorem about the Hebrew nation that is the Patriarchs Abraham, Isaac and Jacob and the Twelve tribes of Israel. The circle represents the state of Israel.
Category: Geometry

[2] viXra:1611.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-15 23:03:42

Numerical Solution of Linear, Nonhomogeneous Differential Equation Systems via Padé Approximation

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 22 Pages. [v8] Revised Appendix B

This paper generalizes an earlier investigation of linear differential equation solutions via Padé approximation (viXra:1509.0286), for the case of nonhomogeneous equations. Formulas are provided for Padé polynomial orders 1, 2, 3, and 4, for both constant-coefficient and functional-coefficient cases. The scale-and-square algorithm for the constant-coefficient case is generalized for nonhomogeneous equations. Implementation details including step size initialization and tolerance control are discussed.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[1] viXra:1611.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 03:46:39

Quantum Photonics

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 1 Page. superquantum propagation theory

With regard to double slit experiment, diffraction and probability theory, they do not reflect the true nature of light. If it is a wave and a particle, than we should consider its physical properties on earth compared with an ocean wave.
Category: Quantum Physics