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1704 Submissions

[371] viXra:1704.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 14:28:10

The Latest Value of the Hubble Constant Indicates a Universe Matter Density Higher Than One Hydrogen Atom Per Cubic Meter

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: The latest experimental value of 67.80 (Km/s)/Mpc for Hubble's constant supports 8-fold supersymmetry and cyclic universe E8 symmetry theory
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[370] viXra:1704.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 15:22:59

Dark Energy is a Sign Error, Else it is Ugly.

Authors: Michael J. Burns
Comments: 2 Pages. mburns92003@yahoo.com

The experimental data is beyond dispute. But it relates to the change in composition over time of the class of supernovae that are observed. Instead, the interpretation of the data in terms of the simplest kind of acceleration contains an error in sign. Actually, a recent acceleration of the earth away from the most distant supernovae would leave all of of the supernovae at intermediate distances with a higher - not lower - relative red shift for their distances, because these supernovae would have not yet accelerated. My paper, “Neglect of General Covariance” describes the many ways in which the cosmological equation and the Friedmann coordinates violate the principles of relativity. And these violations provide cover for the concept of dark energy and its breaking of the conservation laws. There is a version of dark energy which is conserved, but this does lead to the error in sign. Annotations to this argument follow below. Then the ugliness of the alternative to the error in sign is physically described, and the conservation laws are defended.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[369] viXra:1704.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 07:04:12

The Mystery of the Pioneer of the Space Probe Becomes a Verification Experiment of Gravity by the Principle of the Particle Pulsation.

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 10 Pages.

The gravity that the photon group of the sun's light carries changes orbit of the space probe. According to the particle pulsation principle model, The photon of the wave process acts the electromagnetic power, The photon of the negative particle process forces gravity. The probe is being pulled by the gravity of the photon group of the solar Light which illuminates the space probe pioneer and is changing orbit. This is considered to be a verification experiment for the unification of nuclear, gravity and electromagnetic forces led by the principle of particle pulsation. "Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer" "Fundamental particle pulsation (dark energy pulsation model) solves the mystery" In quantum electromagnetic power, electromagnetic energy is understood as the exchange effect of photons. According to the pulsating hypothesis, photons transmit electromagnetic power, and the spatial distortion (empty late space) by the photon of the negative stroke is gravity quantum, conveying gravity. It is thought that the solar light (photon group) which reaches the space probe pioneer is operating gravity in the direction of the sun. It can be understood that the gravity of the sun is zurase 12,800 kilometers from the scheduled orbit during one year. The light of the Sun (Photon Group) is pulling in the direction of the sun by operating the gravity of the sun on the space probe. Excerpts below. A mystery of thirteen that still cannot be solved by science... by Nick Harvard. ・・・・・・・・・・・ "Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer" The pioneer of the space probe advances the trajectory which does not fit the calculation. Pioneer 10, No. 11, is seen as being pulled in the direction of the sun. Both are shifted by 12,800 kilometers each year from the planned orbit. The two probes will sail for 150 million kilometers a year. The force that is causing the displacement of the orbit is only about one-hundredth of the size of the Earth's gravitation. Even so, it came to suggest the possibility that there was a mistake in the law of the universal gravitation, and there might be an error in the application to the orbit calculation. After that, we have explored and verified all the causes, but we have not yet been able to solve them even after 30 years. It is similar to the situation where the coming point movement problem of mercury was not solved by general relativity until the solution to which the object with a huge mass like the sun bends the surrounding space was presented.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[368] viXra:1704.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 07:46:35

Performance of the ATLAS

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A new age of exploration dawned at the start of Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider, as protons began colliding at the unprecedented centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[367] viXra:1704.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 08:09:55

Secure Sharing of Personal Health Records in Cloud Using Attribute Based Encryption

Authors: Yogita Vaishnani1, Chintan Patel2, Sunil Vithlani3, Priyank Bhojak4
Comments: 8 Pages.

In emerging world of cloud computing gives wide range of functionalities. Personal Health Record (PHR) enables patients to store, share, and access personal health data in centralized way that it can be accessible from anywhere and anytime. One major problem in the existing work is the cloud to manage and secure data from the unauthorized persons. However, combining of PHR with cloud gives new horizons for medical eldest to be digitalized in centralized storage but it comes with major concern as security. There are many researchers are work in securing PHR which stored in cloud using nave approaches but it’s not enough to secure it. So there is need for new technology as Attribute based Encryption that secure PHR with providing many functionalities such as accountability, revocation of user, searching over encrypted les, delegation of other user access, searching over encrypted les, multi-authority and many more.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[366] viXra:1704.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 10:06:58

Scalar Field Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Astronomers have used data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory to study the properties of dark matter, the mysterious, invisible substance that makes up a majority of matter in the universe. The study, which involves 13 galaxy clusters, explores the possibility that dark matter may be more "fuzzy" than "cold," perhaps even adding to the complexity surrounding this cosmic conundrum. [18] The idea is called "FDM", for "fuzzy dark matter". It posits that an extremely light boson, one almost exactly massless in fact, could be responsible for the scale of galaxy halos we observe in the universe. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[365] viXra:1704.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 10:27:11

Black Hole in Sagittarius

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

An international team of astronomers led The University of Manchester have found evidence of a new 'missing-link' black hole in the Milky Way galaxy, hidden in the Sagittarius constellation. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[364] viXra:1704.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 05:48:03

The Recursive Future Equation

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 1 Page.

In this research manuscript, the author has presented a Recursive Future Equation.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[363] viXra:1704.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-04 17:52:50

Negative Gravitational Mass in a Superfluid Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's 2nd law of motion tells us that objects accelerate in the same direction as the applied force. However, recently it was shown experimentally that a Superfluid Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) accelerates in the opposite direction of the applied force, due to the inertial mass of the BEC becoming negative at the specifics conditions of the mentioned experiment. Here we show that is not the inertial mass but the gravitational mass of the BEC that becomes negative, due to the electromagnetic energy absorbed from the trap and the Raman beams used in the experimental set-up. This finding can be highly relevant to the gravitation theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[362] viXra:1704.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 18:47:02

مبدأ القرآن الكريم في الآيات & السلوك الجيبي لجيوديزيك القرآن في الآيات

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 8 Pages.

We show that the principle in the holy Quran shown in Quranic relativity also satisfied for the verses of each chapter
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[361] viXra:1704.0393 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-15 00:24:28

AAFrempong Conjecture

Authors: A. A. Frempong
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © by A. A. Frempong

The above conjecture states that if A^x + B^y = C^z, where A, B, C, x, y, z are positive integers, x, y, z > 2, and A ≠ B ≠ C ≠ 2, then A, B and C cannot be the lengths of the sides of a triangle. This conjecture evolved when after proving the Beal conjecture algebraically (viXra:1702.0331), the author attempted to prove the same conjecture geometrically. A proof of the above conjecture may shed some light on the relationships between similar equations and the lengths of the sides of polygons. Counterexamples could be added to the exceptions.
Category: Number Theory

[360] viXra:1704.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 23:48:52

Three Sequences of Primes Obtained from Poulet Numbers

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) The set of the primes which are the sum of three consecutive Poulet numbers is infinite; (II) The set of the primes which are partial sums of the sequence of Poulet numbers is infinite; (III) The set of the primes which are obtained concatenating four consecutive 2-Poulet numbers is infinite.
Category: Number Theory

[359] viXra:1704.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 23:52:47

Three Sequences of Primes Obtained Using the Digital Root and the Digital Sum of a Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following three conjectures: (I) The set of the primes which are obtained concatenating to the left a prime with its digital sum is infinite; (II) The set of the primes which are obtained concatenating to the left a prime with its digital root is infinite; (III) The set of the primes which are equal to the sum of a prime p with the number obtained concatenating to the left p with its digital sum and the number obtained concatenating to the left p with its digital root is infinite.
Category: Number Theory

[358] viXra:1704.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 11:41:42

The Gravity that the Photon Group of the Sun's Light Carries Changes Orbit of the Space Probe.

Authors: Terubumi Honjo
Comments: 10 Pages.

According to the particle pulsation principle model, The photon of the wave process acts the electromagnetic power, The photon of the negative particle process forces gravity. The probe is being pulled by the gravity of the photon group of the solar Light which illuminates the space probe pioneer and is changing orbit. This is considered to be a verification experiment for the unification of nuclear, gravity and electromagnetic forces led by the principle of particle pulsation. "Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer" "Fundamental particle pulsation (dark energy pulsation model) solves the mystery" In quantum electromagnetic power, electromagnetic energy is understood as the exchange effect of photons. According to the pulsating hypothesis, photons transmit electromagnetic power, and the spatial distortion (empty late space) by the photon of the negative stroke is gravity quantum, conveying gravity. It is thought that the solar light (photon group) which reaches the space probe pioneer is operating gravity in the direction of the sun. It can be understood that the gravity of the sun is zurase 12,800 kilometers from the scheduled orbit during one year. The light of the Sun (Photon Group) is pulling in the direction of the sun by operating the gravity of the sun on the space probe.
Category: Astrophysics

[357] viXra:1704.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 04:23:17

Organic Lasers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

New research could make lasers emitting a wide range of colors more accessible and open new applications from communications and sensing to displays. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[356] viXra:1704.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 04:53:21

Quantum Experiments of Rogue Ocean Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

By precisely controlling the quantum behavior of an ultracold atomic gas, Rice University physicists have created a model system for studying the wave phenomenon that may bring about rogue waves in Earth's oceans. [13] Australian and German researchers have collaborated to develop a genetic algorithm to confirm the rejection of classical notions of causality. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[355] viXra:1704.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 05:52:42

Fiber Optic Endoscopic Diagnosis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

In an important step toward endoscopic diagnosis of cancer, researchers have developed a handheld fiber optic probe that can be used to perform multiple nonlinear imaging techniques without the need for tissue staining. The new multimodal imaging probe uses an ultrafast laser to create nonlinear optical effects in tissue that can reveal cancer and other diseases. [18] A "chemical imaging" system that uses a special type of laser beam to penetrate deep into tissue might lead to technologies that eliminate the need to draw blood for analyses including drug testing and early detection of diseases such as cancer and diabetes. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[354] viXra:1704.0386 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-24 10:10:11

Dielectrodynamics and Applications

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 41 Pages, 11 figures. Part one: Dielectric blade comb piston mechanic-electric bi-direction converter. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29374.69448

The electric vs. mechanic bi-directional power conversion application has been traditionally and asymmetrically favoring at magnetic element as energy caching and buffering bridge, e.g. the electric motors and generators that are also abstracted as electromechanical devices. The theory behind those omnipresent electromechanical devices or equipments is electrodynamics. Based on recent fast development of high energy density dielectric materials, my inventions are to be a game changer: let electrical field alone to take the heavy duty of electromechanical utilities, and let “dielectrodynamics” replace electrodynamics. Of the most importance is the key limitless high voltage generator, which can cover full gamut of voltages from volts to kilovolts (KV), megavolts (MV), even gigavolts (GV), and what we need, is just to provide necessary space occupancy and mechanic work acting on dielectric blade comb-like piston. Either motor or generator can be re-invented with this core dielectrodynamic module.
Category: Classical Physics

[353] viXra:1704.0385 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-24 10:05:30

Room Temperature Alternative Superconductor System Based on Classic Dielectrodynamics

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 12 Pages, 7 figures. Part two of dielectrodynamics. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.13855.76966

Superconductor is good for carrying huge current, but extreme low cryogenic temperature is cumbersome, expensive and high energy consumption for keeping the condition. As alternative, spinning electric charged metal disc(s) can mimic superconductor in normal ambient condition or even high temperature as long as not too hot to deform parts, and such is more convenience and far less energy consumption than cryogenic deep freezer. In fact, velocity of electrons drift in current carrying disc is very slow, e.g. only 23μm/s for 1 ampere in a 2mm diameter wire, in contrast, mechanic motion can easily reach sound speed, hence huge virtual current can exist.
Category: Classical Physics

[352] viXra:1704.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 18:11:58

Principles of Chronodynamics

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, Time is formulated as a measure of the average volume of a time quantum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[351] viXra:1704.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 23:11:55

One Step Forecasting Model {Simple Model} (Version 6)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented two Forecasting Models
Category: Statistics

[350] viXra:1704.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 23:39:19

One Step Forecasting Model {Advanced Model} (Version 3)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented two Forecasting Models.
Category: Statistics

[349] viXra:1704.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-29 03:45:58

Computational Power of Chaos-Based Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

New research from North Carolina State University has found that combining digital and analog components in nonlinear, chaos-based integrated circuits can improve their computational power by enabling processing of a larger number of inputs. [18] A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[348] viXra:1704.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 07:31:51

Weyl Particles Dance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers at MIPT have examined the behavior of Weyl particles trapped on the surface of Weyl semimetals. [10] Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have discovered a new type of Weyl semimetal, a material that opens the way for further study of Weyl fermions, a type of massless elementary particle hypothesized by high-energy particle theory and potentially useful for creating high-speed electronic circuits and quantum computers. [9] An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of several previously unknown types of quantum particles in materials. The particles— which belong to the class of particles known as fermions—can be distinguished by several intrinsic properties, such as their responses to applied magnetic and electric fields. In several cases, fermions in the interior of the material show their presence on the surface via the appearance of electron states called Fermi arcs, which link the different types of fermion states in the material's bulk. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[347] viXra:1704.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 08:30:11

Decrease in Disaster Risks from Earthquakes and Explosions of Volcanoes by Extraction of the Hydrocarbons Coming to Them

Authors: V.Korniienko
Comments: 12 Pages. In Russian

The analysis of space pictures in a range of S-radiations has allowed us to find global network of breaks tunnels of crust on which from global Polar fields huge volumes of hydrocarbons (HC) migrate to the equator. On the way these tunnels cross all known fields of HC, and also zone of earthquakes, active volcanoes and huge holes in the earth. In these parts porous and jointed rocks in which there is a leak from HC tunnels that creates conditions for synthesis from them explosive substances which explosions cause these cataclysms prevail. We also have developed a method of search of places for drilling in tunnels of search wells that allows to get them unlimited volumes of HC that will cause decrease in number of earthquakes and explosions of volcanoes. It is offered to force production of UV from a tunnel which energy will save the population from the volcanic winter caused by explosion of the Yellowstone volcano.
Category: Geophysics

[346] viXra:1704.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 08:53:27

Quantum Correlations of Causal Models

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Australian and German researchers have collaborated to develop a genetic algorithm to confirm the rejection of classical notions of causality. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[345] viXra:1704.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 09:27:43

Electron Populations in Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Measuring small fast electron populations hidden in a sea of colder "thermal" electrons in tokamak plasmas is very challenging. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[344] viXra:1704.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 04:24:52

Heretical Physics Orbits an Aether Solution

Authors: John E.Miller
Comments: 11 Pages.

Following on from Heretical Physics II, in which the concept of planetary orbits being the resultant creation, by the geometry of two circles. Here expanded to two 'Aether' spheres. The second sphere is an Aether carrier sphere (A.C.S.) shown at various locations; here for Earth as the working example. Some support for Einstein's CURVED SPACE - (A field of charge?) and an explanation of the geometry for the Milankovitch cycles as they affect Earth's axis is included.
Category: Astrophysics

[343] viXra:1704.0375 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-09 11:37:15

Converged Solar Neutrinos Heat Outer Core of Earth to Liquid

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 10 pages, 1 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.22716.23689

This paper presents a new viewpoint to explain why the outer core of Earth is liquid. The conclusion is based on these factors: iron and nickel are the principle elements of core; isotopes 57Fe, 61Ni can harvest low energy 14keV and 67keV respectively from concentrated neutrinos current, then convert to heat; unlike thermal neutron’s optic refractive index n<1 and very close to 1, the low energy (<100keV) neutrino’s can be n > 2, so as to form caustic zone inside Earth, confirmed by the fact that night observed value of solar neutrinos is 3.2% more than day.
Category: Astrophysics

[342] viXra:1704.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-09 12:07:41

New Discoveries in Parkhomov’s 60co Astro-Catalyzed Beta Decay

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30632.98564

In 2011, Russian experimental physicist Parkhomov delivered a paper: “Deviations from Beta Radioactivity Exponential Drop”. It seems that his explanation on the observed phenomenon is little bit shallow. Hereby I present my new 5 discoveries based on his experiment settings and data, and try to generalize it as profound lemma. 1-Good use of neutrinos can greatly accelerate beta decay; 2-Low energy neutrinos can reflect on mirror; 3-Boson quasi-particle comprising neutrinos in even number can be formed under focusing condition; 4-Such a quasi-particle in high spin can excite nucleus to overcome high spin lock; 5-Only β- decay can be catalyzed by neutrinos, as well as only β+ or electric capture decay can be catalyzed by antineutrinos, otherwise converse will be slowed down.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[341] viXra:1704.0373 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-24 09:58:15

Power Density Calculation Formula for Decay Based Nuclear Fuel or Battery

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 6 pages, 0 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32730.13764

This paper presents a convenient calculation formula of energy density for nuclear fuel or nuclear battery that outputs energy by whatever decay. Also a relative formula is deduced for easy comparison between different fuels. At last, with the convenient formula, the energy density comparison and possibility of applying different isomer beta fuels are proactively calculated and aggressively discussed.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[340] viXra:1704.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-24 10:14:27

A Bold Innovation on Artificial Neutrinos Source

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34378.36804

It is well known that neutrinos come out of nuclear β decay, but radioactive materials do harm to human beings, and either energy spectrum or dose cannot be flexibly controlled because of the only dependence on selected nuclide and mass. This paper presents a new way to build neutrinos source by only accurately manipulating electrons motion. Because voltage supply can hardly reach MV-level, thus this method is not competent to generate high energy neutrinos, and only good for low energy, especially a convenient means for range 1eV to 100keV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[339] viXra:1704.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 23:10:31

One Step Forecasting Model {Simple Model} (Version 5)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Forecasting Model
Category: Statistics

[338] viXra:1704.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 23:45:03

One Step Forecasting Model {Advanced Model} (Version 6)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented an Advanced Forecasting Model.
Category: Statistics

[337] viXra:1704.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 02:26:41

Chemical Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A "chemical imaging" system that uses a special type of laser beam to penetrate deep into tissue might lead to technologies that eliminate the need to draw blood for analyses including drug testing and early detection of diseases such as cancer and diabetes. [17] A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[336] viXra:1704.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 02:54:24

One Step Forecasting Model {Advanced Model} (Version 2)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented an Advanced Forecasting Model.
Category: Statistics

[335] viXra:1704.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 03:34:32

Forces that Align Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Like two magnets being pulled toward each other, tiny crystals twist, align and slam into each other, but due to an altogether different force. For the first time, researchers have measured the force that draws them together and visualized how they swivel and align. [19] Researchers at Georgia Institute of Technology have found a material used for decades to color food items ranging from corn chips to ice creams could potentially have uses far beyond food dyes. [18] Liquid droplets are natural magnifiers. Look inside a single drop of water, and you are likely to see a reflection of the world around you, close up and distended as you'd see in a crystal ball. [17] MIT physicists have created a new form of matter, a supersolid, which combines the properties of solids with those of superfluids. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[334] viXra:1704.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:16:26

Quantum Computing Frontier

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers from Australia and the UK have developed a new theoretical framework to identify computations that occupy the 'quantum frontier'—the boundary at which problems become impossible for today's computers and can only be solved by a quantum computer. [17] Scientists at the University of Sussex have invented a groundbreaking new method that puts the construction of large-scale quantum computers within reach of current technology. [16] Physicists at the University of Bath have developed a technique to more reliably produce single photons that can be imprinted with quantum information. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[333] viXra:1704.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:28:53

Feigenbaum’s Constant and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Mario Hieb
Comments: 4 Pages.

A simple mathematical relationship exists between two unit-less, universal physical constants: the Sommerfeld fine-structure constant and Feigenbaum’s delta. This relationship may help to explain the “mystery” that has surrounded the fine-structure constant for many decades.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[332] viXra:1704.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 11:52:28

Photodielectric Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of researchers from Japan reports this week in Applied Physics Letters, that they have discovered a phenomenon called the photodielectric effect, which could lead to laser-controlled touch displays. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[331] viXra:1704.0363 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-12 02:48:50

Selectivity in Sets and the Duality P vs NP

Authors: Haroun Boutamani
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper addresses the concept of selectivity using a main set and an auxiliary set, the auxiliary serves the purpose of deciding which elements do or do not fit together within the output sets chosen based on the elements of the main set. This paper also presents an approach of comparing sets based on a defined relation, the sets’ properties, and the elementary properties being total compatibility and total incompatibility. The problem classes P and NP are two sets considered under the criteria of distinguishability, then the possibility of comparison of the two sets is discussed. The proposed comparison presents a distinction between P and NP.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[330] viXra:1704.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 08:31:47

Electricity at Almost the Speed of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists at the University of California, Irvine and elsewhere have fabricated new two-dimensional quantum materials with breakthrough electrical and magnetic attributes that could make them building blocks of future quantum computers and other advanced electronics. [16] NIST has been granted a patent for technology that may hasten the advent of a long-awaited new generation of high-performance, low-energy computers. [15] Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[329] viXra:1704.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 09:07:41

السلوك الجيبي لإحداثيات جيوديزيك القرآن في فضاء الحرقم

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 12 Pages.

we give the data in the holy quran, showing the sine-behavior of the letters, with respect to the harkam space.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[328] viXra:1704.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 05:08:15

Do We See the Equivalence Principle in Its True Aspect?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The interaction of the non-gravitating Higgs field with an inertial mass, due to the fifth force, resulting from the dynamic viscosity of the inertial mass and Higgs field, causes the inertial mass to be surrounded by non-gravitating/inertial gravitational field which is the gradient in the Higgs field. Such gravitational clothing does not result in the appearance of a new mass type commonly referred to as gravitational mass. Since there is only one kind of mass, that is inertial mass, so the challenge is not to answer the question of why the inertial and gravitational masses are the same. The challenge is to answer why the gravitational constant G does not depend on the internal structure of bodies - this is the fundamental problem of the Equivalence Principle. Here we justify that the invariance of the gravitational constant is due to the fact that the second component of spacetime, i.e. the Einstein spacetime, and all bodies consist of inertial masses-charges having invariant inertial mass. Interactions such as gravity, electromagnetism, weak interactions, and nuclear strong interactions can not change the mass of the inertial masses-charges - they can only change their number in the system under consideration. The same concerns the quantum entanglement which is a result of simultaneous exchanges of the same parts of the inertial masses-charges. In formula ma = GMm/(rr), M and m are the inertial masses, not some gravitational masses, whereas G depends on properties of Higgs field and dynamic viscosity of it and indirectly of the invariant masses-charges. The inertial masses-charges produce only the invariant negative gradients in the Higgs field so gravitational force is always attractive.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[327] viXra:1704.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 05:13:57

Lepton Flavour Non-Universality from the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

In recent years, LHCb has found hints of deviations from the Standard-Model (SM) predictions that point new physics (NP). The lepton flavour universality is violated when comparing rates of decays of B mesons into excited kaon and lepton-antilepton pair with different flavours. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the ratio of such decay rates when there appears a pair of muons or electron-positron pair. In the low-squared-q region (0.045 < qq < 1.1 GeV^2/c^4)), we obtained ratio = 0.6603 and in the central-squared-q region (qq > 1.1), we obtained ratio = 0.6850. The SST results are consistent with the central values obtained in the LHCb experiments 0.660 and 0.685 respectively. We can compare the LHCb and SST results with the SM predictions that give values close to unity. The SM results are inconsistent with the LHCb data having a statistical significance of 2.2 - 2.5 sigma. We showed that the decrease from about 1 in SM to 0.6603 in SST follows from different structure of muon and electron and from creation of additional electron-positron pair near bare muon, whereas the increase in SST from 0.6603 to 0.6850 is a result of the weak interactions of a pair of muons with nucleon at q higher than some threshold energy equal to 1.05 or 1.06 GeV/c^2 i.e. the squared q should be higher than about 1.1. We do not need a heavy Z’ boson or leptoquarks to explain the deviations from SM - we need a lacking part of SM i.e. we need the SST which is the NP.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[326] viXra:1704.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 07:16:39

Spintronic Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

NIST has been granted a patent for technology that may hasten the advent of a long-awaited new generation of high-performance, low-energy computers. [15] Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[325] viXra:1704.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 14:57:30

The Principle of the Holy Quran

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Quranic equivalence principle is further simplified.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[324] viXra:1704.0354 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-28 14:41:46

Formalization of Multivariate Lagrange Interpolation

Authors: Yvann Le Fay
Comments: 4 Pages.

We generalize a simple formula for constructing the multinomial function f which interpolates a set of (d+1) points in IR^N. We also provide an example of application of this method.
Category: General Mathematics

[323] viXra:1704.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 06:56:36

Artificial Synapse

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers from France and the University of Arkansas have created an artificial synapse capable of autonomous learning, a component of artificial intelligence. [17] Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[322] viXra:1704.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-26 13:41:24

Einstein’s Repudiation of His Own Theory of Relativity After 1920

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Einstein in his works from 1905 till 1907 discarded the ether from physics but his more than 5 papers from 1920 to 1934 deal with the ether as an unexceptionable physical reality. In these papers Einstein becomes more an enthusiastic advocate of the testification of the ether than supporters of the ether before the year 1905. It is regrettable that except of Einstein’s widely cited less important paper presented at a conference in Leiden in 1920 other more important papers on ether in which Einstein comes with the definitive claim that without the ether it is not possible to explain the physical world around us are not known to wider physical community and even not known to dissident physicists community as well. In this paper we show that Einstein by his own declarations after 1920 about testified existence of the ether himself openly repudiated his Special and General theories of relativity. In amendment we bring the text of Einstein’s 1924 paper “On the ether”.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[321] viXra:1704.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 07:55:13

Laser Cooling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[320] viXra:1704.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 08:24:21

Laser for Everything

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A novel way to harness lasers and plasmas may give researchers new ways to explore outer space and to examine bugs, tumors and bones back on planet Earth. [16] A team of researchers at Harvard University has successfully cooled a three-atom molecule down to near absolute zero for the first time. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[319] viXra:1704.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-12 06:23:56

On Aberration of Light Part #2

Authors: Florian Michael Schmitt
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper challenges to overcome one of the greatest misunderstanding in historic physics concerning the stellar aberration. It will be shown, how stellar aberration is functioning with a solely wave nature of light without stressing pointing vector concepts. Further on it will be shown, that even in dragged ether concepts stellar aberration must exist. Since failure of dragged or drift ether concepts to explain stellar aberration such were abandoned and gave room for special relativity. Based on the concept, questions such as light being dragged by gravity, mercury orbit variation will have to be reconsidered as well as special relativity throughout.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[318] viXra:1704.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 09:47:36

Quantum Secure Communications

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Scientists at the University of York's Centre for Quantum Technology have made an important breakthrough in the theory of quantum secure communications. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[317] viXra:1704.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 10:13:48

A Short Note on the de Broglie Wavelengths of Composite Objects

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 2 Pages.

The de Broglie wavelength of an object is inversely proportional to the object’s mass and relative velocity multiplied by Planck’s constant. A composite object, such as an atom composed of a proton and electron, possesses a total mass and therefore a composite de Broglie wavelength. Mass is simply additive, although the relation for combining de Broglie wavelengths has never been stated. In this paper, we derive the relation for combining the de Broglie wavelengths of an object’s component parts into the composite de Broglie wavelength of the object as a whole.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[316] viXra:1704.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 10:26:25

Performance of Computer Components

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

NIST scientists have developed a novel automated probe system for evaluating the performance of computer components designed to run 100 times faster than today's best supercomputers and consume as little as Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[315] viXra:1704.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 05:16:15

A Reassessment of Nucleic Acid Melting

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 13 Pages.

A brief critique of DNA and RNA melting, particularly from a physico-chemical perspective, is presented. These melting phenomena have been employed to obtain quantitative estimates of the stability of putative base pairs, thus apparently bolstering the double helical structure of DNA. It is argued herein that the titled phenomena may not be what they seem: in particular, the strategy based on the van’t Hoff equation may not be valid, and alternative interpretations of the results merit serious consideration. These arguments cast a shadow on current views about nucleic acid structure and stability.
Category: Chemistry

[314] viXra:1704.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 06:16:55

One Step Forecasting Model {Version 4}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented two forecasting models.
Category: Statistics

[313] viXra:1704.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 13:47:47

Moduli Space of Compact Lagrangian Submanifolds

Authors: Giordano Colò
Comments: 28 Pages.

We describe the deformations of the moduli space M of Special Lagrangian submanifolds in the compact case and we give a characterization of the topology of M by using McLean theorem. We consider Banach spaces on bundle sections and elliptical operators and we use Hodge theory to study the topology of the manifold. Starting from McLean results, for which the moduli space of compact special Lagrangian submanifolds is smooth and its tangent space can be identified with harmonic 1-forms on these submanifolds, we can analyze their deformations. Then we introduce a Riemannian metric on M, from which we obtain other important properties.
Category: Geometry

[312] viXra:1704.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 13:52:17

Quantum Simulator Supermaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists at Utrecht University have created a 'quantum simulator,' a model system to study theoretical prognoses for a whole new class of materials. [18] For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. They demonstrated that a vacancy in graphene can be charged in a controllable way such that electrons can be localized to mimic the electron orbitals of an artificial atom. Importantly, the trapping mechanism is reversible (turned on and off) and the energy levels can be tuned. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[311] viXra:1704.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 16:11:18

The Dirichlet and the Neumann Boundary Conditions May not Produce Equivalent Solutions to the Same Electrostatic Problem

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 4 Pages.

Electrostatic problems are widely solved using two types of boundary conditions (BC), namely, the Dirichlet condition (DC) and Neumann condition (NC). The DC specifies values of electrostatic potential ($\psi$), while the NC specifies values of $\nabla \psi$ at the boundaries. Here we show that DC and NC may not produce equivalent solutions to a given problem; we demonstrate it with a particular problem: 1-D linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE), which has been regularly used to find the distribution of ionic charges within electrolyte solutions. Our findings are immediately applicable to many other problems in electrostatics.
Category: Condensed Matter

[310] viXra:1704.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 16:57:03

PHPR Preconditions

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

A waiting period...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[309] viXra:1704.0339 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-03 18:27:35

Time Perspective Distortion, Illusion of Accelerated Expansion

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 8 Pages. Somehow, most of my reviews have misconstrued my ideas, which has caused me to add revisions.

"Time Perspective Distortion (TPD) proposes that all velocities, including radial recessive and rotational, will naturally appear to increase per distances of great magnitude as an illusion between scales viewed in magnification. In the introduction, I cite a clear deviation from Kepler’s orbital laws with a correlation study of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. However, TPD explains this as only an illusion. In section: 4, I explain why galaxy rotations appear to deviate from Kepler’s laws. In section: 5, I generalize how velocities appear to increase with distance, using a pulsar application. In section: 6, I Show how galaxy rotational velocity appears to increases with distance. In section: 8, I show how TPD is a factor in galaxy rotational curves. In Section: 9, I show how TPD affects the spherical asymmetry of supernova remnant velocity. In section: 10, I provide a mathematical proof to distinguish TPD from accelerated expansion. Please note: TPD is only evident over great distances. For instance, TPD predicts an apparent increase in comet orbital velocities over distance, however the margin of error (especially from unstable gas emissions) is greater than observable results. TPD is distinct from time dilation and does not contradict or violate either time dilation, GR, nor expansion. In TPD, corrections of skewed time intervals are first converted to true orthogonal length (t⊥) subsequently, all classical and relative physics are then calculated using t⊥ instead of t. "
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[308] viXra:1704.0338 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-29 14:31:16

On the Planck Fine-structure Constant

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a new Planck constant – the Planck fine-structure constant –. Then, from the relativistic model of the hydrogen atom I prove that this new constant is consistent with the existence of hydrogen, and hence, consistent with the appearance of life in the universe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[307] viXra:1704.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 03:14:10

Digital Assistant

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Intelligent machines of the future will help restore memory, mind your children, fetch your coffee and even care for aging parents. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[306] viXra:1704.0336 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-13 10:26:39

Evaluation of Mach’s Principle in a Universe with Four Spatial Dimensions

Authors: Eva Deli
Comments: 14 Pages. Thank you!

Recent cosmological data shows the Milky Way galaxy being pushed ahead of a void. Independently, laboratory research has created matter with negative mass. A possible relationship between these seemingly unrelated results indicates the need to reexamine our understanding of gravity. According to the Page and Wootter mechanism, time is static globally, but emergent for ‘internal’ observers. That is, interaction increases the energy-information differences among the constituents of the cosmos. Such temporal evolution engenders polar singularities, known as black and white holes, in accordance with general relativity. The second law of thermodynamics leads to Landauer’s principle, which shows that the emitted heat is proportional to the erased information of the system. Thus, information accumulates heat in black hole horizons, which have been found to be two dimensional; whereas information-free areas are energy rich and cold. The principle of static time dictates information and dimensional complementarity between antipodal areas of the universe. Two dimensional, positive curvature black holes must be balanced by negative curvature, four dimensional white holes, which expand space and lead to the experience of ‘dark energy.’ Positive curvature forms great field strength, which stabilizes the universe with a pressure experienced as excess gravity, called dark matter. Enhanced field strength leads to clumping, forming planets, stars, galaxies and galaxy clusters, which slows expansion. The dimensional anisotropy (two in the black holes and four in the white holes) straddle unstable, three-dimensional galactic environments between them. An object’s position in space corresponds to a freely hanging plumb. Deviations in angle of that plumb (position of the object) – thereby changes the equilibrium of the whole universe and leads to inertia, a force that is proportional to both the mass of the object and the field strength (i.e. radial topological distance from the center). Therefore inertia is greatest in the vicinity of the black holes. On the positively curved polar surfaces of space (such as a planet) a path that curves toward the pole forms the shortest distance. On positive curving temporal surfaces the shortest time is acceleration, which leads to the twin paradox. The hypothesis is congruent with the latest CMB data, satisfies Mach’s principle as well as Occam’s razor by uncovering a surprisingly simple, stable and unified alignment of the universe. This new physical world view is presented with visual illustrations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[305] viXra:1704.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 14:05:12

Quranic Relativity النسبية القرآنية

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 44 Pages.

We see in this research that the text structure of quran follows general relativity equations.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[304] viXra:1704.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 15:01:19

Inexhaustible Power Source

Authors: Simon A. Olanipekun
Comments: Pages.

An Inexhaustible Power Source(IPS) that has a power-to-weight ratio of 122Horsepower per kilogram, with an efficiency of about 99% and a lifespan of 70years, and a coefficient of performance that tends to infinity… The IPS produces energy by inducing a magnetic vortex in its vicinity and transducing the energy inherent in the magnetic vortex into classical mechanical energy.
Category: Classical Physics

[303] viXra:1704.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 23:04:13

One Step Forecasting Model {Version 3}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented two one step forecasting models.
Category: Statistics

[302] viXra:1704.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 23:10:04

A Modification of the Lifshitz-Slyozov-Wagner Equation for Predicting Coarsening of γ‘ and Other Precipitates with Compositions Similar to that of Their Matrix

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 32 Pages.

The story behind this article is instructive, and even a bit troubling. I wrote it in 1991 as a continuation of part of my Doctoral thesis, which I’d completed a few years earlier. During that research, I’d found that scientists who’d done very fine laboratory work on Ostwald ripening during the 1960s had made a curious error in simple mass balances when deriving a rate equation for Ostwald ripening starting from the minimum-entropy-production-rate (MEPR) principle. That error led the 1960s scientists to reject (with commendable honesty) their hypothesis that the MEPR principle is applicable to Ostwald ripening. Like all the rest of us metallurgists back then, I didn’t catch that error, until I examined the derivation of the MEPR-based rate equation in detail during my thesis work. However, I didn’t manage to re-derive the rate equation fully until I took up the subject again in the early 1990s. The scientists who did such fine lab work in the 1960s would no doubt have been pleased to learn that their empirical results agreed quite well with predictions made by the corrected equation. Thus, those scientists were correct in their hypothesis about the MEPR principle’s applicability. I continue to wonder how we metallurgists overlooked, for more than two decades, the simple error that led those scientists to conclude, mistakenly but honestly, that they’d been wrong. I never did manage to publish this article, but the same derivations and analyses were published by other researchers within a few years. Some of the reviewers’ comments on the article are addressed in the second article in this document, “Comments on ‘Ostwald Ripening Growth Rate for Nonideal Systems with Significant Mutual Solubility’”.
Category: Condensed Matter

[301] viXra:1704.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:13:45

A Neutrosophic Binomial Factorial Theorem with their Refrains

Authors: Huda E. Khalid, Florentin Smarandache, Ahmed K. Essa
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Neutrosophic Precalculus and the Neutrosophic Calculus can be developed in many ways, depending on the types of indeterminacy one has and on the method used to deal with such indeterminacy. This article is innovative since the form of neutrosophic binomial factorial theorem was constructed in addition to its refrains.Two other important theorems were proven with their corollaries, and numerical examples as well. As a conjecture, we use ten (indeterminate) forms in neutrosophic calculus taking an important role in limits. To serve article's aim, some important questions had been answered.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[300] viXra:1704.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:19:00

An Isolated Interval Valued Neutrosophic Graph

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 14 Pages.

The interval valued neutrosophic graphs are generalizations of the fuzzy graphs, interval fuzzy graphs, interval valued intuitionstic fuzzy graphs, and single valued neutrosophic graphs. Previously, several results have been proved on the isolated graphs and the complete graphs. In this paper, a necessary and sufficient condition for an interval valued neutrosophic graph to be an isolated interval valued neutrosophic graph is proved.
Category: General Mathematics

[299] viXra:1704.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:20:29

Apollonius Circles of Rank -1

Authors: Ion Patrascu, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article, we highlight some properties of the Apollonius circles of rank - 1 associated with a triangle.
Category: Geometry

[298] viXra:1704.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:22:04

Applications of Fuzzy and Neutrosophic Logic in Solving Multi-criteria Decision Making Problems

Authors: Abdel Nasser H. Zaied, Hagar M. Naguib
Comments: 9 Pages.

In daily life, decision makers around the world are seeking for the appropriate decisions while facing many challenges due to conflicting criteria and the presence of many alternatives.
Category: General Mathematics

[297] viXra:1704.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:25:49

The 3n + p Conjecture: A Generalization of Collatz Conjecture

Authors: W.b. Vasantha Kandasamy, Ilanthenral Kandasamy, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Collatz conjecture is an open conjecture in mathematics named so after Lothar Collatz who proposed it in 1937. It is also known as 3n 1 conjecture, the Ulam conjecture (after Stanislaw Ulam), Kakutanis problem (after Shizuo Kakutani) and so on. Several various generalization of the Collatz conjecture has been carried.
Category: General Mathematics

[296] viXra:1704.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:33:50

Microworld_36. Axiomatization of Physics

Authors: N.N.Leonov
Comments: 19 Pages. English and russian texts

Axiomatization of physics that D. Gilbert hankered after is implemented by methods of the theory of non-linear oscillations, using Mandelstam-Andronov’s applied scientific methodology
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[295] viXra:1704.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:52:27

Fuzzy Logic vs. Neutrosophic Logic: Operations Logic

Authors: Salah Bouzina
Comments: 6 Pages.

The goal of this research is first to show how different, thorough, widespread and effective are the operations logic of the neutrosophic logic compared to the fuzzy logic’s operations logical. The second aim is to observe how a fully new logic, the neutrosophic logic, is established starting by changing the previous logical perspective fuzzy logic, and by changing that, we mean changing the truth values from the truth and falsity degrees membership in fuzzy logic, to the truth, falsity and indeterminacy degrees membership in neutrosophic logic; and thirdly, to observe that there is no limit to the logical discoveries.
Category: General Mathematics

[294] viXra:1704.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:53:42

An Application on Standard Neutrosophic Information Systems

Authors: Nguyen Xuan Thao, Bui Cong Cuong, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

A rough fuzzy set is the result of approximation of a fuzzy set with respect to a crisp approximation space. It is a mathematical tool for the knowledge discovery in the fuzzy information systems. In this paper, we introduce the concepts of rough standard neutrosophic sets, standard neutrosophic information system and give some results of the knowledge discovery on standard neutrosophic information system based on rough standard neutrosophic sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[293] viXra:1704.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-25 03:55:07

Some Aggregation Operators For Bipolar-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Information

Authors: Tahir Mahmood, Florentin Smarandache, Kifayat Ullah, Qaisar Khan
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this article we define some aggregation operators for bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy sets. These operations include bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted averaging (BPVHFOWA) operator, bipolar-valued hesitant fuzzy ordered weighted geometric (BPVHFOWG) operator and their generalized forms. We also define hybrid aggregation operators and their generalized forms and solved a decision-making problem on these operation.
Category: General Mathematics

[292] viXra:1704.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:43:53

Depth-Integrated Characteristics of Nonlinear Water Waves

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 72 pages

This exposition has the following main objects in view. (1) All main depth-integrated time-dependent and time-averaged characteristics, – as the velocity potential, velocity, pressure, momentum flux density tensor, volumetric kinetic, potential, and total energies, Poynting (energy flux density) vector, radiation (wave) stress tensor, etc, – of the ideal (inviscid, incompressible, and irrotational) fluid flow in an imaginary wave-perturbed infinite water layer with an arbitrary shaped bed and with a free upper boundary surface, and also the pertinent depth-integrated time-dependent and time-averaged differential continuity equations, – as those of the mass density, energy density, and momentum flux density (Euler’s and Bernoulli’s equations), etc, – are rigorously deduced from the respective basic local (bulk and surface) characteristics and from the respective bulk continuity equations, with allowance for the corresponding exact kinematic boundary conditions at the upper (free) and bottom surfaces and also with allowance for the corresponding exact dynamic boundary condition at the free surface, which follows from the basic Bernoulli equation. (2) The recursive asymptotic perturbation method with respect to powers of ka that has been developed recently by the present author for the local characteristics and bulk continuity equations of the ideal fluid flow in the presence of a priming (seeding) progressive, or standing, monochromatic gravity water wave (PPPMGWW or PSPMGWW) of a wave number k>0 and of wave amplitude a>0 in an imaginary infinite water layer of a uniform depth d>0 is extended to flow’s momentary and time-averaged (TA), depth-integrated (DI) characteristics and to their continuity equations, particularly to the 3x3 radiation, or wave, stress tensor (RST). (3) The extended recursive method is applied to PPPMGWW’s and PSPMGWW’s with the purpose to obtain their main TADI characteristics in terms of elementary functions. (4) The first non-vanishing asymptotic approximation of a characteristic, particularly that of the 3x3-TADIRST, of a PPPMGWW or PSPMGWW is generalized to a priming progressive, or standing, quasi-pane (PPQP or PSQP) MGWW. (5) The longshore wave–induced sediment transport rate, expressed by the so-called CERC (Coastal Engineering Research Council) formula, is briefly discussed in its relation to the (x,y)-component of the 3x3-TADIRST of the pertinent PPQPMGWW. (6) The presently common 2x2-TADIRST’s of progressive and standing water waves, which have been deduced by various writers from intuitive considerations and have been canonized about 55 years ago, are revised in accordance with the 3x3 ones of the recursive asymptotic theory.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[291] viXra:1704.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:48:27

Heretical Physicsxia Newtons'g'

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 6 Pages.

Investigate the source of Newton's 'G' and unexplored dynamic applications beyond value 'g'
Category: Astrophysics

[290] viXra:1704.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:55:12

Biosensor using Magnetic Field

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[289] viXra:1704.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 09:02:56

Study of Tornadoes that Have Reached the State of Paraná

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 27 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. PJSE v.2, n.1, 1-27(2016). https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/archives. For Full article: https://drive.google.com/file/d/0BxkqIa7R4j_RWjc5MkdaczRnSnM/view?usp=sharing

Several tornadoes have solid recorded in the Midwest, Southeast and South of Brazil. The southern region of Brazil has been hit by several of them in the last decade, highlighted the state of Paraná a to record three tornadoes in 2015. The work is a survey of tornadoes that caused major damage to the Paraná population, relevance those who reached the Balsa Nova counties, Francisco Beltrão, Cafelândia, Nova Aurora and Marechal Cândido Rondon. The main cause because it is related to El Niño which has caused a significant rise in temperature and water vapor present in the atmosphere in the state’s regions in surroundings that influence the climate of the state. Another likely factor is the increase in global temperature of the planet, a ripple effect on the warming of Pacific Ocean waters. The meeting is the possibility of the formation of large storms that funnel and reach the states of Paraná and Santa Catarina. Overall fronts storms fall into two, forming a separation channel as a wave, their crests (storms) and valleys (lull), advancing the state of Paraná.
Category: Climate Research

[288] viXra:1704.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:27:27

Nanoscopic Techniques

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[287] viXra:1704.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 11:57:50

Chiral Currents in Quantum Hall

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Using an atomic quantum simulator, scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have achieved the first-ever direct observation of chiral currents in the model topological insulator, the 2-D integer quantum Hall system. [22] Physicists at Bielefeld University and the Arctic University of Norway in Tromsø have developed a photonic chip that makes it possible to carry out super-resolution light microscopy, also called 'nanoscopy,' with conventional microscopes. In nanoscopy, the position of single fluorescent molecules can be determined with a precision of just a few nano-meters, that is, to a millionth of a millimeter. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[286] viXra:1704.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 04:51:58

One Step Forecasting Model (Version 2)

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented two Forecasting Models.
Category: Statistics

[285] viXra:1704.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 06:54:45

Zhoufang Transformation (Z- Transformation) : The Motion Observation Theory and Theoretical Interpretation for Hubble’s Law

Authors: Fang Zhou
Comments: 62 pages in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[284] viXra:1704.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 06:49:47

Brains Recognize Unseen in a Second

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In about a tenth of a second—too quickly for us to even be aware it's happening—our brains figure out what we are seeing and make sense of it. [25] A new study out of the University of California Los Angeles (UCLA) has found that one part of the neurons in our brains is more active than previously revealed. The finding implies that our brains are both analog and digital computers and could lead to better ways to treat neurological disorders. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[283] viXra:1704.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 00:38:54

Optical Micro-Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of engineering researchers from UCLA and OEWaves has developed an optical micro-oscillator, a key time-keeping component of clocks that could vastly improve the accuracy of time-keeping, which is essential for use in spacecraft, automobile sensing or satellite communications. [33] Researchers from the ARC Centre for Ultrahigh bandwidth Devices for Optical Systems (CUDOS) in the University of Sydney's Australian Institute for Nanoscale Science and Technology have made a breakthrough achieving radio frequency signal control at sub-nanosecond time scales on a chip-scale optical device. [32] The shrinking of electronic components and the excessive heat generated by their increasing power has heightened the need for chip-cooling solutions, according to a Rutgers-led study published recently in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. Using graphene combined with a boron nitride crystal substrate, the researchers demonstrated a more powerful and efficient cooling mechanism. [31] Materials like graphene can exhibit a particular type of large-amplitude, stable vibrational modes that are localised, referred to as Discrete Breathers (DBs). [30] A two-dimensional material developed by Bayreuth physicist Prof. Dr. Axel Enders together with international partners could revolutionize electronics. [29] Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[282] viXra:1704.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 02:09:56

Никитин В. Н., Никитин И. В. Если раcпадаться, то до конца! Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».
Category: Astrophysics

[281] viXra:1704.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:14:37

3D Printed Dancing Humanoid Robot “Buddy” for Homecare

Authors: Akshay Potnuru, Mohsen Jafarzadeh, Yonas Tadesse
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper describes a 3D printed humanoid robot that can perform dancing and demonstrate human-like facial expressions to expand humanoid robotics in entertainment and at the same time to have an assistive role for children and elderly people. The humanoid is small and has an expressive face that is in a comfort zone for a child or an older person. It can maneuver in a day care or home care environment using its wheeled base. This paper discusses on the capabilities of the robot to carry and handle small loads like pills, common measurement tools such as pressure and temperature measurement units. The paper also discusses the use of IP camera for color identification and an Arduino based audio system to synchronize music with dance movements of the robot.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[280] viXra:1704.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 11:21:17

Humanoid Robot Path Planning with Fuzzy Markov Decision Processes‏

Authors: Mahdi Fakoor, Amirreza Kosari, Mohsen Jafarzadeh
Comments: 11 Pages.

In contrast to the case of known environments, path planning in unknown environments, mostly for humanoid robots, is yet to be opened for further development. This is mainly attributed to the fact that obtaining thorough sensory information about an unknown environment is not functionally or economically applicable. This study alleviates the latter problem by resorting to a novel approach through which the decision is made according to fuzzy Markov decision processes (FMDP), with regard to the pace. The experimental results show the efficiency of the proposed method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[279] viXra:1704.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 12:08:04

Formula to Generate a Set of Poulet Numbers from a Poulet Number P and Its Factor D Lesser Than Sqr P

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following observation: Let d be a factor (not necessarily prime) of the Poulet number P such that d < sqr P and m the least number such that m*d*(d – 1) > (P – 1)/2. Let n be equal to P – m*d*(d – 1). Then often exist a set of Poulet numbers Q such that Q mod(m*d*(d – 1)) = n. For example, for P = 2047 = 23*89 and d = 23, where d < sqr 2047, the least m such that m*23*22 > (P – 1)/2 is equal to 3 (1518 > 1023, while, for 2, 1012 < 1023); so, n = 2047 – 3*23*22 = 2047 – 1518 = 529 and indeed there exist a set of Poulet numbers Q such that Q mod 1518 = 529; the formula 1518*x + 529 gives the Poulet numbers 2047, 6601, 15709, 30889 (...) for x = 1, 4, 10, 20 (...).
Category: Number Theory

[278] viXra:1704.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 12:18:12

Study of the Molecular Electrostatic Potential of D-Pinitol an Active Hypoglycemic Principle Found in Spring Flower Three Marys (Bougainvillea Species) in the Mm+ Method

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 9 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. PJSE, v.2, n.4. 1-9 May 14,(2016)

Diabetes is one of the major causes of premature illness and death worldwide. The prevalence of diabetes has reached epidemic proportions. The work is a study of the molecular electrostatic potential via molecular mechanics of the D-Pinitol found in the Bougainvillea species, a Nyctaginaceae. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the D-pinitol through Mm+ method of the hypoglycemic compounds present in Bougainvillea species is described in a computer simulation. It is a active antidiabetic agent compounds. The study the cyclitol resembles the hooks weed bur plant Asteraceae, it showed up as appearance of a bur molecule. Probably bind to sugar molecules contained in the blood, through hydrogen bonds.
Category: Physics of Biology

[277] viXra:1704.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 09:42:42

Cosmology on the Back of an Envelope

Authors: John R. Berryhill
Comments: 8 Pages. Discussion at unmysticalphysics.com

An explicit closed-form solution applicable to the lambda - CDM model has been known, or perhaps forgotten, for decades. It incorporates zero spatial curvature and a nonzero cosmological constant, as recent observations support. The model incorporating these essential points is presented here in updated form. An explicit, closed-form, solution is displayed, together with useful formulas and graphs. The presentation is accessible with first-year physics and calculus.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[276] viXra:1704.0302 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-30 10:01:48

Wyjaśnienie Wyników Eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya Przy Pomocy Teorii Z Eterem (In Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 11 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether (in Polish)

Powszechnie uważa się, że eksperymenty Michelson’a-Morley’a z 1887 roku oraz eksperyment Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a z 1932 roku wykazały, że nie istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter) oraz, że prędkość światła w próżni jest absolutnie stała. Analiza tych eksperymentów doprowadziła do powstania Szczególnej Teorii Względności (STW). W artykule wyjaśniono dlaczego eksperyment Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a nie były w stanie wykryć uniwersalny układ odniesienia. W tym artykule wyprowadzamy na podstawie geometrycznej analizy eksperymentów Michelson’a-Morley’a oraz Kennedy’ego-Thorndike’a inną transformację czasu i położenia niż transformacja Lorentza. Transformację wyprowadzamy przy założeniu, że istnieje uniwersalny układ odniesienia (eter). Eter jest układem odniesienia wyróżniającym się tym, że prędkość światła jest w nim stała w każdym kierunku. W inercjalnych układach odniesienia poruszających się względem eteru, prędkość światła może być inna. W oparciu o nową transformację została stworzona Szczególna Teoria Eteru (STE).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[275] viXra:1704.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 13:45:16

Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[274] viXra:1704.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 14:54:00

Mass

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

I don't believe that the Higgs boson theory is correct, and it's obvious that there is no definite proof that a Higgs boson exists. The discovery of the Higgs boson is only based on data, the data consists of an energy trail of a particle that was found after a particle collision experiment in the LHC accelerator. Physicists were convinced that it was a Higgs boson because the data confirmed that the mass was similar to the mass of a hypothetical Higgs boson, but they cannot prove that the data was real. They didn't prove that the Higgs boson theory is correct, so the Higgs theory remains a theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[273] viXra:1704.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 16:51:50

Multi Criteria Decision Making Based on Projection and Bidirectional Projection Measures of Rough Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Surapati Pramanik, Rumi Roy, Tapan Kumar Roy
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, we define projection and bidirectional projection measures between rough neutrosophic sets. Then two new multi criteria decision making methods are proposed based on neutrosophic projection and bidirectional projection measures respectively. Then the proposed methods are applied for solving multiple criteria group decision making problems. Finally, two numerical examples are provided to demonstrate the applicability and effectiveness of the proposed methods.
Category: General Mathematics

[272] viXra:1704.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 19:23:44

Design and Motion Control of Bioinspired Humanoid Robot Head from Servo Motors Toward Artificial Muscles

Authors: Yara Almubarak, Yonas Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

The potential applications of humanoid robots in social environments, motivates researchers to design, and control biomimetic humanoid robots. Generally, people are more interested to interact with robots that have similar attributes and movements to humans. The head is one of most important part of any social robot. Currently, most humanoid heads use electrical motors, pneumatic actuators, and shape memory alloy (SMA) actuators for actuation. Electrical and pneumatic actuators take most of the space and would cause unsmooth motions. SMAs are expensive to use in humanoids. Recently, in many robotic projects, Twisted and Coiled Polymer (TCP) artificial muscles are used as linear actuators which take up little space compared to the motors. In this paper, we will demonstrate the designing process and motion control of a robotic head with TCP muscles. Servo motors and artificial muscles are used for actuating the head motion, which have been controlled by a cost efficient ARM Cortex-M7 based development board. A complete comparison between the two actuators is presented.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[271] viXra:1704.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:07:54

Smart Wheelchair

Authors: Amit singh, Ravi Kumar Gupta, Aishwarya rajak, Harish Chand Pal
Comments: 5 Pages.

Automatic wheelchair for disabled person
Category: Economics and Finance

[270] viXra:1704.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:35:39

Poulet Numbers Obtained Concatenating Two Primes P and P±30k

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In a previous paper, “Poulet numbers in Smarandache prime partial digital sequence and a possible infinite set of primes” I conjectured that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which admit a deconcatenation in prime numbers. In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which admit a deconcatenation in two prime numbers p and q where q = p + 30*k, where k integer.
Category: Number Theory

[269] viXra:1704.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 23:37:50

Primes Obtained Concatenating Four Consecutive Numbers, the Largest One Being a Poulet Number

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I conjecture that there exist an infinity of primes obtained concatenating four consecutive numbers, the largest one from them being a Poulet number. For example, 1726172717281729 is such a prime, obtained concatenating the numbers 1726, 1727, 1728 and 1729, where 1729 is a Poulet number (see the sequence A030471 in OEIS for primes which are concatenation of four consecutive numbers).
Category: Number Theory

[268] viXra:1704.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 04:09:15

Poulet Numbers Which Can be Written as X^3±y^3

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is well known the story of the Hardy-Ramanujan number, 1729 (also a Poulet number), which is the smallest number expressible as the sum of two cubes in two different ways, but I have not met yet, not even in OEIS, the sequence of the Poulet numbers which can be written as x^3±y^3, sequence that I conjecture in this paper that is infinite. I also conjecture that there are infinite Poulet numbers which are centered cube numbers (equal to 2*n^3 + 3*n^2 + 3*n + 1), also which are centered hexagonal numbers (equal to 3*n^2 + 3*n + 1).
Category: Number Theory

[267] viXra:1704.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 05:21:47

One Step Forecasting Model

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed two models of One Step Forecasting
Category: General Mathematics

[266] viXra:1704.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-23 06:13:46

Phonon Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

While the optical laser celebrated its 50th anniversary earlier this year, some scientists have been working on a new type of coherent beam amplifier for sound rather than light. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[265] viXra:1704.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 12:08:37

Origins and Basis of Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

In 1952, chemists Stanley Miller and Harold Urey conducted a famous experimental simulation of the conditions thought to prevail on early Earth in order to determine possible pathways to the creation of life. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[264] viXra:1704.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 07:37:34

The Use of Known False Principles in Science

Authors: Clayton James Conway
Comments: 4 Pages.

A criticism of science and the unconscious manner that the Science Establishment use false logic and facts to uphold an adopted worldview to drive and stabilize the whole range of science endeavors. Human consciousness is the main component while the herd mentality is used to achieve popular consensus from the majority of societies non participants. An inability of scientists to accept basic facts and let go of a failed worldview as Kepler did. Illogics: Geologies use of two lengths of periods for one depth measurement. The use of Newton's one time corrective as a general procedure. Failure to use the rules of algebra in Einstein's equation. Faster than light gravity. Materialism requiring solidity that does not exist. The use of attraction that requires charge in a universe denied of having active charge. Denial of repelling that does not require charge. The Earth and Moon having the same charge facing each other that requires charged repelling. The sun and inner planets acting as a unit ignoring Jupiter's mass. Circular logic used to defend the adopted worldview.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[263] viXra:1704.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 04:49:27

Mathematics for Input Space Probes in the Atmosphere of Gliese 581d.

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 8 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.2, n.5, 6-13(2016). https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/archives

The work is a mathematical approach to the entry of an aerospace vehicle, as a probe or capsule in the atmosphere of the planet Gliese 581d, using data collected from the results of atmospheric models of the planet. GJ581d was the first planet candidate of a few Earth masses reported in the circum-stellar habitable zone of another star. It is located in the Gliese 581 star system, is a star red dwarf about 20 light years away from Earth in the constellation Libra. Its estimated mass is about a third of that of the Sun. It has been suggested that the recently discovered exoplanet GJ581d might be able to support liquid water due to its relatively low mass and orbital distance. However, GJ581d receives 35% less stellar energy than the planet Mars and is probably locked in tidal resonance, with extremely low insolation at the poles and possibly a permanent night side. The climate that demonstrate GJ581d will have a stable atmosphere and surface liquid water for a wide range of plausible cases, making it the first confirmed super-Earth (2-10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone. According to the general principle of relativity, “All systems of reference are equivalent with respect to the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics.” In this case all the equations studied apply to the exoplanet Gliese 581d. If humanity is able to send a probe to Gliese 581d, this has all the mathematical conditions set it down successfully on its surface.
Category: Astrophysics

[262] viXra:1704.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 14:29:50

Graphene Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For the first time, scientists created a tunable artificial atom in graphene. They demonstrated that a vacancy in graphene can be charged in a controllable way such that electrons can be localized to mimic the electron orbitals of an artificial atom. Importantly, the trapping mechanism is reversible (turned on and off) and the energy levels can be tuned. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[261] viXra:1704.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 17:50:53

Le Comete

Authors: P.F. Nali
Comments: 14 pages, in Italian. This article derived from a school homework written in the late 70s and posted on the author's webpage in 2005. It is now posted here in order to ensure wider diffusion.

As a result of a school homework some historical and physical issues on comets are presented at an amateur level.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[260] viXra:1704.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 19:21:32

Local Realism Cuts the Quantum Bait

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. Please see main article: ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism is now revitalized as a fully viable causal explanation of physical reality including empirical Bell violations according to detailed arguments provided at the link below. Meanwhile, by denying local realism in its account of EPR experiments, quantum theory requires a physical causal signal that is physically discontinuous, leaping out of spacetime from one locality and landing in another, like a fish leaping out of water. Quantum theory thus invokes a physical domain outside spacetime through which its causal signal is logically required to travel -- unobservable, unstoppable, and at infinite speed. It might be tempting to conclude that such domains and such signals are some sort of magic, except that would be exactly wrong. Even magic obeys local realism. A master magician, however, can provide a compelling illusion to the contrary. The causally complete local realistic model given by the article below argues compellingly that the antilocality claims of quantum physics reduce to such illusions. Please see main article: ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[259] viXra:1704.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:25:04

Allocryptopine, Berberine, Chelerythrine, Copsitine, Dihydrosanguinarine, Protopine and Sanguinarine. Molecular Geometry of the Main Alkaloids Found in the Seeds of Argemone Mexicana Linn

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.1, n.2, 7-16(2015).

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids found in the seeds of prickly poppy. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main alkaloids compounds present in plant seeds is described in a computer simulation. The plant has active ingredients compounds: allocryptopine, berberine, chelerythrine, copsitine, dihydrosanguinarine, protopine and sanguinarine. The Argemone Mexicana Linn, which is considered one of the most important species of plants in traditional Mexican and Indian medicine system. The seeds have toxic properties as well as bactericide, hallucinogenic, fungicide, insecticide, in isoquinolines and sanguinarine alkaloids such as berberine. The studied alkaloids form two groups having distribution characteristics similar to each other loads, to which they have dipole moments twice higher than in the other group.
Category: Physics of Biology

[258] viXra:1704.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:35:25

Molecular Electrostatic Potential of the Main Monoterpenoids Compounds Found in Oil Lemon Tahiti (Citrus Latifolia Var Tahiti)

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 10 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education, v.1, n.1, November 17, 2015.

The work is a study of the geometry of the molecules via molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids found in the oil of Lemon Tahiti. Lemon Tahiti is the result of grafting of Persia file on Rangpur lime and has no seeds. A computational study of the molecular geometry of the molecules through molecular mechanics of the main monoterpenoids compounds present in fruit oil is described in a computer simulation. The fruit has active terpenoids compounds: alfa-pinene, beta-pinene, limonene and gama-terpenine. The studied monotepernoides form two groups of distribution characteristics of fillers and similar electrical potentials between groups. Since alfa-pinene and limonene present, major and minor moment of electric dipoles, respectively.
Category: Physics of Biology

[257] viXra:1704.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 20:56:48

The Asymptotic Behavior of Defocusing Nonlinear Schrödinger Equations

Authors: En-Lin Liu
Comments: 6 Pages. Quite trivial research XD

This article is concerned with the scattering problem for the defocusing nonlinear Schrödinger equations (NLS) with a power nonlinear |u|^p u where 2/n < p < 4/n. We show that for any initial data in H^{0,1} x the solution will eventually scatter, i.e. U(-t)u(t) tends to some function u+ as t tends to innity.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[256] viXra:1704.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-22 20:06:18

A 100 Year Task That Involve Seven Impossible Task

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 7 Pages.

The First Task.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[255] viXra:1704.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-02 14:03:25

An Indirect Nonparametric Regression Method for One-Dimensional Continuous Distributions Using Warping Functions

Authors: Zhicheng Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

Distributions play a very important role in many applications. Inspired by the newly developed warping transformation of distributions, an indirect nonparametric distribution to distribution regression method is proposed in this article for distribution prediction. Additionally, a hybrid approach by fusing the predictions respectively obtained by the proposed method and the conventional method is further developed for reducing risk when the predictor is contaminated.
Category: Statistics

[254] viXra:1704.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:44:58

Foot Step Power Generation Using Piezoelectric Transducer

Authors: Abdul Kalam, Akash singh, Sachin Yadav, Kuldeep Yadav
Comments: 3 Pages.

It has the ability to produce electric power from mechanical reaction (force) and then it change to electric charges. This kind of technology can be used as the alternative electric power generator. It is impossible to replace the existing electricity generation, but at least to vary and reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity generation. Design concept used in this thesis is to use piezoelectric place at the walking area named as “Foot Step Power Generation System”. When a human walking, jumping or dancing on the surface which contain the piezoelectric, it then will produce sufficient force for energy generation process. This system is very suitable applied at the public spotted area with many people such as walking corridor, shopping mall, in the office, schools and others. Therefore, the continued pressure will provide sufficient resources to be used to produce the electricity required. Keywords—new technology, piezoelectricity, piezoelectric material, generate power, force or pressure
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[253] viXra:1704.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:19:33

Laser Neutron Yield

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in China has developed a new way to produce neutrons that they claim improves on conventional methods by a factor of 100. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[252] viXra:1704.0274 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-22 06:37:27

Two Extreme Formulas for Converging to Pi,the Fastest and Most Painful

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba
Comments: 1 Page. extreme fomulas

I present in this small article two algorithms of calculation of pi, they are characterized by two extremities, one is the most convergent and the other the slowest of the imaginable formulas.
Category: Number Theory

[251] viXra:1704.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 12:51:06

The Quantum Geometric Algebra Algorithm

Authors: Daniel Cordero Grau
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I set down the Quantum Geometric Algebra Algorithm standing for the Theory of Quantum Computational Complexity
Category: Algebra

[250] viXra:1704.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:40:01

Interference Black Holes, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Astrophysics

[249] viXra:1704.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:43:51

Hyper-Complex Quantum Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Physicists use an interferometer to test whether standard quantum mechanics is correct, or whether a more complex version is required. They used the interferometer to send photons around a loop in opposite directions. In this way, photons travelling in one direction interact with objects inside the loop in one order, while photons travelling the opposite direction interact with objects in the opposite order. [26] Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[248] viXra:1704.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:44:11

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Hypothesis of "Star" Disintegration of Galaxies Formation and Evolution of Galaxies is a Result of "Star" Disintegration of Their White Holes and Their Further Transformation Into Black Holes.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Formation and evolution of galaxies is a result of "star" disintegration of their White Holes and their further transformation into Black Holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[247] viXra:1704.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 09:09:35

Quantum Bilocal Causality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have experimentally demonstrated the violation of "bilocal causality"—a concept that is related to the more standard local causality, except that it accounts for the precise way in which physical systems are initially generated. The results show that it's possible to violate local causality in an entirely new and more general way, which could lead to a potential new resource for quantum technologies. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[246] viXra:1704.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:01:53

Can Quantum Mechanical Systems Influence the Geometry of the Fiber Bundle/space-Time?

Authors: Victor Atanasov, Hristo Dimov
Comments: 5 Pages.

We suggest that gravitation is an emergent phenomenon which origin is the information signal associated with quantum fields acting like test particles. We have shown how the metric (Lamè) coefficients emerge as position & time operator mean value densities. The scalar curvature of the space-time in the case of a Bose-Einstein condensate or super- fluid/conductor is calculated and an experimentally verifiable prediction of the theory is made.
Category: Quantum Physics

[245] viXra:1704.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 10:15:27

Soft Starter of Single Phase Pump Motor

Authors: Rai Shailesh, Dubey Jayesh, Gupta Ajay
Comments: 2 Pages. Thank You for providing us platform to explore our project idea.

In single-phase induction motor of ratings beyond a certain limit of withstand take very large currents and low powe factor while being started directly from a 1-phase supply. In order to mitigate the adverse effects of starting torque transients and high inrush currents in induction motors, a popular method is to use electronically controlled soft-starting voltages utilizing TRIAC. Normally soft-starters are used for avoiding this problem and to achieve smooth starting of large capacity induction motors. Soft starters use ac voltage controllers to start the induction motor and to adjust its speed. The performance of a voltage controlled large induction motor soft starter has been improved, resulting in nearly perfect current and torque profiles. Soft starters are used as induction motor controllers in compressors, blowers, fans, pumps, mixers, crushers and grinders, and many other applications. Starting torque pulsations are eliminated by triggering back-to-back-connected TRIAC at proper points on the first supply voltage cycle. The soft starter is connected in motor drive during the starting condition only and once the motor get its rated speed then the soft starter is disconnected from the main motor system so that the motor get protected.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[244] viXra:1704.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 13:20:56

Laser Polarization Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[243] viXra:1704.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 14:42:45

Quantum Liquid Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists at the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter at Caltech have discovered the first three-dimensional quantum liquid crystal—a new state of matter that may have applications in ultrafast quantum computers of the future. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[242] viXra:1704.0264 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-06 07:20:18

Preliminary Evidence That a Neoclassical Model of Physics (L3) Might Be Correct

Authors: Paul Werbos
Comments: 15 Pages. 15p, 36 eq. typos corrected -- eq 7, refs to eqs 26 and 27.

Today’s standard model of physics treats the physical masses of elementary particles as given, and assumes that they have a bare radius of zero, as in the older classical physics of Lorentz. Many physicists have studied the properties of the Yang-Mills-Higgs model of continuous fields in hopes that it might help to explain where elementary particles (and their masses) come from in the first place. This paper reviews some of the important prior work on Yang-Mills-Higgs and solitons in general, but it also shows that stable particles in that model cannot have intrinsic angular momentum (spin). It specifies four extensions of Yang-Mills Higgs, the Lagrangians L1 through L4, which are closer to the standard model of physics, and shows that one of the four (L3) does predict/explain spin from a purely neoclassical theory. The paper begins by summarizing the larger framework which has inspired this work, and ends by discussing two possibilities for further refinement.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[241] viXra:1704.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 11:11:51

Casimir Effect on a Silicon Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[240] viXra:1704.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:24:52

Engineering Biology Problems Book

Authors: Ilya Klabukov
Comments: 54 Pages. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2898429

The Engineering Biology Problems Book contains the physical, biomedical and engineering tasks with biological solutions will bring benefit to the all mankind. The Problems Book consists of seven chapters according to applications of biological technologies to various parties of actual and perspective human activity: wellness and life extension, transformation of nature and human enhancement. Descriptions of tasks are devoted to biological object modification methods and versions of the application of engineered biosystems for the solution of biomedical, industrial, agricultural, ethical and other problems. Solving of the offered tasks can be based on original use of advanced molecular and cellular technologies, including genome editing systems (CRISPR/Cas9, TALEN, ZFN), synthetic receptors, biomaterials, etc. The Book is intended for students with engineering mentality who are wishing to find oneself in designing of super-systems of the new industry of biotechnological superiority. Notes: Downloadable document is available in Russian. Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2898429
Category: Physics of Biology

[239] viXra:1704.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:42:52

Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery

Authors: Ilya Klabukov
Comments: 10 Pages. DOI: 10.2139/ssrn.2943526

This paper presents an approach of molecular and enzymatic surgery for treatment of human diseases, including opportunity for use of systemic biology methods in planning of surgical interventions, possible biological components of a “molecular scalpel”, and problems of standardization, medical ethics and clinical trials of the new pharma-surgical toolbox. In conclusions is proposed to consider of molecular and enzymatic surgery methods as realization of the principles of “functional surgery” and also further development of fast track surgery with attaining the modern concept of a personalized approach to surgical treatment of the patient. Klabukov, Ilya, Foundations for Molecular and Enzymatic Functional Surgery (March 30, 2017). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2943526
Category: Physics of Biology

[238] viXra:1704.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:53:36

Fractals and Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 37 Pages.

This note presents a collection of fractals related with constant pi
Category: Number Theory

[237] viXra:1704.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 07:57:06

Question 2360 : Series For Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some series for pi constant.
Category: Number Theory

[236] viXra:1704.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 08:02:54

The Ramanujan-GÖLLNITZ-Gordon Continued Fraction

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this research , the autor has detailed about: Numerical evaluation of the Ramanujan-Göllnitz-Gordon continued fraction.
Category: Number Theory

[235] viXra:1704.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 08:14:31

The Real Root of the Equation: X^5+x^4+x-1=0

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

this note presents some representations for the real root of the equation: x^5+x^4+x-1=0.
Category: General Mathematics

[234] viXra:1704.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-26 09:31:13

An Analysis of Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Theory of Special Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 28 Pages. Added illustrations

An analysis of books, presentations and scientific papers about Albert Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Theory of Special Relativity shows that there is a fundamental disagreement between what Einstein wrote and how what he wrote is being interpreted by mathematician-physicists and taught in colleges and universities around the world. An analysis of the evidence shows that Einstein was correct and the vast majority of interpretations and teachings are incorrect.
Category: Astrophysics

[233] viXra:1704.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:21:46

Ejemplo de Cómo Obtener Los Valores Energéticos de la Partícula en un Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos de la partícula en un pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[232] viXra:1704.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:27:33

Black Hole Heart Beating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[231] viXra:1704.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:28:01

Potential Difference Observed with Magnetic Field Lines

Authors: Ionel DINU, M.Sc.
Comments: 7 pages

Following a theory to be detailed in a work to be published in the near future, an experiment was planned to see whether the potential difference between two points of a current-carrying straight wire can be observed in the magnetic field lines produced around the wire by the electric current. Direct observation seems to show that there is a crowding of the magnetic field lines at the negative side of the wire compared to the positive side.
Category: Classical Physics

[230] viXra:1704.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:57:45

Singularity in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[229] viXra:1704.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 04:18:06

Universal Remote Control

Authors: Sheshmani Yadav, Aditya Asthana, Vishal Jain, Sumit Salunkhe
Comments: 3 Pages.

With most pieces of consumer electronics, from camcorders to stereo equipment, an infrared remote control is always included. Today we all are using mobile phones, and in each mobile devices there is one common communication media through which devices communicate and that common platform is Bluetooth. This Paper connects these two platforms to create a more simplified process to bridge the gap between modern devices.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[228] viXra:1704.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:09:47

The Physicist of an Origin of Forces of Gravitation and Range of S-Radiations in Whom Threats from Space Are Shown

Authors: V.Korniienko
Comments: 18 pages in English and a copy at 19 pages in Russian

In article it is experimentally proved that any body has the quantum electromagnetic field which as a result of deformation generates electromagnetic radiations (S-radiations). The S-radiations properties found by us demonstrates that interaction of quantum electromagnetic fields of different bodies causes their mutual attraction which is gravitation forces. Besides, tension which arises in matter of celestial bodies under the influence of gravitation and forces of other origin, cause deformation of the quantum electromagnetic field of these bodies owing to what they generate space S-radiations which have filled all Universe. Therefore there is a range of S-radiations in which we observed how in the summer of 2003 Earth and the Sun were occupied by a power information field which influence causes all global changes. In this range we also watch a space body which from a terrestrial orbit generates powerful S-radiations. Therefore, for the benefit of early identification of threats from Space, it is necessary to develop astronomical observations in a range of S-radiations.
Category: Astrophysics

[227] viXra:1704.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:46:11

Ejemplo de Obtención de Los Valores Energéticos Del Pozo de Potencial Infinito Unidimensional

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish

En el presente artículo se va a exponer un ejemplo de la obtención de los valores energéticos del caso del pozo de potencial infinito unidimensional.
Category: Quantum Physics

[226] viXra:1704.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 13:49:06

Superconducting Linear Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The international X-ray laser European XFEL has reached one of its final major milestones on the way to scientific user operation. DESY has successfully commissioned the particle accelerator, which drives the X-ray laser along its full length. [17] Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[225] viXra:1704.0247 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-24 10:16:46

Modeling the Strain Monitoring Data in Structural Health Monitoring Using Copulas

Authors: Zhicheng Chen, Hui Li
Comments: 8 Pages.

In Structural Health Monitoring, there are usually many strain sensors installed in different places of a single structure. The raw measurement of a strain sensor is generally a mixed response caused by different excitations such as moving vehicle loads, ambient temperature, etc. Monitoring data collected by different strain sensors are usually correlated with each other, correlation structures of responses caused by different excitations for different sensor pairs are quite diverse and complex. In Structural Health Monitoring, quantitatively describing and modeling complicated dependence structures of strain data is very important in many applications. In this article, copulas are exploited to characterize dependence structures and construct joint distributions of monitoring strain data. The constructed joint distribution is also applied in missing data imputation.
Category: Statistics

[224] viXra:1704.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 20:55:22

Remark On Variance Bounds

Authors: R. Sharma, R. Bhandari
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is shown that the formula for the variance of combined series yields surprisingly simple proofs of some well known variance bounds.
Category: Statistics

[223] viXra:1704.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 22:38:15

Heretical Physics Xii

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 2 Pages.

A check of the variations required to be produced by the sun 'g' to balance the Newton - Kepler planetary elliptic orbits as theorized by the 'Standard Model'
Category: Astrophysics

[222] viXra:1704.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 01:46:09

Microscopy for Biological Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[221] viXra:1704.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 03:08:52

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Perm Extinction – a Doomsday Prelude the Most Fissile Mass Cold Snap is the Reason of Mass Extinction of the Permian Period of Existence of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The most fissile mass cold snap is the reason of mass extinction of the Permian Period of existence of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[220] viXra:1704.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:18:30

Spin Battery for Spintronics and Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have shown how to create a rechargeable "spin battery" made out of materials called topological insulators, a step toward building new spintronic devices and quantum computers. [14] Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[219] viXra:1704.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:32:41

Trigonometric Interpolation Based on Summation of Fourier Series F_{i}^{\delta} with Data-Related Delta-Function Property F_{i}^{\delta}\left(x_{j}\right)=y_{j}\delta_{ij} (Analogy to Lagrange Form of Interpolation Polynomial)

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 10 Pages.

Full analogy to the Lagrange form of the interpolation polynomial is constructed for Fourier series. As a straightforward consequence one gets the ability to extend an existing trigonometric interpolation to additional data point(s).
Category: General Mathematics

[218] viXra:1704.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 11:32:59

Gelfond Constant

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with Gelfond constant:exp(pi)
Category: Number Theory

[217] viXra:1704.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 12:12:50

Quantum Measurement: A New View

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 24 Pages. Measurement is the bridge between quantum theory and experiment.

This report investigates the flawed foundations of standard quantum theory based on a misunderstanding of the role of measurement. The report is major part of a research programme (UET) based on a new theory of the electromagnetism (EM), centered exclusively on the interaction between electrons. All the previous papers to date in this series have presented a realistic view of the dynamics of two or more electrons as they interact only between themselves. This paper now posits a theory of how this microscopic activity is perceived by human beings in attempting to extract information about atomic systems. The standard theory of quantum mechanics (QM) is constructed on only how the micro-world appears to macro measurements - as such, it cannot offer any view of how the foundations of the world are acting when humans are not observing it (the vast majority of the time) - this has generated almost 100 years of confusion and contradiction at the very heart of physics. All human beings (and all our instruments) are vast collections of electrons, our information about atomic-scale can only be obtained destructively and statistically. This theory now extends the realistic model of digital electrons by adding an explicit measurement model of how our macro instruments interfere with nature's micro-systems when such attempts result in human-scale information. The focus here is on the connection between the micro-world (when left to itself) and our mental models of this sphere of material reality, via the mechanism of atomic measurements. The mathematics of quantum mechanics reflects the eigenvalues of the combined target system plus equipment used for measurement together. Therefore, QM has constructed a theory that inseparably conflates the ontological and epistemological views of nature. This standard approach fails to examine isolated target systems alone. It is metaphysically deficient. This investigation concludes that the Quantum State function (Ψ) is not a representation of physical reality, within a single atom, but a generator function for producing the average statistical results on many atoms of this type. In contrast, the present theory builds on the physical reality of micro-states of single atoms, where (in the case of hydrogen), a single electron executes a series of fixed segments (corresponding to the micro-states) across the atom between a finite number of discrete interactions between the electron and one of the positrons in the nucleus. The set of serial segments form closed trajectories with real temporal periods, contra to Heisenberg’s ‘papal’ decree banning such reality because of his need to measure position and momentum at all times. This is the first paper in the multi-paper series (UET7n), which is dedicated to analyzing, criticizing and replacing existing theories of quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[216] viXra:1704.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 07:46:39

The Krypton Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple conclusion is made concerning destroyed worlds with life on them according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[215] viXra:1704.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 09:29:00

Tracking the Diffusion of Signal Proteins in Escherichia Coli

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 6 Pages.

We describe a fast computational model to study the signal transduction in E. coli chemo­taxis. It allows to trace the places and chemical reactions of individual molecules in a cell as a function of time. From the spatial resolution of the model and the known diffusion constant of the proteins, a time step of 3 µs is calculated for the simulation.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[214] viXra:1704.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 10:09:41

Unrealistic Assumptions Inherent in Maximal Extension

Authors: G.N.N.Martin
Comments: 4 Pages.

I argue that maximal extension makes improbable assumptions about future conditions. I start by looking at the Schwarzschild metric, and showing that it does not quite represent the exterior of a collapsed star, although it is easy to argue that the mismatch is immaterial. I then look at the collapse of a cloud of dust using the Robinson Walker metric, which might seem to justify using the Schwarzschild metric to describe the exterior of a black hole. I then show how the Schwarzschild metric is modified when the interior is a collapsed dust cloud, and finally show how the maximal extension of a Schwarzschild black hole makes unrealistic assumptions about the future.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[213] viXra:1704.0235 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-25 16:15:36

Time Interval Distortions, Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 5 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time convergence (TC) rewrites accelerating expansion, alternatively, as constant expansion with apparent decreasing time intervals. TC is a corollary of Minkowski’s assertion that ”Whatever happens to space also happens to time”, and can be conceptualized as a linear perspective in the time dimension. TC proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. Thus, accelerated expansion is interpreted to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3. Please note that TC is not time dilation. Time intervals do not actually decrease per distance, rather appear to decrease per distance similar to linear spatial perspective from subtended arcs. Thus, there is no contradiction or violation of special relativity nor GR In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from constant expansion with TC.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[212] viXra:1704.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 04:54:18

The Mosaic of the Norm

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

An interrelated study.
Category: Social Science

[211] viXra:1704.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 05:03:10

Structure of Complex Chemical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Researchers at Northwestern University have created a new method to extract the static and dynamic structure of complex chemical systems. [10] As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK's national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[210] viXra:1704.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 15:55:52

Not All Clocks Obey to Special Relativity

Authors: Mohammed Mezouar
Comments: 1 Page.

What dominates the other, Special Relativity or light ? Einstein believed to have submitted bodies and light to the same laws. In what follows, we show that there are light-clocks which do not matches with his Special Relativity exigences. The equivalence between bodies and light turns out utopian.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[209] viXra:1704.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 21:06:23

Multifractal Analysis and the Dynamics of Effective Field Theories

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 17 Pages.

We show that the flow from the ultraviolet to the infrared sector of any multidimensional nonlinear field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. This result stems from several independent routes to aperiodic behavior and implies that the infrared attractor of effective field theories is likely to replicate the geometry of multifractal sets. In particular, we find that the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is characterized by a single generalized dimension (D = 4), while the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian is defined by a triplet of generalized dimensions (D = 2, 3 and 4). On the one hand, this finding disfavors any naïve field-theoretic unification of SM and General Relativity (GR). On the other, it hints that the continuous spectrum of generalized dimensions lying between D = 2 and D = 4 may naturally account for the existence of non-baryonic Dark Matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[208] viXra:1704.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 22:23:21

Mass Loss Versus Mass Gain Phenomenon in Nature

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is presented an extremely easy paper to understand to explain that in nature, there are mass gain phenomenon and there are mass loss phenomenon. Clarification is presented so that the nature of these types of phenomenon are well established. This paper utilizes a simple rule of nature concerning physics, the conservation of mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[207] viXra:1704.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 23:39:41

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and Horizon of Dark Fluxions and Thermodynamics

Authors: C. Wei Xu
Comments: 7 pages, part II of Unified Physics (part I at http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0221)

Associated with the virtual or physical manifolds, the Universe Topology aggregates quantum objects and forms the second horizon as the group effects of the flow conservations both physically and virtually, called Dark Fluxions, a dynamics cosmology of energy flows. Inherent to its internal nature, the universe produces each of opposite dualities as a complex conjugate, the statistical representation of dark fluxions dynamically affiliated to bulk entropy, motion continuities, statistical works, and interactive fields, giving rise to the horizon of thermodynamics. As a result, this becomes a groundwork in quest for nature transformations delivered by the life energy of dark fluxions, or the dynamic flows of dark energy...
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[206] viXra:1704.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 08:53:59

Anyons Quantum Quasiparticles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In an article published today in the journal Nature, physicists report the first ever observation of heat conductance in a material containing anyons, quantum quasiparticles that exist in two-dimensional systems. [15] The formation of quasiparticles, such as polarons, in a condensed-matter system usually proceeds in an extremely fast way and is very difficult to observe. In Innsbruck, Rudolf Grimm's physics research group, in collaboration with an international team of theoretical physicists, has simulated the formation of polarons in an ultracold quantum gas in real time. The researchers have published their findings in the journal Science. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[205] viXra:1704.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 04:35:47

Time Crystals for Quantum Machines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Harvard physicists have created a new form of matter-dubbed a time crystal-which could offer important insights into the mysterious behavior of quantum systems. [31] Two groups of researchers based at Harvard University and the University of Maryland report March 9 in the journal Nature that they have successfully created time crystals using theories developed at Princeton University. [30] Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[204] viXra:1704.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 05:39:10

Bell Correlations of Million Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists have demonstrated Bell correlations in the largest physical system to date—an ensemble of half a million atoms at an ultracold temperature of 25 µK. [10] The microscopic world is governed by the rules of quantum mechanics, where the properties of a particle can be completely undetermined and yet strongly correlated with those of other particles. Physicists from the University of Basel have observed these so-called Bell correlations for the first time between hundreds of atoms. [9] For the past 100 years, physicists have been studying the weird features of quantum physics, and now they're trying to put these features to good use. One prominent example is that quantum superposition (also known as quantum coherence)—which is the property that allows an object to be in two states at the same time—has been identified as a useful resource for quantum communication technologies. [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[203] viXra:1704.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:28:46

Conjecture on the Primes Obtained Concatenating Three Numbers, id Est a, B and A+b+n

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any n positive integer there exist an infinity of primes which can be deconcatenated in three numbers, i.e., from left to right, a, b and a + b + n. Examples: for n = 0, the least such prime is 101 (1 + 0 + 0 = 1); for n = 1, the least such prime is 113 (1 + 1 + 1 = 3); for n = 2, the least such prime is 103 (1 + 0 + 2 = 3); for n = 3, the least such prime is 137 (1 + 3 + 3 = 7); for n = 4, the least such prime is 127 (1 + 2 + 4 = 7); for n = 5, the least such prime is 139 (1 + 3 + 5 = 9); for n = 6, the least such prime is 107 (1 + 0 + 6 = 7); for n = 7, the least such prime is 3313 (3 + 3 + 7 = 13).
Category: Number Theory

[202] viXra:1704.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:31:06

Conjecture on Primes Obtained Concatenating p, N and P+n, Where P and P+n Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: For any n even there exist an infinity of primes which can be deconcatenated in three numbers, i.e., from left to right, p, n and p + n, where p and p + n are primes. Examples: for n = 2, the least such prime is 11213 (11 + 2 = 13); for n = 4, the least such prime is 347 (3 + 4 = 7); for n = 6, the least such prime is 11617 (11 + 6 = 17); for n = 8, the least such prime is 5813 (5 + 8 = 13); for n = 10, the least such prime is 31013 (3 + 10 = 13); for n = 12, the least such prime is 51217 (5 + 12 = 17); for n = 14, the least such prime is 51419 (5 + 14 = 19); for n = 16, the least such prime is 431659 (43 + 16 = 59).
Category: Number Theory

[201] viXra:1704.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 17:50:17

Incalculability

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

Define and explain Incalculability.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[200] viXra:1704.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 21:08:25

Uzbek Atom

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 61 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[199] viXra:1704.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-18 21:18:24

Universal Topology W = P ± iV and First Horizon of Quantum Fields

Authors: C. Wei XU
Comments: 7 Pages. Restored original introduction and Converted to the 1 column style

The universal topology W = P ± iV is the nature law that intuitively constitutes a duality of Manifolds and Event Operations. Its First Horizon of this framework, naturally comes out with the dual State Equilibrium and dual Motion Dynamics, which replace the empirical “math laws” and give rise to the general quantum fields to concisely include Schrödinger and Klein– Gordon Equations. As a result, it becomes a groundbreaking in the quest for Unified Physics: the workings of a life streaming of physical and virtual dynamics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[198] viXra:1704.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 03:24:39

Reproductive Cloning

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 20 Pages.

Progressiv forkortelse af telomere ved DNA replikation er blevet sat i forbindelse med cellulær ældning. Hvad vil der ske med dyr, fremkommet ved somatisk kerneoverførsel, hvis differentierede celler fra voksne dyr med forkortede teleomerelængde benyttes til at starte embryo udvikling? Vil de forkortede telomere påvirke deres livslængde eller udvikling, eller er de forkortede telomere fra donerceller blevet rekonstrueret til fuld længde i klonede dyr?
Category: Quantitative Biology

[197] viXra:1704.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 07:18:16

Special Relativity and Wave-Particle Duality.

Authors: Enrique Cantera del Río
Comments: 10 Pages.

A SYMMETRY OF LORENTZ TRANSFORMATION IS PROPOSED FOR THE VISUALIZATION OF THE MOST BASIC PHYSICAL LANDSCAPE DERIVED FROM SPECIAL RELATIVITY. ALTHOUGH BASIC ARGUMENTS ,THE SYMMETRY SHOWS A CLOSE RELATIONSHIP WITH WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY AND THE EXISTENCE OF TWO POSSIBLE STATES FOR THIS PHYSICAL RELATION. THE SPIN AND THE ABRAHAM-MINKOWSKI CONTROVERSY ARE ANALYZED REGARDING THIS IDEAS AND A NEW HYPOTHESIS ON WAVE-PARTICLE DUALITY IS PRESENTED.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[196] viXra:1704.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 08:26:16

No Support for Accelerating Expansion `redshift, Dark Energy, Cosmic Radiation Back Ground, Gravitational Waves … not Support Expanding UNIVERSE.”

Authors: Bandaru Ramu
Comments: PAGES:8

ABSTRACT:1. `REDSHIFT, DARK ENERGY, COSMIC RADIATION BACK GROUND, GRAVITATIONAL WAVES … NOT SUPPORT EXPANDING UNIVERSE.” 2. According to RELATIVE PRINCIPLE: MOVING is always RELATIVE. THUS REDSHIFT ALSO RELATIVE. This relative motion or relative red shift cannot say particularly only one both of two: Expanding or contracting universe. 3. To support Accelerating expansion, Dark energy introduced. But equal or unequal rate spread of Dark energy prevailed? If the quantity of Dark energy is not changed in this Universe at early time, whether the influence of Dark energy increased or decreased in course of time because this universe is expanding in this way by consuming the dark energy. Instead of Total Dark energy at early times, GRADUALLY INCREASING DARK ENERGY SHOULD BE REQUIRED FOR ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. BUT MORE ENERGY IS NOT CREATED GRADUALLY IN THIS UNIVERSE with out any more consumption of source. THUS DARK ENERGY CAN NOT SUPPORT ACCELERATING UNIVERSE. WITH OUT DARK ENERGY, ACCELERATING - EXPANDING UNIVERSE NOT WORKS. IF THERE IS NO EXPENDING UNIVERSE, THEN THERE WILL BE NO COTRACTING UNIVERSE. BECAUSE CONTRACTING IS THE POST EVOLUTION OF EXPANDING. SO THERE IS NO CHANCE FOR THE EXISTANCE OF EXPANDING AND CONTRACTING UNIVERSE. 4. Now received the information concerning cosmic microwave radiation is belonging to present time or various times? This cosmic radiation observed at anywhere in this universe. The information from various distant places stand for also various times. At various times the expansion of this universe is also various. The cosmic radiation should be variously cast from different space times. But actually different space times show same cosmic microwaves radiation. This means in different times, no different density of cosmic radiation. So this same radiation reveals not expanding universe. 5. Space time curvature influence the pass of information? WHEN SUN DISAPPEAR, what happened really in relativity
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[195] viXra:1704.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 10:07:19

Negative Mass Created

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Washington State University physicists have created a fluid with negative mass, which is exactly what it sounds like. Push it, and unlike every physical object in the world we know, it doesn't accelerate in the direction it was pushed. It accelerates backwards. [16] When matter is cooled to near absolute zero, intriguing phenomena emerge. These include supersolidity, where crystalline structure and frictionless flow occur together. ETH researchers have succeeded in realising this strange state experimentally for the first time. [15] Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[194] viXra:1704.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-13 00:22:47

Unit-Jacobian Coordinate Transformations: The Superior Consequence of the Little-Known Einstein-Schwarzschild Coordinate Condition

Authors: Steven Kenneth Kauffmann
Comments: 5 Pages.

Because the Einstein equation can't uniquely determine the metric, it must be supplemented by additional metric constraints. Since the Einstein equation can be derived in a purely special-relativistic context, those constraints (which can't be generally covariant) should be Lorentz-covariant; moreover, for the effect of the constraints to be natural from the perspective of observational and empirical physical scientists, they should also constrain the general coordinate transformations (which are compatible with the unconstrained Einstein equation) so that the constrained transformations manifest a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The little-known Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition, which requires the metric's determinant to have its -1 Minkowski value, thereby constrains coordinate transformations to have unit Jacobian, and for that reason causes tensor densities to transform as true tensors, which is a salient feature of the Lorentz transformations. The Einstein-Schwarzschild coordinate condition also allows the static Schwarzschild solution's singular radius to be exactly zero; though another coordinate condition that allows zero Schwarzschild radius exists, it isn't Lorentz-covariant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[193] viXra:1704.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 06:22:35

Puzzling Neutrino Shortfall

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A puzzling neutrino shortfall seems to be due to faulty predictions, not a new particle. [12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[192] viXra:1704.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 16:11:58

(Version 1.1 23 Pages 16.04.2017) a Cyclic Toy Model of the Universe Predesigned for Life, Based on Preonic Quantized Branes and a Very Strong 2D Gravitational Field as a Candidate for a Unified Primordial Field

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 23 Pages.

This paper proposes a cyclic toy model of the universe predesigned for life, based on preonic quantized 1-branes (strings), quantized 2-branes (supermembranes/2D surfaces) and the holographic principle. This toy model is based on a few simple hypothesis/assumptions, including the existence of a universal brane quanta (conceived as a basic quantum clock) for any n-brane and a unified primordial field (UPF) defined as equivalent to a very strong 2D gravitational field acting on hypothetical quark/leptonic/bosonic 2-branes.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[191] viXra:1704.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 18:05:21

Wind Energy. Electron Jet Generators and Propulsions

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 142 Pages.

In given book considered the topics: utilization wind energy at high altitude, transfer of energy from airborne wind turbines to ground surface, new non turbine electron wind and water electric generators and propulsion system. Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This book suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy transmission system between the air rotor and a ground. Author offers a new method of getting electric energy from wind. A special injector injects electrons into the atmosphere. Wind picks up the electrons and moves them in the direction of wind which is also against the direction of electric field. At some distance from injector a unique grid acquires the electrons, thus charging and producing electricity. This method does not require, as does other wind energy devices, strong columns, wind turbines, or electric generators. This proposed wind installation is cheap. The area of wind braking may be large and produces a great deal of energy. Although this electron wind installations may be in a city, the population will not see them. Author offers a new high efficiency propulsion non turbine system using electrons for acceleration of the craft. As this system does not heat the air, it does not have the heating limitations of conventional air ramjet hypersonic engines. Offered engine can produce a thrust from a zero flight speed up to the desired escape velocity for space launch. It can work in any planet atmosphere (gas, liquid) and at high altitude.
Category: Classical Physics

[190] viXra:1704.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 19:36:57

ABC Conjecture–An Ambiguous Formulation

Authors: Zhang Tianshu
Comments: 13 Pages.

Due to exist forevermore uncorrelated limits of values of real number ε≥0, enable ABC conjecture to be able to be both proved and negated. In this article, we find a representative equality 1+2N(2N-2)=(2N-1)2 satisfying (2N-1)2>[Rad(1, 2N(2N-2), (2N-1)2)]1+ε, then both prove the ABC conjecture and negate the ABC conjecture according to two limits of values of ε.
Category: Number Theory

[189] viXra:1704.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:04:11

Core Growth Termination During Stellar Evolution in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis stars grow iron/nickel cores via vapor deposition and condensation during intermediate stages of evolution. It is proposed that these iron/nickel cores stop growing for a few reasons provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[188] viXra:1704.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:26:30

Scienza e Complessità: W. Weaver 1947

Authors: Warren Weaver, P.F. Nali
Comments: 11 pages, in Italian, reproduced under permission of Am. Sc. on Jan. 23, 2004 on the SISSA online magazine "Biblioteca dei 500" in website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in Jan. 2011.

It is proposed here in the Italian version the seminal paper in which Weaver introduced the concept of complexity in modern science.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[187] viXra:1704.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 21:05:19

The Armageddon Scenario: War-Game

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

And its resolution.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[186] viXra:1704.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 23:53:15

Ether, Time, and Energy (December 23, 2006).

Authors: Kenneth M. Sasaki.
Comments: 52 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[185] viXra:1704.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 01:40:24

Formula Analyzer: Find the Formula by Parameters

Authors: Artur Eduardovich Sibgatullin
Comments: 27 Pages. MIT License, https://figshare.com/articles/Formula_analyzer_Find_the_formula_by_parameters/4880012

Let it be a formula, e.g.: x + y^2 - z = r. It is usually necessary to find a parameter’s value by knowing others’ ones. However, let’s set another problem to find the formula itself, knowing only its parameters. The solution of such a problem we call reverse computing. For that we'll create an algorithm and accomplish it as a program code.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[184] viXra:1704.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 18:43:45

L'enunciato Del Principio di Inerzia

Authors: Lorenzo Galli, P.F. Nali
Comments: 3 pages, in Italian. Question Answer published on Sep. 28, 2005 on the section "Chiedi a Ulisse" of the SISSA website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in January 2011.

Why is it incomplete to enunciate the principle of inertia in this form: "a body not subject to forces is either at rest or moves with uniform rectilinear motion"?
Category: Classical Physics

[183] viXra:1704.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 19:16:00

ϖ

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 3 Pages.

Finite.
Category: General Mathematics

[182] viXra:1704.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 12:43:01

Mach's Principle and the Kinetic Dipole

Authors: Mihai Grumazescu
Comments: 9 Pages.

As a departure from Einstein's GR, gravity is described as the cumulative effect of all protons and neutrons in the universe acting as self-propelled particles called nucleon kinetic dipoles. They signal to each other their relative positions through the propagation of gravitational information at a superluminal speed. Mach's principle is interpreted as the reciprocal influence of all masses in the universe because of the propagation of directional information of kinetic dipoles at astronomical distances. Every time we measure big G we find a different value because the gravitational information received by a test mass is changing continuously. Speed of gravity also shapes the universe, as a consequence of Mach's principle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[181] viXra:1704.0199 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-28 10:55:41

Theory of Exact Trigonometric Periodic Solutions to Quadratic Liénard Type Equations

Authors: J. Akande, D. K. K. Adjaï, L. H. Koudahoun, Y. J. F. Kpomahou, M. D. Monsia
Comments: 16 pages

The problem of finding exact trigonometric periodic solutions to non-linear differential equations is still an open mathematical research field. In this paper it is shown that the Painlevé-Gambier XVIII equation and its inverted version may exhibit exact trigonometric periodic solutions as well as other quadratic Liénard type equations but with amplitude-dependent frequency. Other inverted Painlevé-Gambier equations are also shown to admit exact periodic solutions.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[180] viXra:1704.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 08:24:29

The Origin and Formation Mechanism of Protons

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint regards to the originand formation mechanism of protons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[179] viXra:1704.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 10:09:35

Introduction to Complementary Analysis

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba, Gael Dieudonné Essomba Essomba
Comments: 48 Pages. analyse, differentielle, complémentaire, analyse complémentaire

We introduce a new notion in the analysis, the notion of complementarity, which completes the work of Newton-Leibniz by defining all the elements.
Category: General Mathematics

[178] viXra:1704.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 06:48:55

New Approximation Algorithms of Pi, Accelerated Convergence Formulas from N = 100 to N = 2m

Authors: François Mendzina Essomba, Gael Dieudonné Essomba Essomba
Comments: 7 Pages. algorithm, convergence and approximation

We give algorithms for the calculation of pi. These algorithms can be easily developed in a linear manner and allows the calculation of pi with an infinite degree of convergence. Of course, the calculation of the second term passes through the first one, and it is necessary, as this type of algorithms, for a larger memory for calculations contrary to the formula BBP [1] whose execution corresponds to the order of the desired number. The advantage of our formulas in spite of the dificulty associated with extracting sin(x) lies in their degree of convergence, which is infinite, they prove the Borweins brothers hypothesis on the construction of algorithms At any speed as symbolized in our generic formula (8) of this paper. These formulas for the most part are totally new : We had found several other formulas of pi l
Category: Number Theory

[177] viXra:1704.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 13:41:27

Recognition from Description Through Synthesis and Reduction to Theory and Model

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 9 Pages. in Polish

The half a century attempts to transmit the results of the theoretical work on the biological issues which used the methodology of physics, gave an insight into the methodological limitations resulting from the stereotypes of thinking in biology. It is primarily a lack of interest in the pursuit to deductive theory. Abstraction and deduction - the basis of physics, is despised and omitted as speculation, which creates a blockade in the development of theory in biology. The process of this development stops at an analysis that should (and does not do) reduce the sufficient conditions noted in the description to the necessary and sufficient conditions, ie. to determine the reasons for the phenomena being considered. Determination of the necessary conditions is the basis of reduction, which in the applied reductionism is not noticed. This chapter is not a recognized knowledge imparted authoritatively to use, nor fight against the official position of biology, but a collection of arguments against conservative stereotypes, to compare with other more elaborate sources on the reader's own responsibility to work out his own view rather than uncontrolled take over of the defective tradition.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[176] viXra:1704.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 14:03:45

Fermi Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

In physics, the Fermi-Pasta-Ulam-Tsingou (FPUT) problem—which found that certain nonlinear systems do not disperse their energy, but rather return to their initial excited states—has been a challenge that scientists have tackled repeatedly since 1955. [15] The likelihood of seeing quantum systems violating the second law of thermodynamics has been calculated by UCL scientists. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, two-stroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11] Disorder, or entropy, in a microscopic quantum system has been measured by an international group of physicists. The team hopes that the feat will shed light on the "arrow of time": the observation that time always marches towards the future. The experiment involved continually flipping the spin of carbon atoms with an oscillating magnetic field and links the emergence of the arrow of time to quantum fluctuations between one atomic spin state and another. [10] Mark M. Wilde, Assistant Professor at Louisiana State University, has improved this theorem in a way that allows for understanding how quantum measurements can be approximately reversed under certain circumstances. The new results allow for understanding how quantum information that has been lost during a measurement can be nearly recovered, which has potential implications for a variety of quantum technologies. [9] Today, we are capable of measuring the position of an object with unprecedented accuracy, but quantum physics and the Heisenberg uncertainty principle place fundamental limits on our ability to measure. Noise that arises as a result of the quantum nature of the fields used to make those measurements imposes what is called the "standard quantum limit." This same limit influences both the ultrasensitive measurements in nanoscale devices and the kilometer-scale gravitational wave detector at LIGO. Because of this troublesome background noise, we can never know an object's exact location, but a recent study provides a solution for rerouting some of that noise away from the measurement. [8] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[175] viXra:1704.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 19:06:31

Universal Optimization and Its Application

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 159 Pages.

The book consists of three parts. The first part describes new method of optimization that has the advantages at greater generality and flexibility as well as the ability to solve complex problems which other methods cannot solve. This method, called the “Method of Deformation of Functional (Extreme)”, solves for a total minimum and finds a solution set near the optimum. Solutions found by this method can be exact or approximate. Most other methods solve only for a unique local minimum. The ability to create a set of solutions rather than a unique solution has important practical ramifications in many designs, economic and scientific problems because a unique solution usually is difficult to realize in practice. This method has the additional virtue of a simple proof, one that is useful for studying other methods of optimization, since most other methods can be delivered from the Method of Deformation. The mathematical methods used in the book allow calculating special slipping and breaking optimal curves, which are often encountered in problems of optimal control. The author also describes the solution of boundary problems in optimization theory. The mathematical theory is illustrated by several examples. The book is replete with exercises and can be used as a text-book for graduate courses. In fact the author has lectured on this theory using this book for graduate and post-graduate students in Moscow Technical University. The second part of the book is devoted to applications of this method to technical problems in aviation, space, aeronautics, control, automation, structural design, economic, games, theory of counter strategy and etc. Some of the aviation, aeronautic, and control problems are examined: minimization of energy, exact control, fuel consumption, heating of re-entry space ship in the atmosphere of planets, the problems of a range of aircraft, rockets, dirigibles, and etc. Some of the economic problems are considered, for example, the problems of a highest productivity, the problem of integer programming and the problem of linear programming. Many economic problems may be solved by the application of the Method to the Problems of non-cooperative games. The third part of the book contains solutions of complex problems: optimal thrust angle for different flight regimes, optimal trajectories of aircraft, aerospace vehicles, and space ships, design of optimal regulator, linear problems of optimal control. This book is intended for designers, engineers, researchers, as well as specialists working on problems of optimal control, planning, or the choosing of optimal strategy. For engineers the book provides methods of computation of the optimal construction and control mechanisms, and optimal flight trajectories. In addition, the book will be useful to students of mathematics, general engineering, and economic. English translation is not full. Full text is in Russian referances.
Category: General Mathematics

[174] viXra:1704.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 22:34:46

A Latent Quantized Force of an Atomic Unification

Authors: Rasulkhozha S. Sharafiddinov
Comments: 60 Pages.

At the availability of a force of an atomic unification, a sharp interconnection of the evrmionic antineutrino and neutron must constitute the antineutrino hydrogen of Al-Fargoniy is one of the two atoms having a crucial value for construction of all the remaining ones. We discuss a theory in which atomic orbit quantization is carried out around the nucleus in the flavor type dependence. Such an orbit quantized succession principle splits in external fields the spectral lines of atoms, confirming the availability in them of the family structure. Thereby, it predicts the existence in nature of 63189 forms of isotopes of 118 types of atomic systems. We derive the united equations, which relate in atoms the radii of boson, lepton and antineutrino orbits including the speeds, energies and rotation periods of their particles. Finding for them estimates express, in the case of each of the five forms of uraniums and two types of hydrogens, the ideas of an intraatomic force quantized by leptonic families. They unite all necessary for steadiness and completeness of an atom connections in a unified whole as a role of gravity in an atomic construction. Therefore, any of the structural particles suffers in it a strong change both in lifetime and in his self radius in the orbit type dependence.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[173] viXra:1704.0188 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 05:52:07

The Omega-Kardeschev Scale

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 4 Pages.

An interplay.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[172] viXra:1704.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 01:13:43

Reflection Symmetry and Time

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages. reflection symmetry time relativity

Two identical stopwatches moving at the same speed will elapse the same time after moving the same distance. Start one stopwatch later than the other stopwatch. The time difference between these two stopwatches will remain constant after both stopwatches have elapsed the same time. Such time difference will remain constant while both stopwatches are under identical acceleration. Therefore, the elapsed time in an accelerating reference frame is identical to the elapsed time in a stationary reference frame. Consequently, a physical system that exhibits Reflection Symmetry in its motion demonstrates that the time of a moving clock is independent of the relative motion between the clock and its observer.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[171] viXra:1704.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 11:09:27

Local Realism Versus Quantum Mysticism

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See main article ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism has been widely falsely discounted but is recently vindicated according to detailed arguments at the link below. Local realism is ordinary causal determinism. By contrast, quantum theory is mystical causation by indeterminacy. If this claim that quantum theory embeds mystical causation seems at odds with the modal signal in physics right now, we ought to ask why that should be so. In any case, it is a trivial point to establish from the quantum account of the EPR experiment. According to this account, two unmeasured particles at respective separate localities in spacetime have remarkable properties. (A) Neither has measurable properties prior to the first being measured. (B) The instant either is measured, both obtain perfectly correlated outcomes. So where do the physical properties that "decide" those outcomes come from? And how do they coordinate their instant perfect correlation across a spacetime interval, which requires violating Special Relativity? Enter the mystic. Or consider the compelling logic of a new formulation of local realism per below. http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - Claims to demonstrate that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1704.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 09:50:39

Cell’s DNA Made a Biocomputer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Our brains are often compared to computers, but in truth, the billions of cells in our bodies may be a better analogy. The squishy sacks of goop may seem a far cry from rigid chips and bundled wires, but cells are experts at taking inputs, running them through a complicated series of logic gates and producing the desired programmed output. [21] At Caltech, a group of researchers led by Assistant Professor of Bioengineering Lulu Qian is working to create circuits using not the usual silicon transistors but strands of DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[169] viXra:1704.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 04:42:54

A Mechanistic Model for the Hydrogen Atom

Authors: Norman Graves
Comments: 18 Pages.

A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the orbiting electron is seen as an objectively real particle. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms can be treated as being affected by relativity. The model provides a mechanism which drives the quantization process and so leads to the discrete energy levels of the atom. The Rydberg formula, being empirically derived, represents the yardstick by which any model for the hydrogen atom must be judged. Rather than develop a model and test it against the Rydberg formula, the approach taken here is to use the Rydberg formula itself as the basis for such a model. The model effectively unifies quantum mechanics with classical mechanics as well as providing a simple mechanical explanation of the Somerfield Fine Structure Constant.
Category: Classical Physics

[168] viXra:1704.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 07:05:01

Conscious Versus Unconscious Life.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 2 Pages.

I give away some further reflections regarding my latest two books on quantum gravity [1, 2] and the issue of life. I present some rather stunning ideas some of which go against common lore in the medical “sciences”.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[167] viXra:1704.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 13:42:01

Novel Quantum Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Quantum Dynamics Division of Professor Gerhard Rempe at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics (Garching near Munich) has now succeeded to make the first steps in this direction. Using a strongly coupled atom-cavity system, they were the first to observe the so-called two-photon blockade: the system emits at most two photons at the same time since its storage capacity is limited to that number. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:1704.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 22:15:25

The Beginning of Homogeneous Nucleation of Iron/Nickel Cores in Homogeneous Young Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

To begin the process of forming homogeneous iron/nickel cores it is required that the young, hot stars be homogeneous in their interiors. To form an iron/nickel core as the star evolves, no nuclear core can be present. It would be too hot for the iron/nickel vapor to clump together and it would get in the way of the differentiation process.
Category: Astrophysics

[165] viXra:1704.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 02:00:52

Ten Superconducting Qubits Entangled

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A group of physicists in China has taken the lead in the race to couple together increasing numbers of superconducting qubits. [19] The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[164] viXra:1704.0179 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-06 03:21:05

An Outline of Cellular Automaton Universe Via Cosmological KdV Equation

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has been submitted to CTPNP 2017

It has been known for long time that the cosmic sound wave was there since the early epoch of the Universe. Signatures of its existence are abound. However, such a sound wave model of cosmology is rarely developed fully into a complete framework. This paper can be considered as our second attempt towards such a complete description of the Universe based on soliton wave solution of cosmological KdV equation. Then we advance further this KdV equation by virtue of Cellular Automaton method to solve the PDEs. We submit wholeheartedly Robert Kurucz’s hypothesis that Big Bang should be replaced with a finite cellular automaton universe with no expansion. Nonetheless, we are fully aware that our model is far from being complete, but it appears the proposed cellular automaton model of the Universe is very close in spirit to what Konrad Zuse envisaged long time ago. It is our hope that the new proposed method can be verified with observation data. But we admit that our model is still in its infancy, more researches are needed to fill all the missing details.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[163] viXra:1704.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-14 04:03:04

Local Realism Versus Quantum Computers & Quantum Information Theory

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See also ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism reduces to the proposition that every physical effect arises exclusively at the spacetime locality where the determinate properties of physical reality determine that it be so. The causal model of quantum theory, however, and thus all prospects for quantum computers, require that local realism is false. The essential argument favoring quantum beliefs is that local realism cannot explain empirical Bell violations, whereas quantum theory can. By contrast, the article cited below offers compelling evidence to the contrary. Furthermore, such alleged refutations of local realism are predicated on an interpretation of the Bell inequality that many researchers reject (the cited article provides specific references). Meanwhile, the causal model of quantum theory reduces to the quantum formalism itself, which distributes outcomes across separate localities without providing enough information to determine what those outcomes are. More specifically, depending on subtleties of interpretation, the quantum formalism requires either: (A) There exists a bit of physical information such that this bit exists as mutually exclusive states, or (B) there exists a bit of physical information such that this bit is not physically informed. They are both contradictions. Pick your poison. Or reconsider local realism. See ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, 1 graph of testable predictions, and 2 paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[162] viXra:1704.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 11:08:43

Trapped Ions and Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The race to build larger and larger quantum computers is heating up, with several technologies competing for a role in future devices. Each potential platform has strengths and weaknesses, but little has been done to directly compare the performance of early prototypes. Now, researchers at the JQI have performed a first-of-its-kind benchmark test of two small quantum computers built from different technologies. [18] To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[161] viXra:1704.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 11:49:24

Materials for Discussion of Methodological Limitations Resulting from the Stereotypes of Biologists Thinking

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 18 Pages. in Polish

Attempts to communicate the results of theoretical works on the evolutionary biology using the methodology of physics have not yielded results for half a century, but have led to the recognition of methodological limitations stemming from the stereotypes of thinking in biology. It is primarily a lack of interest in the pursuit of deductive theory. Abstraction and deduction - the basis of physics, are despised and omitted as speculation, which creates a blockade in the development of theory in biology. As a basis for this diagnosis, five reviews of the text addressed to “KOSMOS” have been analyzed, which led to the conclusion that the text, because of the thesis contained therein, is unreadable to biologists. This study is the basis for a wider discussion in a separate publication.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[160] viXra:1704.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 07:02:31

A P Time Solution to an NP Complete Problem

Authors: Q.P.Wimblik
Comments: 2 Pages.

Vertex Coloring can be reduced to a set of 2 color vertex coloring problems. This is achieved by utilizing an ability to account for every positive integer with a unique pair of smaller integers.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[159] viXra:1704.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 07:36:08

First Image of Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

After training a network of telescopes stretching from Hawaii to Antarctica to Spain at the heart of our galaxy for five nights running, astronomers said Wednesday they may have snapped the first-ever picture of a black hole. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[158] viXra:1704.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 08:39:21

Supercomputer Simulation of Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

To find out whether quantum computers will work properly, scientists must simulate them on a classical computer. Now a record-breaking experiment has simulated the largest quantum computer yet. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system,
Category: Quantum Physics

[157] viXra:1704.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 04:13:42

Mathematics, the Continuous or the Discrete Which is Better to Reality of Things

Authors: Linfan Mao
Comments: 26 Pages.

There are 2 contradictory views on our world, i.e., continuous or discrete, which results in that only partially reality of a thing T can be understood by one of continuous or discrete mathematics because of the universality of contradiction and the connection of things in the nature, just as the philosophical meaning in the story of the blind men with an elephant. Holding on the reality of natural things motivates the combination of continuous mathematics with that of discrete, i.e., an envelope theory called mathematical combinatorics which extends classical mathematics over topological graphs because a thing is nothing else but a multiverse over a spacial structure of graphs with conservation laws hold on its vertices. Such a mathematical object is said to be an action flow. The main purpose of this report is to introduce the powerful role of action flows, or mathematics over graphs with applications to physics, biology and other sciences, such as those of G-solution of non-solvable algebraic or differential equations, Banach or Hilbert G-flow spaces with multiverse, multiverse on equations, and with applications to, for examples, the understanding of particles, spacetime and biology. All of these make it clear that holding on the reality of things by classical mathematics is only on the coherent behaviors of things for its homogenous without contradictions, but the mathematics over graphs G is applicable for contradictory systems because contradiction is universal only in eyes of human beings but not the nature of a thing itself.
Category: General Mathematics

[156] viXra:1704.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 05:43:41

Neuronal Activity Recording

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A team led by engineers at the University of California San Diego has developed nanowires that can record the electrical activity of neurons in fine detail. [15] For certain frequencies of shortwave infrared light, most biological tissues are nearly as transparent as glass. Now, researchers have made tiny particles that can be injected into the body, where they emit those penetrating frequencies. The advance may provide a new way of making detailed images of internal body structures such as fine networks of blood vessels. [14] The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[155] viXra:1704.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-26 11:37:20

Gravity’s Emergence from Electrodynamics

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 20 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement, finally explaining the idea of “inflation theory” as a feature of the golden ratio equation for time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[154] viXra:1704.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 06:12:41

Rare Meson Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Many scientists working on the LHCb experiment at CERN had hoped that the exceptional accuracy in the measurement of the rare decay of the Bs0 meson would at last delineate the limits of the Standard Model, the current theory of the structure of matter, and reveal phenomena unknown to modern physics. [19] While no evidence for new physics has yet been found, these new results have provided crucial input to our theoretical models and has greatly improved our understanding of the Standard Model. [18] A quartet of researchers has boldly proposed the addition of six new particles to the standard model to explain five enduring problems. [17] Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[153] viXra:1704.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 13:32:01

Fluid With Negative Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

Researchers in the US say they've created a fluid with negative mass in the lab... which is exactly as mind-bending as it sounds. What it means is that, unlike pretty much every other known physical object, when you push this fluid, it accelerates backwards instead of moving forwards. Such an oddity could tell scientists about some of the strange behaviour that happens within black holes and neutron stars. [5] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] viXra:1704.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 15:44:48

The Relativistic Mass Ratio in Ultrarelativistic Photon Rockets

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we take a closer look at the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for an ideal photon rocket travelling at its maximum velocity. Haug has recently suggested that for all known subatomic particles, a minimum of two Planck masses of fuel are needed to accelerate the fundamental particle to its suggested maximum velocity (see [1]). Here we will show how this view is consistent with insight given by Tipler at a NASA Breakthrough Propulsion Physics Workshop Proceedings in 1999 (see [2]). Tipler suggested that the mass ratio of the initial rest mass of an ultra-relativistic rocket relative to the relativistic mass of the payload is likely “just” two. An ultrarelativistic rocket is one travelling at a velocity very close to the speed of light. We will here show that the Tipler factor is consistent with results derived from Haug’s suggested maximum velocity for any known observed subatomic particle. However, we will show that the Tipler factor of two is unlikely to hold for ultra-heavy subatomic particle payloads. With ultra-heavy particles, we think of subatomic particles with mass close to that of the Planck mass. Our analysis indicates that the initial mass relative to the relativistic mass of the payload for any type of subatomic particle rocket must be between one and two. Remarkably, the mass ratio is only one for a Planck mass particle. This at first sounds absurd until we understand that the Planck mass particle is probably the very collision point between two photons. Even if a photon’s speed “always is” considered to be the speed of light, we can think of it as standing still at the instant it collides with another photon (backscattering). The mass ratio to accelerate a particle that only exists at velocity zero is naturally one. This is true since no fuel is needed to go from zero to zero velocity. Remarkably this indicates that the Planck mass particle and the Planck length likely are invariant. This can only happen if the Planck mass particle only lasts for an instant before it bursts into energy, which is what we could expect for the collision between two photons.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[151] viXra:1704.0165 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-21 09:23:53

Direct Observational Test of a Proposed Cosmological Model

Authors: Mueiz Gafer KamalEldeen
Comments: 7 Pages.

A simple observational test of a proposed cosmological model with radial time and spherical space is introduced. It is shown briefly how the proposed model which can solve many problems of cosmology is wrongly excluded.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[150] viXra:1704.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 22:23:53

Local Realism Versus Volumes of Quantum Nonsense

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page. See also ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 **

Local realism must predict empirical Bell violations in a reasonable way to become a compelling causal explanation of physical reality. According to the paper at the link given below, it can now do that. On the other hand, quantum theory, despite its wonderful statistical predictions, must transcend its infamous paradoxes to become a compelling causal explanation of anything. Unfortunately, quantum paradoxes reduce to quantum contradictions, and thus to nonsense. Take "quantum superposition". Is this the simultaneous existence of mutually exclusive states or not? If it is, then we have a contradiction, and all further claims from quantum theory fail to have meaningful interpretations. If quantum superposition is something other than that contradiction, then what -- exactly -- is quantum superposition? And let's take "physical reality" while we are at it. Defending quantum theory as a causal explanation of physical reality requires that physical reality is not exclusively physical reality! Whoops. What -- exactly -- is so difficult about simply admitting when we have no sensible causal explanation for certain phenomena like Bell violations in EPR(B) experiments? In psychology, we know the answer to such questions. Our beliefs are evidence resistant. We thus predict that the rational threat from local realism to widespread beliefs -- its implication that physical reality might be mostly explained without appeal to antilocal mysticism -- will continue to be buried under reams of empirical observations stitched together by nonsense insinuations that that paradoxes are assets rather than contradictions. In any case, the paper below arguably formulates a theory of local realism that constitutes a causally valid description of physical reality. No nonsense required. Or, it could just be wrong. But it is waiting to be tested. Indeed, even existing data could bear on the empirical question if the theory is sound enough. See ** http://vixra.org/abs/1704.0078 ** Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake) - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, a graph of testable predictions, and two paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[149] viXra:1704.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 23:00:49

Lattice Mismatches of Vertical 2D/3D Semiconductor Heterostructures

Authors: Donghwi Park
Comments: 11 Pages.

Various lattice mismatches at room temperature and 750 °C in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures of semiconductors were calculated. These calculations propose new substrate for 2D semiconductor synthesis. It is reported that aligned vertical 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure is synthesysed in lattice matched system. In this article, Various lattice mismatch at room temperature and 750 °C in van der Waals (vdW) heterostructures of semiconductor was calculated. The calculation proposes new substrate for 2D semiconductor synthesis. This calculation suggests MoSe2/ZnO is a lattice-matched 2D/3D semiconductor heterostructure with low mismatch.
Category: Condensed Matter

[148] viXra:1704.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 03:51:02

The Number Density Paradox

Authors: Ken Seton
Comments: 6 Pages. Enjoy

In the world of transfinite cardinality, any talk of number density, dart-board hits, proportions or probability is just a pouring from the empty into the void. Transfinite cardinality is unrelated to any normal concept of proportion or density over an interval and no understanding of it can obtained from probabilistic analogies. This is demonstrated by comparing extremely sparse and extremely dense collections of reals which are normally understood as uncountable and countable respectively. Should this incline one to think that Cantor’s equivalence definition is inappropriate for identifying the “size” of an infinite collection ?
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[147] viXra:1704.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 11:11:40

Image of a Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[146] viXra:1704.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 11:28:30

Why Do Planets Rotate Around Themselves ?

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 4 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD

It is commonly believed that the self-rotation angular momentum of planets is due to an original angular momentum of dense interstellar clouds at the formation stage of the stars. However, the study shows something completely dierent: a test planet in free-fall, in fact, follows two geodesics; the rst is the usual Schwarzschild path, and the second is a Schwarzschild-like path, dened (spatially) locally: an elliptical orbit in the plane (U(1)-variable, azimuthal angle). The analysis leads to the fact that: the motion along these geodesics (physically) is exactly the self-rotation of a charged test planet in Reissner-Nordstrom spacetime. The results reveal a more general understanding of Einstein equivalence principle: locally, gravitational eld can be (in the Reissner- Nordstrom space) replaced with an accelerated and rotated local frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[145] viXra:1704.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 08:05:19

Atom Interferometers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

The atom interferometer uses the quantum 'wave-like' nature of atoms to make precise measurements. [31] A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation,
Category: Quantum Physics

[144] viXra:1704.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 08:50:23

About pi as a Function of State of Nature

Authors: Valery B. Smolensky
Comments: 3 Pages.

The article, according to the author, sheds new light on the nature of PI. The original output of PI as a function of States of nature.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[143] viXra:1704.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 09:13:38

Nonlocal Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In the quantum realm, Heisenberg's uncertainty principle states that accurately measuring a pair of properties of an atom puts a limit to the precision of measurement you can obtain on the same properties of another atom. [20] Scientists have pushed quantum entanglement to new levels in two experiments. In one study, researchers linked up millions of atoms, and in another, intertwined hundreds of large groups consisting of billions of atoms. [19] Researchers have devised an improved method for checking whether two particles are entangled. [18] A group of researchers from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw has shed new light on the famous paradox of Einstein, Podolsky and Rosen after 80 years. They created a multidimensional entangled state of a single photon and a trillion hot rubidium atoms, and stored this hybrid entanglement in the laboratory for several microseconds. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10] We demonstrated the feasibility and the potential of a new approach to making a quantum computer. In our approach, we replace the qubits with qumodes. Our method is advantageous because the number of qumodes can be extremely large. This is the case, for instance, in hundred–thousand mode, octave-spanning optical frequency combs of carrier-envelope phase-locked classical femtosecond lasers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[142] viXra:1704.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 09:34:59

Collapse of the Waves on “soft” DNA Sites Can be a Physical Basis of the Regulation of Genes Expression

Authors: Denis Semyonov
Comments: 14 Pages.

NMR data demonstrate the existence of Hoogsteen base pairs in double-stranded DNA. In this work, a possibility of implication of these pairs in regulation of genes expression is discussed. The author suggests a physical mechanism for switch between different states of regulatory DNA sites as the result of collapse of rotational waves at these sites.
Category: Physics of Biology

[141] viXra:1704.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 10:31:11

Controlling Particles' Spin Configurations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Fermions are ubiquitous elementary particles. They span from electrons in metals, to protons and neutrons in nuclei and to quarks at the sub-nuclear level. Further, they possess an intrinsic degree of freedom called spin with only two possible configurations, either up or down. In a new study published in EPJ B, theoretical physicists explore the possibility of separately controlling the up and down spin populations of a group of interacting fermions. [13] An international consortium led by researchers at the University of Basel has developed a method to precisely alter the quantum mechanical states of electrons within an array of quantum boxes. The method can be used to investigate the interactions between various types of atoms and electrons, which is essential for future quantum technologies, as the group reports in the journal Small. [12] Quantum systems are extremely hard to analyze if they consist of more than just a few parts. It is not difficult to calculate a single hydrogen atom, but in order to describe an atom cloud of several thousand atoms, it is usually necessary to use rough approximations. The reason for this is that quantum particles are connected to each other and cannot be described separately. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[140] viXra:1704.0153 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-28 04:15:27

Animatus

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 191 Pages.

Philip M. Emrus er taget på en sidste rejse til Firenze. Den verdenskendte palæoantropolog er lige så skarp og åndsfrisk som han altid har været. Men hans krop er gammel, og helbredet skrøbeligt efter at have levet et langt og rigt liv. Emrus har ingen illusioner om, at hans dage er talte, og det havde han egentlig affundet sig med. Men en bekendt fra fortiden har sat ham stævne her i Renæssancens oprindelsessted. En bemærkelsesværdig kvinde fra fortiden ønsker at give ham et tilbud der kan forandre alt. Det er et dristigt tilbud, der ikke alene kan redde ham og give en ny chance i livet. Det er også et tilbud, der vil rokke ved manges opfattelse af hvad det vil sige at være menneske. Emrus kan genvinde livets gave, men også vende op og ned på mange indgroede forestillinger om det levede liv. Det vil udfordre manges opfattelse af grænser, og hvor langt mennesker egentlig har ret til at gå med at bestemme over egne liv.
Category: Education and Didactics

[139] viXra:1704.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-19 12:54:03

Current Return to Lamarck in Agreement with Darwin

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 12 Pages. in Polish

The terms ‘Darwinism’ and ‘Lamarckism’ mean different things to different people. Nowadays, they are rarely used in a historically correct way – clime Jablonka and Lamb, the scientists that mainly contribute to proving than not only genes can curry hereditary information and new hereditary channels show characteristic of Lamarckian mechanisms. Especially Lamarckism was seen in false and superficial way in lot of aspects. The inheritance of acquired characters was connected to Lamarck. It was rejected too radically. Today it revives but mainly not basing on epigenetic inheritance. Generally Lamarckian mechanisms increase in the complex and diverse ways the chances of accurate adaptive changes, so they no longer look like a random, appear as ‘effects of instructions’ or ‘directed variations’ but these ‘instructions’ have been previously acquired through Darwinian natural selection. The richness of these phenomena causes great difficulty of their brief describtion. Lamarckian dimension of evolution is now known better. This phenomena cannot be explained in the range of Modern Synthesis assumptions. It does not mean, that MS is false and should be rejected. Lamarckian mechanisms are created by Darwinian natural selection, but their explanations need wider assumptions, than are a basis of MS, means Extended Evolutionary Synthesis is necessary. This theme is one of the main in current discussion.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[138] viXra:1704.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-14 05:25:26

The Origin of Life and the Need for a Rigid String Propeller Fermion Model Combined with a Chiral Vacuum Lattice and Micro Interference Black Holes

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 40 Pages.

The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and is a strong argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare. Glycine molecules (Amino Acids) are found inside materials ejected from comets like Wild 2 ( 2004) and 67P-CG ( 2015-2016) which is reason to support the idea that new physics magnetic micro interference black holes postulated by Quantum FFF Theory are the origin of life creating comets and (ball) lightning all over the universe. . Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) new physics theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped rigid but transformable massless strings called Axion- Higgs (AH) particles. Colliding AH particles are responsible for pair production ( e- and e+) and even quarks around micro and macro black hole nuclei present in the splitting Big Bang down to Comets and Ball Lightnings. Black hole nuclei are supposed to be AH knots compressed by the in falling AH vacuum lattice. Two AHs should be able to change form by real high energy collision into two entangled electron positron propeller strings with opposite pitch and spin. Such high energy is supposed to be present at black hole event/photon horizons and inside particle colliders like the LHC at Geneva. The propeller form of fermions is assumed to be the origin of a new physics black hole model. All black holes attract (eat) the local AH vacuum but repel all fermions by spin polarisation effects, which make black holes pair producing and fermion producing phenomena observed in Quasars, Herbig Haro objects, Comets and even ball lightning. Thus the variable FORM of all particles is based on real internal joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons. However all new particles pairs are assumed to be instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. Massless transformed Axion particles are also assumed to be responsible for all compound quantum knots like quarks and massive Higgs particles of 126 GeV and Higher energy recently observed in the LHC at CERN. The oscillating AH vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon, Gluon and Neutrino information. Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Axion particles, compressed by the oscillating AH vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[137] viXra:1704.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 07:47:23

Progressive Fourier (Or Trigonometric) Interpolation

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 11 Pages.

Method of progressive trigonometric interpolation is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[136] viXra:1704.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 13:40:31

Way of Ten Times Increase Efficiency of Geological Branch and Row Stok Safety of Mankind

Authors: Feliks Royzenman
Comments: 6 Pages.

Because of exhaustion of stocks of deposits on the Earth's surface, new deposits can be discovered mainly in depth. But confidence of deep earth prognosis of industrial deposits in the modern geology is for most of the minerals just 5-10% (90-95% error!). It threatens the world economy and development of the mankind. To solve this crucial issue, the author developed and successfully used for 40 year a new system of high-precision deep earth prognosis of deposits [3]. This system of prognosis makes the mining and geological industry more than 10-fold efficient, provides mineral and raw-stock supply security and creates the basis for efficient development of civilization. Key words: deposits, deep earth prognosis, high confidence of prognosis, discovery of deposits.
Category: Geophysics

[135] viXra:1704.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 13:45:25

The New Socioeconomic Formation “Solidarism” Would in 2015-25 Years

Authors: Feliks Royzenman
Comments: 6 Pages.

As it is shown by the author on basis of the discovered law of acceleration of development in the nature and society, the financial crisis getting underway is a prologue to a fundamental crisis of the mankind related to the latest changeover of socioeconomic formations which, according to the formula acceleration of public development, shall occur in 2015-25. But if the formations changeover occurs sporadically, as before, it may turn out into a bloody revolution which can lead to extinction of the human civilization. To avoid it, a model of the new society and strategy of urgent construction of this model were developed. Key words: acceleration of development, systemic crisis, socioeconomic formation, model of the future formation, strategy of formation construction.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[134] viXra:1704.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 09:22:03

Discrete Mellin Convolution and Its Extensions, Perron Formula and Explicit Formulae

Authors: Jose Javier Garcia Moreta
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper we define a new Mellin discrete convolution, which is related to Perron's formula. Also we introduce new explicit formulae for arithmetic function which generalize the explicit formulae of Weil
Category: Number Theory

[133] viXra:1704.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 21:09:40

Accretion Friction Braking in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is required in stellar metamorphosis to brake material so that it loses the momentum that would prevent coalescence. In order to do any sort of accretion in outer space, the material has to clump together slowly and be pulled together and heated significantly. Even the slightest momentum with gaseous matter, dust, 1 cm sized particles or 1 km sized asteroids would prevent accretion and result in a further disintegration or deflection of the material. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[132] viXra:1704.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 21:20:48

An Experiment to Measure the Speed of Alternating Electricity

Authors: Tsao Chang, Kongjia Liao,Jing Fan
Comments: 7 Pages. This is a new-type experiment

Our experiment to measure the speed of alternating electricity is briefly reported here. It is found that the speed of alternating electricity within the metal wire is not constant, which is depended on the circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electricity is less than the speed of light. However, our recent experimental results show that at less than 3 MHz frequency region and under our circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times more than the speed of light.
Category: Classical Physics

[131] viXra:1704.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 23:59:12

Ether, Time, and Energy (November 29, 2006).

Authors: Kenneth M. Sasaki.
Comments: 30 pages, 16 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[130] viXra:1704.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 01:35:41

Apparent Paradoxes in Apparent Source Theory

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 9 Pages.

According to Apparent Source Theory ( AST ), the position of a light source changes apparently relative to a co-moving observer, if the light source (and observer) is in absolute motion. Apparent Source Theory successfully explains almost all light speed experiments. However, there are some (apparent ) paradoxes in AST. In this paper, these paradoxes are described and solutions will be proposed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[129] viXra:1704.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-19 12:41:38

This Article Continues the Exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory Which Foundations and Some Consequences We Have Detailed in Two Previous Articles

Authors: Henry-Couannier Frederic
Comments: 28 Pages.

This article continues the exploration of the Dark Gravity Theory which foundationsand some consequences we have detailed in two previous article
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1704.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 02:52:05

Local Realism Versus the Quantum Spooks

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page.

Local realism is causation by ordinary causal signals. What we mean by ordinary is this. First, these signals have fully determinate properties, whether measured or not. Second, they can only cause effects precisely at the spacetime locality of their physical existence. By contrast, as Einstein famously observed, quantum causal signals are spooky because they can cause effects where they do not in fact exist. Indeed, the only evidence that quantum causal signals possess any physical existence at all is that they seem to explain every effect you could ever measure. Unless you think about it. Take the simplest case: One photon, one spin measurement, up or down. The quantum explanation is essentially that we draw the answer from a bag that contains no answers such that physical reality obtains precisely from its own absence. This is known as the "measurement problem". But the problem is obviously not "measurement". The problem is that quantum theory has literally no explanation for any specific measurement result. On the other hand, local realism does. Spin Up and Spin Down for photons must, at the end of the day, be analogous to Heads Up and Heads Down for ordinary fair coins. The quantum counterclaim, here, is that there is no compelling solution set of local hidden variables that makes this analogy work for an EPR experiment. Furthermore, many claim that the Bell inequality rules out any such solution set. On the other hand, anyone who thinks that the Bell inequality has some single uncontested meaning has not been reading the literature. The paper noted below claims both to provide local hidden variables that constitute a compelling local realistic solution for an EPR experiment and to explain how such solutions have been falsely denied. See viXra:1704.0078 - Local Realism Explains Bell Violations - for a demonstration that all empirical evidence taken to support quantum theory over local realism plausibly does the reverse. The article comprises 8 pages, 4 figures, 6 equations, 32 references, a graph of testable predictions, and two paragraphs that purport to expose how the Bell inequality misrepresents the local realistic predictions for the EPR experiment. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[127] viXra:1704.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 11:16:41

Quantum Image Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Quantum image processing (QIP) is an emerging sub-discipline that is focused on extending conventional image processing tasks and operations to the quantum computing framework. [20] The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[126] viXra:1704.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 12:28:16

Indistinguishable Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

To really take off, advanced quantum information processing will require getting a better (experimental) grasp of an essential phenomenon called "indistinguishable photons." A high degree of "indistinguishability" requires almost complete wave-packet overlap, or perfect photon matching, of energy, space, time and polarization. [21] Quantum image processing (QIP) is an emerging sub-discipline that is focused on extending conventional image processing tasks and operations to the quantum computing framework. [20] The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[125] viXra:1704.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 12:33:42

The True Name of the Messiah

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 14 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal

There was old debates on the true name of the Messiah especially in Jewish Literatures. While it was mentioned clearly in Matthew 1:1-10 that Jesus is the true Messiah, many Jews still have “vein” put on their faces which make them cannot see the truth that Jesus is the True Messiah. I pray that soon this vein will be lifted and you can see the truth.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[124] viXra:1704.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 12:55:18

Spin-Wave Information Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Computer electronics are shrinking to small-enough sizes that the very electrical currents underlying their functions can no longer be used for logic computations in the ways of their larger-scale ancestors. [22] To really take off, advanced quantum information processing will require getting a better (experimental) grasp of an essential phenomenon called "indistinguishable photons." A high degree of "indistinguishability" requires almost complete wave-packet overlap, or perfect photon matching, of energy, space, time and polarization. [21] Quantum image processing (QIP) is an emerging sub-discipline that is focused on extending conventional image processing tasks and operations to the quantum computing framework. [20] The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[123] viXra:1704.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 08:21:43

A Recursive Asymptotic Theory of Nonlinear Gravity Surface Waves on a Water Layer with an Even or Infinitely Deep Bottom

Authors: Yakov A. Iosilevskii
Comments: 137 pages

It is shown with complete logical and mathematical rigor that under the appropriate hypotheses of analytical extension and of asymptotic matching, which are stated in the article, the nonlinear problem of irrotational and incompressible gravity waves on an infinite water layer of a constant depth d reduces to an infinite recursive sequence of linear two-plane boundary value problems for a harmonic velocity potential with respect to powers of a dimensionless real-valued scaling parameter ‘ka’, where k>0 is the wave number and a>0 the amplitude of a priming (seeding) progressive, or standing, plane monochromatic gravity water wave (briefly PPPMGWW or PSPMGWW respectively). The method, by which the given nonlinear water wave problem is treated in the exposition from scratch, can be regarded as a peculiar instance of the general perturbation method, which is known as the Liouville-Green (LG) method in mathematics and as the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method in physics. In the framework of the recursive theory developed, the velocity potential and any bulk or surface measurable characteristic of the wave motion is represented by an infinite asymptotic power series with respect to ‘ka’, whose all coefficients are expressed in quadratures in accordance with a well-established an algorithm for their successive calculation. The theory developed applies particularly in the case where the depth d is taken to infinity. Besides the priming velocity potential of the first, linear asymptotic approximation in ka, the partial velocity potential and all relevant characteristics of wave motion of the second order with respect to ka are calculated in terms of elementary functions both in the case of a PPPMGWW and in the case of a PSPMGWW. Accordingly, the recursive theory incorporates the conventional Airy (linear) theory of water waves linear as its first non-vanishing approximation with the following proviso. In the Airy theory, the boundary condition at the perturbed free (upper) surface of a water layer is paradoxically stated at the equilibrium plane z=0, in spite of the fact that at any instant of time some part of the plane is necessarily located in air or in vacuum, and not in water. This and also a similar paradox arising in computing the time averages of bulk characteristics at spatial points close to the perturbed free surface are solved in the article.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[122] viXra:1704.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 04:15:20

The Homology Groups of $G_{n,m}(\mathbb{R})$

Authors: Xu Chen
Comments: 23 Pages.

In this article, we computed the homology groups of real Grassmann manifold $G_{n,m}(\mathbb{R})$ by Witten complex.
Category: Geometry

[121] viXra:1704.0133 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-11 12:54:04

2 Signals for Retarded Single Big Bang Black Hole Nucleus Splitting and Pairing into Dual Black Hole Herbig Haro Systems. Single-cdf-s-xt1-and-dual-macs1423.html

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 19 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Axion Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively into chunky nuclei of primary dark matter black holes. Now recent HST observations show us a possible retarded splitting process at 10.8 billion light years (called CDF-S-XT1) and even a dual energy source which seem to point to an early Herbig Haro system at even 13.1 billion light years ( MACS1423-z7p64) The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Axion Higgs field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[120] viXra:1704.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 13:25:43

Origin of Life and Quantum Criticality

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Quantum criticality must have played a crucial role in the origin of life say researchers who have found its hidden signature in a wide range of important biomolecules. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[119] viXra:1704.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 13:42:09

Local Realism Versus the Quantum of Doubt

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 1 Page.

Local realism is essentially the premise that physical reality is already physically real and that causal influence propagates through spacetime in a mechanistic way like a chain of toppling dominoes. However, local realism has been replaced by quantum theory as the scientific model of physical reality. Causal signal propagation under quantum theory is like starting with an arbitrarily long chain of dominoes, then removing all the dominoes in the middle and claiming that the first can topple the last instantly anyways -- just because we don't have any better ideas. The argument for replacing local realism with quantum theory requires that the Bell inequality is an accurate description of the predictions of local realism in an EPR experiment. However, many researchers conclude otherwise. Strangely, this substantial countersignal seems to promote fierce defensiveness rather than rational doubt among quantum believers. One begins to worry that the ongoing rejection of local realism is predicated upon motivated beliefs rather than upon motivated inquiry. Keywords: Local Realism. Local real dominoes. Quantum Dominoes. EPR. Bell inequality. Causal signal propagation. In any case, a concise paper posed as a local realistic puzzle representing an EPR experiment now claims to show that local realism explains Bell violations & thus plausibly all physical reality. The necessary logical flaw in the Bell inequality is claimed exposed in two paragraphs! See viXra:1704.0078 - Local Realism Explains Bell Violations (author Andrew P. Yake): 8 pages complete with figures, equations, a graph of testable predictions, and 32 references. Thoughtful feedback appreciated (apyake@gmail.com).
Category: Quantum Physics

[118] viXra:1704.0129 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-19 11:21:34

Twin Prime Conjecture

Authors: Barry Foster
Comments: 2 Pages.

This attempt uses Bertrand’s postulate.
Category: Number Theory

[117] viXra:1704.0128 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-15 17:15:55

Photon Models Are Derived by Solving a Bug in Poynting and Maxwell Theory

Authors: Shuang-Ren Zhao
Comments: 41 Pages. In this version English is corrected, and the summation used in Action-at-a-distance of Tetrode and Fokker is added.

It is found that the Poynting theorem is conflict with the energy conservation principle. It is a bug of the Poynting theorem. The Poynting theorem is derived from Maxwell equations by using the superimposition principle of the fields. Hence, this bug also existed at either in superimposition principle or in the Maxwell equations. The Poynting theorem is corrected in this article. After the correction the energy is not quadratic and hence the field is also not linear. The concept of the superposition of fields need also to be corrected. Hence the new definitions for the inner product and cross product are proposed. The corrected Poynting theorem become the mutual energy formula, it is strongly related to the mutual energy theorems. It is shown that starting from the mutual energy formula, the whole electromagnetic theory can be reconstructed. The Poynting theorem can be proved from the mutual energy formula by adding pseudo items. The Maxwell equations can be derived from Poynting theorem as sufficient conditions. Hence if the mutual energy formula is corrected, the Maxwell equations still can be applied with knowing its problem. Most the problems originally caused by Maxwell equations are solved. Examples of this problems are: (1) electric field infinity which need to be re-normalized in quantum physics; (2) collapse of the electromagnetic field, the waves has to be collapsed to its absorber, otherwise the energy is not conserved; (3) the emitter can send energy without absorber, this is conflict to the direct interaction principle and absorber theory; (4) if our universe is not completely opaque, the charges will continually send energy to the outside of our universe, our universe will have a continual loss of energy. However there is no testimony supporting that our universe is opaque. The new theory supports the existence of advanced wave, hence also strongly support the absorber theory and transactional interpretation of quantum physics. It can offer an equation for photon and a good explanation for the duality of the photon. If photon and electromagnetic field obeys the mutual energy formula, it is very possible that all other quanta also obey their similar mutual energy formula. Hence the mutual energy formula can be applied as a principle or axiom for the electromagnetic theory and quantum physics. According to this theory the asychronous retarded wave and the asychronous advanced wave of electromagnetic fields both are an ability or probability waves, which is also partly agree with Copenhagen interpretation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[116] viXra:1704.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 23:59:27

Ether, Time, and Energy (November 21, 2006).

Authors: Kenneth M. Sasaki.
Comments: 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 62 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work demonstrates that observation and theory support three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming only the physical laws of current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[115] viXra:1704.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 02:59:06

Quantum Mechanics, Information and Knowledge, All Aspects of Fractal Geometry and Revealed in an Understanding of Marginal Economics.

Authors: Blair D. Macdonald
Comments: 56 Pages.

Fractal geometry is found universally and is said to be one of the best descriptions of our reality – from clouds and trees, to market price behaviour. As a fractal structure emerges – the repeating of a simple rule – it appears to share direct properties familiar to classical economics, including production, consumption, and equilibrium. This paper was an investigation into whether the mathematical principles behind ‘the market’ – known as marginalism – is an aspect or manifestation of a fractal geometry or attractor. Total and marginal areas (assumed to stand for utility) and the cost of production were graphed as the fractal grew and compared to a classical interpretation of diminishing marginal utility theory, and the market supply and demand. PED and PES was also calculated and analysed with respect to (iteration) time and decay. It was found the fractal attractor demonstrates properties and best models classical economic theory and from this it was deduced the market is a fractal attractor phenomenon where all properties are inextricably linked. The fractal, at equilibrium, appears to be a convergent – zeta function – series, able to be described by Fourier analysis, and involves Pi, i, e, 0, and 1 (of Euler’s identity) in one model. It also demonstrated growth, development, evolution and Say’s Law – production before consumption. Insights from the fractal on knowledge and knowing are also revealed, with implications on the question of what exactly is ‘science’ – and what is ‘art’? A connect between reality and quantum mechanics was identified. It was concluded marginal, classical economics is an aspect of a universal fractal geometry.
Category: Economics and Finance

[114] viXra:1704.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 03:37:54

Mathematical Beauty with Prime Numbers: Elegant Sieve-Based Primality Test Formula Constructed with Periodic Functions

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 14 Pages.

Formulas which relate basic mathematical constants, operations and prime numbers are presented. Some related ideas are explored.
Category: General Mathematics

[113] viXra:1704.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 12:28:58

Gravitational Shift for Beginners

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper, which I wrote in 2006, formulates the equations for gravitational shifts from the relativistic framework of special relativity. First I derive the formulas for the gravitational redshift and then the formulas for the gravitational blueshift.
Category: Quantum Physics

[112] viXra:1704.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 07:38:09

Unsuccessful Attempt to Speed-up Numerical Integration of Functions with Peaks and Some Related Topics

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 3 Pages. Publication of a negative result.

An (unsuccessful) attempt to use “damping” functions for sharp peak integration is made. Some related comments about Monte Carlo “area” integration and speeding a uniform random number generator are made.
Category: General Mathematics

[111] viXra:1704.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 07:46:25

On The Prime Partition of n!

Authors: Shi-YuanDong
Comments: 2 Pages.

The prime partition of n!, On the Goldbach prime partition, and the algebraic sum of elements of prime.
Category: Number Theory

[110] viXra:1704.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 07:55:38

Rarest Radioactive Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Why is there more matter than antimatter in the universe? The reason might be hidden in the neutrino nature: one of the preferred theoretical models assumes, that these elementary particles were identical with their own anti-particles. [12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[109] viXra:1704.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 10:37:39

Quantum Dots for Biological Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

For certain frequencies of shortwave infrared light, most biological tissues are nearly as transparent as glass. Now, researchers have made tiny particles that can be injected into the body, where they emit those penetrating frequencies. The advance may provide a new way of making detailed images of internal body structures such as fine networks of blood vessels. [14] The proposed nano-MRI setup consists of an atomic qubit positioned 2-4 nm below a surface holding a molecule. The qubit acts as both the sensor and source of the magnetic field for encoding the nuclear spins of the molecule. The nuclear density data is then used to generate a 3D image of the molecular structure with angstrom-level resolution. [13] Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a way to radically miniaturise a Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) machine using atomic-scale quantum computer technology. [12] With one in two Australian children reported to have tooth decay in their permanent teeth by age 12, researchers from the University of Sydney believe they have identified some nanoscale elements that govern the behaviour of our teeth. [11] When cryoEM images are obtained from protein nanocrystals the images themselves can appear to be devoid of any contrast. A group of scientists from the Netherlands have now demonstrated that lattice information can be revealed and enhanced by a specialized filter. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[108] viXra:1704.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-15 14:21:29

Time Convergence and Divergence Models of Cosmology and Superposition

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 12 Pages.

This alternative model to Dark Matter, is supported by correlated studies of multiple galaxy surveys with increased velocities across their minor axis. Thus, velocity within the same body appears to increase per distance. Time convergence (TC) proposes that time intervals appear to decrease and converge to a single event over great magnitude distance, as viewed from an observer at classic scale. TC explains accelerated expansion to be an illusion, as decreasing time intervals appear equivalent to acceleration. See figure 3. In the last chapter, I provide a vector calculation to distinguish accelerated expansion from TC (Time Convergence). Note: Also included are sections showing how this same concept of time interval distortion is applicable to superpostion at nanoscales. Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a time-lapse. For example, an electron orbital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do progress in time between ground and excited. In section 5, I provide a potential mesoscopic proof, with two observations, separated in time, representing the exact same event.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[107] viXra:1704.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 19:42:00

University Mathematics for Intelligent Teenagers.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 93 Pages.

Many topics are touched upon at a fair level of sophistication.
Category: General Mathematics

[106] viXra:1704.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 21:46:23

GJ 1132b in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A prediction of the atmosphere composition, differentiation, weather, life and future of GJ1132b is made in accordance with stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[105] viXra:1704.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-16 21:36:12

The Simple Infinite Set

Authors: Ken Seton
Comments: 9 Pages. Enjoy

Many have suggested that the infinite set has a fundamental problem. The usual complaint rails against the actually infinite which (say critics of various finitist persuasions) unjustifiably goes beyond the finite. Here we identify the exact opposite. The problem of the infinite set defined to have an identity (content) that is specified and restricted to be forever finite . Set theory is taken at its word. The existence of the infinite set and the representation of irrational reals as infinite sets of terms is accepted. In this context, it is shown that the standard definition of the infinite countable set is inconsistent with the existence of its own classic convergents of construction. If the set is infinite then it must be quite unlike that which set theory asserts it to be. Set theory found itself in some trouble over a century ago trusting an unrestricted anthropic comprehension. But serious doubt is cast on the validity of infinite sets which have been defined by a comprehension which overly-restricts their content.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[104] viXra:1704.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 11:23:01

A Condition on a Non-Collatz Number at the Boundary of a Successive Collatz Numbers Set

Authors: Abdelghaffar Slimane
Comments: 3 Pages. Academic use only

We give a condition that an odd number in the neighborhood of a successive collatz numbers set must verify to be a non-collatz number, and we use the result for odd numbers of the form 6k−1 at the boundary of a successive collatz numbers set.
Category: Number Theory

[103] viXra:1704.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 11:21:19

Automatic Speech Recognition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

The closer we can get a machine translation to be on par with expert human translation, the happier lots of people struggling with translations will be. [16] Researchers have created a large, open source database to support the development of robot activities based on natural language input. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[102] viXra:1704.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-09 13:42:19

Heat, Temperature and Gravity

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 17 pages, added chapter about T^4

The vertical mean temperature distribution is coupled to the power of total solar irradiance. A simple geometrical modification of the two-dimensional surface of the blackbody combined with a hemispherical solar irradiation is presented as an explanation of surface temperature. Radiative heat transfer is shown to explain effective temperature and tropopause temperature is coupled to gravity as thermal resistance in the spherical volume. The power source strength needed for the effective temperature to be radiated from the atmosphere is shown to be equal to a core temperature of 5770K by using the inverse square law. The system is defined as a simple heat engine with accuracy. It is a simple extension to the blackbody model into a more realistic definition with absorption in depth of a volume. The equation that is the result of the analysis of the earth system is the same as those for an electric field inside a hollow sphere of uniform charge. The equation is used to analyze temperature distribution on Mars which confirms it as a useful model, although with some differences in the results. Venus, with its deep atmosphere, show similar correlation to spherical volumetric distribution, but all three planets have different relationships to Solar Irradiance. It is a suggestion for a new approach of understanding how solar radiation interacts with the inner planets.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[101] viXra:1704.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 12:36:56

Mass to Inductance ‎ Transformation

Authors: Mourici Shachter ‎
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper I introduce a mass to inductance transformation L0=2/(a*m0^2). L is the ‎inductance (Henry) of a rest mass m0. And a is a constant. The main propose of this ‎paper was to find an analog electrical circuit in order to simplify the solution of ‎Relativistic Problems. Fortunately, the analog circuit that I had found, change our ‎knowledge about waves and particles, help to explain why Special Relativity and ‎Quantum Mechanics are both correct and why Space-Time is equivalent to another ‎well known theory. ‎ In this paper ‎1) I almost eliminate mass from Newtonian Mechanics and Relativistic Problems ‎including interactions between photons and elementary particles.‎ ‎ The proof of the suggested transformation relies entirely on Einstein's Special theory ‎of relativity. ‎ The most important conclusion from this paper is that Special Relativity is a wave and ‎not a mechanical theory. ‎
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[100] viXra:1704.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 10:15:18

Universal Evolution Model Based On Theory Of Natural Metric For Functions {Version –I}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a novel scheme of Universal Evolution Model. This model can be also successfully used for forecasting purposes.
Category: Number Theory

[99] viXra:1704.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 04:02:43

The Gravitational Acceleration of Inertial Space

Authors: Chuck Bennett
Comments: 1 Page.

Gravity is redefined as accelerating inertial space. An Inertial reference frame is that reference frame upon which there are no forces acting. Inertial space does not have an actual relative velocity. Michelson and Morley failed to detect such relative velocity of the light-carrying medium.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[98] viXra:1704.0108 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-06 15:26:07

Closed-Form Solution for the Nontrivial Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Frederick Moxley
Comments: 14 Pages.

In the year 2017 it was formally conjectured that if the Bender-Brody-M\"uller (BBM) Hamiltonian can be shown to be self-adjoint, then the Riemann hypothesis holds true. Herein we discuss the domain and eigenvalues of the Bender-Brody-M\"uller conjecture. Moreover, a second quantization of the BBM Schr\"odinger equation is performed, and a closed-form solution for the nontrivial zeros of the Riemann zeta function is obtained. Finally, it is shown that all of the nontrivial zeros are located at $\Re(z)=1/2$.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[97] viXra:1704.0107 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-25 13:40:03

Gravity Isn't Equal to Everything

Authors: Hans van Kessel
Comments: 16 Pages.

Normalizing the velocity of light ‘c’ to a non-dimensional 1 generates a simple system of units of measurements. All other natural constants will still have their unique unit of measurement, and thus no information will be snowed under. Instead, nature appears more transparent. Besides Planck’s E=h.υ, Boltzmann gives an alternate way of defining ‘content’: if the entropy of an object is expressed in e.g. J/K, multiplying that objects entropy with its (inherent) temperature delivers ‘content’ in Joules. This route delivers an enhanced Planck equation, applicable to binary particles (particles that have a discrete number of states). This alternate Boltzmann route must meet the conservation principle. This demands a relationship between natural constants. From that relationship, the gravitational constant between smallest observable binary particles is calculated. Photons are not binary particles. It will be argued why photons are not subject to gravity: the frequency drop we measure if they climb in a gravitational field is the consequence of the local clock running faster while climbing (time dilatation). Therefore, gravity isn’t equal to everything.
Category: Classical Physics

[96] viXra:1704.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 17:53:01

A Hodge Theoretic Analysis of Reinforcement Learning, with an Application to Entropic Ecnomics

Authors: Y, K, K
Comments: 1 Page.

We begin with a diagram, which explores the various implementations and manifestations of Hodge theory in the study of reinforcement learning. We review the Pavolovian exercise of using the reinforced reward learning schema to induce entropy in an arbitrary economic system.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[95] viXra:1704.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-30 10:08:47

The Derivation of the General Form of Kinematics with the Universal Reference System

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 19 Pages. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

In the article, the whole class of time and position transformations was derived. These transformations were derived based on the analysis of the Michelson-Morley experiment and its improved version, that is the Kennedy-Thorndike experiment. It is possible to derive a different kinematics of bodies based on each of these transformations. In this way, we demonstrated that the Special Theory of Relativity is not the only theory explaining the results of experiments with light. There is the whole continuum of the theories of kinematics of bodies which correctly explain the Michelson-Morley experiment and other experiments in which the velocity of light is measured. Based on the derived transformations, we derive the general formula for the velocity of light in vacuum measured in any inertial reference system. We explain why the Michelson-Morley and Kennedy-Thorndike experiments could not detect the ether. We present and discuss three examples of specific transformations. Finally, we explain the phenomenon of anisotropy of the cosmic microwave background radiation by means of the presented theory. The theory derived in this work is called the Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[94] viXra:1704.0104 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-30 10:13:30

Wyprowadzenie Ogólnej Postaci Kinematyki Z Uniwersalnym Układem Odniesienia (in Polish)

Authors: Szostek Karol, Szostek Roman
Comments: 19 Pages. In Polish. The new physical theory Special Theory of Ether - with any transverse contraction

W artykule wyprowadzona została cała klasa transformacji czasu i położenia. Transformacje te zostały wyprowadzone na podstawie analizy eksperymentu Michelsona-Morleya oraz jego udoskonalonej wersji czyli eksperymentu Kennedyego-Thorndikea. Na podstawie każdej z tych transformacji można wyprowadzić inną kinematykę ciał. W ten sposób wykazaliśmy, że Szczególna Teoria Względności nie jest jedyną teorią wyjaśniającą wyniki eksperymentów ze światłem. Istnieje całe kontinuum teorii kinematyki ciał, które prawidłowo wyjaśniają eksperyment Michelsona-Morleya oraz inne eksperymenty, w których mierzona jest prędkość światła. Na podstawie wyprowadzonych transformacji wyprowadzamy ogólny wzór na prędkość światła w próżni mierzoną w dowolnym inercjalnym układzie odniesienia. Wyjaśniamy dlaczego eksperymenty Michelsona-Morleya oraz Kennedyego-Thorndikea nie mogły wykryć eteru. Przedstawiamy i dyskutujemy trzy przykłady konkretnych transformacji. Na koniec wyjaśniamy zjawisko anizotropii mikrofalowego promieniowania tła przy pomocy przedstawionej teorii. Wyprowadzoną w tej pracy teorię nazwaliśmy Szczególną Teorią Eteru - z dowolnym skróceniem poprzecznym.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[93] viXra:1704.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 19:23:29

The Change in Gravitational Potential Energy of Objects Near Stars in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

With a few simple statements it is outlined that the gravitational potential energy of objects near stars in stellar metamorphosis changes as the stars evolve. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[92] viXra:1704.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 00:26:53

Poulet Numbers Which Can be Written as a Sum of Two Successive Primes Plus One

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper I make the following conjecture: there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers which can be written as a sum of two successive primes plus one (for the numbers that are the sum of two successive primes see the sequence A001043 in OEIS).
Category: Number Theory

[91] viXra:1704.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-11 09:44:47

An Elementary Proof of Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Chongxi Yu
Comments: 22 Pages.

Prime numbers are the basic numbers and are crucially important. There are many conjectures concerning primes that have been challenging mathematicians for hundreds of years. Goldbach's conjecture is one of the oldest and most well-known unsolved problems in number theory and in all of mathematics. A kaleidoscope can produce an endless variety of colorful patterns and it looks like magic, but when you open one and examine it, it contains only very simple, loose, colored objects such as beads or pebbles and bits of glass. Humans are very easily cheated by 2 words, infinite and anything, because we never see infinite and anything, and so we always make a simple thing complex. Goldbach’s conjecture is about all very simple numbers, with the pattern of prime numbers similar to a “kaleidoscope” of numbers. If we divided all even numbers into 5 groups and primes into 4 groups, Goldbach’s conjecture becomes much simpler. Here we give a clear proof for Goldbach's conjecture based on the fundamental theorem of arithmetic, the prime number theorem, and Euclid's proof that the set of prime numbers is endless.
Category: Number Theory

[90] viXra:1704.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-28 15:19:51

Experimental Test of Quantum Gravity: General Relativity vs. Gauge Theory Gravity

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 2 Pages.

With recent detection of gravitational waves, the possibility exists that orientation-dependent detector responses might permit distinguishing between general relativity and gauge theory gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[89] viXra:1704.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-02 13:52:47

Spacetime and Matter as Emergent Phenomena, Unified Field Theory

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 40 Pages.

A radical deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter is proposed. In this theory it is assumed that spacetime and matter are the emergent properties of a more fundamental entity. It is shown what properties such a fundamental entity should possess. An approach is proposed to find emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties in such an entity. It is shown how the nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields appear in the deterministic model of a more fundamental entity. The proposed theory of emergent spacetime and matter (further ESTM theory), as shown in this article, is compatible with special and general theories of relativity, as well as with quantum mechanics and cosmology. Quantum mechanics was reformulated into backgroundindependent one. The derivation of Schrödinger equation for quantum mechanics is given. It is shown how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle appears from the determinism of a more fundamental entity. Changes in the locality principle are proposed. Equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is substantiated. The corrections to equations of the general theory of relativity, as well as the change in the conceptual model of gravitation, are proposed. The ESTM theory predicts the absence of a quantum of gravity. The ESTM theory unites all the fundamental forces, including gravity. All fundamental forces are derived from one field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[88] viXra:1704.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 09:49:00

Conjecture on Poulet Numbers of the Form (Q+2^n)∙2^n+1 Where Q Prime

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I state the following conjecture: let P be a Poulet number and n the integer for which the number (P – 1)/2^n is odd; then there exist an infinity of Poulet numbers for which the number q = (P – 1)/2^n – 2^n is prime.
Category: Number Theory

[87] viXra:1704.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 10:06:47

算术中的多与少永远会造成二个质数的距离=2

Authors: Aaron Chau
Comments: 2 Pages.

或许在友善的下午茶叙上,笔者清心直说,既然代数无法正确筛选任一质数,这说明代数的 缺点是难免会把非质数来充当质数。不言而喻,数学毕竟不鼓励凭修饰把非质数来充当质数。 所以,虽然代数的工业用途广泛,但针对解决孪生质数猜想,算术才是一把能够开锁的钥匙。
Category: Number Theory

[86] viXra:1704.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-12 14:02:56

A New Form of the Antisymmetric Tensor and the Electromagnetic Field Equations

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 8 Pages.

A new form of the equivalent representation of the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field is described. This form of representation is based on the decomposition of an asymmetric tensor of a general form into a symmetric and antisymmetric part. It follows from this expansion that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be equivalently represented as the difference between an asymmetric tensor of general form and a symmetric tensor. Then Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of four-dimensional divergences of these tensors. From this representation, in addition to the Maxwell equations, new equations of the electromagnetic field also follow, expanding knowledge of it. One of these equations is the equation of motion of the electromagnetic field in the form of the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation.
Category: Classical Physics

[85] viXra:1704.0095 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 09:43:27

Running of Electromagnetic and Strong Coupling Constants (Rev.2)

Authors: Dr Richard Wayte
Comments: 11 Pages.

The observed variation of the electromagnetic coupling constant  seen in high energy e+e- → e+e- collisions, has been explained in terms of work done compressing the energetic electron. A simple monotonic law has been found, which describes how the electron resists compression, without transmutation. Variation of the strong coupling constant αs has also been analysed in terms of equivalent work done by the gluon field within a proton’s component parts.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[84] viXra:1704.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 20:18:06

On the Possible Role of Mach's Principle and Quantum Gravity in Cosmic Rotation a Short Communication

Authors: U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, we show one theoretical possibility for cosmic rotation. We would like to appeal that: 1) A globally rotating universe is consistent with general relativity and quantum gravity. 2) As currently believed dark energy is having no observational evidence, it is better to search for cosmic rotational effects. In this context, one can see the main stream journal articles on cosmic axis of rotation and observational effects of cosmic rotation. Based on Mach's principle and quantum gravity, we imagine our universe as the best quantum gravity sphere and assume that, at any stage of cosmic evolution: 1) Planck scale Hubble parameter plays a crucial role. 2) Space-time curvature follows, ${GM_t}\cong{R_tc^2}$ where $M_t$ and $R_t$ represent the ordinary cosmic mass and radius respectively. 3) Cosmic thermal wavelength is inversely proportional to the ordinary matter density. 4) Magnitude of angular velocity is equal to the magnitude of Hubble parameter. Based on these assumptions, at $H_0\cong 70 \textrm{\,km/sec/Mpc\,},$ estimated current matter density is 0.04341$\left(\frac{3H_0^2}{8 \pi G}\right)$ and corresponding radius is 29 Gpc. Current cosmic rotational kinetic energy density is 0.667$\left(\frac{3H_0^2c^2}{8 \pi G}\right)$. We would like to emphasize that: 1) Currently believed mysterious dark energy can be identified with current cosmic rotational kinetic energy. 2) Currently believed `inflation' concept can be relinquished. With advanced science, engineering and technology and by considering the most recent observations on `cosmic axis of evil' and `axial alignment' of distance astronomical bodies, a unified model of quantum cosmology can be developed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[83] viXra:1704.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 03:00:47

A Finite Field Analogue for Appell Series F_{3}

Authors: Bing He
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this paper we introduce a finite field analogue for the Appell series F_{3} and give some reduction formulae and certain generating functions for this function over finite fields.
Category: Number Theory

[82] viXra:1704.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 05:29:16

Theoretical Analysis of Generalized Sagnac Effect in the Standard Synchronization

Authors: Yang-Ho Choi
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Sagnac effect has been shown in inertial frames as well as rotating frames. We solve the problem of the generalized Sagnac effect in the standard synchronization of clocks. The speed of a light beam that traverses an optical fiber loop is measured with respect to the proper time of the light detector, and is shown to be other than the constant c, though it appears to be c if measured by the time standard-synchronized. The fiber loop, which can have an arbitrary shape, is described by an infinite number of straight lines such that it can be handled by the general framework of Mansouri and Sexl (MS). For a complete analysis of the Sagnac effect, the motion of the laboratory should be taken into account. The MS framework is introduced to deal with its motion relative to a preferred reference frame. Though the one-way speed of light is other than c, its two-way speed is shown to be c with respect to the proper time. The theoretical analysis of the generalized Sagnac effect corresponds to the experimental results, and shows the usefulness of the standard synchronization. The introduction of the standard synchrony can make mathematical manipulation easy and can allow us to deal with relative motions between inertial frames without information on their velocities relative to the preferred frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[81] viXra:1704.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 11:26:30

Toward Self-Govern and Self-Protected Data: a Proposal

Authors: Kasra Madadipouya
Comments: 3 Pages. Unpublished research proposal

We live in an era of an explosion of data. The rate of generating data has been increased significantly in the last few years especially by popularization of Web 2.0. In addition to that, our surrounding environments are becoming more dynamics and rapidly emerging as computing systems morph from monolithic and closed entities into globally disaggregated collaborating entities which require sensitive data sharing. As an instance content owners lose full control of their data once it is given away to consumers and hence data can be unlimitedly copied, access, modified and redistributed without data owner awareness.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[80] viXra:1704.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 11:40:51

Machine Learning Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Google has said the TPU beat Nvidia and Intel. Let's explain that. There is so much to explain. TPU stands for Tensor Processing Unit. This is described by a Google engineer as "an entirely new class of custom machine learning accelerator." [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[79] viXra:1704.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 08:53:27

Quantum Model System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Two researchers at Heidelberg University have developed a model system that enables a better understanding of the processes in a quantum-physical experiment with ultracold atoms. [28] A research group from Bar-Ilan University, in collaboration with French colleagues at CNRS Grenoble, has developed a unique experiment to detect quantum events in ultra-thin films. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[78] viXra:1704.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 09:13:10

Squares of Primes that Can be Written as (p-Q-1)∙p-Q-1 Where P and Q Are Successive Primes

Authors: Marius Coman
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper I conjecture that there are an infinity of primes which can be written as sqr ((p – q – 1)*p – q – 1), where p and q are successive primes, p > q.
Category: Number Theory

[77] viXra:1704.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 10:27:00

DNA Protect Itself

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

When the molecules that carry the genetic code in our cells are exposed to harm, they have defenses against potential breakage and mutations. [23] A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[76] viXra:1704.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 04:42:25

Forces Between Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A new approach to control forces and interactions between atoms and molecules, such as those employed by geckos to climb vertical surfaces, could bring advances in new materials for developing quantum light sources. [30] Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[75] viXra:1704.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 05:15:43

Understanding Di-Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

High-energy photon pairs at the Large Hadron Collider are famous for two things. First, as a clean decay channel of the Higgs boson. Second, for triggering some lively discussions in the scientific community in late 2015, when a modest excess above Standard Model predictions was observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. When the much larger 2016 dataset was analysed, however, no excess was observed. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[74] viXra:1704.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 06:31:03

Wave Particle and Luminiferous Trinity of the Light

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 14 Pages.

Abstract Speed of light in the past was slower than present The speed of light in vacuum is constant at all time and is equal to C=3x108ms-1 , but the yard stick that is measured in is shorter in the past than present due to the density or the temperature of the space or the CMB. In the past the space was hotter and the CMB photons were of shorter wavelength compare to the present epoch that space has stretched or expanded making the yard stick longer. The consequences of the above interpretation of the vacuum of space will give rise to the illusion that the speed of light has been slower in the past and hence suggests that the speed of light depends on the quality of the vacuum that is travelling through or according to James Clark Maxwell [1] relative to the luminiferous aether background. Furthermore the propagation of light in vacuum would be transfer of energy by completely elastic collisions through the medium of the CMB photons and hence the ghostly photons of the CMB are the medium in which the electromagnetic radiation propagate with the collision rate that is the frequency of the electromagnetic radiation which in turn the speed of light through the vacuum depends on the size of the wavelength of the CMB. The above approach will replace the Dark Energy with the CMB photons that are the missing mass in the Universe as well as the force of the expansion in the Universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[73] viXra:1704.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 14:50:48

Self-Consistent Current Structures in a Collisionless Plasma

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 8 Pages.

From Maxwell's equations with field sources are followed not only by the wave equations of the electromagnetic field and the continuity equation for the current density, but also by the equation of motion of electric charges in the form of the Euler equation. It is shown that these equations in an explicit form describe the mechanism of the appearance in a collisionless plasma of self-consistent current structures and its turbulence.
Category: Classical Physics

[72] viXra:1704.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 17:43:13

Single-Source Nets of Algebraically-Quantized Reflective Liouville Potentials on the Line

Authors: Gregory Natanson
Comments: 48 Pages.

The paper presents the uniform technique for constructing SUSY ladders of rational canonical Sturm-Liouville equations (RCSLEs) conditionally exactly quantized by Gauss-seed (GS) Heine polynomials. Each ladder starts from the RCSLE exactly quantized by classical Jacobi, generalized Laguerre or Romanovski-Routh polynomials. We then use its nodeless almost everywhere holomorphic (AEH) solutions formed by the appropriate set of non-orthogonal polynomials to construct multi-step rational SUSY partners of the given Liouville potential on the line. It was proven that eigenfunctions of each RCSLE in the ladder have an AEH form, namely, each eigenfunction can be represented as a weighted polynomial fraction (PFrs), with both numerator and denominator remaining finite at the common singular points of all the RCSLEs in the given ladder. As a result both polynomials satisfy the second-order differential equations of Heine type.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[71] viXra:1704.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 23:53:45

On Fermat's Equation and the General Case

Authors: C Sloane
Comments: 29 Pages. This paper is with several institutions and this submission is a time-stamp of authorship.

We discovered a beautiful symmetry to the equation x^n+y^n± z^n , first studied by Fermat, in a dependent variable t = x+y-z and the product (xyz) if we introduce a term we call the symmetric r = x^2+yz-xt-t^2. Once x^n+y^n± z^n is written in terms of powers of t, r and (xyz) we looked at the coefficient vs. exponent abstract space and found Lucas, Fibonacci and Convoluted Fibonacci sequences among other corollaries. We also found that 3 cases of a prime decomposition factor q of x^2+yz gave certain results for Fermat’s Last Theorem which could be eliminated if a forth case could also be solved. Intrigued by this, we then introduce partial congruence representations modulo a prime for this much harder forth case to find the ‘form’ of the solutions modulo q. The form of the solutions leads us to a cubic congruence method that solves the special and general cases. There are several pages and stages of the proofs where computer verification of the results is possible.
Category: Number Theory

[70] viXra:1704.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 03:13:45

Local Realism Explains Bell Violations

Authors: Andrew P. Yake
Comments: 8 Pages. 1 Puzzle. 6 Equations. 4 Figures. 1 Graph of Testable Predictions. 32 References.

Local realism reduces to the proposition that local determinate reality is the necessary and sufficient cause of every physical effect. By any standard account, quantum theory requires that local realism is false, because it embeds the famously spooky premise that some physical effects require causes that are instantly effective from arbitrarily far away. Nonetheless, quantum theory has replaced local realism as the foundation of science because, whereas local realism allegedly cannot violate the Bell inequality, quantum theory is taken to do so in accord with experiments. Here we prove, however, that an epistemic contextual model of local realism solves a puzzle about independent random measurements of local hidden variables in a way that causally explains observed Bell violations. We also reveal exactly how the Bell inequality fails to represent the local realistic prediction. Finally, we show that any theory that denies local realism comprises an unfalsifiable causal claim that is freely adjustable to make arbitrary predictions, which thus provide no validation of its causal claim. Results revitalize the hypothesis that local realism prevails. Keywords: Local Realism. Bell Violations. Photons. Entanglement. Quantum Physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[69] viXra:1704.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 07:23:57

List of Theoretical Physics Papers for Which Their Authors were Awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physics

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 5 Pages.

I present a list of 66 theoretical physics papers for which their authors were awarded with the Nobel Prize in Physics. These include Lorentz 1902 [1], von Laue 1914 [2], Planck 1918 [3, 4], Einstein 1921 [5], Bohr 1922 [6], de Broglie 1929 [7], Heisenberg 1932 [8], Schrödinger 1933 [9], Dirac 1933 [10], Pauli 1945 [11], Yukawa 1949 [12], Born 1954 [13, 14], Lee and Yang 1957 [15], Tamm and Frank 1958 [16], Landau 1962 [17], Wigner 1963 [18, 19], Goeppert-Mayer 1963 [20], Jensen 1963 [21], Tomonaga 1965 [22], Schwinger 1965 [23-26], Feynman 1965 [27, 28], Bethe 1967 [29, 30], Gell-Mann 1969 [31], Alfvén 1970 [32], Néel 1970 [33], Bardeen, Cooper and Schrieffer 1972 [34, 35], Josephson 1973 [36], Bohr and Mottelson 1975 [37], Anderson 1977 [38], Glashow 1979 [39], Weinberg 1979 [40], Salam 1979 [41], Wilson 1982 [42, 43], Chandrasekhar 1983 [44], Fowler 1983 [45], Laughlin 1998 [46], 't Hooft and Veltman 1999 [47-50], Ginzburg 2003 [51, 52], Abrikosov 2003 [53, 54], Leggett 2003 [55], Gross and Wilczek 2004 [56], Politzer 2004 [57], Glauber 2005 [58], Nambu 2008 [59], Kobayashi and Maskawa 2008 [60], Englert 2013 [61], Higgs 2013 [62, 63], Kosterlitz and Thouless 2016 [64], Haldane 2016 [65, 66].
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[68] viXra:1704.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 08:37:52

Intrinsic Redshift in Quasi-Stellar Objects (QSOs) – Mass Dependence and Quantization?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci, PhD, Pe
Comments: 12 Pages.

I tackle the topic of quantization of intrinsic QSO redshifts, especially based on the lifetime work of Halton Arp, examining first the potential relationship between intrinsic QSO redshift and QSO mass, then the phenomenon of quantization for both QSO mass and redshift. My approach is primarily a mathematical one, as developing a theory for intrinsic QSO redshift, let alone its quantization, is beyond my expertise. I postulate a geometric explanation of intrinsic redshift given a possible dependence on mass to the 2/3 power, related to possible attenuation of light energy (and therefore frequency) within the “emitting nucleus” of a QSO, compounded by a further “dilution,” and therefore energy (and frequency) decrease due to spread over the surface area. To do the quantization aspect justice, I summarize three theories by other experts and examine the plausibility of the two within my realm of knowledge. Finally, I offer at least a mathematical representation of the quantization aspect as “food for thought.”
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[67] viXra:1704.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 09:03:19

Mind-Body Problem; A Final Solution by Quantum Language

Authors: Shiro Ishikawa
Comments: 7 Pages.

Recently we proposed “quantum language", which was not only characterized as the metaphysical and linguistic turn of quantum mechanics but also the linguistic turn of Descartes=Kant epistemology. If this turn is regarded as progress in the history of Western philosophy, we should study the linguistic mind-body problem more than the epistemological mind-body problem. In this paper we show that to solve the mind-body problem and to propose "measurement axiom" in quantum language are equivalent. Since our approach is within dualistic idealism, we believe that our linguistic solution is the only true solution ( i.e., even if the other solutions exist, they are not in philosophy but in science).
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[66] viXra:1704.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 19:24:38

Internal Work to Heat Efficiency Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that the efficiency of internal work to heat transfer increases as a star evolves. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[65] viXra:1704.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 19:32:59

Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Mysteries of the Universe

Authors: Nirakar Sapkota, Binod Adhikari
Comments: 20 Pages.

The Universe has a flat geometry and its density is very close to critical density. However, the observed amount of matter accounts for only 5% of the critical density. The rest of the 95% is completely unknown to us which exists in the form of Dark Energy (68%) and Dark Matter (27%). We present an overview of how the very idea of the existence of Dark Matter emerged and some compelling evidences for the existence of such matter. Moreover, we also provide an insight on how scientific ideas have evolved from a static Universe to an expanding Universe and then to an accelerating Universe. In addition, we explain fundamental concepts related to Dark Energy and discuss briefly on the evidences of Dark Energy. We also discuss some alternative solutions to the problems of Dark Matter and Dark Energy provided by different scientists.
Category: Astrophysics

[64] viXra:1704.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 19:41:10

Programa Para Análisis de Secuencias Biológicas

Authors: Roberto Reinosa
Comments: 2 Pages. Spanish

Programa para el análisis de secuencias de ADN, ARN y proteínas.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[63] viXra:1704.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 22:18:51

Structures of Electron, Neutron, and Proton and the Unification of Fundamental Forces

Authors: Benoît E. Prieur
Comments: 19 Pages.

While the Standard Model of physics is largely successful in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, it leaves some phenomena unexplained and falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental interactions. For example, it does not incorporate the full theory of general relativity, neither does it fully reconcile general relativity and quantum mechanics. In this context, here I present the fundamental particles of matter as geometrical forms of electromagnetic waves, whose size is directly linked to the wavelength. Thus, hadrons and leptons are considered as being composed of three and one intersecting waves, respectively. The particles’ spatiotemporal structures appear to explain their magnetic moments and spin. This model suggests that the weak force arises from electric and magnetic interactions between the substructures of neutron, the strong force from the close contact among the charges of nucleons, and the gravitational force from the curvature of space created by matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[62] viXra:1704.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-11 22:39:29

Zero. Probabilystic Foundation of Theoretyical Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov
Comments: 60 Pages.

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[61] viXra:1704.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 23:15:57

Quint-Mode Square Ring Resonators and It’s Applications to Various Bandpass Filters

Authors: Jinli Zhang, Haihua Chen, Ming He, Lu Ji, Xinjie Zhao, Xu Zhang
Comments: 18 Pages.

A new type of quint-mode square ring resonator is proposed in this paper. Due to the symmetry of the resonator, the classical odd- and even-mode method is used to analyze the characteristics of the proposed resonator ,which shows that it has five resonant modes and three transmission zeros. As an example, a dual-band BPF with central frequencies (CFs) at 1.78/3.04 GHz and 3-dB fractional bandwidths (FBWs) of 10.1/18.1% is designed and fabricated. By tuning the widths of the microstrip sections, we can control the bandwidth of the second passband of the above BPF on a large scale and two single band bandwidth controllable BPFs with FBWs of 19.86% and 15.9% and CFs both at 3.5 GHz are designed and fabricated. In addition, asymmetric interdigital coupled line (AICL) is utilized to general proper couplings in these filters. What’s more, the five TPs can be divided into three groups by the TZs as the lengths of the specific microstrip sections changes. Therefore, we design a dual-band BPF with good band-in-band isolation between first and second passbands, which is better than that with 26.3 dB. All of the BPFs in this paper are fabricated on the Rogers 4003C substrate with h=0.508 mm, εr=3.38 and tanδ=0.0027. The results of the simulation and measurement are in good agreements.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[60] viXra:1704.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 23:34:04

Quantum-Mechanical Analysis of the MO Method and VB Method from the Position of PQS.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 9 Pages.

The MO method and the VB method are analyzed using the principle of quantum superposition (PQS) and the method of describing a quantum system consisting of several parts. It is shown that the main assumption of the molecular orbitals method (namely, that the molecular orbital can be represented like a linear combination of overlapping atomic orbitals) enters into an insurmountable contradiction with the principle of quantum superposition. It is also shown that the description of a quantum system consisting of several parts (adopted in quantum mechanics) actually prohibits ascribe in VB method to members of equation corresponding canonical structures.
Category: Quantum Physics

[59] viXra:1704.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 00:15:11

Exploring Lord Shaasta

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 45 Pages.

This is a very unique discussion of a concept with roots steeped in Indian spirituality and philosophy yet shrouded in mystery over several thousands of years. The concept of Lord Shaasta, commonly known as Ayyappan or Ayyanaar is seen in all its glory.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[58] viXra:1704.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 04:00:32

Cosine Interpolation, Sine Interpolation, Interpolation of Arbitrary Series with Multiplicative Coefficients

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 8 Pages.

This text summarizes methods for (pure) cosine and sine interpolations and reminds the reader of the matrix-inversion method valid for any interpolation using series with multiplicative coefficients.
Category: General Mathematics

[57] viXra:1704.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-06 04:19:32

Herramientas HOLOGRÁFICAS Para la ENSEÑANZA DE la DIVISIÓN Celular

Authors: Lara Orcos Palma
Comments: 17 Pages.

La finalidad del presente trabajo es valorar si el uso de una herramienta holográfica mejora el aprendizaje significativo de los contenidos de ciencias relacionados con la división celular. Para ello, se trabajó con una muestra de dos grupos de alumnos de 4º curso de Educación Secundaria Obligatoria de un colegio concertado en la ciudad de Logroño con uno de ellos de forma tradicional y con el otro mediante el empleo de la herramienta holográfica. Se estudió si había diferencias significativas entre los resultados obtenidos por los dos grupos tras la aplicación de un test de conocimientos relacionados con los procesos de división mitótica y meiótica. Mediante la prueba no paramétrica de comparación de medias en grupos independientes, U de Mann- Whitney, se obtuvo que había una diferencia significativa entre las calificaciones de ambos grupos para un nivel de significación de 0,05 de 2,55 puntos.
Category: Education and Didactics

[56] viXra:1704.0064 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-09 07:25:29

Draft on a Problem in Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 7 Pages. My next paper will be "On a Problem in Euler and Navier-Stokes Equations", complementing this one.

A brief draft respect to a problem found in the equations of Euler and Navier-Stokes, whose adequate treatment solves a centennial problem about the solution of these equations and a most correct modeling of fluid movement.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[55] viXra:1704.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-28 15:44:45

Group Importance Sampling for Particle Filtering and MCMC

Authors: L. Martino, V. Elvira, G. Camps-Valls
Comments: 39 Pages.

Importance Sampling (IS) is a well-known Monte Carlo technique that approximates integrals involving a posterior distribution by means of weighted samples. In this work, we study the assignation of a single weighted sample which compresses the information contained in a population of weighted samples. Part of the theory that we present as Group Importance Sampling (GIS) has been employed implicitly in different works in the literature. The provided analysis yields several theoretical and practical consequences. For instance, we discuss the application of GIS into the Sequential Importance Resampling framework and show that Independent Multiple Try Metropolis schemes can be interpreted as a standard Metropolis-Hastings algorithm, following the GIS approach. We also introduce two novel Markov Chain Monte Carlo techniques based on GIS. The first one, named Group Metropolis Sampling method, produces a Markov chain of sets of weighted samples. All these sets are then employed for obtaining a unique global estimator. The second one is the Distributed Particle Metropolis-Hastings technique, where different parallel particle filters are jointly used to drive an MCMC algorithm. Different resampled trajectories are compared and then tested with a proper acceptance probability. The novel schemes are tested in different numerical experiments such as learning the hyperparameters of Gaussian Processes, the localization problem in a wireless sensor network and the tracking of vegetation parameters given satellite observations, where they are compared with several benchmark Monte Carlo techniques. Three illustrative Matlab demos are also provided.
Category: Statistics

[54] viXra:1704.0062 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-09 07:27:31

The Resurrection of a Medium for Electromagnetic Propagation

Authors: Chuck Bennett
Comments: 1 Page.

An alternate explanation to Michelson and Morley’s null result is presented. The dilemma is resolved by the approach that the medium is not separate from matter, rather, it is comprised of a field of quantum particles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1704.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 12:49:32

A More Complete Model for High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: Tao Sun
Comments: 14 Pages.

To date, the Hubbard model and its strong coupling limit, the t-J model, serve as the canonical model for strongly correlated electron systems in solids. Approximating the Coulomb interaction by only the on-site term (Hubbard U-term), however, may not be sufficient to describe the essential physics of interacting electron systems. We develop a more complete model in which all the next leading order terms besides the on-site term are retained. Moreover, we discuss how the inclusion of these neglected interaction terms in the Hubbard model changes the t-J model.
Category: Condensed Matter

[52] viXra:1704.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 07:13:39

Merging Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists at the University of Birmingham have made progress in understanding a key mystery of gravitational-wave astrophysics: how two black holes can come together and merge. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[51] viXra:1704.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 07:52:32

Sigma of Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Jozef Dudek is a staff scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Jefferson Lab and an assistant professor of physics at William & Mary. He and his colleagues recently carried out the first complex calculations of a particle called the sigma. [12] Particle physics experiments conducted at the CERN, DESY, JLab, RHIC, and SLAC laboratories have revealed that only about 30% of the proton’s spin is carried by the spin of its quark constituents. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[50] viXra:1704.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 08:41:51

Universal Evolution Model Based On Theory Of Natural Metric For Functions And The Same As An Example Of A Universal Forecasting Model

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a novel scheme of Universal Evolution Model. This can also be used as a Universal Forecasting Model.
Category: Number Theory

[49] viXra:1704.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 09:18:59

Antineutrino Anomaly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[48] viXra:1704.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 10:40:16

Universal Evolution Model And The Same As An Example Of A Universal Forecasting Model

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a novel scheme of Universal Evolution Model. Also, this model can be used as a Universal Forecasting Model.
Category: Number Theory

[47] viXra:1704.0055 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-07 06:07:37

The Cosmological Constant Problem, the CMB Mass of Neutrinos, Quasars, Stable Vacua, and Non-Existence of Pure Energy as the Keys to the New Physics

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem is a serious problem in particle physics and cosmology so a solution to this problem should lead to new physics. The value of cosmological constant is about 120 orders of magnitude too low than it should be. Here we showed that today the vacuum energy is about 119 orders of magnitude lower than it should be (in the Planck units or as a dimensionless quantity) because the superluminal pure inertial energy (it means that the gravitational energy is equal to zero) is frozen inside the stable-neutrinos/gravitational-charges and is about 119 orders of magnitude higher than the indirectly observed gravitational energy. We showed here that geometric mean of the Planck mass of neutrinos and the very low particle mass of neutrinos leads to the CMB/cosmological mass of neutrinos observed in experiments. The vice versa should be correct as well so the Planck mass and the sum of the experimental CMB/cosmological masses of different neutrinos lead to the very low particle mass of neutrinos so it leads to new physics as well. The Planck mass of neutrinos, which is associated with maximum rotation of their spin, solves the hierarchy problem as well. Quasars (a torus with a central condensate), which are the objects with high gravitational-mass density, can be the big cousins of the gravitational charge but of the weak and electromagnetic charges also. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), such a structure is characteristic for bare fermions – such a structure radically simplifies theories in particle physics and cosmology. The similarity of different scales leads to new physics also. There are two stable vacua (Higgs field and Einstein spacetime) so the physical constants are invariant. Pure energies, i.e. without inertial mass or inertial and gravitational masses, are not in existence.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[46] viXra:1704.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 06:12:37

Leptonic Behavior of Constituents of Baryons.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 11 Pages. two tables and one figure

The striking results that the same expression relating mass to the magnetic moment and to flux quantization applies to baryons and to leptons indicate that the theoretical interpretation of this finding must be the same for all these particles, with little ( or no) participation of other than electromagnetic( quantum) effects. The generation of leptons and baryons seems quantitatively associated to the excitation of “dressed” particles states with ( rest) energies describable in terms of interactions between “anomalous” magnetic moments and a self-magnetic field, as proposed by Barut in his theory for the muon.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[45] viXra:1704.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 06:36:47

Dark Matter Wind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

We know which way the dark matter wind should blow. Now we just have to find it. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[44] viXra:1704.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-19 21:10:18

Why Does Gravity Obey an Inverse Square Law?

Authors: Rodolfo A. Frino
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper uncovers the reason why gravity obeys an inverse square law and not, for example, an inverse cubic law, or any other law with any other power. A relativistic approach, along with the scale law and the Plank force, are the tools I used to derive the Newton's law of universal gravitation. I also show that the approach presented here is, qualitatively, in agreement with Einstein's general relativity field equations.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[43] viXra:1704.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 03:32:26

The Correlation Between Stellar Radii and the Masses of Stable Atomic Nuclei

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 9 Pages.

In an analysis motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence, the radii of nearby stars, including the sun, are shown to be correlated with values of mass equal to those of stable atomic nuclei.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[42] viXra:1704.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 03:42:02

Short Notice on (Exact) Trigonometric Interpolation.

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 8 Pages.

Abstract Method of trigonometric interpolation is presented in details and summarized. New ideas related to the high-frequency cutoff in the case of an even number of data points are presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[41] viXra:1704.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 03:46:24

Bohmian Double Slit Interpretation by Dual Entangled Universes, and the Benjamin Libet Experiment.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. Comparable debates are also related to the Broglie-Bohm interpretation of Quantum Mechanics also called Bohmian Mechanics, focussed on the so called single photon double slit interference experiment. I would try to answer those questions by postulating the absurd but constructive possibility that both slits are wavefunction connected and secondly even I myself is wavefunction entangled for decision making in a CP symmetric multiverse. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We (and all particles and wave information) could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[40] viXra:1704.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 03:54:37

Efficient Independent Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A single metasurface encodes two separate holograms. When illuminated with one direction of polarized light, the metasurface projects an image of a cartoon dog. [24] Schematic of the design of 360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display, the design concept of which allows several persons to enjoy the hologram contents simultaneously. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: Condensed Matter

[39] viXra:1704.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 11:49:07

Molecules in Action

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Quantum mechanics rules. It dictates how particles and forces interact, and thus how atoms and molecules work—for example, what happens when a molecule goes from a higher-energy state to a lower-energy one. But beyond the simplest molecules, the details become very complex. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[38] viXra:1704.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 07:17:46

Nickel Chloride Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Research by an international collaboration recently produced the equivalent of a Bose-Einstein condensate using the chemical compound nickel chloride. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1704.0043 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-09 08:07:07

The Information as Absolute” Conception: a Couple of Applications in Philosophy

Authors: Sergey V. Shevchenko, Vladimir V. Tokarevsky
Comments: Two version is presented: English, pages 1-21; and Russian, pages 21-44

In this paper a more detailed consideration in framework of the “The Information as Absolute” conception of two philosophical problems “QM and the observer”, and “Has human evolution purpose?” is presented. В рамках концепции “Информация как Абсолют” в статье представлено более подробное рассмотрение двух философских проблем - “Квантовая механика и наблюдатель ”, и “Имеет ли эволюция человека цель?”.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[36] viXra:1704.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 08:41:59

Tiny Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Tiny "black holes" on a silicon wafer make for a new type of photodetector that could move more data at lower cost around the world or across a datacenter. [19] Humans are visual creatures: our brain processes images 60,000 times faster than text, and 90 percent of information sent to the brain is visual. Visualization is becoming increasingly useful in the era of big data, in which we are generating so much data at such high rates that we cannot keep up with making sense of it all. In particular, visual analytics—a research discipline that combines automated data analysis with interactive visualizations—has emerged as a promising approach to dealing with this information overload. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of “quantum artificial intelligence”. Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13]
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:1704.0041 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-05 06:03:48

Hubble Constant and the Age of the Universe

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 23 Pages.

Abstract In this paper a new approach to the Hubble constant has produced two values One for the expansion of galaxies in the universe at H0m=38.565KmS-1Mpc-1 giving the age of the universe T0m=25.3425x109 Years and the other the expansion of the space or the opening of the space (inflation, creation of more space or expansion of radiation) at H0R=77.13KmS-1Mpc-1 giving apparent age of the universe at about T0R=12.67125x109 Years exactly half the real age of the universe. Hence showing that the both teams of Gérard de Vaucouleurs, later by Sidney van den Bergh claiming a high value for the Hubble constant and the team of Allan Sandage, later by prof Gustav Tammann claiming a low value of the Hubble constant are both correct and there approach had been different, one team looking at the expansion (inflation) of space and the other team looking at the expansion of the galaxies. Furthermore the value of Ω≈1 has been resulted from this new approach, which indicates the value of omega is universally equal to 1 and fluctuates locally in all parts of the universe to allow the formation of galaxies and cluster of galaxies.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[34] viXra:1704.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-09 07:22:25

A Fundamental Particle of Relativistic Mass

Authors: Chuck Bennett
Comments: 1 Page.

An elemental particle is proposed to facilitate the increase in mass under relativistic conditions. The conservation of energy is invoked to justify the conservation of mass and thus the new particle.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[33] viXra:1704.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 05:01:44

Supersymmetry and Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

While no evidence for new physics has yet been found, these new results have provided crucial input to our theoretical models and has greatly improved our understanding of the Standard Model. [18] A quartet of researchers has boldly proposed the addition of six new particles to the standard model to explain five enduring problems. [17] Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[32] viXra:1704.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 05:30:49

Dark Heat

Authors: Kadir Aydogdu
Comments: 38 Pages.

To understand the relation between heat and temperature physicist are modeling them as radiation and kinetic energy, however in this thesis we will explain them as smallest particle. In thesis this heat particle becomes the energy itself which carries constant mass, conservative forces and potential energy and we will assume that the interaction between these particles result a radiation as blackbody distributed photons, moreover, interaction of these particles with other particles that we know result kinetic and other types of potential energy exchanges like we know as photon exchange. We will start with analyzing the laws and theories that we trust than we will try to find how these heat particles behave and how are they interacts with each other by modeling the heat inside the black body box and heat inside the photons as particles. We will discuss the possible results we have. By working with many particle systems we will make some assumptions and we will try to find some proportionality about our heat particle. After finding the proportionalities we will try to predict how every physical interaction happen and we will discuss every biggest physical problem in the eyes of our theory. Finally we will be discussing one particle physics model in which everything made from just one particle.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1704.0037 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 04:52:02

Preons, Standard Model, Gravity with Torsion and Black Holes

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 13 Pages. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 4: e3632. Includes viXra:1703.0247.

A previous spin 1/2 preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is complemented to provide particle classification group, preon interactions and a tentative model of black holes. The goal of this study is to analyze a phenomenological theory of all interactions. A minimal amount of physical assumptions are made and only experimentally verified global and gauge groups are employed: SLq(2), the three of the standard model and the full Poincar\'e group. Gravity theory with torsion is introduced producing an axial-vector field coupled to preons. The mass of the axial-vector particle is estimated to be near the GUT scale. The boson can materialize above this scale and gain further mass to become a black hole at Planck mass while massless preons may form the horizon. A particle-black hole duality is proposed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[30] viXra:1704.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 13:32:57

Global Relativity

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 8 Pages.

A new independent derivation of general theory of relativity using only special relativity principles is shown. Some solutions are derived and discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[29] viXra:1704.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 15:53:28

Equation for the Abraham Force in a Nonconducting Medium and Methods for Measuring it

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper is devoted to obtaining an equation for the Abraham force in a continuous non-conducting medium and methods of its measurement. The equation for the Abraham force is obtained from the Minkowski tensor. The Abraham force occurs when the vectors D and E, H and B are noncollinear. From the equation for the Abraham force it follows that it is a vortex force, and its divergence is zero. It is shown that there exist the Abraham electric force and the magnetic Abraham's Force. Various methods for measuring the Abraham force, which follow from its equation, are given.
Category: Classical Physics

[28] viXra:1704.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 17:19:23

From One to Many: Synced Hash-Based Signatures

Authors: Santi J. Vives Maccallini
Comments: 16 Pages.

Hash-based signatures use a one-time signature (OTS) as its main building block, and transform it into a many-times scheme, to sign a larger number of signatures. In known constructions, the cost and the size of each signature increases as the number of needed signatures grows. In real-world applications, requiring a significant number of signatures, the signatures can get quite large. As a result, it is usually believed that post-quantum signatures based on hashes need more computation and much larger sizes than classical signatures. We introduce a construction to challenge that idea: we show that it is possible to construct a many-times signatures scheme that is more efficient than the OTS it is built from, rather than less. We study the generation of signatures in conjunction with a blockchain, like bitcoin. The proposed scheme permits an unlimited number of signatures. The size of each signatures is constant and the same as in the OTS. The verification cost starts the same as in the OTS and decreases with each new signature, becoming more efficient on average as the number of signatures grows. Keywords: many-time signatures, hash, post-quantum cryptography, authentication, blockchain, bitcoin, optimization.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[27] viXra:1704.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-08 21:17:36

Grand Unification from a Classical Interpretation of “Spin” Angular Momentum

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is shown from the laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum that the gravitational energy of a bound state particle is dependent upon its geometric mean angular frequency. A classical interpretation for the intrinsic “spin” angular momentum of a particle is submitted that can be tested macroscopically with the Rarita−Schwinger equation for the orbit of Mercury. Librations in the relative obliquity of planetary bodies are shown to be analogous to the Larmor precession of atomic particles. Schrodinger's concept of a bound state electron's zitterbewegung is hypothesized to be the librations in the electron's relative obliquity.
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1704.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 22:59:28

Ether, Time, and Energy (August 5, 2006).

Authors: Kenneth M. Sasaki.
Comments: 30 pages, 15 figures, 7 labeled equations, and 64 references. Keywords: Ether, Time, and Energy. Author's e-mail address: bicycle_physics@yahoo.com.

This work establishes three properties of classical space-time: The first is smoothness, which holds since gravitational time dilation, at sufficiently high energy densities, gravitationally confines energy in frozen stars and frozen universes, preventing singularities. The second is the relationship between ether and energy, which allows practical experiments to observe the ether. And the third is causal consistency, assuming not more then current observations. Some associated points of interest are also discussed.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1704.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 02:41:58

The World Population in the Past and in the Future

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

The world population is known through censuses, but up to 1950 only by approximation. The more accurate the past is known, the better the future can be predicted therefrom. The approximations, together with the more precise-looking counts after 1950, are processed into a natural looking curve for the period 1800 up to now. Using the mathematical expression for this curve, predictions can be calculated for the future. In addition an extremely simple model has been realized for the growth of a population. Mutual comparison of the two curves results in interesting conclusions, of which the most important one is that the solution of the climate problem must be sought in the reduction of the world population.
Category: Climate Research

[24] viXra:1704.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 03:53:37

Examples of Approximations by Series Based on Derivatives Matching

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 11 Pages.

Inspired by Taylor polynomials, several other approximations based on derivative-matching are proposed.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[23] viXra:1704.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-02 04:16:44

An Introduction to the $n$-Formal Sequents and the Formal Numbers

Authors: A. Zaganidis
Comments: 16 Pages. I have chosen the category Mathematics-Number Theory since most of the consequences of the present article are inside the number theory

In this work, we introduce the $n$-formal sequents and the formal numbers defined with the help of the second order logic. We give many concrete examples of formal numbers and $n$-formal sequents with the Peano's axioms and the axioms of the real numbers. Shortly, a sequent is $n$-formal iff the sequent is composed by some closed hypotheses and a $n$-formal formula (a close formula with one internal variable such that the formula is only true when we set that variable to the unique natural number $n$), and it does not exist some strict sub-sequent which are composed by some closed sub-hypotheses and some sub-$m$-formal formula with $m>1$. The definition is motivated by the intuition that the ``Nature's hypotheses'' do not carry natural numbers or "hidden natural numbers" except for the numbers $0$ and $1$, i.e., they can be used in a $n$-formal sequent. Moreover, we postulate at second order of logic that the ``Nature's hypotheses'' are not chosen randomly: the ``Nature's hypotheses'' are the only hypotheses which give the largest formal number $N_Z\cong 2^{1.0\times 10^4}-2^{2.4\times 10^6}$. The Goldbach's conjecture, the Polignac's conjecture, the Firoozbakht's conjecture, the Oppermann's conjecture, the Agoh-Giuga conjecture, the generalized Fermat's conjecture and the Schinzel's hypothesis H are reviewed with this new (second order logic) formal axiom. Finally, three open questions remain: Can we prove that a natural number is not formal? If a formal number $n$ is found with a function symbol $f$ where its outputs values are only $0$ and $1$, can we always replace the function symbol $f$ by a another function symbol $\tilde{f}$ such that $\tilde{f}=1-f$ and the new sequent is still $n$-formal? Does a sequent exist to make a difference between the definition of the $n$-formal sequents and the following weaker variant of that definition: we look at the explicit sub-formulas of $\phi$ which induce the $m$-formal formulas instead of looking at the explicit sub-formulas of $\phi_{n-formal}$ which are $m$-formal formulas?
Category: Number Theory

[22] viXra:1704.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 06:59:38

Unification of the Electromagnatic Force and Quantum Gravity

Authors: S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick
Comments: 13 Pages.

Abstract In this paper the graviton or the quantum of gravity has been identified as the Planck mass (Planck Mass mpl=2.17651x10-8Kg Quantum of gravity, graviton particle or the God particle), Max Karl Ernst Ludwig Planck[1] 23 April 1858 – 4 October 1947) and hence the unification of the electromagnetic force with the quantum of gravity by definition of the Ampere, It is named after André-Marie Ampère [2] (1775–1836), F=2x10-7N, and the theoretical values by calculation of the force of attraction or repulsion which acts between two 1 m wires placed in vacuum 1 m apart with negligible cross-sectional area each carrying 1 Coulomb of charge per second or 6.24x1018es at any point on the circuit has been calculated to be: F=1.973181x10-7N. Furthermore the Bohr’s theory of the Hydrogen atom Niels Bohr[3] in 1913, has been explored showing how the factor of V2/C2 plays part in the Ionisation of atoms w.r.t kinetic energy of the orbiting electrons in Hydrogen and Helium as well as some other elements.
Category: Quantum Physics

[21] viXra:1704.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 07:17:42

Origins of Life

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

A Harvard researcher seeking a model for the earliest cells has created a system that self-assembles from a chemical soup into cell-like structures that grow, move in response to light, replicate when destroyed, and exhibit signs of rudimentary evolutionary selection. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[20] viXra:1704.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 07:26:24

The Michelson-Morley Experiment, Moving Source Experiments and Emission Theory of Light

Authors: Henok Tadesse
Comments: 4 Pages.

The most straight forward explanation of the Michelson-Morley experiment null result is the emission or ballistic theory of light, according to which the velocity of light is constant c relative to the source. In fact, the Michelson-Morley experiment may be seen as a compelling evidence for the emission hypothesis. The emission theory was abandoned mainly due to moving source experiments which proved the independence of the speed of light from the velocity of the source. It will be shown in this paper that physicists hastened to discard the emission theory which will be shown to be crucial to solve the light speed puzzle. The conventional emission theory is modified intuitively as follows. The speed of light emitted from a light source that is moving with absolute velocity Vabs is equal to c - Vabs relative to the source in the forward direction and c + Vabs relative to the source in the backward direction. Therefore, relative an observer at absolute rest in front of the moving source, the speed of light is equal to the sum of the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source: ( c - Vabs )+ Vabs = c . Relative to an observer at absolute rest behind the source, the speed of light is equal to the difference between the speed of light relative to the source and the speed of the source : ( c + Vabs ) - Vabs = c . We can see that this model predicts that the speed of light is independent of the velocity of the source. This model also predicts the null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment because the speed of light is c ± Vabs relative to the source., in the forward and backward directions. Change of the speed of light relative to the source doesn’t result in any fringe shift because , intuitively, both the transverse and longitudinal light beams will be delayed or advanced by equal amounts of time. This theory is a modified emission theory, a fusion between ' ether ' theory and emission theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[19] viXra:1704.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 07:52:02

Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1704.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 08:47:33

On Interaction of Motional Masses

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 17 Pages. This paper (2004) is just partially altered form of the original written in early 1980s. The Addendum (exponential gravitation) is completely new but also represents contemporary author’s researches.

This paper supposes an “electrodynamics-like” interaction of motional masses. A development possibility of linear, vector gravitation theory (gravitodynamics) is discussed and the force field (gravito-Lorentz) on this basis is defined. Some direct consequences of the equation of motion are obtained and analyzed in brief and the existence of an important exp-factor is mentioned. It is proposed new transformation χ-factor which could lead to the more general dynamical picture. The dimensional analysis shows that magnetic-like field vector has frequency dimensions. The proposed wave function describes the state of space around the motional masses. As frequency appears in both quantum and gravitation picture of the substance, the principle of resonance arises as a natural, so its possible direct consequence could be the natural existence of Planck’s values as the main quantums. Finally, this paper also discusses a possible connection between principle of resonance, creation (origin) of mass and Heisenberg’s principle.
Category: Classical Physics

[17] viXra:1704.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 08:49:50

Visualizing Scientific Big Data

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Humans are visual creatures: our brain processes images 60,000 times faster than text, and 90 percent of information sent to the brain is visual. Visualization is becoming increasingly useful in the era of big data, in which we are generating so much data at such high rates that we cannot keep up with making sense of it all. In particular, visual analytics—a research discipline that combines automated data analysis with interactive visualizations—has emerged as a promising approach to dealing with this information overload. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[16] viXra:1704.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 09:15:46

Electronic Synapses Artificial Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers from the CNRS, Thales, and the Universities of Bordeaux, Paris-Sud, and Evry have created an artificial synapse capable of learning autonomously. They were also able to model the device, which is essential for developing more complex circuits. [19] Humans are visual creatures: our brain processes images 60,000 times faster than text, and 90 percent of information sent to the brain is visual. Visualization is becoming increasingly useful in the era of big data, in which we are generating so much data at such high rates that we cannot keep up with making sense of it all. In particular, visual analytics—a research discipline that combines automated data analysis with interactive visualizations—has emerged as a promising approach to dealing with this information overload. [18] Neural networks are commonly used today to analyze complex data – for instance to find clues to illnesses in genetic information. Ultimately, though, no one knows how these networks actually work exactly. [17] Hey Siri, how's my hair?" Your smartphone may soon be able to give you an honest answer, thanks to a new machine learning algorithm designed by U of T Engineering researchers Parham Aarabi and Wenzhi Guo. [16] Researchers at Lancaster University's Data Science Institute have developed a software system that can for the first time rapidly self-assemble into the most efficient form without needing humans to tell it what to do. [15] Physicists have shown that quantum effects have the potential to significantly improve a variety of interactive learning tasks in machine learning. [14] A Chinese team of physicists have trained a quantum computer to recognise handwritten characters, the first demonstration of " quantum artificial intelligence ". Physicists have long claimed that quantum computers have the potential to dramatically outperform the most powerful conventional processors. The secret sauce at work here is the strange quantum phenomenon of superposition, where a quantum object can exist in two states at the same time. [13] One of biology's biggest mysteries-how a sliced up flatworm can regenerate into new organisms-has been solved independently by a computer. The discovery marks the first time that a computer has come up with a new scientific theory without direct human help. [12]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[15] viXra:1704.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 10:44:46

'Virtual' Interferometers for Optical Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The team's experimental collaborators have already demonstrated the technology, yielding cluster states composed of more than 1 million entangled modes. [19] How to reliably transfer quantum information when the connecting channels are impacted by detrimental noise? Scientists at the University of Innsbruck and TU Wien (Vienna) have presented new solutions to this problem. [18] Adding to strong recent demonstrations that particles of light perform what Einstein called "spooky action at a distance," in which two separated objects can have a connection that exceeds everyday experience, physicists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have confirmed that particles of matter can act really spooky too. [17] How fast will a quantum computer be able to calculate? While fully functional versions of these long-sought technological marvels have yet to be built, one theorist at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has shown that, if they can be realized, there may be fewer limits to their speed than previously put forth. [16] Unlike experimental neuroscientists who deal with real-life neurons, computational neuroscientists use model simulations to investigate how the brain functions. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[14] viXra:1704.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 10:48:54

Is there Force Acting on the Magnet Moving Across an Electric Field?

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 3 Pages.

In terms of the symmetric perfect and analogy of Lorentz Force law, a Counterpart Lorentz force is proposed in this paper. Similar to a Lorentz force when a charged particle moving across a magnetic field, an analogical force may act on a magnet or a magnetic domain when it moving across an electric field. Aimed to verify if this force is really existed, an experimental design is also described here.
Category: Classical Physics

[13] viXra:1704.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 04:36:13

An Alternative Approach of Evaluating the Validity of Perturbative Calculations with Respect to Convergence of Power Series Based on Polynomials for the Inverse Function

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 7 Pages.

Results of perturbative calculations in quantum physics have the form of truncated power series in a coupling constant. In order to evaluate the uncertainty of such results, the power series of the inverse function are constructed. These are inverted and the difference between the outcome of this procedure and the initial power series is taken as uncertainty.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[12] viXra:1704.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 01:19:04

Quantum Cryptography, Quantum Communication, and Quantum Computer in a Noisy Environment

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura
Comments: 9 Pages. International Journal of Theoretical Physics, (2017), DOI 10.1007/s10773-017-3352-4

First, we study several information theories based on quantum computing in a desirable noiseless situation. (1) We present quantum key distribution based on Deutsch's algorithm using an entangled state. (2) We discuss the fact that the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm can be used for quantum communication including an error correction. Finally, we discuss the main result. We study the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm in a noisy environment. The original algorithm determines a noiseless function. Here we consider the case that the function has an environmental noise. We introduce a noise term into the function $f(x)$. So we have another noisy function $g(x)$. The relation between them is $ g(x)=f(x)\pm O(\epsilon). $ Here $O(\epsilon)\ll 1$ is the noise term. The goal is to determine the noisy function $g(x)$ with a success probability. The algorithm overcomes classical counterpart by a factor of $N$ in a noisy environment.
Category: Quantum Physics

[11] viXra:1704.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 01:45:44

A Method of Computing Many Functions Simultaneously by Using Many Parallel Quantum Systems

Authors: Koji Nagata, Germano Resconi, Tadao Nakamura, Josep Batle, Soliman Abdalla, Ahmed Farouk, Han Geurdes
Comments: 3 Pages. Asian Journal of Mathematics and Physics (accepted)

We suggest a method of computing many functions in the same time by using many parallel quantum systems. We use the Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm. Given the set of real values $\{a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_N\}$, and the function $g:{\bf R}\rightarrow \{0,1\}$, we shall determine the following values $\{g(a_1),g(a_2),g(a_3),\ldots, g(a_N)\}$ simultaneously. By using $M$ parallel quantum systems, we can compute $M$ functions $g^1,g^2,...,g^M$ simultaneously. The speed of determining the $N\times M$ values will be shown to outperform the classical case by a factor of $N$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1704.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-02 10:49:27

Human Kidney Biocomputers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

A team of scientists from Boston University have found a way to hack into mammalian cells-human cells, even-and make them follow logical instructions like computers can. [22] New research led by Harvard Medical School reveals a critical step in a molecular chain of events that allows cells to mend broken DNA. [21] Now, Barton's lab has shown that this wire-like property of DNA is also involved in a different critical cellular function: replicating DNA. [20] Researchers have introduced a new type of "super-resolution" microscopy and used it to discover the precise walking mechanism behind tiny structures made of DNA that could find biomedical and industrial applications. [19] Genes tell cells what to do—for example, when to repair DNA mistakes or when to die—and can be turned on or off like a light switch. Knowing which genes are switched on, or expressed, is important for the treatment and monitoring of disease. Now, for the first time, Caltech scientists have developed a simple way to visualize gene expression in cells deep inside the body using a common imaging technology. [18] Researchers at The University of Manchester have discovered that a potential new drug reduces the number of brain cells destroyed by stroke and then helps to repair the damage. [17] Researchers at the University of Connecticut have uncovered new information about how particles behave in our bloodstream, an important advancement that could help pharmaceutical scientists develop more effective cancer drugs. [16] For the past 15 years, the big data techniques pioneered by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Pasadena, California, have been revolutionizing biomedical research. On Sept. 6, 2016, JPL and the National Cancer Institute (NCI), part of the National Institutes of Health, renewed a research partnership through 2021, extending the development of data science that originated in space exploration and is now supporting new cancer discoveries. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[9] viXra:1704.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-02 07:11:13

Universal Evolution Model Based On Theory Of Natural Metric For Functions

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a novel scheme of Universal Evolution Model.
Category: Number Theory

[8] viXra:1704.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-02 05:52:41

Zhoufang Transformation (Z Transformation) and Theoretical Interpretation for Hubble’s Law

Authors: Fang Zhou
Comments: 48 pages,in Chinese

The only objectively existing in nature transformation of space and time for the case of observers’ mutual uniform translatory motion and limited light velocity is first revealed in the article.The discovered transformation ,referred to as Zhoufang Transformation (Z-Transformation), is logically derived, using in derivation the concepts of both the principle of relativity and the postulate of constant light velocity. The Z-Transformation takes the typical form of Galilean Transformation. Moreover, a theoretical interpretation for Hubble’s Law is given firstly by the author as well, utilizing the Z-Transformation revealed .
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[7] viXra:1704.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 13:51:03

Reply on “Critical Comment on the Paper “Some of the Complexities in the Special Theory of Relativity: New Paradoxes””

Authors: Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A.
Comments: 7 Pages.

Some difficult moments of the article Artekha S., Chubykalo A., Espinoza A. "Some of the complexities in the special relativity: new paradoxes", are additionally explained. Detailed critical analysis of "Critical Comment" is presented.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[6] viXra:1704.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 18:47:38

The Last Slice of Cake

Authors: Igor Hrncic
Comments: 2 Pages.

This letter is the short continuation of the previous paper titled "The infinitesimal error", available for free at the internet address http://vixra.org/abs/1703.0280. This letter is written just to further clarify the subject of "The infinitesimal error".
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[5] viXra:1704.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 20:25:46

The Advance Age

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 3 Pages.

An incalculable age.
Category: Social Science

[4] viXra:1704.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 12:00:28

A Children's Primer on Bell's Inequality and Quantum Entanglement

Authors: William O. Straub
Comments: 7 Pages.

An elementary overview of Bell's inequality and electron-pair entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[3] viXra:1704.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 09:19:43

A Testable CP Symmetric Multiverse Model by Extended Experiments, Done by the Late Benjamin Libet in 1964.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 8 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured two different electric Readiness Potentials time profiles called RPI and RPII. to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students related to the Time of Conscious Awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come about 400 m.sec behind the RP I or RPII. All “volitional acts” were in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of free will and causality. However I woud propose the seemingly absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making if we live inside a Charge/Parity (CP) symmetric multiverse as one part of a CP symmetric set of persons. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” In line with Max Tegmark, my proposal is, that we could be long distance entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric anti-material copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results between RPI and RPII, because new statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of extended Libet experiments described here could give answer on the number of participating copy persons living inside the same number of copy universes.
Category: Quantum Physics

[2] viXra:1704.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 01:02:27

Special Relativity and Einstein Equivalence Principle

Authors: Ahmida Bendjoudi
Comments: 5 Pages. Submitted to IJMPD journal

Einstein Equivalence Principle is the cornerstone of general theory of relativity. Special relativity is assumed to be veried at any point on the Riemann curved manifold. This leads to a mathematical consistency between Einstein equations and special relativity principles.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[1] viXra:1704.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 01:23:59

Foundations of Gauge Theology

Authors: Edoardo Carlesi
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper shows how to quantize Roman Catholicism in order to solve the fine tuning-problems of Classical Theology. This procedure is used to define a new theory, which is called Gauge Theology, that shares a large number of striking similarities with the Standard Model of particle physics. We argue that the existence of these common features cannot be attributed to sheer coincidence, but is rather a sign of the miraculous properties of the theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics