[293] **viXra:1703.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 13:11:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[292] **viXra:1703.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 13:40:14*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

When NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale—or MMS—mission was launched, the scientists knew it would answer questions fundamental to the nature of our universe—and MMS hasn't disappointed. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[291] **viXra:1703.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 14:41:35*

**Authors:** George R. Briggs

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: Using cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory, a value for the critical fermion density of the universe is found in excellent agreement with published results. Also found is a very useful volume of 10^27 cubic meters per active galaxy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[290] **viXra:1703.0307 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-02 17:34:33*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Understanding quantum gravity motivates string and loop theorists. Both employ geometric wavefunction models. Gravity enters strings by taking the one fundamental length permitted by quantum field theory to be not the high energy cutoff, rather the Planck length. This comes at a price - string theory cannot be renormalized, and the solutions landscape is effectively infinite. Loop theory seeks only to quantize gravity, with hope that insights gained might inform particle physics. It does so via interactions of two dimensional loops in three-dimensional space. While both approaches offer possibilities not available to Standard Model theorists, it is not unreasonable to suggest that geometric wavefunctions comprised of fundamental geometric objects of three-dimensional space are required for successful models, written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[289] **viXra:1703.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 11:27:03*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[288] **viXra:1703.0304 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-22 07:22:56*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 7 Pages. In French. Submitted to Journal Annales Scientifiques de l'Ecole Normale Supérieure. Comments welcome.

In 1898, Georg Friedrich Bernhard Riemann had announced the following conjecture, called Riemann Hypothesis : The nontrivial roots (zeros) s=\sigma+it of the zeta function, defined by:
\zeta(s) = \sum_{n=1}^{+\infty}\frac{1}{n^s},\,for \Re(s)>1
have real part \sigma= \frac{1}{2}.
We give a proof that \sigma= \frac{1}{2} using an equivalent statement of Riemann Hypothesis.

**Category:** Number Theory

[287] **viXra:1703.0303 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 11:49:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Most people have never seen an accelerometer—a device that measures change in velocity—and wouldn't know where to look. Yet accelerometers have become essential to modern life, from controlling automobile airbags, to earthquake monitoring, inertial navigation for spaceflight, aircraft, and autonomous vehicles, and keeping the screen image rotated the right way on cell phones and tablets, among other uses. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[286] **viXra:1703.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 07:30:16*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The electron microscope, a powerful tool for science, just became even more powerful, with an improvement developed by Cornell physicists. Their electron microscope pixel array detector (EMPAD) yields not just an image, but a wealth of information about the electrons that create the image and, from that, more about the structure of the sample. [33] An innovative new technique to produce the quickest, smallest, highest-capacity memories for flexible and transparent applications could pave the way for a future golden age of electronics. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[285] **viXra:1703.0301 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 08:29:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Researchers first thought that each proton consisted entirely of only three quarks, which together determined the spin. Quarks are elementary particles that scientists have not been able to break down into smaller parts. [12] Particle physics experiments conducted at the CERN, DESY, JLab, RHIC, and SLAC laboratories have revealed that only about 30% of the proton's spin is carried by the spin of its quark constituents. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[284] **viXra:1703.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 09:57:26*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Here we provide a consistent solution of the baryon asymmetry problem. The
same model is also able to tell us as to what is the mathematical basis of the
”equivalence principle” (i.e. the inertial mass being equal to the gravitational
mass). We are also able to see as to wherefrom arises the semi-simple group
structure of hadrons as SU (2) I ⊗U (1) B (of the pre-eightfold-way-model period).
Thus we are able to understand the origin of the Gell-Mann-Nishijima expression
for the electric charges, Q = I 3 + B 2 . This paper is in continuation of my recent
paper, ”Gravity, Anomaly Cancellation, Anomaly Matching, and the Nucleus”
(syedafsarabbas.blogspot.in).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[283] **viXra:1703.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 10:13:11*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By analyzing the magnetic field of a direct electric current within conductors and its action on the charge carrier in the current, a new effect is proposed for a conduct when current flowing through. Similar to the Hall Effect, this effect make the directionally moving charge carrier in the current deflected towards to the center of the current. If the charge carriers of the conductor with only one type charge (positive or negative), a radical electric field will form in the current cross section and a voltage will be produced between the center and the edge of the current. This effect also predicts that for a steady DC current the current density is not evenly distributed in the cross section of the current. The current density in the center area is larger than that in the edge area. It is not like what we always thought that the current density is evenly distributed in the current cross section.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[282] **viXra:1703.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 05:36:04*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I note two sequences of Poulet numbers: the terms of the first sequence are the Poulet numbers which can be written as P*2 – d; the terms of the second sequence are the Poulet numbers which can be written as (P*2 – d)*2 - d, where P is another Poulet number and d one of the prime factors of P. I also conjecture that the both sequences are infinite and I observe that the recurrent relation ((((P*2 – d)*2 – d)*2 – d)...) conducts sometimes to more than one Poulet number (for instance, starting with P = 4369 and d = 257, the first, the second and the third numbers obtained are 8481, 16705 and 33153, all three Poulet numbers).

**Category:** Number Theory

[281] **viXra:1703.0296 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-03 15:22:51*

**Authors:** F. Ursini, A. Tortosa, F. Ricci

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We present results from a joint NuSTAR/VLT monitoring of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1365. We find conclusive evidences for an emission K alpha line from atomic vibranium in the X-ray spectrum, in combination with molecular vibranium absorption features in the mid-infrared spectrum. This is the first direct observation of vibranium in an astronomical environment. We also derive a measurement for its abundance of 2e-6 with respect to hydrogen.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[280] **viXra:1703.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 06:45:36*

**Authors:** Andrej Liptaj

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A general recursive and limit formula for higher order derivatives of the inverse function is presented. The formula is next used in couple of mathematical applications: expansion of the inverse function into Taylor series, solving equations, constructing random numbers with a given distribution from uniformly distributed randomnumbers and expanding a function in the neighborhood of a given point in an alternative way to the Taylor expansion.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[279] **viXra:1703.0294 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 07:11:17*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Lorentz transform converts the Euclidean storage format of dynamic geometric data into the corresponding observed spacetime format.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[278] **viXra:1703.0293 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-02 09:33:24*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Abstract: giving aviewpoint with regards to the spins of elementary particles from first
principle;in the particular, about the proton’s spin meaning, characterization
andcalculation in the consistent and definite form that suitable to it in all of differentstates.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[277] **viXra:1703.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 14:04:45*

**Authors:** Elio Conte, Ferda Kaleagasioglu

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In a previous paper we have given the basic quantum mechanical foundations of quantum mechanics elaborated by using the Clifford algebra and giving identification that such algebra may represent an algebraic representation of our consciousness. In this second section we give detailed elaboration of this algebra discussing its basic features relating our consciousness.

**Category:** Mind Science

[276] **viXra:1703.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-10 12:35:07*

**Authors:** Rodolfo A. Frino

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new concept which I called: gravitational electric charge. The
physical meaning of this quantity is still not clear, however, if confirmed it would indicate
that gravity not only acts as a force between masses, in the Newtonian sense, but also as an extremely feeble electromagnetic force.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[275] **viXra:1703.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 04:40:19*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

An innovative new technique to produce the quickest, smallest, highest-capacity memories for flexible and transparent applications could pave the way for a future golden age of electronics. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[274] **viXra:1703.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 11:24:52*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An additional effect of time fluctuations in a small volume of space is considered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[273] **viXra:1703.0288 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 11:33:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Classical physics states that a crystal consists of perfectly ordered particles from a continuous symmetrical atomic structure. The Mermin-Wagner theorem from 1966 broke with this view: it states that in one-dimensional and two-dimensional atomic structures (for example in an atomic chain or membrane) there cannot be perfect ordering of particles over long ranges. [19] Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have found a material used for decades to color food items ranging from corn chips to ice creams could potentially have uses far beyond food dyes. [18] Liquid droplets are natural magnifiers. Look inside a single drop of water, and you are likely to see a reflection of the world around you, close up and distended as you'd see in a crystal ball. [17] MIT physicists have created a new form of matter, a supersolid, which combines the properties of solids with those of superfluids. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[272] **viXra:1703.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 08:22:44*

**Authors:** Dino Bruniera

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to demonstrate, by means of CMBR, a theory which states that the speed of light is isotropic with respect to each point in expanding space, so it cannot also be isotropic with respect to transiting objects.
Hence the result found by Michelson-Morley experiment, which showed that the speed of light is isotropic in any Reference Frame, is due to the phenomenon suggested by Lorentz, i.e., that each object undergoes a contraction of its length and a dilation of its time as a function of its speed with respect to the points it passes through, which, therefore, constitutes its preferred Reference Frame.
Hence now Special Relativity is complementable with a theory for which light waves are manifested in a medium (and not in a vacuum) and their speed is not isotropic in all Reference Frames, no matter what their speed is, a frame with respect to an other frame. It is a theory that opens another path to the truth about the workings of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[271] **viXra:1703.0286 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 08:34:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[270] **viXra:1703.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 04:25:09*

**Authors:** Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

In all faiths of the world believing in some deity of the other, there definitely comes a stage when
the said deity is viewed as the very creator of the world, the universe and everything in it. Thus,
as the very source of creation, the deity is viewed akin to a Mother, where the universe and all
its contents forms Her child.
However, there is one tradition that directly centers on the Universal Mother in this very role
itself, as the major deity. This is the tradition of Sri Vidya of Hinduism, which has remained a
lofty, esoteric, sacred and protected tradition due to its directness of approach and absence of
pretense. Some of the highest divinities of Hinduism, including the very trinity of Brahma, Vishnu
and Shiva are seen to be disciples and propagators of this tradition, which views the Universal
Mother as Lalitha Ambika, translated as the Playful Mother.
In this tradition, historically, one understands that the various approaches to Lalitha Ambika are
broadly grouped into two categories - the right-handed Dakshinachara, and the left-handed
Vamachara. Within their fold, they also include the equivalence dominated Samayachara and
body-centric Kaulachara traditions respectively.Given this understanding, it is interesting to note that there is only one age-old temple that
honors Sri Vidya completely in both Vamachara and Dakshinachara aspects - this is a temple
within the main temple complex of Thiruvarur in Tamilnadu, India, where Universal Mother
Lalitha Ambika is viewed as Kamalaamba. Here is a brief discussion of the shrines corresponding to both traditions within the Kamalaamba
Temple.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[269] **viXra:1703.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 05:07:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a new mechanism involved in the creation of paired light particles, which could have significant impact on the study of quantum physics. [20] In a new study, physicists have shown a way to establish real entanglement between two identical particles—a topic that has been disputed until now. The results provide a better understanding of the fundamental nature of entanglement between identical particles and have potential applications in quantum information processing. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[268] **viXra:1703.0283 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 06:47:58*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Using the principle of spherical celestial objects in stellar metamorphosis, we can determine if red giants are actual stars or something else.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[267] **viXra:1703.0282 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-05 11:58:12*

**Authors:** Hans Detlef Hüttenbach

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Given an adiabatic system of particles as defined in [4], the problem is whether and to what degree one can break it into its constituents and describe their mutual interaction.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[266] **viXra:1703.0281 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-25 13:50:16*

**Authors:** Per Hokstad

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Lorentz transformation of the special theory of relativity (STR) describes the time dilation between two reference frames moving relative to each other at a constant speed. The present work focuses on the fact that the observations of time will depend on the location of the clocks used for time registrations. Primarily, the paper presents a unified framework for the various ‘observational principles’, i.e. specification of the position of the clocks being applied. We also investigate the time dilation for time intervals; specifying how these depend on the various observational principles. A thorough discussion of the travelling twin example is included. Throughout we restrict to consider a single space coordinate.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[265] **viXra:1703.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 22:47:37*

**Authors:** Igor Hrncic

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Unfortunately, Cantor was wrong. His notion of transfinite bijection is flawed. Cantor introduced this notion of transfinite bijection as the additional axiom, even though without even realising this. From this error, other errors sprung into the existence. He did all this in the heroic effort to justify the death of infinitesimals, even though he wasn't aware of this either. Cantor went bravely on to defend the established error in higher mathematics before his mentors and peers who banished infinitesimals. Instead, he demonstrated the error of it. He never realised this as well. This paper elucidates this link between Cantor's errors and infinitesimals.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[264] **viXra:1703.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 12:53:24*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

An Integral for pi

**Category:** General Mathematics

[263] **viXra:1703.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 08:52:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[262] **viXra:1703.0277 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 10:20:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

In a new study, physicists have shown a way to establish real entanglement between two identical particles—a topic that has been disputed until now. The results provide a better understanding of the fundamental nature of entanglement between identical particles and have potential applications in quantum information processing. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[261] **viXra:1703.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 04:45:53*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 2 Pages. A simpler version of another paper "A new framework for viewing reality"

There has been a crisis in theory regarding General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Here I propose a solution by saying there is a flexible structure to the universe and it is essentially the structure of the vacuum energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[260] **viXra:1703.0275 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-20 05:23:52*

**Authors:** Henok Tadesse

**Comments:** 181 Pages.

A new model and theoretical framework of absolute motion and the speed of light is proposed in this paper. 1. For absolutely co-moving light source S and observer O, with uniform rectilinear motion, the effect of absolute motion is to create an apparent change in the position of the source relative to the observer. The apparent source, just as the real source, is at rest relative to the observer and the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Therefore, the procedure of analysis of a light speed experiment in this case is to replace the real source by an apparent source and analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source. Once the real source is replaced with an apparent source to account for absolute velocity, we assume emission theory in which the group velocity of light is constant relative to the (apparent) source and depends on mirror velocity. The position of the apparent source is determined by assuming the ether to calculate the time delay of light emitted by the source and detected directly by the observer and interpreting the change in time delay as being due to an apparent change in the source position relative to the observer, rather than as being a result of varying speed of light which would be the case if the ether existed. In this paper it is revealed that the ether doesn’t exist but absolute motion does exist. 2. For all other cases/experiments in which the light source S, an observer A and mirrors have independent, arbitrary absolute and relative velocities, for uniform rectilinear motion and for accelerated motion, including rotation, the experiment is analyzed according to the following principle: an observer A who is at a given point relative to the light source, at a given instant of time, observes what a co-moving observer at that point is observing at that instant of time . A co-moving observer O is defined in this paper as an observer who is at a given point in the reference frame of the source at the instant of light emission and continues to move with the same velocity (magnitude and direction) as the velocity of the source at the instant of light emission. For example, to determine the time instant when light emitted by a source is observed by an arbitrary observer (A) with known initial position and motion (velocity and acceleration) at the instant of light emission, we find a point relative to the source where a co-moving observer O at that point observes light at the time instant that observer A is passing through that point. 3. The phase velocity of light is constant, independent of source, observer and mirror velocity. The group velocity of light is independent of source absolute velocity, but depends on observer absolute velocity and on mirror velocity. 4. A new law of Exponential Doppler effect of light is proposed as: λ' = λ eV/c and f ' = f e - V/c , where V is the source observer relative velocity. 5. Light has dual natures: local and non-local, constant (phase) velocity and variable ( group) velocity, behaving according to both ether (wave) theory and emission (particle) theory. Static electric and magnetic fields also have dual nature: finite and infinite speed of transmission 6. Inertia is electromagnetic radiation reaction. The speed of light is the universal limit on absolute velocities of all physical objects in the universe. The mass (inertia) increase of electrons with velocity is due to non-linear law of electromagnetic radiation power and radiation reaction. As the absolute velocity of a body approaches the speed of light, any further acceleration will result in or require increasingly infinite amounts of radiation power and radiation reaction. 7. Gravity is a difference between electrostatic attraction and repulsion forces. 8. Absolute velocity of an object is the resultant of its mass weighed velocities relative to all massive objects in the universe. The universal principle that applies to all light speed experiments is : an observer at a given point relative to the source, at a given instant of time , observes the same light phenomenon being observed by a co-moving observer at that point, at that instant of time. A co-moving observer is an observer that continues to move at the same velocity the source had at the instant of light emission. However, a more convenient procedure for experiments involving rectilinear motions is : 1. Replace the real source by an apparent source 2. Determine the velocity of the apparent source relative to the observer 3. Analyze the experiment by assuming that the speed of light is constant relative to the apparent source; i.e. once the real source is replaced by an apparent source , we apply (modified) emission theory in which the group velocity is constant relative to the apparent source and depends on mirror velocity, but the phase velocity is always constant. Physically ( intuitively ) the group velocity ( magnitude and direction) of light varies relative to the real source, due to absolute motion of the source. AST is a modified emission theory, a fusion between emission theory and ether theory. In the Sagnac experiment, the source appears farther away than its physical distance when looking in the backward direction and closer than its actual/ physical distance in the forward direction, relative to the detector. Physically this means that the velocity of light is c + Vabs in the backward direction and c - Vabs in the forward direction, relative to the source , hence a fringe shift at the detector. In the case of the Michelson-Morley experiment, an apparent change in the position of the light source relative the detector does not create a fringe shift, for the same reason that an actual ( physical ) change of the source position doesn't create any significant fringe shift. The group velocity of light relative to the source moving with absolute velocity Vabs is c - Vabs in the forward direction and c + Vabs in the backward direction. Therefore, the velocity of light relative to a stationary observer will be: (c - Vabs ) + Vabs = c and (c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . The (group) velocity of light changes relative to the source in such a way that it will not be affected by source velocity.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[259] **viXra:1703.0274 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-19 14:25:09*

**Authors:** DT Froedge

**Comments:** 23 Pages. The second draft of an ongoing research project

This paper is to present a physical model of the Electron & Positron particles constructed as the interaction of two photons
The photons and subsequently a model of the Electron will be defined in the math of Geometric Algebra using, and expanding on the correspondence relations between GA and QM developed by Doran, & Lasenby [3]. The vector constructs defining the electromagnetic components of a quantum system can be extended to define the physical structure of a particle. By defining a complete physical vector boson i.e. the photon, in terms of a GA vectors, is straightforward to show that an electron can be modeled as an interaction of two such photons and has the known physical attributes of an electron. The attributes include mass, spin, & charge. A clear advantage of the model is the absence of infinities that are dealt with in QFT, by the process of renormalization. The infinities of a point electron is supplanted by two point vector bosons that do not have an infinity and operate under the rules of QFT.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[258] **viXra:1703.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 19:09:13*

**Authors:** Arman Maesumi

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Given a triangle ABC, the average area of an inscribed triangle RST whose vertices are uniformly distributed on BC, CA and AB, is proven to be one-fourth of the area of ABC. The average of the square of the area of RST is shown to be one-twelfth of the square of the area of ABC, and the average of the cube of the ratio of the areas is 5/144. A Monte Carlo simulation confirms the theoretical results, as well as a Maxima program which computes the exact averages.

**Category:** Geometry

[257] **viXra:1703.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:51:56*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Web site : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/eng/zhp_en_htm3.html

It is believed that the Pioneer satellites anomaly could be resolved by the orbit
determination programs (ODP) if some particular elements of the satellite that were
omitted or rejected as non applicable were taken into account. This is not the case
and up to now, not a single proposition has been able to resolve the anomalous
acceleration that plagued those satellites. We show that the Pioneer anomaly is
in fact a natural and universal constant also remarked as an apparent numerical
coincidence.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[256] **viXra:1703.0271 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 10:58:44*

**Authors:** Pierre-Réal Gosselin

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Site web : http://phrenocarpe.org/zhp/fra/zhp_fr_htm3.html

On croit que l’anomalie des satellites Pioneer serait expliquée en tenant compte
de certains éléments omis ou rejetés comme non pertinents dans les programmes de
calcul des orbites des satellites (Orbit Determination Program). Il n’en est rien, et
jusqu’à maintenant, aucune proposition en ce sens n’a réussi de façon concluante
à expliquer cette accélération. Nous montrons que ce qui est apparu comme une
coïncidence numérique n’en n’est pas une, mais n’est en fait qu’une constante
universelle naturelle.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[255] **viXra:1703.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 11:14:36*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17]
How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16]
Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15]
A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14]
A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10]
Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[254] **viXra:1703.0269 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 12:09:24*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The quantum vacuum is a material medium capable of polarization and equipped with its own electric permittivity, permeability and dielectric constant. It has been hypothesized that our Universe arose from a perturbation in the quantum vacuum, when an inflationary mechanism, correlated with a false vacuum state, led to the production of cosmic matter and to the huge expansion that took place 1-35 seconds after the Big Bang. Therefore, according to this framework, the vacuum endowed in our Universe is primitive to it.
In this brief note, we go through a different scenario.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[253] **viXra:1703.0268 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 08:11:20*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

EVERYTHING IS EMERGENT

Space is NOT empty. There is an all encompassing lattice-type thread particle network in space. It is gravity centered -- Einstein called it Space-Time. Otherwise known as the Fabric of Space. (yes, the fabric of space must actually be made from something)

A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web made of the finest web-silk-thread filament. Now imagine a 3-D web.

It is made from individual yet connected thread particles and of course the web has tension on it (that's were gravity gets its pull).

Everything is a simple emergent property of the thread particle network.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[252] **viXra:1703.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 08:30:43*

**Authors:** Jan Hakenberg, Ulrich Reif

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The derivation of multilinear forms used to compute the moments of sets bounded by subdivision surfaces requires solving a number of systems of linear equations. As the support of the subdivision mask or the degree of the moment grows, the corresponding linear system becomes intractable to construct, let alone to solve by Gaussian elimination. In the paper, we argue that the power iteration and the geometric series are feasible methods to approximate the multilinear forms. The tensor iterations investigated in this work are shown to converge at favorable rates, achieve arbitrary numerical accuracy, and have a small memory footprint. In particular, our approach makes it possible to compute the volume, centroid, and inertia of spatial domains bounded by Catmull-Clark and Loop subdivision surfaces.

**Category:** Geometry

[251] **viXra:1703.0266 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 06:08:25*

**Authors:** Johann Albers

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The EmDrive (Electromagnetic Drive) is assumed to be able to produce propulsive mechanical forces from electrical power, without the need of propellant material. On the basis of classical theories of gravitation, this idea, however, violates heavily a well-established physical law, the conservation of momentum. On the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation" (ARG), however, such a drive is not only seen as possible without the violation of Newton's third law. It even lets expect enormous improvements for interplanetary and even interstellar flight projects.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[250] **viXra:1703.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 14:06:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Scientists have pushed quantum entanglement to new levels in two experiments. In one study, researchers linked up millions of atoms, and in another, intertwined hundreds of large groups consisting of billions of atoms. [19]
Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18]
A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17]
Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16]
Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15]
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[249] **viXra:1703.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-14 09:19:29*

**Authors:** Tamas Lajtner

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In space-matter model both matter and space have three spatial dimensions. Time is the result of the action-reaction of space and matter. Space is what matter uses as space. Matter is what can exist as matter in the given space.
In space-matter model solely through the use of space waves, we can express spatial distance, time and energy. It is possible to express all these phenomena in eVolt, so meters can be converted into seconds or into kgs and vice versa. Saying this, we must realize that there is a surprising gateway between space and matter. Using this approach we can give new definitions of space, matter and time. Our Space we know as Space has the biggest density. Matter has always smaller density. From the viewpoint of a given matter there can be more than one space. Matter is able to use another matter as space, if the proportion of their densities is in a given range. This kind of space has its own time. This time is different from our known time. There are more spaces and more times, and even one given space can have more times.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[248] **viXra:1703.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 02:51:58*

**Authors:** Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper was prepared for FQXi contest ... http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2726.... This paper answers to the question given by Paul N Butler and answeres the question about Formation of all the elements in the Universe thro Dynamic Universe

Abstract: This paper is further to Dynamic Universe Model studies of the “light rays and other electromagnetic radiation” passing grazingly near any gravitating mass changes its frequency .This change in frequency will depend on relative direction of movement between mass and radiation. All these particles like “neutrinos, positrons, electrons, protons and neutrons” behave like waves also. We should remember the wave particle duality. Hence frequency enhancing is applicable here also. So in other words change in frequency can go further to converting radiation into matter like micro particles as stated above. Here in this paper we will discuss further into different element formations. And we will see some possible electrochemical reactions that are possible at high temperature and pressure for formation of these different elements.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[247] **viXra:1703.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 03:08:24*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The phase transitions of the inflation field, which are described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), lead to the atom-like structure of baryons. Here, within such a model, we calculated mass of the charged charmed Xi baryon (2467.89 MeV) and mass of neutral one (2468.51 MeV). We calculated also mass of ground state of the neutral charmed Omega baryon (2949.02 MeV) - it is below the threshold mass (2961.61 MeV) for the decay to charged charmed Xi (2467.93) and charged kaon (493.68 MeV), and we calculated masses of the five new narrow states of the neutral charmed Omega baryon with a mass of 2949.02 MeV: 3000 MeV (it is the ground state above the threshold mass), 3051 MeV, 3067 MeV, 3084 MeV, and 3118 MeV. We showed as well that there should be a structure around 3186 MeV. Within presented here model, we calculated mass of the charm quark (1276.4 MeV).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[246] **viXra:1703.0261 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-28 03:24:35*

**Authors:** J.A.J. van Leunen

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Field equations occur in many physical theories. Most dynamic fields share a set of first and second order partial differential equations and differ in the kinds of artifacts that cause discontinuities. The paper restricts to first and second order partial differential equations. These equations can describe the interaction between the field and pointlike artifacts. The paper treats periodic and one-shot triggers in maximally three spatial dimensions. The paper applies quaternionic differential calculus. It uses the quaternionic nabla operator. This configuration implements the storage of dynamic geometric data as a combination of a proper timestamp and a three-dimensional spatial location in a quaternionic storage container. The storage format is Euclidean. The paper introduces warps and clamps as new types of super-tiny objects that constitute higher order objects.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[245] **viXra:1703.0260 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-20 04:07:56*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

‘... all this action at a distance business will pass [like the ether]. If we're lucky it will be to some big new development like the theory of relativity. Maybe someone will just point out that we were being rather silly, with no big new development. But anyway, I believe the questions will be resolved,' after Bell (1990:9). ‘Nobody knows where the boundary between the classical and quantum domain is situated. More plausible to me is that we'll find that there is no boundary: the hidden-variable possibility,' after Bell (2004:28-29).

**Abstract:** Studying Bell's work, using classical analysis and author-date referencing suited to undergraduate STEM students, we arrive at a new classical theory: local realistic quantum mechanics. Adjusting EPR to accord with Bohr's insight, and accepting Bell's principles (but not his false inferences), our method follows: (i) we allow Bell's pristine λ (and its pairwise twin μ) to be classical fair-coin vectors in 3-space; (ii) we complete the QM account of EPR correlations in a classical way; (iii) we deliver Bell's hope for a simple constructive model of EPRB; (iv) we justify EPR's belief that additional variables would bring locality and causality to QM's completion; (v) we refute key claims that such variables are impossible; (vi) we show that interactions between particles and polarizers are driven by the total angular momentum; (vii) we bypass Pauli's vector-of-matrices, but retain all the tools of the quantum trade. In short, under local realism: classically deriving the related results of quantum theory, we classically endorse Einstein's locally-causal Lorentz-invariant worldview.

[244] **viXra:1703.0259 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 07:52:41*

**Authors:** V.A.Budarin

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Incompressible viscous fluids, pdf

The object of research is obtaining general integrals and some particular solutions for two common flow conditions of incompressible liquid – laminar and averaged turbulent flow. Mathematical description is based on the system of equations of motion in stresses (Navier) and its special case for the Newtonian liquid. A condition of integrating the equations is the constancy of pressure drop and viscosity along the flow. The block schemes of obtaining the general integrals for flow in a pipe and turbulent flow on a plate are represented.
Are as a result, three new general integrals and four particular solutions, which are compared with the known equations, were found. It was shown that the integrals of the Navier equation describe the distribution of tangential stress for turbulent flow. An analysis of solutions for the distribution of velocity showed that the Poiseuille equation for laminar flow in a pipe and the Blasius curve for laminar flow on a plate are particular solutions of one general integral. An analysis of the particular solutions made it possible to estimate the thickness of the laminar sublayer under turbulent flow condition. The results of the work create prerequisites for a more detailed further analysis of laminar and turbulent flows.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[243] **viXra:1703.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 08:50:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[242] **viXra:1703.0257 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 09:22:00*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[241] **viXra:1703.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 09:28:39*

**Authors:** U. Kayser-Herold

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

\begin{abstract}
It is analytically determined that the smallest theoretically possible nonzero canonical
electromagnetic angular momentum $\hbar/2$ arises when an electron is inserted into one magnetic flux quantum. The analysis further reveals how magnetic flux quantization is inherently linked up with angular momentum quantization. Bohr's correspondence principle is satisfied.
\end{abstract}

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[240] **viXra:1703.0255 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-11 03:46:19*

**Authors:** Nicholas R. Wright

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Cambria Math font

We prove the Riemann Hypothesis, by means of the Extended Riemann Hypothesis, the Generalized Riemann Hypothesis, and the Grand Riemann Hypothesis. Quasicrystals are the answer to the Riemann Hypothesis. A solution could be found using Russell’s Paradox. Measurement is possible through nominative determinism. Deuring–Heilbronn repulsion phenomenon was useful in regression analysis. An index method of forecasting was overlooked for centuries. In summary, the Grand Riemann Hypothesis should be seen as the standard. Grand Riemann Hypothesis improves on the basics of more simplified Riemann Hypotheses.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[239] **viXra:1703.0254 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-15 18:39:46*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper we discuss and calculate the mass gap. Based on the mass gap we are redefining what a kilogram may truly represent. This enables us to redefine the Planck constant in what we consider to be more fundamental units. Part of the analysis is based on recent developments in mathematical atomism. Haug [1, 2, 3] has shown that all of Einstein’s special relativity mathematical end results [4] can be derived from two postulates in atomism. However, atomism gives some additional boundary conditions and removes a series of infinite challenges in physics in a very simple and logical way.
While the mass gap in quantum field theory is an unsolved mystery, under atomism we have an easily defined, discrete, and “exact” mass gap. The minimum rest-mass that exists above zero is 1.1734 × 10^(−51) kg, assuming an observational time window of one second. Under our theory it seems meaningless to talk about a mass gap without also talking about the observational time window. The mass gap in one Planck second is the Planck mass. Further, the mass gap of just 1.1734 × 10^(−51) kg has a relativistic mass equal to the Planck mass. The very fundamental particle that makes up all mass and energy has a rest-mass of 1.1734 × 10^(−51) kg. This is also equivalent to a Planck mass that lasts for one Planck second.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[238] **viXra:1703.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 00:05:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has prevented a novel scheme of Universal Evolution Model.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[237] **viXra:1703.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-27 01:37:19*

**Authors:** Vladimir S. Netchitailo

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

The Hypersphere World – Universe Model (WUM) provides a mathematical framework that allows calculating the primary cosmological parameters of the World that are in good agreement with the most recent measurements and observations. WUM explains the experimental data accumulated in the field of Cosmology and Astroparticle Physics over the last decades: the age of the World and critical energy density; the gravitational parameter and Hubble’s parameter; temperatures of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the peak of the far-infrared background radiation; the concentration of intergalactic plasma and time delay of Fast Radio Bursts. Additionally, the Model makes predictions pertaining to masses of dark matter particles, photons, and neutrinos; proposes new types of particle interactions (Super Weak and Extremely Weak); shows inter-connectivity of primary cosmological parameters of the World. WUM proposes to introduce a new fundamental parameter Q in the CODATA internationally recommended values.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[236] **viXra:1703.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 12:01:40*

**Authors:** Christopher H. Brown

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The theory of everything. In this extract, the basic operations of the universe are discussed. The reason momentum occurs; the fundamental properties of a completely unifying theory; the mechanics driving the expansion of the universe; the nature of EM; accounting for quantum behavior in a logical geometric context; etc.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[235] **viXra:1703.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-07 19:46:10*

**Authors:** Peter C Morris

**Comments:** 12 pages, 12 figures. Minor changes/fixes to text

It has been reported that Random Event Generator (REG) devices can detect passage of dynamical 3-space waves. Herein we describe an attempt to find additional evidence for this discovery, using data from a REG located in Perth, Australia and from another in Manchester, U.K., for fifteen days centered on each full moon during a period of one year. For each day we applied correlation analysis to determine travel times for putative waves. Then wave speed and direction, over each 24 hour period, were determined by fitting to the observed travel times, theoretical curves of how travel times would vary with Earth rotation. We thereby derived an average incoming RA, declination, speed and associated standard deviations for the waves of each day. Following this we examined the directions and speeds to determine if they were consistent with a real physical phenomena, rather than being artifacts of random correlations. To this end we made use of probability density plots and other statistical techniques. On the way we recognized that wave orientation is not the same as 3-space flow direction and that it is the latter rather than the former which is of principle interest. Geometry implies that variation of flow speed will cause the detected speeds of wave fronts moving parallel to 3-space flow to have larger standard deviations than those moving across the flow. On this basis we preferentially selected the 50% of days with the largest speed standard deviations as being the more likely proxies for space flow direction. A probability density plot of directions for these days exhibited a peak near RA=4.5 h, consistent with previous determinations of incoming 3-space flow direction by Reginald Cahill and Dayton Miller. Moreover, removing Earth orbital and gravitational inflow velocities from the observed velocities allowed a peak of higher density to be obtained, which is consistent with what one would expect of a real physical phenomena. The peak indicated a most probable galactic flow direction of RA=4.13 h, dec=-77.8 deg and wave speed of 505 km/s.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[234] **viXra:1703.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 06:58:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[233] **viXra:1703.0248 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 08:46:20*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21]
Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20]
Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19]
Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[232] **viXra:1703.0247 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 04:15:06*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

A preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is discussed. Global group representations for preons, quarks and leptons are addressed using two preons and their antiparticles. The preon construction endorses the standard model gauge group structure. Preons are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interactions only. Gravity with torsion, expressed as an axial-vector field, is applied to preons in the energy range between GUT and Planck scale. The mass of the axial-vector particle is estimated to be near the GUT scale. A tentative model for quantum gravity, excluding black holes, is considered.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[231] **viXra:1703.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 05:19:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

For the last two decades, magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) have played a central role in spintronic devices such as read heads of hard disk drives and nonvolatile magnetoresistive random access memories (MRAMs), and researchers are constantly working to improve their performance. [24] Magnetic materials are a vital ingredient in the components that store information in computers and mobile phones. Now, A*STAR researchers have developed a material that could help these magnetic-based memory devices to store and retrieve data faster while using less power. [23] A team of researchers with members from institutions in Germany and Israel has developed a way to launch plasmons with controlled amounts of angular momentum using spiral-like structures fashioned into a smooth layer of gold plate. [22] Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[230] **viXra:1703.0245 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 06:23:44*

**Authors:** Thomas Görnitz

**Comments:** Pages. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.27468.00649

Some thirty years ago, the model of a closed cosmos expanding at the speed of light was develo-ped deriving from basic quantum-theoretical arguments. In this model, the equation of state reads ρ+3p=0 (ρ and p denoting cosmological energy density and pressure). At the core of the model, there are the quantum bits of absolute quantum information (AQI), the simplest of all possible quantum structures. Taken as the ultimate substance, referred to as protyposis, the AQI concept affords a unifying explanation of the structure of space and time and the evolution of the cosmos and its inventory.
Recent astrophysical investigations show that the protyposis model is in better agreement with the observation data than the present standard flat - Λ CDM model. Ad hoc assumptions such as Dark Energy and Inflation are dispensable.
The protyposis theory has been advanced to account for the formation of relativistic quantum particles from AQI bits. Moreover, a rationalization has been given of the General Theory of Rela-tivity and of the three non-gravitational forces.
Ultimately, the protyposis concept will allow us to understand the emergence of both matter and consciousness.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[229] **viXra:1703.0244 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-05 07:34:17*

**Authors:** Shushi T.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamic model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamic model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[228] **viXra:1703.0243 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-12 14:12:55*

**Authors:** Wes Hansen

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

In what follows we develop foundations for a set of non-standard natural numbers we call q-naturals, where q stands for quanta, by the recursive generation of reflexive sets. From the practical perspective, these q-naturals correspond to ordered pairs of natural numbers with the lexicographic ordering, hence, they are isomorphic to ω^2. In addition, we demonstrate a novel definition of the arithmetical operation, multiplication, which turns out to be recursive. This operation, together with lexicographic order and coordinate-wise addition, defines an arithmetical structure which extends the “standard” model but yet has a recursive order relation and recursive arithmetical operations defined on the entire domain.

**Category:** Number Theory

[227] **viXra:1703.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-17 03:48:51*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Extension of Procedural Protocol

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[226] **viXra:1703.0241 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-19 07:27:00*

**Authors:** Barry Foster

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Goldbach Conjecture This attempt requires very little mathematical knowledge.

**Category:** Number Theory

[225] **viXra:1703.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-26 09:12:15*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The article describes a new approach to obtaining the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in medium without the use of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. The energy-momentum tensor has new qualities and consequences. Its linear invariant is Lagrange density of the electromagnetic field. From the tensor follows the equation of conservation of energy density, the equation of flux energy density and wave equations for these energy values. Wave equation for momentum density describes simultaneous transfer of momentum and angular momentum regardless of radiation polarization. From the tensor follow the balance equations of the electromagnetic forces for the momentum density in the forms of the Minkowski and Abraham, which proves their equality and mutual supplementation. Equation for Abraham force is obtained as well. It is shown that its divergence is equal to zero. Tensor and the balance equations of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium are derived

**Category:** Classical Physics

[224] **viXra:1703.0238 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-25 10:40:25*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Abstract: givingphysical origin, basic attributes and action features of nuclear
forces derives from first principles and expressed in an explicit form.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[223] **viXra:1703.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-25 08:25:21*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The purpose of this papers is to share an encryption system based on a modified Riemann Zeta function which relates to prime
numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[222] **viXra:1703.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-25 04:18:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have found a material used for decades to color food items ranging from corn chips to ice creams could potentially have uses far beyond food dyes. [18] Liquid droplets are natural magnifiers. Look inside a single drop of water, and you are likely to see a reflection of the world around you, close up and distended as you'd see in a crystal ball. [17] MIT physicists have created a new form of matter, a supersolid, which combines the properties of solids with those of superfluids. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[221] **viXra:1703.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-24 13:48:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

However, even if we held such a quantum race, how could we verify that both racers won in superposition? Part of the problem is that quantum mechanics says when we observe the race it "collapses". This means that we only see either Alice win or lose the race: we can't see the superposition. [29] Thus far, models have not been able to fully account for the complexity of humor or exactly why we find puns and jokes funny, but a research article recently published in Frontiers in Physics suggests a novel approach: quantum theory. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[220] **viXra:1703.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-24 10:36:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[219] **viXra:1703.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-24 05:25:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

The theory group led by Gonzalo Muga of the UPV/EHU's Department of Physical Chemistry has teamed up with the experimental group of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Boulder, United States, led by David Wineland, the 2012 Nobel Physics Laureate, to design a two-ion, robust, ultrarapid quantum logic gate capable of functioning in less than a microsecond. [20]
The new substance may be useful for phonon-based quantum computers, and it may also shed light on the conditions required to form biological Fröhlich condensates of collective modes. [19]
Scientists have built tiny logic machines out of single atoms that operate completely differently than conventional logic devices do. [18]
Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17]
Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16]
Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15]
Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14]
Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they’ve done it. [13]
What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12]
The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[218] **viXra:1703.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-24 08:38:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A proposed computer made of superconductors communicating via light could carry out more operations than a human brain while using less energy. [31] For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[217] **viXra:1703.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 11:15:34*

**Authors:** Igor Krichtafovitch

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The article presents third alternative for the biological evolution, first two being Darwinism and Intelligent Design (ID). The main hypothesis postulates that Biosphere is a single living organism with all parts and cells interconnected. As such it acts as a gigantic bio-computer capable to generate new life forms. The evolution is driven by recursive growth of total biological memory volume and accelerated complexity of living organisms. Intelligent Design is a natural phenomenon inherent into living matter from pre-biotic RNA to modern complex organisms.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[216] **viXra:1703.0229 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 11:17:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[215] **viXra:1703.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 12:16:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Portals mix or connect the dark sector particles with the Standard Model particles. Through the portals it is possible to explore the dark sector particles using the Standard Model particles. [27] The dark photon (A'), the gauge boson carrier of a hypothetical new force, has been proposed in a wide range of Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theories, and could serve as our window to an entire dark sector. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[214] **viXra:1703.0226 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 22:58:58*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed about the Scheme of construction of Natural metric for any given positive Integer. Natural Metric can be used for Natural Scaling of any Set optimally. Natural Metric also forms the Universal Basis for the Universal Correspondence Principle between Quantum mechanics and Newtonian Mechanics. Furthermore, Natural Metric finds great use in the Science of Forecasting Engineering.

**Category:** Number Theory

[213] **viXra:1703.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 09:09:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In 1912, chemist Walther Nernst proposed that cooling an object to absolute zero is impossible with a finite amount of time and resources. Today this idea, called the unattainability principle, is the most widely accepted version of the third law of thermodynamics—yet so far it has not been proved from first principles. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Thermodynamics and Energy

[212] **viXra:1703.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 08:50:41*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In the Standard Model there has been the well known issue of charge quantization arising from
the anomalies and with or without spontaneous symmetry breaking being brought into it. It is well known that
in the purely anomalies case, unexpectedly there pops in a so called "bizarre" solution.
We discuss this issue and bring in the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition to
find a resolution of the above bizarreness conundrum.
We find a completely consistent solution with a unique single nucleon-lepton chiral family.
We find that at low energies, the nucleus should be understood as made up of fundamental proton and neutron
and where quarks play no role whatsoever.
In addition it
provides a new understanding and consistent solutions of some long standing basic problems in nuclear physics, like the
quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength in nuclei and the issue of the same "effective charge" of magnitude 1/2 for both
neutron and proton in the nucleus.
Fermi kind of four-fermion-point-interaction appears as an exact (non-gauge) result.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[211] **viXra:1703.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 14:11:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

ICFO Researchers report the discovery of a new technique that could drastically improve the sensitivity of instruments such as magnetic resonance imagers (MRIs) and atomic clocks. [17] Research groups at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä have demonstrated a new microwave measurement method that goes to the quantum limit of measurement and beats it. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[210] **viXra:1703.0222 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-25 06:03:39*

**Authors:** D. Chakalov

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Text expanded and two references added.

It seems possible to suggest the evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo from the quantum vacuum, without leading to catastrophic events. The physicalized presentation of the Universe is interpreted as 'Brain of the Universe', which gives access to 'God's thoughts' (Albert Einstein) with spacetime engineering performed by the human brain embedded in the Brain of the Universe.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[209] **viXra:1703.0221 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-03 00:14:33*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to the dark matter and dark energy.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[208] **viXra:1703.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 20:38:48*

**Authors:** Pedro Caceres

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract: A prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.
The crucial importance of prime numbers to number theory and mathematics in general stems from the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, which states that every integer larger than 1 can be written as a product of one or more primes in a way that is unique except for the order of the prime factors. Primes can thus be considered the “basic building blocks”, the atoms, of the natural numbers.
There are infinitely many primes, as demonstrated by Euclid around 300 BC. There is no known simple formula that separates prime numbers from composite numbers. However, the distribution of primes, that is to say, the statistical behavior of primes in the large, can be modelled. The first result in that direction is the prime number theorem, proven at the end of the 19th century, which says that the probability that a given, randomly chosen number n is prime is inversely proportional to its number of digits, or to the logarithm of n.
The way to build the sequence of prime numbers uses sieves, an algorithm yielding all primes up to a given limit, using only trial division method which consists of dividing n by each integer m that is greater than 1 and less than or equal to the square root of n. If the result of any of these divisions is an integer, then n is not a prime, otherwise it is a prime.
This paper introduces a new way to approach prime numbers, called the DNA-prime structure because of its intertwined nature, and a new process to create the sequence of primes without direct division or multiplication, which will allow us to introduce a new primality test, and a new factorization algorithm.
As a consequence of the DNA-prime structure, we will be able to provide a potential proof of Golbach’s conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[207] **viXra:1703.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 03:01:56*

**Authors:** XiaoLin Li

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In 5-dimensional space-time, Quantum Mechanics have a special particle-wave symmetry. To particle wave, its phase velocity, and its group velocity, is equal, and the two speed value is invariant. This is very similar with the light speed C in Special Relativity Theory. We mark this speed with Vc . But, different particle has different Vc , not all particles have same Vc . To one Vc value, there exist one kind of particle. Particle in Special Relativity Theory is just one kind. In Special Relativity Theory, Vc = C. Light speed C is just a special instance of Vc . Quasi-particle in Condensed Matter Physics, is another sample of Vc . The new particle-wave symmetry contain the Lorentz symmetry. The new particle-wave symmetry is a extension to Lorentz symmetry. The Lorentz symmetry is just a special instance of particle-wave symmetry. But the new particle-wave symmetry no longer is limited by speed light C. The particle-wave symmetry has variable speed Vc . So, Special Relativity Theory will be just a derived result of Quantum Mechanics. In 5-dimensional space-time, in new theory , space and time is not relative, space and time is obsolute. We need rethink about these physical concepts, mass-energy equation, rest mass, inertial mass, gravitational mass. From the new symmetry, we can get new kind of particles which perhaps have relationship with cosmic dark matter and radio burst.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[206] **viXra:1703.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 03:53:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

A traveling salesman may seem like a relic from a bygone era, but the emblematic problem facing this profession hasn't gone away: what's the shortest path for visiting multiple cities and then returning home? [29] Thus far, models have not been able to fully account for the complexity of humor or exactly why we find puns and jokes funny, but a research article recently published in Frontiers in Physics suggests a novel approach: quantum theory. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[205] **viXra:1703.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-23 04:27:14*

**Authors:** Ramesh Chandra Bagadi

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this research article, the author has detailed a Novel Scheme of Clustering Based on Natural Metric.

**Category:** Statistics

[204] **viXra:1703.0216 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:05:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the spinning cosmic loops built of the entangled Einstein-spacetime (ES) components, with centres overlapping with centres of galaxies, are the basic dark-matter (DM) structures. Their interactions with baryonic matter via weak interactions of leptons lead to the flat rotation curves of galaxies. Here, applying such mechanism, we derived universal law that relates actual baryonic masses of galaxies with radial accelerations of stars at a critical radius (for radii bigger than such radius, there dominates the baryon-DM interaction). We calculated as well a parameter at a critical scale that is consistent with observational data. We need to change our ideas about dark matter.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[203] **viXra:1703.0215 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 12:10:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data suggest that the initial period of evolution of galaxies should be modified. Here, on the basis of the cosmology described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we explain in a very simple way why spins of massive galaxies are, generally, perpendicular to cosmic filaments whereas of dwarf galaxies are, generally, tangential to them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[202] **viXra:1703.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 09:35:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

Magnetic materials are a vital ingredient in the components that store information in computers and mobile phones. Now, A*STAR researchers have developed a material that could help these magnetic-based memory devices to store and retrieve data faster while using less power. [23] A team of researchers with members from institutions in Germany and Israel has developed a way to launch plasmons with controlled amounts of angular momentum using spiral-like structures fashioned into a smooth layer of gold plate. [22] Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[201] **viXra:1703.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 14:27:22*

**Authors:** Pantelis M. Pechlivanides

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Based on the paths of signals emanating from a rotating point body, we find the equations and properties of the field that they form. Depending on the type of observer the field differs. The field is not central but varies in orientation and magnitude with both distance and angular velocity of rotation. The magnitude of the field in some cases forms a barrier away from the origin, which may be very strong depending on the angular velocity of rotation. The results apply both to microcosmos (sub-atomic level) and macrocosmos (cosmic level).

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[200] **viXra:1703.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 22:43:59*

**Authors:** Dayanand Potaraj

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The universe is made up of elementary particles, even the gas is composed of the same. The electric force of an object is found because of its atomic particles. And the mass is given by constitution of the same. Everything is made up of elementary particles but most of the time we experience all the universe by the mass but not with their electric charges. Let us resolve this difference, by taking Gravitational force and the Electrical force into account among the forces of nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[199] **viXra:1703.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-22 01:05:49*

**Authors:** Simon Plouffe

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Conference is in French

Une conférence sur Pi, le jour de Pi : 14 mars 2017 au Lycée International Winston Churchill : Londres.
A conference on Pi on Pi Day, march 14 2017 at the Winston Churchill International College (Lycée ) London.

**Category:** Number Theory

[198] **viXra:1703.0210 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 11:14:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7]
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6]
Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5]
Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[197] **viXra:1703.0209 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-26 14:02:41*

**Authors:** Raymond HV Gallucci

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Electric Universe Theory (EUT) offers serious objections to the current concept of pulsars (neutron stars) as almost unbelievably dense, very small diameter, possibly incredibly rapidly rotating, collapsed star cores with densities comparable to an atomic nucleus, composed entirely of neutronium. Objections are both physical, phenomenological and geometrical/mathematical. This paper examines the last set, geometrical/mathematical, comparing what might derive from the current theory with that postulated by EUT, namely that “pulsars” are really binary “strobe” stars.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[196] **viXra:1703.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 00:44:13*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Ahmed Farouk, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla

**Comments:** 3 Pages

We discuss a character of quantum algorithms. In fact,
all of them determine
the property of a certain function.
The function under study must have the property $f(x) = f(-x)$
when $f(x)\neq 0$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[195] **viXra:1703.0207 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 13:20:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

This paper explains the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[194] **viXra:1703.0206 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-25 07:31:50*

**Authors:** Mirosław J. Kubiak

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Until the early twentieth century, the three-dimensional space and one-dimensional time were considered separate beings. In 1907, German mathematician H. Minkowski connected together space and time into single idea, creating a new the four-dimensional spacetime. We proposed the extension of this idea by the connection together the four-dimensional spacetime and the mass density into the single idea, creating a new entity: the four-dimensional spacetime with the mass density. In this paper we discussed the physical consequences of this a new idea in terms of the gravitational phenomena.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[193] **viXra:1703.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 06:21:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Precession of Mercury's orbit resembles orbits of Sedna and companions. Orbits of Sedna etc may not be caused by Planet 9 but their orbits may be viewed as "precession" that is quantum instead of classical. To explain, we start with an explanation for quantum spin which is not simple rotation but is of a gravitational nature. This unites the quantum and classical by manifesting on an astronomical scale, with gravitational waves forming Earth's orbit. The quantum-gravity approach could also indicate Mercury's ellipse is not only classically representing a number of stages in the orbit of an isolated planet, but is also representing the quantum view of "astro-entanglement" and the unified gravitational field. The similar orbits of Sedna and its companions may likewise be an indication of astro-entanglement, leaving Planet 9 just as mythical as the planet Vulcan which was once thought to orbit closer to the Sun than Mercury. Or as nonexistent as the planet that was supposed to orbit between Mars and Jupiter, before it was destroyed to form the asteroid belt.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[192] **viXra:1703.0204 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-24 12:39:46*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It was found in other papers by Michael John Sarnowski that there appears to be a relationship between a process similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation and the mass ratios of the Proton, Electron, Muon, and Tau to the Neutron. This correlation also is used to make predictions for these ratios and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant and the von Klitzing constant. Relating this to a possible granular crystalline cuboctahedron structure of space-time. The predictions for these ratios and constants will be listed in section 2.0. Section 3.0 is the conclusion. This paper is the summary of various other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, which are listed in the reference section.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[191] **viXra:1703.0203 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-10-07 17:37:06*

**Authors:** Raymond H Gallucci

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

Situational Underlying Value (SUV) arose from an attempt to develop an all-encompassing statistic for measuring “clutchiness” for individual baseball players. It was to be based on the “run expectancy” concept, whereby each base with a certain number of outs is “worth” some fraction of a run. Hitters/runners reaching these bases would acquire the “worth” of that base, with the “worth” being earned by the hitter if he reached a base or advanced a runner, or the runner himself if he advanced “on his own” (e.g., stolen base, wild pitch). After several iterations, the version for SUV Baseball presented herein evolved, and it is demonstrated via two games. Subsequently, the concept was extended to professional football and NCAA Men’s Basketball, both with two example games highlighting selected individual players. As with Major League Baseball, these are team games where individual performance may be hard to gauge with a single statistic. This is the goal of SUV, which can be used as a measure both for the team and individual players.

**Category:** Statistics

[190] **viXra:1703.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 08:12:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A team of scientists has discovered that a law controlling the bizarre behavior of black holes out in space—is also true for cold helium atoms that can be studied in laboratories. [13]
A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12]
To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11]
Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved.
New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe.
Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences.
Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[189] **viXra:1703.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 14:27:14*

**Authors:** Sergey Kamenshchikov, Ilya Drozdov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A fractal approach to long-only portfolio optimization is proposed. The quantitative system is based on naive risk parity approach. The core of the optimization scheme is a fractal distribution of returns, applied to estimation of the volatility law. Out-of-sample performance data has been represented in ten period of observation with half year and one year horizons. Implementation of fractal estimator of volatility improves all performance metrics of portfolio in comparison to the standard estimator of volatility. The efficiency of fractal estimator plays a significant protective role for the periods of market abnormal volatility and drawdowns, which allows beating the market in the long term perspective. The provided results may be useful for a wide range of quantitative investors, including hedge funds, rob-advisors and retail investors.

**Category:** Economics and Finance

[188] **viXra:1703.0200 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 16:41:46*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 102 Pages.

Book contains researches five new ideas: new preon interaction theory of the micro World; relations between time, mass, space, charge and energy; possibility of creating the super-strong (in millions times) matter, having suprice properties; super-strong nuclear AB-needles, which allows to penetrate deep into the Earth and planets; the nuclear geterator that is converting of any matter into energy.
1. In Chapter 1 the author offers some initial ideas about a cognitive construct of the Micro-World with allows to design a preon based Universe matching many qualities of the observable Universe. The main idea is that - the initial base must be very simple: two energy massless virtual particles (eners) and two reciprocity relations (interactions) between them. Author postulates: Two energy massless virtual particles can explain the main features of much of what we see including: mass, electrical charges and the main interactions between particles such as: gravitation, centrifugal and inertial masses, repulsion and attraction of electric charges, weak and strong nuclear forces, design of quarks and baryonic matter.
2. In Chapter 2 author has developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between the main parameters (energy, time, volume, matter) in the Universe. In given part 3 he added charge as main parameter in this theory. He finds also the quantum (minimal values) of energy, time, volume and matter and he applied these quantum for estimations of quantum volatility and the estimation of some values of our Universe and received both well-known and new unknown relations.
Author offers possibly valid relations between charge, time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that in the Universe exists ONLY one substance – ENERGY. Charge, time, matter, volume, fields are evidence of this energy and they can be transformed one to other. Author gives the equations which allow to calculate these transformation like the famous formula E = mc2. Some assumptions about the structure of the Universe follow from these relations.
Most offered equations give results close to approximately known data of Universe, the others allow checking up by experiment.
3. In Chapter 3 the author researches the design the super-strong matter. This matter is stronger than convetional mathriales in millions times. It is can withstand temperatures in millions degree. Aerospace, aviation particularly need, in any era, the strongest and most thermostable materials available, often at nearly any price. The Space Elevator, space ships (especially during atmospheric reentry), rocket combustion chambers, thermally challenged engine surfaces, hypersonic aircraft materials better than any now available, with undreamed of performance as the reward if obtained. As it is shown in this research, the offered new material allows greatly to improve the all characteristics of space ships, rockets, engines and aircraft and design new types space, propulsion, aviation systems.
At present the term ‘nanotechnology’ is well known – in its’ ideal form, the flawless and completely controlled design of conventional molecular matter from molecules or atoms.
But even this yet unachieved goal is not the end of material science possibilities. The author herein offers the idea of design of new forms of nuclear matter from nucleons (neutrons, protons), electrons, and other nuclear particles. He shows this new nuclear matter has extraordinary properties (for example, tensile strength, stiffness, hardness, critical temperature, superconductivity, supertransparency, zero friction, etc.), which are up to millions of times better than corresponding properties of conventional molecular matter. He shows concepts of design for space ships, rockets, aircraft, sea ships, transportation, thermonuclear reactors, constructions, and so on from nuclear matter. These vehicles will have unbelievable possibilities (e.g., invisibility, ghost-like penetration through any walls and armour, protection from nuclear bomb explosions and any radiation flux, etc.
Nanotechnology, in near term prospect, operates with objects (molecules and atoms) having the size in nanometer (10-9 m). The author here outlines perhaps more distant operations with objects (nuclei) having size in the femtometer range, (10-15 m, millions of times less small than the nanometer scale). The name of this new technology is femtotechnology.
4. In Chapter 4 author offered and considered possible super strong nuclear matter. In given work he continues to study the problem of a stability and production this matter. He shows the special artificial forms of nuclear AB-matter which make its stability and give the fantastic properties. For example, by the offered AB-needle you can pierce any body without any damage, support motionless satellite, reach the other planet, and research Earth’s interior. These forms of nuclear matter are not in nature now, and nanotubes are also not in nature. The AB-matter is also not natural now, but researching and investigating their possibility, properties, stability and production are necessary for creating them.
5. In Chapter 5 Author offers a new nuclear generator which allows to convert any matter to nuclear energy in accordance with the Einstein equation E=mc2. The method is based upon tapping the energy potential of a Micro Black Hole (MBH) and the Hawking radiation created by this MBH. As is well-known, the vacuum continuously produces virtual pairs of particles and antiparticles, in particular, the photons and anti-photons. The MBH event horizon allows separating them. Anti-photons can be moved to the MBH and be annihilated; decreasing the mass of the MBH, the resulting photons leave the MBH neighborhood as Hawking radiation. The offered nuclear generator (named by author as AB-Generator) utilizes the Hawking radiation and injects the matter into MBH and keeps MBH in a stable state with near-constant mass. The AB-Generator can not only produce gigantic energy outputs but should be hundreds of times cheaper than a conventional electric generation processes. The AB-Generator can be used in aerospace as a photon rocket or as a power source for numerous space vehicles. Many scientists expect the Large Hadron Collider at CERN will produce one MBH every second and the technology to capture them may be used for the AB-Generator.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[187] **viXra:1703.0199 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 19:13:23*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 143 Pages.

Small Non-Expensive Electric Cumulative Thermonuclear Reactors
Alexander Bolonkin
ISBN 978-1-365-79783-5
The author offers the new, small cheap electric impulse and cumulative thermonuclear reactors, which increases the temperature and pressure of its nuclear fuel by millions of times, reaches the required ignition stage and, ultimately, constant contained thermonuclear reaction. Electric Impulse and Cumulative AB Reactors contain several innovations to achieve its product.
Chief among them in version one the electric thermonuclear reactors are using electric field voltage 50 ÷ 1000 kV (an electric condenser discharge), which allows to heat the primary compressed fuel in special pellet by electric impulse up hundreds millions degrees of temperature.
In electric impulse and cumulative versions of AB thermonuclear reactors the fuel nucleus are heated by high electric voltage (50 ÷ 1000 kV) up the hundreds millions degree and cumulative compressed into center of the special cylindrical or spherical fuel cartridge.
The additional compressing and combustion time the fuel nucleus may have from electric pinch-effect and heavy nucleus of the fuel cartridge cover. The main advantages of the offered method are very small electric fuel cartridge (11-18 mm) and small of the full reactor installation (reactor has the spherical diameter 0.3 - 3 m), using the many thermonuclear fuels at room temperature and possibility of using the offered thermonuclear reactor for transportation (ships, trains, aircrafts, rockets, etc.). Author gives theory and estimations of the suggested reactors.
Author also is discussing the problems of converting the received thermonuclear energy into mechanical (electrical) energy and into rocket thrust.
Offered small micro-reactors may be used as heaves (ignition, fuse) for small artillery nuclear projectiles and bombs.
Copyright @ author – Luly.
Publisher: USA, LULU, www.lulu.com, 2017

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[186] **viXra:1703.0198 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 01:43:45*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Four exclusive hypotheses of the reasons of the abnormal phenomena on Venus are given.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[185] **viXra:1703.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 03:17:26*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ...........

The influence of the speed of motion of the satellite and the Earth relative to Jupiter is skipped by a Römer. The influence of distance is greatly exaggerated.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[184] **viXra:1703.0196 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 12:11:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The new substance may be useful for phonon-based quantum computers, and it may also shed light on the conditions required to form biological Fröhlich condensates of collective modes. [19] Scientists have built tiny logic machines out of single atoms that operate completely differently than conventional logic devices do. [18] Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[183] **viXra:1703.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 13:17:51*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this note give some formulas related with the polynomial:p(g)=g^8+g^7-7g^6-6g^5+15g^4+10g^3-10g^2-4g+1

**Category:** General Mathematics

[182] **viXra:1703.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 09:04:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Small Superconductors For the first time, physicists have experimentally validated a 1959 conjecture that places limits on how small superconductors can be. [30] A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[181] **viXra:1703.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-03 08:02:05*

**Authors:** Daniele Sasso

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The second version replaces the first for an error in the title of paper

The dark universe represents a concept of present physics and cosmology that regards whether great stellar systems or elementary particles. The first question, that has to be considered, concerns its effective existence because there are at present only a few experimental proofs and its existence is purely theoretical and it is due to the difference between total matter and energy predicted by theoretical calculations and those deriving from experimental measurements. The second question regards its physical nature. In general at least a part of dark matter is explained in the present physics by the gravitational theory like in the event of black holes. In the order of the Theory of Reference Frames (TR) dark matter, in all possible shapes including black holes, is explained by the relativistic theory of the Doppler Effect, whether for cosmological systems or for elementary particles and besides the Doppler Effect represents also an useful theoretical tool for explaining the physical behaviour of variable stars and galaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[180] **viXra:1703.0192 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 08:06:50*

**Authors:** Helmut Preininger

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper introduces the notion of an S-Structure (short for Squarefree Structure.) After establishing a few simple properties of such S-Structures, we investigate the squarefree natural numbers as a primary example. In this subset of natural numbers we consider "arithmetic" sequences with varying initial elements. It turns out that these sequences are always periodic. We will give an upper bound for the minimal and maximal points of these periods.

**Category:** Number Theory

[179] **viXra:1703.0190 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 23:22:53*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Abstract: shows a viewpoint with regards to Van Allen Radiation Belts.

**Category:** Geophysics

[178] **viXra:1703.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 00:22:51*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We begin by examining a general expression of entropy, and its links to a minimum radius of the universe. We derive an expression for the production of at least 1 unit of entropy, which translates to a value of Planck length in radii to 1000 times Planck radii, for the quantum bubble of space-time which dependent upon, of all things, the initial Hubble expansion rate value. If the Hubble parameter has the value of 10^ 10 GeV, we see a minimum radial length of the Universe of about 1 billion times Planck length. If the Hubble parameter is of 10^19 GeV, the minimum radial length of the universe would be about one Planck length, which is surprising, to put it mildly. The higher the initial temperate is, up to a point, the more likely the initial entropy is closer to the Causal barrier mentioned in an earlier publication by the author
Keywords. Causal barrier, Inflaton, Minimum entropy (non-zero), initial radii (of universe)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[177] **viXra:1703.0188 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 01:25:16*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The general cold snap and natural cataclysms on Earth are inevitable and are a consequence of a power condition of space of Solar system.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[176] **viXra:1703.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 11:19:15*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 49 Pages.

Thus far, models have not been able to fully account for the complexity of humor or exactly why we find puns and jokes funny, but a research article recently published in Frontiers in Physics suggests a novel approach: quantum theory. [28] As machine learning breakthroughs abound, researchers look to democratize benefits. [27] Machine-learning system spontaneously reproduces aspects of human neurology. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[175] **viXra:1703.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 12:38:08*

**Authors:** Roger Schlafly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The concept of purpose used to be central to science, but has faded away because of the successes of materialist reductionism and of the failures to understand consciousness and freedom. The concept is still important, and new technology, data, and social developments present opportunities to make progress.
Science is remarkably successful on many fronts, but has failed miserably on matters of freedom, consciousness, and purpose. Maybe these matters are outside the scope of science, but they are essential to finding meaning in our lives, so we ought to look seriously at what science can do. Perhaps science can help explain how individual agents can contribute to collective purpose, and in particular how personal decisions can lead to human social purpose.
Submitted to the FQXi.org 2016 Essay Contest answering: “Wandering Towards a Goal: How can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intention?”

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[174] **viXra:1703.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 08:50:24*

**Authors:** Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Ahmed Farouk

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics (accepted)

We review non-classicality of quantum datum.
We consider whether we can assign the
predetermined ^^ ^^ hidden'' result to numbers 1 and $-1$
as in results of measurements in a thought experiment.
We assume
the number of
measurements is two.
If we detect $|\uparrow\rangle$ as 1 and detect $|\downarrow\rangle$
as $-1$, then we can derive the Kochen-Speker theorem.
The same situation occurs when we use a finite-precision measurement
theory
that the results of measurements are either $1-\epsilon$ or
$-1+\epsilon$.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[173] **viXra:1703.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 09:23:11*

**Authors:** F.L.B. Périat

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This could help science going faster.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[172] **viXra:1703.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 10:41:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Over the past several years, physicists have developed quantum shortcuts that speed up the operation of quantum systems. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[171] **viXra:1703.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-01 10:27:31*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the thermokinematics of space-time is formulated. The statistical nature of time is revealed on the basis of the finite volume of the time molecule.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[170] **viXra:1703.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 16:18:44*

**Authors:** Roger Munday

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An opinion on scientific beliefs.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[169] **viXra:1703.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 02:37:08*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that any number of the form 4*n^2 + 8*n + 3, where n is positive integer, is Fermat pseudoprime to base 2*n + 2.

**Category:** Number Theory

[168] **viXra:1703.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 05:20:50*

**Authors:** Radwan M. Kassir

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In this essay, light is shed on the Special Relativity hidden conflicts. The first part, consisting of the first five headings, will point out some of the Special Relativity self-contradictions in relation to its main five outcomes. The second part reveals the reasons beyond the Special Relativity inconsistencies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[167] **viXra:1703.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 11:02:12*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 73 Pages.

Abstract
The Solar Planets Group is One Machine
This one machine cooperates together to enable the Earth to produce The Solar Day Time
Providing the life chance on the Earth..
This paper aims to prove this idea and explains this machine mechanism.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[166] **viXra:1703.0177 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 07:50:11*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that any Poulet number of the form (4^n + 1)/5 where n is prime is either 2-Poulet number either a product of primes p(1)*p(2)*...*p(k) such that all the semiprimes p(i)*p(j), where 1 ≤ i < j ≤ k, are 2-Poulet numbers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[165] **viXra:1703.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 08:37:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from institutions in Germany and Israel has developed a way to launch plasmons with controlled amounts of angular momentum using spiral-like structures fashioned into a smooth layer of gold plate. [22] Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[164] **viXra:1703.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-08 22:01:29*

**Authors:** Vladimir F. Tamari

**Comments:** 10 Pages. A handful of typos was corrected. Also the statement that Einstein equated gravity with gravitation was changed to ...acceleration as intended!

A Universe without aim or intent, and without the
brilliant but problematic theories of
Einstein is proposed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[163] **viXra:1703.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 04:21:30*

**Authors:** Marius Coman

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that any number of the form (4^n – 1)/3 where n is odd greater than 3 is divisible by a Poulet number (it is known that any number of this form is a Poulet number if n is prime greater than 3; such a number is called Cipolla pseudoprime to base 2, see the sequence A210454 in OEIS).

**Category:** Number Theory

[162] **viXra:1703.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 04:21:14*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The change is objective,but the time is subject.Time is only a feel,like the color is only a feel which is subjective,but the light is objective.Somebody think that I say the time is not exist is that there is no change,the universe is static and the time we thought before is another dimension of space,that's not right.I think time is only a feel of change and the change is exist.(in fact the change is not exist,too.But not because the time is "static"like some people thought )
What's length?How can we know A and B are not in the same point?That's very easy.To a observer,If a thing moving from A to B need some time ,the observer will think that A and B are not in the same point.But the time is only our feel,so the space also is our feel which is come from our illusion.The space also is our feel and memory of change.So who create the space and time?Not god,but ourselves,if there is no observer,there is no time or space.
The exist of space-time is based on our observe and feel of change,but from "gravitational theory of time" we know that all the change is come from our illusion because all the difference is come from our illusion(not because time is our illusion),there is no difference if there is no observe.So we can say that all the universe is created by ourselves ,not god. All of those conclusions are come from a think that "Only the physical quantity which we have (and will) observed by experments have the really physical significance".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[161] **viXra:1703.0172 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-17 16:15:01*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

A skeleton excavated at the presumed site of the Grey Friars friary in Leicester in 2012 is almost certainly that of the English king, Richard III (1452 -1485), and mtDNA (which is passed from mother to child) extracted from the skeleton matches mtDNA taken from descendants of Richard's sister Anne of York. However Y-DNA (which is passed from father to son) extracted from the skeleton apparently doesn't match Y-DNA taken from descendants of Henry Somerset the 5th Duke of Beaufort, who according to history descended from Richard's 2nd great grand father Edward III (1312 - 1377). The implication according to geneticists, and the media, is that there is a 'false paternity event' somewhere between Edward and the Somersets. Also, the false paternity events don't end there, for only 4 of these 5 Somerset descendants match each other. And it may be worse even than this: the patrilineal line of a Frenchman named Patrice de Warren apparently traces back to Richard III through the illegitimate son of Edward III's 4th great grandfather, Geoffrey Plantagenet, Count of Anjou (1113 - 1151), but de Warren's Y-DNA doesn't match that of either Richard III or any of the Somersets. In this note, a formula for calculating the time of the most recent common ancestor is introduced, and some of its consequences outlined. This formula arises from a mathematical framework within which it is possible that the traditional genealogy is correct, and that Geoffrey Plantaganet was the father of a male line incorporating Richard III, all 5 Somersets, and Patrice de Warren.

**Category:** Quantitative Biology

[160] **viXra:1703.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 14:47:00*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

When perceived by the human mind, an object might encompass a diverse amount of available information, according to different observers. Starting from this simple observation and extending it to the Einstein’s four-dimensional spacetime and to Bekenstein and Hawking equations, we show how, in terms of special relativity, information is not a stationary and fixed quantity as currently believed, but rather depends on the observer’s standpoint. We elucidate how the subjective phenomenon of time (perceived by our mind as static) might give rise to changes in informational entropy between the real and the imagined object. We describe a way to correlate and quantify the information of the sensed object embedded in the environment and of the corresponding internal thought about it (subjective percept). In particular, we show how changes in our mental time windows are able to squeeze the information content of the subjective percepts, compared with their matching environmental, real objects. Further, we elucidate how this novel framework could be able to confirm or reject a recently raised hypothesis, which suggests that the brain activity takes place in functional dimensions higher than the four-dimensional spacetime environment.

**Category:** Mind Science

[159] **viXra:1703.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 14:59:39*

**Authors:** Elio Conte

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Starting with 2010 we gave demonstration of Von Neumann postulates of measurements in quantum mechanics by using Clifford algebra. In this paper we give proof by adding a further demonstration following our previous results on the logical origins of quantum mechanics and on the algebraic nature of mental entities intended as abstract elements of Clifford algebra

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[158] **viXra:1703.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-04 01:50:43*

**Authors:** Eric Su

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Translational symmetry in one-dimensional space requires the distance
between two objects moving at equal speed under equal acceleration to
be constant in time. However, motion between the object and the
observer is relative. Therefore, this distance is constant in time for
an accelerating observer. Consequently, the length of an accelerating
object is constant in time. The length of an moving object in the direction of
motion is independent of its speed.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[157] **viXra:1703.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 20:29:20*

**Authors:** Alan M. Kadin

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted to Foundational Questions Institute Essay Contest on "Wandering Towards a Goal: How can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intentions?"

The prevalent pre-scientific paradigm for understanding nature focused on design or intention, even for inanimate objects. This approach was debunked by Newton for physics, and by Darwin for biology. But belief in the unique supernatural nature of human intelligence is still widespread. I argue that biological intelligence is due to simple evolved structures based on neural networks, without the need for any new physical mechanisms (quantum or classical) or a “ghost in the machine”. Humans see agency and intent everywhere, because we are programmed to do so. The conscious mind may turn out to be a virtual reality simulation that is largely illusory. Furthermore, these structures may be emulated in artificial neural networks, to create true artificial intelligence.

**Category:** Mind Science

[156] **viXra:1703.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 20:30:16*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Flare stars signal the transition of red dwarfs to brown dwarfs in stellar metamorphosis. This means brown dwarfs are not “failed stars”, just the next stage after red dwarf. Reasoning is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[155] **viXra:1703.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-17 01:45:31*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Update of my FQXI 2017 paper, expanded with many new details and questions added

We start where we use an inflaton value due to the use of a scale factor.Also, we use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, we come up with a polynomial expression for a minimum time step, we can call which leads to a development of the arrow of time. We show an interrelationship between the formation of the Arrow of time, and Causal structure, assuming the setting of H = 0 in the Friedman equation This, in turn, leads to entropy production at the start of causal structure in the onset of inflation. This then leads to three and a quarter pages of 7 open questions we think have to be answered, subsequently.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[154] **viXra:1703.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-17 02:13:34*

**Authors:** Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Results of researches of scientists on detection of borders of the Universe are given. the confirming exclusive hypotheses of a structure and evolution of the Universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[153] **viXra:1703.0164 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 11:11:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Research groups at Aalto University and the University of Jyväskylä have demonstrated a new microwave measurement method that goes to the quantum limit of measurement and beats it. [16] New method allows for quick, precise measurement of quantum states. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[152] **viXra:1703.0163 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 12:28:32*

**Authors:** Glenn Healey

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The deployment of sensors that characterize the trajectory of pitches and batted balls in three dimensions provides the opportunity to assign an intrinsic value to a pitch that depends on its physical properties and not on its observed outcome. We exploit this opportunity by utilizing a Bayesian framework to map five-dimensional PITCHf/x
velocity, movement, and location vectors to pitch intrinsic values. HITf/x data is used by
the model to obtain intrinsic quality-of-contact values for batted balls that are invariant to the defense, ballpark, and atmospheric conditions. Separate mappings are built to accommodate the effects of count and batter/pitcher handedness. A kernel method is used to generate nonparametric estimates for the component probability density functions in Bayes theorem while cross-validation enables the model to adapt to the size and structure of the data.

**Category:** Statistics

[151] **viXra:1703.0162 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 06:40:58*

**Authors:** N.N.Leonov

**Comments:** 13 Pages. English and russian texts.

article describes a mechanism of external influence on behavior of photons.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[150] **viXra:1703.0161 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 07:17:54*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

New data based on observations obtained at the Very Large Telescope (VLT) of the European Southern Observatory (ESO), Paranal, Chile, lead to conclusion that baryons in the early Universe efficiently condensed at the centres of dark matter halos when dark matter was less concentrated. It means that we must solve following cosmological problem: Was there a sufficiently long period during the mainstream Big Bang for concentration of baryonic matter, partially separated from dark matter, to create the discs of massive galaxies in very early Universe? Here we showed that new data are consistent with the evolution of massive galaxies presented within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The main features are as follows. The expansion of the Universe was separated in time from the inflation. The return shock wave after the inflation created the cosmic structure which looked as very big quasar (the Protoworld). Inside the torus of the Protoworld were created massive protogalaxies with supermassive black holes in their centres. Due to a phase transition of the Protoworld, its torus and supermassive central black hole transformed into dark matter. Only then there were the inflows of dark matter and dark energy into the baryonic protogalaxies.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[149] **viXra:1703.0160 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-04 06:42:10*

**Authors:** Grushka Ya.I.

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Mathematics Subject Classification: 12D99; 83A05. International Journal of Algebra, 11, (2017), no. 4, 159-170. DOI: https://doi.org/10.12988/ija.2017.7315

We construct the logarithmic extension for real numbers in which the numbers, less then $-\infty$ exist. Using this logarithmic extension we give the single formula for hyperbolic representation of generalized tachyon Lorentz transforms.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[148] **viXra:1703.0159 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-16 08:55:27*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28]
University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27]
New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26]
Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25]
A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24]
A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23]
ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22]
New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21]
No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20]
Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[147] **viXra:1703.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:18:32*

**Authors:** Rajiv Thapa

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A novel technique was introduced to re-investigate the “No Drama” conclusion of the Equivalence principle at the event horizon of the Schwarzschild Black Hole. It was found that the Equivalence principle has a different solution at the event horizon, on contrary to the popular belief that the gravitational effect on the observer at the horizon holds the similar properties as that to the observer travelling in the weaker gravitational field.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[146] **viXra:1703.0157 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 16:38:07*

**Authors:** Jozef Radomanski

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

The article shows that based on the obvious postulates, using the existing mathematical tools, an alternative theory of special relativity can be build. The results were obtained studying the invariance of a four-dimensional wave equation by the paravector calculus. As a field domain the complex space-time was selected. Its meaningfulness and implicit naturalness is shown on simple examples. The aim of the publication is to show that the physical space-time may be viewed from a different perspective, not known so far.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[145] **viXra:1703.0155 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-17 02:09:11*

**Authors:** T.Nakashima

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Near m, the destance of primes is lower order than logm. This is
the key to solve the Legendre's conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[144] **viXra:1703.0154 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-20 12:15:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that the Special Theory of Relativity (SR) applies only to systems containing physical inertial reference systems, each equipped with a physical clock initially synchronized with other clocks. This leads to the conclusion that it is easy to prove that SR is logically inconsistent when we try to describe, via SR, a system in which listed above two conditions, i.e. inertia and initial synchronization, are simultaneously not satisfied. Contrary to the SR based on the Lorentz Transformation, the SR based on the law of conservation of spin shows that we cannot synchronize clocks separated spatially with non-zero relative velocity (both theories lead to the same formulae). Here we described the initial conditions which must be satisfied to obtain a system composed of physical inertial reference systems with initially synchronized physical clocks. In previous papers we showed why SR sometimes leads to formulae which do not concern Nature - it applies to the SR contraction in length and phenomena in which, apart from radial velocities automatically appear, due to flows in the Einstein spacetime, transverse velocities also.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[143] **viXra:1703.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 11:43:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 52 Pages.

For the first time, researchers have demonstrated a prototype device that can send unbreakable secret keys from a handheld device to a terminal. [32] But the potential introduction of ultra-powerful quantum computers renders our personal information vulnerable to direct attack. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[142] **viXra:1703.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 11:50:02*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 6 formulas

Proton is obtained as an inevitable consequence of the existence of the universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[141] **viXra:1703.0151 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 06:37:29*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[140] **viXra:1703.0150 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 08:51:06*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists since Einstein have assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is consistent with the Special Theory of Relativity. More specifically, they have always assumed that the Galilean system of clock-synchronised stationary observers, that obeys the Galilean transformation equations, is consistent with the non-Galilean Lorentz transformation equations. Einstein's assumption is however, demonstrably false.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[139] **viXra:1703.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 08:54:56*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Scientists at Queen Mary University of London (QMUL) are bringing us closer to understanding the musical experience through a novel approach to analysing a common musical effect known as vibrato. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information,

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[138] **viXra:1703.0148 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 15:07:46*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Another principle of planet formation is added to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. It is reasoned that planets can only form where the environment is stable for hundreds of millions of years.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[137] **viXra:1703.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 19:40:30*

**Authors:** Rochelle Forrester

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

This paper investigates the nature of reality by looking at the philosophical debate between realism and idealism and at scientific investigations in quantum physics and at recent studies of animal senses, neurology and cognitive psychology. The concept of perceptual relativity is examined and this involves looking at sense perception in other animals and various examples of perceptual relativity in science. It will be concluded that the universe is observer dependent and that there is no reality independent of the observer, which is knowable to the observer. The paper concludes by an investigation of what an observer dependent universe would be like and that recognition of an observer dependent world would lead to a more open minded and tolerant world.

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[136] **viXra:1703.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 20:46:11*

**Authors:** Roger Munday

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The transmission of the force of gravity is accepted by the general physics community to be inexplicable in terms of the currently accepted atomic structure of the local environment here on Earth.
Therefore there is something fundamentally wrong with this hypothetical structure.
This brief introduction demonstrates that this force, and any other, can be transmitted through and by a continuous structure of atomic matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[135] **viXra:1703.0144 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-22 09:29:50*

**Authors:** Sunil Karna

**Comments:** 2 Pages. leaflet

310 College st Box# 897

**Category:** General Science and Philosophy

[134] **viXra:1703.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-05 11:17:56*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Length contraction is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. However, a system of stationary observers reports not length contraction but length expansion. Two observers in a system of clock-synchronised observers assign a common length contraction, but at the expense of time dilation and of being stationary. Systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers are logically inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[133] **viXra:1703.0142 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 12:28:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[132] **viXra:1703.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 12:54:38*

**Authors:** Witold Nawrot

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The Theory of Relativity is almost certainly based on a serious error that led to the unnecessary complication of the model of space-time and practically stopped the development of science for 100 years. The essence of the error is the assumption that the reality looks exactly as we perceive it. Authors of the Theory of Relativity ignored the analysis of the process of observation which may make the observed shape of the reality different from its real shape.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[131] **viXra:1703.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 09:06:04*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Scientists have built tiny logic machines out of single atoms that operate completely differently than conventional logic devices do. [18] Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[130] **viXra:1703.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 05:27:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) we showed that for a free-fall on neutron black hole (NBH), the relativistic mass is real so synchronization of clocks via the Lorentz Transformation is logically inconsistent. To obtain correct formula for gravitational time dilation, instead of using the Lorentz Transformation, we must start from the law of conservation of spin. Near and inside the Schwarzschild surface the gravitating grainy Einstein spacetime (ES) inspirals towards the centre of NBH (the ES leaks from NBH via the NBH jets). It causes that near the Schwarzschild surface down to the surface of NBH (its equatorial radius is two times smaller than the Schwarzschild radius) the time dilation does not follow from pure radial motions but from orbital motions as well. We showed that time practically stops when vector sum of orbital and radial velocities of freely falling body is close to the velocity of light in “vacuum” c. Due to the inspiralling ES, the trajectory of the body is deflected from the radial direction but trajectories of a freely falling initially radial photon and the body do not overlap. The inspiralling ES causes that for a distant observer, the radial speed on the Schwarzschild surface of a freely falling body is lower than c. For radii smaller than the equatorial radius of NBH, time is going as in frame of reference in the absolute rest - it follows from the fact that inside NBH both NBH and ES have the same angular velocities.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[129] **viXra:1703.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-04 17:25:32*

**Authors:** Dean Chlouber

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This paper analyses electron stability and applies the resulting stability principle to resolve divergence issues in quantum electrodynamics (QED) without renormalization. Stability is enforced by requiring that the positive electromagnetic field energy be balanced by a negative interaction energy between the observed electron charge and a local vacuum potential. Then in addition to the observed core mechanical mass m, an electron system consists of two electromagnetic mass components of equal magnitude M but opposite sign; consequently, the net electromagnetic mass is zero. Two virtual, electromagnetically dressed mass levels m±M, constructed to form a complete set of mass levels and isolate the electron-vacuum interaction, provide essential S-matrix corrections for radiative processes involving infinite field actions. Total scattering amplitudes for radiative corrections are shown to be convergent in the limit M → ∞ and equal to renormalized amplitudes when Feynman diagrams for all mass levels are included. In each case, the infinity in the core mass amplitude is canceled by the average amplitude for electromagnetically dressed mass levels, which become separated in intermediate states and account for the stabilizing interaction energy between an electron and its surrounding polarized vacuum. In this manner, S-matrix corrections are shown to be finite for any order diagram in perturbation theory, all the while maintaining the mass and charge at their physically observed values.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[128] **viXra:1703.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 07:46:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The dark photon (A'), the gauge boson carrier of a hypothetical new force, has been proposed in a wide range of Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theories, and could serve as our window to an entire dark sector. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[127] **viXra:1703.0136 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 14:44:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

While traditional computing is based on a binary information system, electron spin states in quantum dots can display further degrees of freedom because of the possibility of superposition of both states at the same time. [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[126] **viXra:1703.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:22:52*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Proof of Global in Time Solvability of Incompressive NSIVP in the Whole Space Using Time Transformation Analysis.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[125] **viXra:1703.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:21:16*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Key point of the proof (Proof of Global in Time Solvability of Incompressive NSIVP in the Whole Space Using Time Transformation Analysis).

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[124] **viXra:1703.0133 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:19:34*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Proof of Global in Time Solvability of Incompressive NSIVP in Periodic Space Using Time Transformation Analysis.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[123] **viXra:1703.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:17:44*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Key point of the proof (Proof of Global in Time Solvability of Incompressive NSIVP in Periodic Space Using Time Transformation Analysis).

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[122] **viXra:1703.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 19:24:08*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Version 2

In this short paper, the author concisely demonstrate the math stagnations of the national average of Australia and her 8 jurisdictions over the past 12 years (for PISA math) and 20 years (for TIMSS math) and provide the evidence-based solution that can overcome the math stagnations completely within 1 administration using MMU 1 (to raise the worst half math average to the best half math average) or MMU 0.5 (with the half of the capacity of MMU 1). The highlights of the demonstrations are:
1)Australia – along with virtually all other English-speaking developed countries – have been in deep math EDU growth stagnations (and even declines) over the past 15 to 20+ years.
2)Almost uniform math stagnations and declines of all 8 jurisdictions in PISA math
3)Both for the TIMSS math grades 4 and 8, except ACT (the highest) and NT (the lowest), the rest 6 of the Australian jurisdictions have been roughly the same higher than the Intermediate (say Math Prosperity) and lower than the Intermediate (say Math Poverty) nationally, roughly close to the national average.
4)Roughly 0.7-0.8 Standard Deviation differences between the Non-Indigenous vs. the Indigenous math gaps in both of the TIMSS math grades 4 and 8 have barely changed over the 20 years history of TIMSS.
5)A set of solution proposal called MMU 0.5 or 1 (roughly boosting the jurisdiction or national math average by 0.6-0.7 Standard Deviation or 1.2-1.4 Standard Deviation respectively) compared to the traditional reforms in Australia, which have failed to bring the concrete math EDU rise for the past 15-20 years at least.
6)MMU1 can raise the national or provincial math average boosts equivalent of what takes more than 1 century.
7)The counterfactual boost by MMU1 (indicated in yellow arrows) compared to the past 15-20 years of the math EDU declines or saturations of the entire 8 jurisdictions and Australia as a nation.
Throughout the presentation, the author put the yellow arrows that indicate roughly the equivalence between the math growths from the math’s 25 percentile to 75 percentile, which is the typical MMU1 operation targets. This is to demonstrate that the currently ongoing math stagnations in most of the developed (OECD) countries – not just Australia - have been real and persistent according to the math parts of the PISA or TIMSS or at least the NAEP (the Nation’s Report Card) which is the longest-running national assessments of the USA that have participated in all major international math assessments such as TIMSS, PISA and others before them. As such, the yellow arrows are meant to imply the math growths with the hyper-rapid math reforms in just 2-4 years which is totally impossible otherwise by all means in the history of math education. For the average jurisdictions, the MMU-led reforms may take 2-3 years and for the entirety of Australia, this may take 3-4 years, depending on the levels of commitments and collaborations.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[121] **viXra:1703.0130 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 19:26:03*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Version 2

In this short paper, the author concisely demonstrate the math stagnations of the national average of New Zealand over the past 12 years (for PISA math) and 20 years (for TIMSS math) and provide the evidence-based solution that can overcome the math stagnations completely within 1 administration using MMU 1 (to raise the worst half math average to the best half math average) or MMU 0.5 (with the half of the capacity of MMU 1). The highlights of the demonstrations are:
1)New Zealand – along with virtually all other English-speaking developed countries – have been in deep math EDU growth stagnations (and even declines) over the past 15 to 20+ years.
2)Almost uniform math stagnations and declines of all 8 jurisdictions in PISA math
3)A set of solution proposal called MMU 0.5 or 1 (roughly boosting the jurisdiction or national math average by 0.6-0.7 Standard Deviation or 1.2-1.4 Standard Deviation respectively) compared to the traditional reforms in New Zealand, which have failed to bring the concrete math EDU rise for the past 15-20 years at least.
4)MMU1 can raise the national or provincial math average boosts equivalent of what takes more than 1 century.
5)The counterfactual boost by MMU1 (indicated in yellow arrows) compared to the past 15-20 years of the math EDU declines or saturations of New Zealand.
Throughout the presentation, the author put the yellow arrows that indicate roughly the equivalence between the math growths from the math’s 25 percentile to 75 percentile, which is the typical MMU1 operation targets. This is to demonstrate that the currently ongoing math stagnations in most of the developed (OECD) countries – not just New Zealand - have been real and persistent according to the math parts of the PISA or TIMSS or at least the NAEP (the Nation’s Report Card) which is the longest-running national assessments of the USA that have participated in all major international math assessments such as TIMSS, PISA and others before them. As such, the yellow arrows are meant to imply the math growths with the hyper-rapid math reforms in just 2-4 years which is totally impossible otherwise by all means in the history of math education. For the average jurisdictions, the MMU-led reforms may take 2-3 years and for the entirety of New Zealand, this may take 3-4 years, depending on the levels of commitments and collaborations.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[120] **viXra:1703.0129 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 19:32:04*

**Authors:** Dongchan Lee

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper, the author visually demonstrate the math stagnations of almost all English, German-speaking countries, most Latin American countries, and the top 5 math Eastern Asian countries (the most recent) over the past 12 years (for PISA math) and 20 years (for TIMSS math) and provide the evidence-based solution that can overcome the math stagnations completely within 1 administration using MMU 1 (to raise the worst half math average to the best half math average) or MMU 0.5 (with the half of the capacity of MMU 1). The highlights of the demonstrations are:
1)Virtually all other English-speaking developed countries – have been in deep math EDU growth stagnations or declining (and even declines) over the past 15 to 20+ years (according to PISA and TIMSS).
2)In almost all English and Spanish speaking countries, the reading gains are substantially more than the math gains according to PISA 2015.
3)A set of solution proposal called MMU 0.5 or 1 (roughly boosting the jurisdiction or national math average by 0.6-0.7 Standard Deviation or 1.2-1.4 Standard Deviation respectively) compared to the traditional reforms in Australia, which have failed to bring the concrete math EDU rise for the past 15-20 years at least.
4)MMU1 can raise the national math average boosts equivalent of what takes more than 1 century in most English-speaking developed countries.
5)The counterfactual boost by MMU1 (indicated in yellow arrows) compared to the past 15-20 years of the math EDU declines or saturations of the entire 8 jurisdictions and Australia as a nation.
Throughout the presentation, the author put the yellow arrows that indicate roughly the equivalence between the math growths from the math’s 25 percentile to 75 percentile, which is the typical MMU1 operation targets. This is to demonstrate that the currently ongoing math stagnations in most of the developed (OECD) countries – not just Australia - have been real and persistent according to the math parts of the PISA or TIMSS or at least the NAEP (the Nation’s Report Card) which is the longest-running national assessments of the USA that have participated in all major international math assessments such as TIMSS, PISA and others before them. As such, the yellow arrows are meant to imply the math growths with the hyper-rapid math reforms in just 2-4 years which is totally impossible otherwise by all means in the history of math education. For the average jurisdictions, the MMU-led reforms may take 2-3 years and for the entirety of Australia, this may take 3-4 years, depending on the levels of commitments and collaborations.

**Category:** Education and Didactics

[119] **viXra:1703.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 02:06:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

Extremely short, configurable "femtosecond" pulses of light demonstrated by an international team could lead to future computers that run up to 100,000 times faster than today's electronics. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[118] **viXra:1703.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 12:58:37*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

this note presents a collection of integrals involving pi.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[117] **viXra:1703.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 13:32:26*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This note presents the numbers k1 and k2.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[116] **viXra:1703.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 13:37:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

The spin-resolved oscilloscope is established by combining spintronic and plasmonic devices, i.e., a spin filter and time-resolved charge detectors. [13] The field of spintronics focuses on spin transport behavior in magnetic metals, and the major findings in this area have important implications for the field of electronics. [12] Periodic motions of atoms over a length of a billionth of a millionth of a meter (10-15 m) are mapped by ultrashort x-ray pulses. [11] High-energy electrons synced to ultrafast laser pulse to probe how vibrational states of atoms change in time. [10] A small team of researchers with affiliations to institutions in Italy, Japan and the U.S. has created a simulation that suggests that it should be possible for a single photon to simultaneously excite two atoms. [9] Molecules vibrate in many different ways—like tiny musical instruments. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a meter. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[115] **viXra:1703.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 13:55:36*

**Authors:** Petr E. Pushkarev

**Comments:** 5 Pages. was published in the Global Journal of Pure and Applied Mathematics 13, no. 6 (2017): 1987-1992

In this article we are closely examining Riemann zeta function's non-trivial zeros. Especially, we examine real part of non-trivial zeros. Real part of Riemann zeta function's non-trivial zeros is considered in the light of constant quality of such zeros. We propose and prove a theorem of this quality. We also uncover a definition phenomenons of zeta and Riemann xi functions. In conclusion and as an conclusion we observe Riemann hypothesis in perspective of our researches.

**Category:** Number Theory

[114] **viXra:1703.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 09:06:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 37 Pages.

Scientists from the University of Granada (UGR) have proven for the first time that there is a close relationship between several emerging phenomena in magnetic systems (greatly studied by condensed matter physicists) and certain states of brain activity. [25] A new study out of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) has found that one part of the neurons in our brains is more active than previously revealed. The finding implies that our brains are both analog and digital computers and could lead to better ways to treat neurological disorders. [24]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[113] **viXra:1703.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 10:06:01*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The unsaid and the untold.

**Category:** Social Science

[112] **viXra:1703.0121 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:11:05*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Proof of Global in Time Solvability of Incompressive NSIVP in the Whole Space Using Time Transformation Analysis.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[111] **viXra:1703.0120 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:09:07*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Key point of the proof (Proof of Global in Time Solvability of Incompressive NSIVP in the Whole Space Using Time Transformation Analysis).

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[110] **viXra:1703.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:06:14*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Global in time solvability of incompressive Navier-Stokes initial value problem in periodic space is proved using time transformation analysys.

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[109] **viXra:1703.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-29 06:02:51*

**Authors:** Naoya Isobe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Key point of the proof (Proof of Global in Time Solvability of Incompressive NSIVP in Periodic Space Using Time Transformation Analysis)

**Category:** Functions and Analysis

[108] **viXra:1703.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 07:56:34*

**Authors:** Mauro Bernardini

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The final solutions of the equation (1), obtained starting from the postulates of the TTR Theory [1], show that the mass m of a Particle of Existence (PE) corresponds to the mass of the Proton. This result has been obtained by placing m as unknown factor in the equation (1) and time t = 80 years (corresponding to the average life time of a Human Being), also lets it to assume (analysis still in progress that will be provided with a later publication), that all the 6 types of possible PE within our 3d universe, really correspond to 6 types of Super-Hydrogens having a total mass approximately equivalent to that of a Super-Proton.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[107] **viXra:1703.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-09 16:01:13*

**Authors:** Colin Bruce Jack

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

There is a cheap, simple way to create habitable zones on Mars: the solar pond. At a few metres depth in such a pond, the pressure and temperature are benign for Earth-evolved life, with ample sunlight but negligible hard radiation. To melt out the pond and sustain terrestrial life within, inclining mirrors initially mounted on unmanned rovers are positioned by day to divert additional sunlight into the pond, by night horizontal above its surface to minimize thermal energy escape. Any location with near-surface ice at sufficiently low elevation that the atmospheric pressure remains above the triple point of water is suitable: the SHARAD radar and HIRISE camera aboard the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter have identified many such sites. No digging or drilling is required: the surface merely needs to be warmed.
A solar-powered amphibious vehicle pumps and purifies water from the pond’s warmest depth to melt any opaque surface ice that forms overnight, renews a surface film of ‘suntan oil’ which minimizes evaporation and absorbs UV, and could also manufacture plastics using C, H, O and N from Mars air and water. Manned capsules can land directly into the ponds. No space suits are required: exiting at a depth of a few metres, the pressure is sufficient that humans need wear only aqualungs, and can perform delicate work with their bare hands. A first task will be to erect transparent tents filled with breathable air like diving bells, anchored to the pond floor to provide pleasant sunlit living space. Crops can be grown both inside and outside the tents. Only the mirrors are exposed to the harsh conditions of the Martian surface; they can be serviced or replaced by withdrawing them into the pond, which can be extended into an ever-growing canal network, if necessary without assistance from Earth.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[106] **viXra:1703.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-17 05:58:07*

**Authors:** John Yuk Ching Ting

**Comments:** 21 Pages. This research paper outline the rigorous proofs for Polignac's and Twin prime conjectures. It is cross-related to Solving Riemann Hypothesis Using Sigma-Power Laws (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0114).

Prime numbers and composite numbers are intimately related simply because the complementary set of composite numbers constitutes the set of natural numbers with the exact set of prime numbers excluded in its entirety. In this research paper, we use our 'Virtual container' (which predominantly incorporates the novel mathematical tool coined Information-Complexity conservation with its core foundation based on this [complete] prime-composite number relationship) to solve the intractable open problem of whether prime gaps are infinite (arbitrarily large) in magnitude with each individual prime gap generating prime numbers which are again infinite in magnitude. This equates to solving Polignac's conjecture which involves analysis of all possible prime gaps = 2, 4, 6,... and [the subset] Twin prime conjecture which involves analysis of prime gap = 2 (for twin primes). In conjunction with our cross-referenced 2017-dated research paper entitled "Solving Riemann Hypothesis Using Sigma-Power Laws" (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0114), we advocate for our ambition that the Virtual container research method be considered a new method of mathematical proof especially for solving the 'Special-Class-of-Mathematical-Problems with Solitary-Proof-Solution'.

**Category:** Number Theory

[105] **viXra:1703.0114 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-17 06:11:01*

**Authors:** John Yuk Ching Ting

**Comments:** 23 Pages. This research paper contains the rigorous proof for Riemann hypothesis and explanation for Gram points. It is cross-referenced to "Solving Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures using Information-Complexity Conservation" (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0115).

The triple countable infinite sets of (i) x-axis intercepts, (ii) y-axis intercepts, and (iii) both x- and y-axes [formally known as the 'Origin'] intercepts in Riemann zeta function are intimately related to each other simply because they all constitute complementary points of intersection arising from the single [exact same] countable infinite set of curves generated by this function. Recognizing this [complete] relationship amongst all three sets of intercepts enable the simultaneous study on important intrinsic properties and behaviors arising from our derived key formulae coined Sigma-Power Laws in a mathematically consistent manner. This then permit the rigorous proof for Riemann hypothesis to mature as well as allows explanations for x-axis intercepts (which is the usual traditionally-dubbed 'Gram points') and y-axis intercepts. Riemann hypothesis involves analysis of all nontrivial zeros of Riemann zeta function and refers to the celebrated proposal by famous German mathematician Bernhard Riemann in 1859 whereby all nontrivial zeros are conjectured to be located on the critical line [or equivalently stated as all nontrivial zeros are conjectured to exactly match the Origin intercepts]. Concepts from the Hybrid method of Integer Sequence classification, together with our 'Virtual container' incorporating the novel Sigma-Power Laws, are some of the important mathematical tools employed in this research paper to successfully achieve our proof. Not least in [again] using the same Virtual container research method in this paper, there are other additional deeply inseparable mathematical connections between the contents of this paper and our cross-referenced 2017-dated publication on the dual source of prime number infiniteness entitled "Solving Polignac's and Twin Prime Conjectures using Information-Complexity Conservation" (http://viXra.org/abs/1703.0115).

**Category:** Number Theory

[104] **viXra:1703.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 04:06:52*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Mückenheim

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown that Cantor's diagonal argument fails because either there is no actual infinity and hence no defined diagonal number or there is actual infinity but the diagonal number cannot be distinguished from all real numbers of the Cantor list. Further it is shown by another argument that there are not uncountably many paths in the complete infinite Binary Tree.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[103] **viXra:1703.0112 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-13 04:15:07*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Mückenheim

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Limits of sequences of sets required to define infinite bijections do not only raise paradoxes but cause self-contradictory results.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[102] **viXra:1703.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 11:27:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

A new study out of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) has found that one part of the neurons in our brains is more active than previously revealed. The finding implies that our brains are both analog and digital computers and could lead to better ways to treat neurological disorders. [24]

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[101] **viXra:1703.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 05:38:13*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** Pages.

In 1900, A. Poincare discussed the Problem about two inertial observers that exchanged by light signals. In 1905 A. Einstein gave solution this problem in the form of the Lorentz transformations.
From the point of view of Similarity theory the Lorentz transformations are Similarity transformations. Moreover, according this theory can be another solutions of the Poincare problem.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[100] **viXra:1703.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 08:14:56*

**Authors:** Gerges Francis Tawdrous

**Comments:** 75 Pages.

The Solar Planets Group is One Machine
This one machine cooperates together to enable the Earth to produce The Solar Day Time
Providing the life chance on the Earth..
This paper aims to prove this idea and explains this machine mechanism.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[99] **viXra:1703.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-11 13:34:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This summer, an ice chest-sized box will fly to the International Space Station, where it will create the coolest spot in the universe. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[98] **viXra:1703.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-11 14:30:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

Liquid droplets are natural magnifiers. Look inside a single drop of water, and you are likely to see a reflection of the world around you, close up and distended as you'd see in a crystal ball. [17] MIT physicists have created a new form of matter, a supersolid, which combines the properties of solids with those of superfluids. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[97] **viXra:1703.0106 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-06-09 14:24:49*

**Authors:** Priya Karna, M. Ghimire, S. Karna, S. Mishra

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Experiments were conducted to optimize the growth parameters of perovskite
structure of sodium tantalate in energy efficient hydrothermal process. We have
succesfully grown sodium tantalate nanocubes at low temperature of 140oC for
15 hours in rich alkaline atmosphere. It contains orthorhombic crystal system of
perovskite structure with an average size of 80 nm. The morphological, compositional,
structural, and thermal properties of as-synthesized nanocubes were
characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction
(XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques.

**Category:** Chemistry

[96] **viXra:1703.0105 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-12 04:14:12*

**Authors:** Dhara Joshi1, Krishna Dalsaniya2, Chintan Patel3

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

With the fast advancement in the field of network security everything gets the chance to be possible on web. Remote user authentication is an imperative system in the networks framework to check the exactitude of remote user over the public channel. In this authentication procedure, server checks accreditation of the user that user is authentic and legal one or not. For that Server and user commonly confirm each other and make a same session key for encryption of upcoming conversations. There are two types of authentication: Single server and Multi server. To overcome the drawback of single server authentication (remembering id and pswd for accessing each of the server), the concept of Multi server comes, in which user first register with RC, and whatever servers are registerd under RC can be accessed by user by providing single id and pswd for all. Here We review US patent [US 9264425 B1] scheme which is based on Multi server authentication, we provide mathematical analysis of the same with some attacks found on it.

**Category:** Data Structures and Algorithms

[95] **viXra:1703.0104 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-11 10:45:33*

**Authors:** Pedro Caceres

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

PrimeNumbers are the atoms of mathematics and mathematics is needed to make sense of the real world. Finding the Prime number structure and eventually being able to crack their code is the ultimate goal in what is called Number Theory. From the evolution of species to cryptography, Nature finds help in Prime numbers.
One of the most important advance in the study of Prime numbers was the paper by Bernhard Riemann in November 1859 called “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (On the number of primes less than a given quantity).
In this paper, Riemann gave a formula for the number of primes less than x in terms the integral of 1/log(x) and the roots (zeros) of the zeta function, defined by:
(1)ζ(z) = ∑1/n^z
The Zeta function, ζ(z), is a function of a complex variable z that analytically continues the Dirichlet series.
Riemann also formulated a conjecture about the location of these zeros, which fall into two classes: the "trivial zeros" -2, -4, -6, etc., and those whose real part lies between 0 and 1. Riemann's conjecture Riemann hypothesis [RH] was formulated as this:
[RH]The real part of every non-trivial zero z* of the Riemann Zeta function is 1/2.
Thus, if the hypothesis is correct, all the non-trivial zeros lie on the critical line consisting of the complex numbers 1/2 + i ß, where ß is a real number and i is the imaginary unit.
In this paper, we will analyze the Riemann Zeta function and provide an analytical/geometrical proof of the Riemann Hypothesis. The proof will be based on the fact that if we decompose the ζ(z) in a difference of two functions, both functions need to be equal when ζ(z)=0, so their distance to the origin or modulus must be equal and we will prove that this can only happen when Re(z)=1/2 for certain values of Im(z).
We will also prove that all non-trivial zeros of ζ(z) in the form z=1/2+iß have all ß related by an algebraic expression. They are all connected and not independent.
Finally, we will show that as a consequence of this connection of all ß, the harmonic function Hn can be expressed as a function of each ß zero of ζ(z) with infinite representations.
We will use mathematical and computational methods available for engineers.

**Category:** Number Theory

[94] **viXra:1703.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-11 09:24:50*

**Authors:** Jerzy Hanckowiak

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is suggested that the same form of equations in classical and quantum physics allow to elaborate the same algorithms to find their solutions if the free Fock space (FFS) is used. “The miracle of the appropriateness of the language of mathematics for the formulation of the laws of physics” is addressed on the example of the causality principle, (Sec.2). Notes on the role of the fields and their sources, and disposal of the excess of information are set out in Secs 3 and 5. Possible obstacles in constructing quantum gravity are discussed and remedies are proposed in Secs 4, 5 and 6. A connection of symmetries with the Laplace principle of equal ignorance (LPEI) and its operator generalization are considered in Sec.7. The classical and quantum vacuums related to isolation of a system are suggested, (Sec.8)

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[93] **viXra:1703.0102 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-11 04:09:04*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 18 pages. Reports in Advances of Physical Sciences (2017).http://dx.doi.org/10.1142/S2424942417500025.25

The general field, containing all the macroscopic fields in it, is divided into the mass component, the source of which is the mass four-current, and the charge component, the source of which is the charge four-current. The mass component includes the gravitational field, acceleration field, pressure field, dissipation field, strong interaction and weak interaction fields, other vector fields. The charge component of the general field represents the electromagnetic field. With the help of the principle of least action we derived the field equations, the equation of the matter’s motion in the general field, the equation for the metric, the energy and momentum of the system of matter and its fields, and calibrated the cosmological constant. The general field components are related to the corresponding vacuum field components so that the vacuum field generates the general field at the macroscopic level.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[92] **viXra:1703.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-11 05:42:37*

**Authors:** Damien K. K. Adjaï, Jean Akande, Lucas H. Koudahoun, Biswanath Rath, Pravanjan Mallick, Rati Ranjan Sahoo, Y. J. Fernando Kpomahou, Marc D. Monsia

**Comments:** 10 pages

The quantum mechanics of inverse square potentials in one dimension is usually studied through renormalization, self-adjoint extension and WKB approximation. This paper shows that such potentials may be investigated within the framework of the position-dependent mass quantum mechanics formalism under the usual boundary conditions. As a result, exact discrete bound state solutions are expressed in terms of associated Laguerre polynomials with negative energy spectrum using the Nikiforov-Uvarov method for the repulsive inverse square potential.

**Category:** Mathematical Physics

[91] **viXra:1703.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 13:41:12*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[90] **viXra:1703.0099 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-20 13:52:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 8 Pages. embedding figure in body of paper

Our universe probably began as an offshoot or "bud" of the "Multiverse"; the latter, as usually envisioned, is truly eternal and infinite, the "scientific" (or "rational") substitute for typical metaphysical notions of "God". The "given" physical constants of our universe which cannot be derived from first principles (such as the value of "velocity c"), find their origins quite naturally in the Multiverse. All else (in the abiotic realm) can be explained through general considerations of energy and symmetry conservation (Noether's Theorem), or, in the biotic realm, by Darwin's Theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[89] **viXra:1703.0098 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 20:12:40*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Since stellar evolution is planet formation, a simple inverse relation can be drawn up concerning stars in evolved galaxies. Their surface temperatures and populations are inversely proportional. Explanation is provided.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[88] **viXra:1703.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-11 02:01:57*

**Authors:** Wu ShengPing

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer
functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in
completely new style. By a careful construction the result that
two finite numbers is with unequal logarithms in a corresponding module is proven, which result is applied to solving
a kind of diophantine equation: $c^q=a^p+b^p$.

**Category:** Number Theory

[87] **viXra:1703.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-19 09:42:58*

**Authors:** Robert A. Herrmann

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Relative to the principles of modern physical science, the observed and predictable behavior of each physical-system within our universe is shown to correspond to GID intelligent agency. This correspondence yields vastly more evidence for GID intelligent agency than that which exists for human macroevolution and many accepted aspects of both physical cosmology and quantum theory.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[86] **viXra:1703.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 10:17:16*

**Authors:** Carmen N. Wrede, Gunter J. Koch, Michael Skiera

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Over one century ago the double slit experiment presented science with a mystique riddle. The Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) not only confirmed Young’s opinion that light has a wave character, but also described a fifth state of matter in which matter transforms into a wave. But the double slit has a profound secret. It reveals the illusion of wave-particle duality by taking a closer look at the behavior of particles send through the double-slit apparatus. It turns out that the wavefunction rather describes the mutual play between particles and their own electromagnetic fields. This paper will not only question wave-particle dualism and quantum physics, but also the validity of a handful of physical theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[85] **viXra:1703.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 10:20:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[84] **viXra:1703.0093 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-01 11:58:30*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Time dilation is a principal feature of the Special Theory of Relativity. It is purported to be independent of position, being a function only of uniform relative velocity, via the Lorentz Transformation. However, it is not possible for a 'clock-synchronised stationary system' of observers K to assign a definite time to any 'event' relative to a 'moving system' k using the Lorentz Transformation. Consequently, the Theory of Relativity is false due to an insurmountable intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[83] **viXra:1703.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 07:15:12*

**Authors:** A. A. Yushkanov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The effect of the electron sound absorption in a conducting medium (metal) was previously
considered on the assumption of the Fermi-surface deformation under the action of the sound wave.
In the present work will be considered another approach to the problem based on dynamic (kinetic)
interaction of the electron gas with the lattice vibrations.
The analysis is carried out for the case of arbitrary degeneration degree of the solid-state plasma.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[82] **viXra:1703.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 15:30:57*

**Authors:** M.Christolubova, T.Christolubov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 77

To construct quantum gravity we formulate quantum electrodynamics in equivalent form with possibility to generalize, we calculate the сosmological constant assuming that the quantum state is a function of time and radius of universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[81] **viXra:1703.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-10 04:18:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[80] **viXra:1703.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 11:16:38*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

When measuring time, we normally assume that clocks do not affect space and time, and that time can be measured with infinite accuracy at nearby points in space. However, combining quantum mechanics and Einstein's theory of general relativity theoretical physicists from the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have demonstrated a fundamental limitation for our ability to measure time. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[79] **viXra:1703.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 12:25:43*

**Authors:** R. Wayte

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A solution of Fermat’s Last Theorem is given, using elementary function arithmetic and inference from worked examples.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[78] **viXra:1703.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 08:38:31*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 43 Pages.

An international team of researchers working at IBMs' San Jose research facility announced recently that they had created the world's smallest magnet—it was made from a single atom. [29] Light interacting with hydrogen atoms enclosed in hollow cages composed of carbon atoms-referred to as fullerene material-produces ionisation. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[77] **viXra:1703.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 09:40:06*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper presents a complete and exhaustive proof of Landau's Fourth Problem. The approach to this proof uses same logic that Euclid used to prove there are an infinite number of prime numbers. Then we use a proof found in Reference 1, that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p+ d are both primes if and only if for integer m:
m = (p-1)!( 1/p + ((-1)^d (d!))/(p+d)) + 1/p + 1/(p+d)
We use this proof for d = 2n + 1 to prove the infinitude of Landau’s Fourth Problem prime numbers.
The author would like to give many thanks to the authors of 1001 Problems in Classical Number Theory, Jean-Marie De Koninck and Armel Mercier, 2004, Exercise Number 161 (see Reference 1). The proof provided in Exercise 6 is the key to making this paper on the Landau’s Fourth Problem possible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[76] **viXra:1703.0085 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 05:24:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[75] **viXra:1703.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 07:49:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

Light interacting with hydrogen atoms enclosed in hollow cages composed of carbon atoms-referred to as fullerene material-produces ionisation. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[74] **viXra:1703.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-09 17:51:24*

**Authors:** Elio Conte

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

After an articulated exposition of the basic features of the Clifford algebra we give evidence that the basic elements of this algebra may represent the basic entities of the mind. According also to the previous basic results of V.A. Lefebvre on conscience , we delineate also some peculiarities of the consciousness and we give proof that they may be correctly represented by this algebra.

**Category:** Mind Science

[73] **viXra:1703.0082 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 13:34:15*

**Authors:** Gordon Watson

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Adjusting EPR (to accord with Bohr's insight), and accepting Bell's principles (but not his false inferences), we:— (i) complete the QM account of EPR correlations in a classical way; (ii) deliver Bell's hope for a simple constructive model of EPRB; (iii) justify EPR's belief that additional variables would bring locality and causality to QM's completion; (iv) refute key claims that such variables are impossible — including CHSH, Mermin's three-particle always-vs-never variant of GHZ, and this: in the context of Bell's theorem ‘it's a proven scientific fact that a violation of local realism has been demonstrated theoretically and experimentally,' (Annals of Physics Editors, 2016). In short: we refute Bell's theorem and endorse Einstein's locally-causal Lorentz-invariant worldview.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[72] **viXra:1703.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 19:12:50*

**Authors:** Daniel Rocha

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Essay submitted to FQXI contest

A new definition of life is given, which is sufficient to construct practical experiments to
understand the origin of life. Stable mechanisms throughout evolution are discussed and their
importance on human society are highlighted in the conclusion.
Link to FQXI contest: http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2846

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[71] **viXra:1703.0080 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-27 07:14:25*

**Authors:** Gaurav Biraris

**Comments:** 20 Pages. A citation is published/changed

The paper proposes a generalization of geometric notion of vectors concerning dimensionality of the configuration space. In certain dimensional spaces, certain types of ordered directions exist along which elements of vector spaces can be interpreted. Scalars along the ordered directions form Banach spaces. Different types of geometrical vectors are algebraically identical, the difference arises in the configuration space geometrically. In the universe four types of vectors exists. Thus any physical quantity in the universe comes in four types of vectors. Though All the types of vectors belong to different Banach spaces (& their directions can’t be compared), their magnitudes can be compared. A gross comparison between the magnitudes of the different typed geometric vectors is obtained at end of the paper.

**Category:** Geometry

[70] **viXra:1703.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 10:36:08*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., 1 February 2017, p.128, Historical Corner, 10.1109/MAP.2016.2629848

Upon closure of a switch, a TEM wave (step) travels from voltage source to load,
between conducting wires of a transmission line. An electric field E appears between the top and bottom conductors, and orthogonal to them, as the TEM wave propagates at the speed of light for the dielectric in which it travels. Thus, according to classical electromagnetic theory, there are positive charges on the one conductor and negative charges on the other conductor, within the region of the transverse electric field. The Catt Question is: Where does this new charge come from?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[69] **viXra:1703.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 10:45:40*

**Authors:** Wu ShengPing

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The main idea of this article is simply calculating integer
functions in module. The algebraic in the integer modules is studied in
completely new style. By a careful construction a result is obtained on
two finite numbers with unequal logarithms, which result is applied to solving
a kind of diophantine equations.

**Category:** Number Theory

[68] **viXra:1703.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 10:49:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[67] **viXra:1703.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 07:20:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[66] **viXra:1703.0075 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-08 14:07:40*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This presented publication to discuss about new nanophysical and nanochemical applications in modern nanotechnology, with utilization of superrelativistic and tachyonic neutrinos (hep), high energy particles emitted, for example into the Antarctic Ice Crust (Project AMANDA/Ice Cube) from hard cosmic cascade’s hyperons ksí (Ξ), omega (^{-}Ω ), lambda (Λ) and subsequently mesons pí (π^{0}), ká (κ^{0}), mí (μ), so sunshowers of tauons (super heavy electrons), electrons, photons and neutrinos ν_{τ} (tau), ν_{μ} (mí) and
electron’s neutrinos ν_{(e-)} and probably the fourth neutrino connected with gauge fields -> gauge neutrino and gauge bosons. (Comment 1.: Tauon/lepton τ) has meantime life (decay) 3x10^{-13} s. With calm mass 1776,84 MeV/c^{2}, compared with proton: 939 MeV and electron 0,511 MeV). Tauon si simultaneously lepton and fermion (spin ½). Top–interesting is behaviour of Möbius Graphene Leaf in electromagnetic fields. (Comment 2.: August Ferdinand Möbius (17.11.1790 – 26.9.1868) German mathematician and theoretical astronomer, far descendant by Martin Luther. Interesting mind–experiment, but also practical nano–chemical experiment is nanoclathrates–plasma nanochemistry and in them incorporated humin organic nanowall and nanolandscape of organic nanomaterials of fulvic and humic acids, with interaction of femtolaser (10^{-15} s) in 2D and 3D
nanolandscape. Advised localities of extraction of fulvic and humic organic materials are in geomorphological region called The Moravian Karst (20 km on the north from Brno City), concretely the middle zone – Eve’s Cave – The Křtiny’s creek valley near Adamov. The significancy of nanoclathrates of humin is like antioxidant and neutralizator of radioactive waste.
Special antioxidant substance, so called “MESIPAN”, according to the Czech sci–fi writer
Ing. Zdeněk Volný, the novel – “The Gate to Eternity“ (1985). Suggested experiment with WILSON FOG CHAMBER -> hard cosmic rays and accelerated
particles and their traces on photographic film. The Super Known Neutrino Event in Nov. 19.,1970) –
world’s first observation of a neutrino in a hydrogen bubble chamber. Lattice constant of graphene, carbon nanotubes and Buckminster’s fullerens and fullerit can be easily calculated.
Benoît Mandelbrot (The French mathematician (1975)) and Jaromír Korčák (1938), the Czech
demograph and geograph were the first in the whole world, who used the fractals and attractors like
surface of nanocomposit materials. Nanoclathrates -> Zeolites -> Liquid crystals nano and mesoporous crystals, channeled structures. Utilization of Alumosilicates (CLAY’S MINERALS) for example Montmorillonit – Illit with NEVERENDING CRYSTAL LATTICE ARE SURFACE FUNCTIONALIZATION ADSORBENTS,
SO CALLED SORPTION’S COMPLEX IN SOILS (VERY IMPORTANT COMPOUND OF A SOIL) -> LIKE AN INCLUSION COMPLEX -> SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES.
Attention will be dedicated to applications of research for example, so called Ryden Batteries
from UNIVERSITY OF KYUSHU, JAPAN, like a predecessor of confinement of author’s pocket
tokamak. Like the last part of an article was chosen chapter dedicated to chemical and physical properties of nanocrystals and quaziparticles like the phonons, exciton–polaritons, polarons and plasmons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[65] **viXra:1703.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 19:27:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We use a root finder procedure to obtain t were we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor min~ a a t if we furthermore use 2min ~ tt initial ga as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor tt g in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, conclude with very restricted limit values for t of the order of less than Planck time, leads to an enormous value for the initial Cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[64] **viXra:1703.0073 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-05-21 17:17:09*

**Authors:** Jonathan W. Tooker

**Comments:** 13 Pages. 13 figures

We discuss the Riemann zeta function, the topology of its domain, and make an argument against the Riemann hypothesis. While making the argument in the classical formalism, we discuss the material as it relates to the theory of infinite complexity (TOIC). We extend Riemann's own (planar) analytic continuation $\mathbb{R}\to\mathbb{C}$ into (bulk) hypercomplexity with $\mathbb{C}\to\,^\star\mathbb{C}$. We propose a solution to the Banach--Tarski paradox.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[63] **viXra:1703.0070 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 02:00:55*

**Authors:** Edgars Alksnis

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

A modification of nuclear physics model of Mathis has been proposed. Solution for Fukushima can come outside of mainstream pseudoscience only.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[62] **viXra:1703.0069 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-12 00:18:29*

**Authors:** Yibing Qiu

**Comments:** 1 Page.

showing a viewpoint about the classification of the Pluto.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[61] **viXra:1703.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 11:11:06*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A new finding by physicists at MIT and in Israel shows that under certain specialized conditions, electrons can speed through a narrow opening in a piece of metal more easily than traditional theory says is possible. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[60] **viXra:1703.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 08:45:37*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto

**Comments:** 12 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Scientific God Journal

The science of cymatics, the study of visible sound, is beginning to yield clues to one of the most challenging questions in science: what triggered the creation of life on earth? The hypothetical model we have developed was inspired by ancient traditions and demonstrates that sound and cymatic forces could have worked together to become the dynamic force that created the first stirrings of life and also the Universe.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[59] **viXra:1703.0066 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-14 06:16:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here we showed that we can derive the Special-Theory-of-Relativity (SR) energy-momentum relation and the formulae for relativistic mass and time dilation on the basis of the law of conservation of spin on assumption that the SR length contraction is invalid. The SR length contraction follows from the Lorentz Transformation so the Lorentz Transformation violates the law of conservation of spin - the SR needs a reformulation. Notice as well that the reciprocation of the SR time dilation (each observer claims that the moving clocks are time dilated) suggests that the SR is an incomplete theory. Generally, theories starting from the Lorentz Transformation lead to correct formulae because we incorrectly assume that the relativistic mass is always not real. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the consistent SR and General Theory of Relativity (GR), instead starting from the invariant speed of light, must start from the law of conservation of spin (it concerns the spin-0 particles as well). The origin of the SR reciprocation is considered. We showed that grainy spacetime, commonness of spinning vortices of matter inside particles and conservation of spin lead directly to the SR and to the GR formula for the gravitational time dilation.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[58] **viXra:1703.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 09:12:35*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 50 Pages.

But the potential introduction of ultra-powerful quantum computers renders our personal information vulnerable to direct attack. [31] When future users of quantum computers need to analyze their data or run quantum algorithms, they will often have to send encrypted information to the computer. [30] Quantum systems were believed to provide perfectly secure data transmission because until now, attempts to copy the transmitted information resulted in an altered or deteriorated version of the original information, thereby defeating the purpose of the initial hack. [29] Researchers have developed a new type of light-enhancing optical cavity that is only 200 nanometers tall and 100 nanometers across. Their new nanoscale system represents a step toward brighter single-photon sources, which could help propel quantum-based encryption and a truly secure and future-proofed network. [28] Researchers at Tohoku University have, for the first time, successfully demonstrated the basic operation of spintronics-based artificial intelligence. [27] The neural structure we use to store and process information in verbal working memory is more complex than previously understood, finds a new study by researchers at New York University. [26] Surviving breast cancer changed the course of Regina Barzilay's research. The experience showed her, in stark relief, that oncologists and their patients lack tools for data-driven decision making. [25] New research, led by the University of Southampton, has demonstrated that a nanoscale device, called a memristor, could be used to power artificial systems that can mimic the human brain. [24] Scientists at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf conducted electricity through DNA-based nanowires by placing gold-plated nanoparticles on them. In this way it could become possible to develop circuits based on genetic material. [23]

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[57] **viXra:1703.0063 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 09:36:39*

**Authors:** Tomasz Dryjanski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper proposes an alternative to the Paragraph Vector algorithm, generating fixed-length vectors of human-readable features for natural language corpora. It extends word2vec retaining its other advantages like speed and accuracy, hence its proposed name is doc2feat. Extracted features are presented as lists of words with their proximity to the particular feature, allowing interpretation and manual annotation. By parameter tuning focus can be made on grammatical aspects of the corpus language, making it useful for linguistic applications. The algorithm can run on variable-length pieces of texts, and provides insight into what features are relevant for text classification or sentiment analysis. The corpus does not have to, and in specific cases should not be, preprocessed with stemming or stop-words removal.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[56] **viXra:1703.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 09:47:13*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** Pages.

I apply the axioms of
thermodynamics for geometric
concepts of volume and time.
The relativity of simultaneity is
the Fourier law of thermal
conductivity. Time is a geometric
analogue of temperature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[55] **viXra:1703.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 03:59:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Particle physics experiments conducted at the CERN, DESY, JLab, RHIC, and SLAC laboratories have revealed that only about 30% of the proton's spin is carried by the spin of its quark constituents. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[54] **viXra:1703.0060 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 04:56:09*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

An observed two-dimensional shadow might encompass more information than its corresponding three-dimensional object. By changing the orientation of a three-dimensional object or the observer’s position, we detect different shadows from diverse perspectives, therefore increasing our available information. Starting from this simple observation and extending it to the Einstein’s four-dimensional spacetime and to Bekenstein and Hawking equations, we show how, in terms of special and general relativity, information content is not a stationary and fixed quantity as currently believed, but rather depends on the observer’s standpoint. This has deep implications in digital physics, information theory, computer vision, shape theory and cosmology.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[53] **viXra:1703.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 05:26:01*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Time and entropy
LeiGuanji
Time is the thing that we need to measure the change.A clock's second hand run a round,we say that the frame of reference which the clock in is go though a second.Each round the second hand run has used up a same energy.So the increase amount of entropy is in direct proportion to the amount of the go of time:ΔS∝Δt. Time is the thing we fancied.Things changed from a state in our memory to a new state,that make we have the feel that the time is going.Suppose there is some atoms which the half life is 1 second.We measure the amount of the atoms each second,and we need to bear the amount in mind,we find the change of amount,so we think the time is going.We need to use up a same energy each second to bear the amount of atoms,so the entropy of our body is in direct proportion to the time we think was gone:ΔS∝Δt.So the psychological arrow of time,is determinded by thermodynamic arrow of time. Time is not exist,there is only the change of thing,no time.We only can make a standard change to set the amound of the time has gone(like the second hand has run a round or the 9192631770 cycles of the transition ofcaesium atomic clock).Another change from begin to end,the standard change has done twice,we say that this change use two standard time.If the standard change's amount of entropy increase is S0,so ΔS∝Δt. To compare the speed of the time going is only can use the amount of standard change,too.The second hand of blue cat and Yang Liwei who are in the earth run 10 rounds(10 standard changes),the second hand of LaLa and Buji who are in the Tongxin spaceship (the youth spaceship) which the speed is 0.6c run 8 rounds(8 standard changes).So the blue cat and Yang Liwei can think that LaLa and Buji's speed of time is slower than them,that's the same condition to LaLa and Buji. So there is no time,time is only a fantasy in our mind."ΔS∝Δt" is because we imagine the change of entropy ΔS=S0 as Δt.Entropy increases with time because we meause time in the direction in which entropy increase.And from Gravitational Theory of entropy(my paper"Gravitational Theory of Time") we can know, all change (difference) is our fantasy,so time is our fantasy in our mind,too. ΔS∝Δt,my two papers "Some Views Of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants"(Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light) and "Gravitational Theory of Time"(I have submitted this paper to Gravity Research Foundation) both base on this conclusion. Who has created the color?Maybe some people will say god,but really?What's red?What's blue?You can say they are the color of blood and sky.But,if you are an achromatopsia or a blind,what would you say?So there is no color,there is only light with different wavelength. Time is like that,there is no time , there is only change of things.Both color and time are created by ourselves,not god.Both color and time are our fantasies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[52] **viXra:1703.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 07:07:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Work at the New York Genome Centre represents a big step towards DNA-based information storage. Andrew Masterson reports. [21]
At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19]
Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15]
IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Physics of Biology

[51] **viXra:1703.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 07:29:13*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Black holes are well known to be voracious feeders, but in the rush to consume all around them, some of the material gets flung far into space. [16] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[50] **viXra:1703.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 13:57:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Physicists have developed a quantum machine learning algorithm that can handle infinite dimensions—that is, it works with continuous variables (which have an infinite number of possible values on a closed interval) instead of the typically used discrete variables (which have only a finite number of values). [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[49] **viXra:1703.0054 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 01:49:57*

**Authors:** Shubhayan Sarkar

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

I present here a thought experiment which violates the most widely accepted interpretation of quantum mechanics “The Copenhagen Interpretation” and Bohr’s complementarity which says that there is no meaning of the state of a particle until it is observed and the act of observation might change it. The experiment consists of a double slit apparatus which is modified by putting a second double slit apparatus between the source and the original apparatus with certain conditions imposed on both the apparatuses using the facts of interference and diffraction. A striking paradox emerges if we consider the arguments of Bohr’s complementarity, i.e. the photon travels through both the paths simultaneously in a double slit apparatus whenever there is interference. It turns out that this paradox can be resolved only if the photon travels through one path even if interference fringes are visible.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[48] **viXra:1703.0053 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 02:13:29*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In this paper a type D breakdown of the Navier Stokes equation in d=3 dimensions is demonstrated.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[47] **viXra:1703.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 12:20:58*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This note presents formulas and fractals related with the polynomial:p(x)=x^8+4x^7-10x^6-16x^5+19x^4+16x^3-10x^2-4x+1.

**Category:** General Mathematics

[46] **viXra:1703.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 08:33:38*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A mathematical model of the plasma crystal built using Maxwell’s equations is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[45] **viXra:1703.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 08:36:25*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian

A mathematical model of the plasma crystal built using Maxwell’s equations is given. \\ Предлагается математическая модель плазменного кристалла, построенная с использованием уравнений Максвелла.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[44] **viXra:1703.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-01 02:43:20*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 6 Pages. v6 published. To cite this paper: American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 6, No. 3, 2017, pp. 43-48.

Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity requires systems of clock-synchronised stationary observers and the Lorentz Transformation. Without both, the Theory of Relativity fails. A system of clock-synchronised stationary observers is proven inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation, because it is Galilean. The Special Theory of Relativity insists that Galilean systems must transform not by the Galilean Transformation, but by the non-Galilean Lorentz Transformation. The Theory of Relativity is therefore invalid due to an intrinsic logical contradiction.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[43] **viXra:1703.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 01:50:09*

**Authors:** Andreas Knopken, Dainis Zeps

**Comments:** 100 Pages.

This work, Commentary to the Epistle to Romans by Aadreas Knopken, is translated From Latin into Latvian by Dainis Zeps. I would like to thank Artūrs Hansons and Līva Bodniece both for their help, and severe criticism concerning some parts of this translation.

**Category:** Religion and Spiritualism

[42] **viXra:1703.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 03:34:59*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Until now, Physic considers that vacuum as space but according to author vacuum is different than space. Space has properties like mass, gravity, time etc. It is also relative. Space of atom is different than space of galaxy. This may be reason for getting effect of dark matter because space also carries gravitational effect. In this paper author also proved that special theory of relativity is mathematically wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[41] **viXra:1703.0044 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:40:57*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A mechanism of originating and forming of the inclination of the rotation plane of the planets (bodies) in the space systems of planetary type is considered. The inclination of the rotation plane is formed by resonant oscillations of planets (bodies) along the direction of motion of planetary systems. The resonant oscillations are a natural condition of all cosmic formations of planetary type.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[40] **viXra:1703.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 09:49:41*

**Authors:** V.D.Krasnov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Continuous attempts to create theories of the Moon's motion have been made since the time of Isaac Newton.
The theory of the Moon's motion which would take into account the influence of the Sun, Earth and other planets proved to be one of the most complicated tasks in astronomy.
In this article, a physical model of the lunar motion built on the basis of the statements of the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems" is presented.
It is shown that the Moon's motion is formed by a complex combination of the gravitational attraction from the Earth and the Sun, acting on the Moon in the direction of the planetary system's motion.
In accordance with the physical model presented, a calculation of the Moon's motion is performed.
The results of the calculations of the Moon's motion in the field of mutual interaction of the Earth, Sun, and Moon, agree with the motion observed and confirm the Theory of Lunar Motion set forth here.
Any quantity of bodies (planets) affecting the Moon's motion could be included in the the calculations.
The results of the calculations verify the "Comprehensive Law of Motion of Objects in Planetary Type Systems".

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[39] **viXra:1703.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 07:30:39*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

A team of researchers at North Carolina State University has found that current and future neutrino detectors placed around the world should be capable of detecting neutrinos emitted from a relatively close supernova. [8] As a massive star dies, expelling most of its guts across the universe in a supernova explosion, its iron heart, the star's core, collapses to create the densest form of observable matter in the universe: a neutron star. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[38] **viXra:1703.0041 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-05 02:04:12*

**Authors:** Malte Braband

**Comments:** 16 pages, 4 figures, 2 tables, in German. Jugend Forscht project 130423.

This paper analyses the question how to systematically reach the top flight of soccer prediction leagues. In a first step several forecast models are compared and it is shown how most models can be related to the Poisson model. Some of the relations are new. Additionally a method has been developed which allows to numerically evaluate the outcome probabilities of soccer championships instead of simulation. The main practical result for the example of the 2014 soccer World Championship was that the forecast models were significantly better than the human participants of a large public prediction league. However the results between the forecast models were small, both qualitatively and quantitatively. But it is quite unlikely that a large prediction league will be won by a forecast model although the forecast models almost all belonged to the top flight of the prediction league.

**Category:** Statistics

[37] **viXra:1703.0040 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-04 11:30:54*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 3 pages, written in French

We propose in the present paper to consider the Riemann Hypothesis asympotically (ARH) ; it means when the imaginary part of the zero in the critical band is great. We show that the problem, expressed in these terms, is equivalent to the fact that an equation called the * equation has only a finite number of solutions, but we have not proved it.

**Category:** Number Theory

[36] **viXra:1703.0039 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-04 12:30:39*

**Authors:** Joseph F. Messina

**Comments:** Pages.

It is shown, utilizing dimensional analysis, that the quantization of electric charge can be explained, in a fundamentally consistent manner, as a manifestation of the quantization of the intrinsic vibrational energy of the fabric of spacetime by a non-Planckian "action" in sub-Planckian spacetime. It is found that this conceptualization of the elementary charge provides a natural explanation of some of the more vexing questions that have plagued quantum electrodynamics since its inception. A possible experiment is suggested that might test for the presence of such a non-Planckian "action" in gravitational radiation.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[35] **viXra:1703.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-04 08:30:15*

**Authors:** Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

**Comments:** 59 Pages. In French.

It is my thesis to obtain the diploma of Engineer from the French National School of Geographic Sciences(ENSG, IGN France), presented in October 1981. The first part of the thesis is concerned with the determination of the equation of the observation of Laplace point in the option of 3D geodesy. The second part is about a study of a 3D model of deformation of geodetic networks that was presented by the Senior Geodesist H.M. Dufour in two dimensions.

**Category:** Geophysics

[34] **viXra:1703.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-04 09:18:56*

**Authors:** Antoine Balan

**Comments:** 1 Page. written in French

We define here an homology for a manifold called edge homology.

**Category:** Topology

[33] **viXra:1703.0034 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-08 20:20:59*

**Authors:** Richard J Benish

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Fixed typo in Eq 8 on p. 9.

Human ideas of how life and consciousness relate to mathematics and physics are conditioned by the fact that we have lived our lives on a 5:97 x 10 ^24 kg ball of matter. These ideas would arguably be different if we had evolved instead inside a large rotating world far from astronomical bodies. Contemplating the latter perspective provides some insight on how prevailing views may be in error and how to correct them.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[32] **viXra:1703.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 15:32:44*

**Authors:** Reuven Tint

**Comments:** 5 Pages. original papper in russian

Keywords: three-term equation, the method of infinite growth, elementary aspect.
Annotation. An infinitely lifting method for making certain types of three-term equations, which is completely refuted by the ABC conjecture.

**Category:** Number Theory

[31] **viXra:1703.0032 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-06 04:56:10*

**Authors:** Wolfgang Mückenheim

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Contrary to the assumptions of transfinite set theory, limit and union of infinite sequences of sets differ.

**Category:** Set Theory and Logic

[30] **viXra:1703.0031 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 19:31:46*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The emergence of sentience in the physical world - the ability to sense, feel, and respond - is central to questions surrounding the mind-body problem. Cloaked in the modern mystery of the wavefunction and its many interpretations, the search for a solid fundamental foundation to which one might anchor a model trails back into antiquity. Given the rather astounding presumption that abstractions of the mathematician might somehow inform this quest, we examine the role of geometric algebra of 3D space and 4D spacetime in establishing the foundation needed to resolve contentions of quantum interpretations. The resulting geometric wavefunction permits gut-level intuitive visualization, clarifies confusion regarding observables and observers, and provides the solid quantum foundation essential for attempts to address emergence of the phenomenon of sentience.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[29] **viXra:1703.0030 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 23:56:04*

**Authors:** Georgina Woodward

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Re-examination of the light clock argument using the idea that for a particular observed phenomenon or object the same physics must be occurring in foundational reality that is the source for the different observations made. I.e. There is the same underlying reality. To correctly extend relativity to light, electricity and magnetism, the concept must be held that those phenomena are, in foundational Object reality, unaffected by alteration of observer viewpoint, and relative motion. Rather than considering events to be happening in space time the reexamination happens using the understanding that the uni-temporal source reality is not seen but it is products of electromagnetic information receipt and processing that are seen.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[28] **viXra:1703.0028 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-04 05:00:07*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper was sent to the futuristic Physics Today contest: Physics in 2116. It suggests which theory developments and experiments to do, that we will come closer to explanations of quantum gravity and consciousness. This is partially physics, partially futuristics, and partially science fiction.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[27] **viXra:1703.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-04 05:24:40*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A mystery concerning the structure of protons is a step closer to being solved, thanks to a seven-year experiment led by researchers at MIT. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[26] **viXra:1703.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 07:03:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

MIT physicists have created a new form of matter, a supersolid, which combines the properties of solids with those of superfluids. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[25] **viXra:1703.0025 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 07:23:24*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13]

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[24] **viXra:1703.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 07:55:14*

**Authors:** A. A. Yushkanov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In the present work the problem of the attenuation of longitudinal
sound oscillations in a conducting medium are considered. The proposed approach
is based on the dynamic interaction of electron gas with the lattice vibrations.
This interaction is manifested in the modification of kinetic
equation for electrons. The process is accompanied by generation of an electric field.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[23] **viXra:1703.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 08:18:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[22] **viXra:1703.0022 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 10:27:01*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper elucidates the major points of the above referenced paper.
1. Emphasizes the derivation of the double helices and that they are not arbitrarily chosen.
2. Explains why multiples of 42 appear in prime number theory.
3. Why s in 6s-1 and 6s+1 is really a composite number.
4. Why 2 and 3 are not true prime numbers based upon characteristics.
5. Philosophical reason as to the double helices falling more into a discoverable category (as in experimental physics), as opposed to being postulate driven.

**Category:** Number Theory

[21] **viXra:1703.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 16:52:23*

**Authors:** Stephen Marshall

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

This paper presents a complete proof of the Pell Primes are infinite. We use a proof found in Reference 1, that if p > 1 and d > 0 are integers, that p and p + d are both primes if and only if for integer m:
m = (p-1)!( + ) + +
We use this proof for d = - to
prove the infinitude of Pell prime numbers. The author would like to give many thanks to the authors of 1001 Problems in Classical Number Theory, Jean-Marie De Koninck and Armel Mercier, 2004, Exercise Number 161 (see Reference 1). The proof provided in Exercise 6 is the key to making this paper on the Pell Prime Conjecture possible.

**Category:** Number Theory

[20] **viXra:1703.0020 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 19:56:35*

**Authors:** Tao Sun

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A novel effective Hamiltonian in the subspace of singly occupied states is obtained by applying the Gutzwiller projection approach to a generalized Hubbard model with the interactions between two nearest-neighbor sites.
This model provides a more complete description of the physics of strongly correlated electron systems.
The system is not necessarily in a ferromagnetic state as temperature T->0 at any doping level.
The system, however, must be in an antiferromagnetic state at the origin of the doping-temperature plane.
Moreover, the model exhibits superconductivity in a doped region at sufficiently low temperatures.
We summarize the studies and provide a phase diagram of the antiferromagnetism and the superconductivity of the model in the doping-temperature plane here.
Details will be presented in subsequent papers.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[19] **viXra:1703.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-03 00:07:50*

**Authors:** Anatoly V. Belyakov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

A large international group of theorists, using the high precision nucleon-nucleon interaction between neutrons, issued the theoretical estimates of the four-neutron (4n) system resonance state energy and its lifetime. For this purpose numerous calculations using supercomputers have been made and obtained the values of 0.84 MeV and 5×10-22 seconds. The same results were obtained with much less efforts based on the mechanistic interpretation of John Wheeler’s geometrodynamic idea.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[18] **viXra:1703.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 11:44:33*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Mapping photons to a metal surface and converting them to a particular kind of electron oscillations, called plasmons, researchers from Switzerland, Germany and the US collaborated to develop a new way to impart information into the light signals sent over the Internet's optical fiber networks. [8] University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[17] **viXra:1703.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 12:03:30*

**Authors:** Edgar Valdebenito

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this note we presents some formulas related with the radical:r=(5^(1/4)-1)/(5^(1/4)+1).

**Category:** General Mathematics

[16] **viXra:1703.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 09:00:46*

**Authors:** Philip E. Gibbs

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Starting from just the logical possibility of self-aware experience as an information
process, consciousness can be bootstrapped into existence with a minimum number of random events
capable of happening by chance in a landscape of cosmologies. This essay follows the passage of
emergence through logic, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and psychology as a high level
overview bringing together the authors ideas previously explored in earlier FQXi essays.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[15] **viXra:1703.0015 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 09:07:57*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[14] **viXra:1703.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 04:35:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

A Yale-led team has produced one of the highest-resolution maps of dark matter ever created, offering a detailed case for the existence of cold dark matter-sluggish particles that comprise the bulk of matter in the universe. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]

**Category:** Astrophysics

[13] **viXra:1703.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 05:44:53*

**Authors:** Mithileysh Sathiyanarayanan, Tobias Mulling, Bushra Nazir

**Comments:** 6 Pages. IJEDR, 2015, Vol 3, Issue 3

There is a huge demand for military robots in almost all the countries which comes under the field of human computer
interaction and artificial intelligence. There are many different ways of operating a robot: self controlled,
automatic controlled etc. Also, gesture controlled operation mode is on the rise. This acted as our motivation to develop a
gesture controlled robot using MYO armband. The word ‘MYO’ has created a buzz in the technological world by its
astonishing features and its utility in various fields. Its introduction as a armband that can wrap around our arm to
control robots with our movements and gestures has opened new wide doors of its experimentation with robotics. This
independently working gesture recognition system does not rely on any external sensors (motion capturing system) as it
has its sensors embedded in itself which recognizes the gesture commands and acts accordingly. This armband can be
worn by soldiers to operate robots to fight against enemies. This work in progress paper illustrates an existing robot
designed by us, which can be controlled by hand gestures using a wearable device called as MYO. We would like to
investigate more on this and implement, such that the robot can be interfaced with a MYO armband for a successful
control.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[12] **viXra:1703.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 05:49:01*

**Authors:** Mithileysh Sathiyanarayanan, Tobias Mulling, Bushra Nazir

**Comments:** 10 Pages. IJEDR, 2016, Vol 4, Issue 4

A new scope of human-computer interaction utilizes the algorithms of computer vision and image processing for
detecting the gesture, understanding its objective and making it meaningful for the computer to understand and then
interact with the humans. The recent introduction of "Leap Motion" is a big revolution in the field of gesture control
technology. Using gesture control mode in the field of robotics is also on the rise. This acted as our motivation to develop a
gesture controlled robot using a Leap Motion Device that can sense human hands above it and to keep a track of them and
aid in navigation. This independently working gesture recognition system does not rely on any external sensors (motion capturing system) as it has its sensors embedded in itself which recognizes the gesture commands and acts accordingly. The soldiers need not wear any physical device on their body (unlike Kinect and/or MYO Armband) to operate robots to fight against enemies. This work in progress paper illustrates an existing robot designed by us, which can be controlled by hand gestures using a non-wearable (touchless) device called as Leap Motion.

**Category:** Artificial Intelligence

[11] **viXra:1703.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-02 07:03:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17]
Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16]
Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15]
University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14]
Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13]
One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12]
Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9]
IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8]
Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7]
While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.

**Category:** Quantum Physics

[10] **viXra:1703.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 14:12:42*

**Authors:** Raymond H.V. Gallucci

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

SUV – Situational Underlying Value – for professional baseball (MLB) is a concept based on the more traditional one of “run expectancy.” This is a statistical estimate of the number of runs expected to result from a base runner or multiple runners given his/their presence at a particular base, or bases, and the number of outs in an inning. Numerous baseball websites discuss this concept; one can find dozens more with a simple internet search on “run expectancy.”
SUV for professional football (NFL) is not as readily conceived as that for baseball, although the concept of each position on the field with down and yards to go has been examined for the possibility of assigning point values (from here on referred to as SUVs). Quantification of this concept is taken from “Expected Points and Expected Points Added Explained,” by Brian Burke, December 7, 2014.
Example applications to a pair of professional baseball games (MLB) and pair of professional football games (NFL) are included that illustrate how the SUV is used.

**Category:** Statistics

[9] **viXra:1703.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 09:40:26*

**Authors:** M. B. Cilek

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Copyright M.B.Cilek - All Rights Reserved

General Theory of Relativity constitutes the framework for our understanding of the universe, with an emphasis on gravity. Many of Einstein’s predictions have been verified experimentally but General and Special Theories of Relativity contain several anomalies and paradoxes, yet to be answered. Also, there are serious conflicts with Quantum Mechanics; gravity being the weakest and least understood force, is a major problem.
Supported by clear experimental evidence, it is theorised that gravity is not a field or spacetime curvature effect, but rather has a flow mechanism. This is not an alternative theory of gravity with an alternative metric. Established laws and equations from Newton and Einstein are essentially left unchanged. However, spacetime curvature is replaced with flow, producing a refined and compatible theory.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[8] **viXra:1703.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 21:57:14*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The English

The traditional concept of space is threedimensional, with a time dimension, that is, fourdimensional space. That is, time is one dimensional. According to the theory of relativity, time and space are inextricably linked. Therefore, the space is multidimensional, so why is it that time can not may be also multidimensional. The dimension of time and space may be the same. This paper proposes that the dimension of time is the same as the dimension of space.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1703.0007 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-07 23:45:32*

**Authors:** Stephen J. Crothers

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Einstein's method of synchronising clocks in his Special Theory of Relativity is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation, despite the latter being a fundamental component of his theory. This inconsistency subverts the very foundations of Special Relativity because it follows that Einstein's time dilation and length contraction are also quite generally inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Moreover, clock synchronisation is inconsistent with the Lorentz Transformation. Clock synchronisation and the Lorentz Transformation are mutually exclusive.

**Category:** Relativity and Cosmology

[6] **viXra:1703.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 09:06:47*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This essay begins by endeavouring to ask the question
"How can mindless mathematical laws give rise to aims and intentions" but
quickly runs into difficulties with the question itself (not least that
there is an implication that there is no current mathematical law that
may be considered to be "mindful"), which requires some in-depth exploration.
I then explore what constitutes "Creative Intelligence" - coming to a
surprising conclusion that concurs with Maharish Mahesh Yogi's definition.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[5] **viXra:1703.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 04:34:21*

**Authors:** Ricardo Gil

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to provide algorithm that is 5 lines of code and that finds P & Q when N is given. It will work for RSA-2048 if the computer can float large numbers in PyCharm or Python. Also, the P&Q from Part I of the algorithm becomes the range for a for loop in Part II that returns and solves P*Q=N (True).

**Category:** Number Theory

[4] **viXra:1703.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 05:00:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is partially a review paper. Here we have focused on creation and large-scale evolution of the Universe which are described mathematically in the cited papers. We recalled it because then the quantization of masses of galaxy associations is more understandable. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of quantization of the total masses (dark matter plus baryonic matter) of the superclusters, clusters and groups of galaxies. Here we can find a statistical picture that leads to peaks in the mass function. SST shows that contrary to the nearby superclusters, the smaller parts in the distant superclusters (i.e. the clusters and groups) should be and are less isolated so the mainstream cosmology needs a revision because there was the evolution from the heavier structures to lighter structures, not from lighter to heavier. Masses of the galaxy superclusters should not change with time but with time in superclusters should appear clearly separated clusters and groups of galaxies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1703.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 07:49:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Researchers from The University of Manchester have shown it is possible to build a new super-fast form of computer that "grows as it computes". [21]
At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20]
Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19]
Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18]
Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16]
For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15]
IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10]
There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8]
This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7]
The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems.
The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.

**Category:** Digital Signal Processing

[2] **viXra:1703.0002 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 01:01:05*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Scientists have found that a superconducting current flows in only one direction through a chiral nanotube, marking the first observation of the effects of chirality on superconductivity. [29] Researchers at the University of Houston have reported a new method for inducing superconductivity in non-superconducting materials, demonstrating a concept proposed decades ago but never proven. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Condensed Matter

[1] **viXra:1703.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 01:05:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24]
A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23]
The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22]
Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21]
The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20]
Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19]
Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18]
In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17]
Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]
Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15]
A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14]
Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13]
Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12]
The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.

**Category:** Astrophysics