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1803 Submissions

[633] viXra:1803.0753 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 03:39:00

Principle of Independently Established Co-Determinism: Parsimony & Physical Law in Nature

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 107 Pages. To a point; the given of any exterior relation of the surrounding world is it's whole to that which is the exclusion of an objectifiable means in the objective of it's origination in a projective two.

The principles and foundation of our understanding of the universe are one; to that of the effect of an end found in that of the inquiry of man supported by the sentience of its meaning in all that is; the verifiable true consideration is one word; the eventual ending of a pretense found in that of what is disclosed as fact; as in either of what we so consider the eventual; the end of what is so; is a new beginning in that of life; the future as a world in one; as love; of the incarnation of all that is; the given of life to it’s true form and kind treatment of another; as cooperatively all beings respectfully are endowed with the given of love; the explanation of which is the choice to deliver life upon life as the infinite compassion of which is the release to freedom from constraint; and the given of return of kindness as known for that of kind in meaning; the giving of a people to knowable in all eventualities is explained as the principle of motion of the immobility of the heart to meaning to all of existence to the truth of understanding in principle nature; to the given of what is being; the standing of its continuance only then found in that of the giving of life; by the endowment of one for attention to their and other’s considerations prior to another; as the expressed choice to one’s self; and the forgiveness of all equivalences of people; worlds; and meanings found in the natural laws of this world; the next; and nature of a future yet to be; for then in what is; the given of each; is the endowed of all; and throughout what is creation; every being is dependent on the remainder of all of existence; as no such principle exemplified by purpose can mistreat another; the withholding of which is it’s purpose to continuance in being and the only means of it’s survival; the open difference of which is our inheritance; since as such as one is; all such other given’s of people do require another to support a self; a world; and this given; finally as known; since one self so only remains to exist if and in being as such as all such other supports do; foundationally true as one before another always is. Pertinence has followed in due; to the given of a priorly given; to know; that what was held is now the free expressed right of a person; as once it had only been them; it is now the truth by the indivisible moment of a truth in passing that all in existence now face the same; as once as they had done an other; of whom so suffered their beings; the new ending in one of a promise they had held from time’s beginning to it’s eternal end; in one given; the only one they had known; as the guarantee they had so granted themselves from the beginning of their wakeful existence.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[632] viXra:1803.0751 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 04:17:45

Galenism: A Methodology for the Key Unification of Von Neumann Machines and Hierarchical Databases

Authors: Pallabi Chakraborty, Bhargav Bhushanam
Comments: 7 Pages.

The implications of psychoacoustic methodologies have been far-reaching and pervasive. In this work, we disprove the simulation of active networks. We examine how fiber-optic cables can be applied to the evaluation of DNS.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[631] viXra:1803.0750 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 06:35:40

Metric Science

Authors: Gerhard Jan Smit, Jelle Ebel van der Schoot
Comments: 84 Pages.

In this article a particle is being presented that explains all known forces of nature. The particle has no dimensions, it is a dimensional basic particle. Hence it gets the following name: 'dimensional basic' (db) particle. The core of this discovery is that the separate fundamental forces of nature: - the strong interaction, the electromagnetic interaction, the weak interaction and the gravitational interaction - are calculatable with one formula out of one principle. The statistical math of the quantum theory is set aside in favor of a goniometric approach. Gravitation is the only force that matters and the strong force, the electromagnetic force and the weak force can be explained out of gravitation while gravity itself is only caused by the curvature of db's. The formula for the extent of curvature around a db is: √(x2+y2+z2)×=1 In the formula: x, y, z, are coordinates in spacetime [m], Kr = curvature [m-1].
Category: Quantum Physics

[630] viXra:1803.0749 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 05:08:41

Complex Nature of Concussion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

In previous studies, Camarillo's lab had outfitted 31 college football players with special mouthguards that recorded how players' heads moved after an impact, including a few cases in which players suffered concussions. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24]
Category: Mind Science

[629] viXra:1803.0748 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 05:21:56

New Physics Explaining Dark Matter and Dark Energy.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 4 Pages. ON THE EVE OF LHC RESTART.

DARK MATTER AND DARK ENERGY AND THE FUNDAMENTAL FORCES IN STANDARD MODEL.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[628] viXra:1803.0747 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 06:22:55

No Dark Matter? a Gravitoelectromagnetism Effect?

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

It is possible that the relativist effects in the motion of the galaxies is the cause of the apparent dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[627] viXra:1803.0745 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 08:11:42

Dozens of Adsorption Kinetic Models

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Min-U Peak, Yong-Uk Ryu, Il-Hyoyk Kim, Hyok-Man Rim
Comments: 5 Pages.

The adsorption kinetics has been investigated for 120 years and the development of kinetic model has been proceeded in order to obtain the particular kinetic model which better agreed with the experimental data. As a result, dozens of adsorption kinetic models were established. The adsorption kinetic models are shown in a table.
Category: Chemistry

[626] viXra:1803.0743 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-07 15:14:58

The Quantum Bang Equations (part 2)

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: 2 Pages.

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[625] viXra:1803.0741 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-27 06:34:14

Generalized Lorentz Transformations

Authors: A. Blato
Comments: 3 Pages. Version 7 in English.

This article presents the generalized Lorentz transformations of time, space, velocity and acceleration which can be applied in any inertial or non-inertial (non-rotating) frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[624] viXra:1803.0740 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-25 12:37:58

Planck Mass Measured Totally Independent of Big G Utilizing McCulloch-Heisenberg Newtonian Equivalent Gravity

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 7 Pages.

In 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newtonian gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and obtains a gravitational constant of hbar*c/m_p^2. This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton's gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed out that his approach requires an assumption on the value of $G$, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton's gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. From this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass without Newton's gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own. And further we show that we can easily measure the Schwarzschild radius of a mass without knowing its mass, or Newton's gravitational constant, or the Planck constant. The very essence of gravity is linked to the Planck length and the speed of light, but here we will claim that we do not need to know the Planck length itself. Our conclusion is that Newton's gravitational constant is a universal constant, but it is a composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3/hbar where the Planck length and the speed of light are the keys to gravity. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[623] viXra:1803.0739 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 20:59:35

Solution of the Fne Structure Constant Problem /// Решение проблемы постоянной тонкой структуры

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Solution of the Fine Structure Constant Problem

Настоящим сообщаю всем интересующимся и заинтересованным гражданам всех стран и народов, что решена фундаментальная проблема физики, проблема постоянной тонкой структуры. Выяснен физический смысл постоянной тонкой структуры. Найдена определяющая формула для постоянной тонкой структуры. ++++++++++++++++++ I hereby inform all interested and interested citizens of all countries and peoples that the fundamental problem of physics, the problem of the fine structure constant has been solved. The physical meaning of the fine structure constant is determined. A defining formula for the fine structure constant is found.
Category: Classical Physics

[622] viXra:1803.0737 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 12:16:40

Molecular Cross-Linking

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A team of scientists from across the U.S. has found a new way to create molecular interconnections that can give a certain class of materials exciting new properties, including improving their ability to catalyze chemical reactions or harvest energy from light. [33] A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23]
Category: Condensed Matter

[621] viXra:1803.0735 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 15:55:52

Neutrosophic Precalculus and Neutrosophic Calculus( Arabic Version)

Authors: Huda E. Khalid, Ahmed K. Essa, A. A. Salama
Comments: 115 Pages.

ان التحليل النيوتروسوفكي يعد تعميما لتحليل المجموعة ، والتي بدورها تعد تعميما لتحليل الفترة ، ان الحسبان النيوتروسوفكي التمهيدي يشير الى قيم ثابتة للاتعيين ، بينما حسبان التفاضل والتكامل النيوتروسوفكي يمكن اعتبارها رياضيات ذات لاتعيين متغير ، مبادئ حساب التفاضل والتكامل النيوتروسوفي وحساب التفاضل والتكامل النيوتروسوفكي يمكن تطويرهما بطرق عديدة ، وذلك بالاعتماد على انواع اللاتعيين التي تملكها المسألة كذلك بالاعتماد على الطرق المستخدمة في التعامل معها . قدمنا في هذا الكتاب بعض الامثلة عن اللاتعيينات الخاصة ، لكن يوجد الكثير من اللاتعيينات في حياتنا اليومية ، يجب علينا دراستها واعادة حلها باستخدام طرق مشابهة او طرق مختلفة عن التي ذكرناها . لذلك نحن بحاجة الى مزيد من الابحاث العلمية في حقل النيوتروسوفك . يمكن مستقبلا دراسة حسبان التفاضل والتكامل النيوتروسوفكي الجزئي من خلال ابحاث متقدمة في هذا المضمار . قدم المؤلف في هذا الكتاب ولاول مرة افكار لكل من شبه الغاية النيوتروسوفية ، وشبة الاستمرارية النيوتروسوفكية بطرق مختلفة عن شبه – الاستمرارية التقليدية, وشبه المشتقة النيوتروسوفكية, وشبه التكامل النيوتروسوفكي بطرق تختلف عن حسبان التفاضل والتكامل الجزئي الاعتيادي ، بالاضافة الى التعاريف التقليدية للغاية والاستمرارية والمشتقة والتكامل تباعا.
Category: General Mathematics

[620] viXra:1803.0734 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 16:23:28

The Locations of K2-229b and K2-229 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

K2-229b and K2-229 are placed on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[619] viXra:1803.0733 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 19:41:19

General Relativity Theory Violates the Energy Conservation Law, which is the Fundamental Law of Physics

Authors: Jaroslav Hynecek
Comments: 5 Pages. none

The violation of energy conservation law is a death sentence for the General Relativity Theory (GRT). This paper investigates the correctness of the General Relativity Theory by studying the energy conservation during the relativistic free fall of a small test body in a uniform gravitational field. The paper compares predictions of energy conservation obtained from the GRT and from the Metric Theory of Gravity (MTG). It is found that the gravitational mass dependence on velocity in the GRT is not correct, because this dependency leads to a prediction of violation of energy conservation while the MTG having a different gravitational mass dependency on velocity predicts correctly the energy conservation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[618] viXra:1803.0732 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 02:34:35

E8 Physics: Cayley-Dickson and Clifford Algebras - - Braids - Cellular Automata

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper consists of comments about relationships among the E8-Cl(16 Physics model of viXra 1602.0319 and Cayley-Dickson Algebras, Real Clifford Algebras, Braids,and Cellular Automata. Version 2 (v2) adds material about n = 4 and Conformal Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[617] viXra:1803.0731 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 23:00:48

On Hawking Hertog Inflation

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

The last joint paper of Stephen Hawking before his demise is directed at the expansion of the universe and suggests that maybe inflation is not infinite and that splitting may occur. The theory leans heavily towards the multiverse philosophy and is actually posed as a question from the question mark in the title “A Smooth Exit from Eternal Inflation?” Contrary to popular belief, the paper suggests an exit from infinite inflation and its end may be of a smooth nature. The paper itself is replete with acronyms and appears to be intentionally written in the customary prolix manner of theoretical physics. Although the subject of the paper is not particularly new it is cluttered and disjointed and somewhat grammatically challenged resulting in an obtuse presentation. It is the intention of the author of this paper to offer a clearer translation of the Hawking Hartog paper, which is undoubtedly difficult due to its reliance upon several esoteric theories.
Category: Astrophysics

[616] viXra:1803.0730 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-31 02:01:01

Principle of Independently Established Co-Determinsm: Parsimony & Physical Law in Nature

Authors: Paris Samuel Miles-Brenden
Comments: 108 Pages. To a point; what existent notion inexpressible is found in the null; the answer to which is it's own given; the question is two, as in half; what is, of a point; differs in any antagonal polygon.

The principles and foundation of our understanding of the universe are one; to that of the effect of an end found in that of the inquiry of man supported by the sentience of its meaning in all that is; the verifiable true consideration is one word; the eventual ending of a pretense found in that of what is disclosed as fact; as in either of what we so consider the eventual; the end of what is so; is a new beginning in that of life; the future as a world in one; as love; of the incarnation of all that is; the given of life to it’s true form and kind treatment of another; as cooperatively all beings respectfully are endowed with the given of love; the explanation of which is the choice to deliver life upon life as the infinite compassion of which is the release to freedom from constraint; and the given of return of kindness as known for that of kind in meaning; the giving of a people to knowable in all eventualities is explained as the principle of motion of the immobility of the heart to meaning to all of existence to the truth of understanding in principle nature; to the given of what is being; the standing of its continuance only then found in that of the giving of life; by the endowment of one for attention to their and other’s considerations prior to another; as the expressed choice to one’s self; and the forgiveness of all equivalences of people; worlds; and meanings found in the natural laws of this world; the next; and nature of a future yet to be; for then in what is; the given of each; is the endowed of all; and throughout what is creation; every being is dependent on the remainder of all of existence; as no such principle exemplified by purpose can mistreat another; the withholding of which is it’s purpose to continuance in being and the only means of it’s survival; the open difference of which is our inheritance; since as such as one is; all such other given’s of people do require another to support a self; a world; and this given; finally as known; since one self so only remains to exist if and in being as such as all such other supports do; foundationally true as one before another always is. Pertinence has followed in due; to the given of a priorly given; to know; that what was held is now the free expressed right of a person; as once it had only been them; it is now the truth by the indivisible moment of a truth in passing that all in existence now face the same; as once as they had done an other; of whom so suffered their beings; the new ending in one of a promise they had held from time’s beginning to it’s eternal end; in one given; the only one they had known; as the guarantee they had so granted themselves from the beginning of their wakeful existence.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[615] viXra:1803.0728 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 06:52:39

Artificial Intelligence in Chemical Synthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[614] viXra:1803.0727 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 07:20:53

Origin of the Solar System

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 8 Pages.

The new theory systematically explains the origin of the main features of the solar system.Especially the new doctrine.The exact formula of interplanetary distance is given.It also gives the distance formula for the satellite,For centuries,This is the first one. This study pointed out that the nine planets in the solar system orbit accuracy conforms to a formula, which we have reason to speculate that there are many planetary systems in accordance with the law in the universe, the earth's position are universal, an alien civilization is widespread.
Category: Astrophysics

[613] viXra:1803.0726 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 08:35:39

Modeling Neutrosophic Data by Self-Organizing Feature Map: MANETs Data Case Study

Authors: Haitham ELwahsh, Mona Gamail, A, A, Salama, Ibrahim Al-Henawy
Comments: 8 Pages.

Higher Institute of Business Sciences and Computer El Arish-Dahia El Guish Egypt North Sinai Governorat
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[612] viXra:1803.0725 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 08:43:52

Foundation of Neutrosophic Crisp Probability Theory

Authors: Rafif Alhabib, Moustaf Amzherranna, Haitham Farah, A.A. Salama
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper deals with the application of Neutrosophic Crisp sets (which is a generalization of Crisp sets) on the classical probability, from the construction of the Neutrosophic sample space to the Neutrosophic crisp events reaching the definition of Neutrosophic classical probability for these events. Then we offer some of the properties of this probability, in addition to some important theories related to it. We also come into the definition of conditional probability and Bayes theory according to the Neutrosophic Crisp sets, and eventually offer some important illustrative examples. This is the link between the concept of Neutrosophic for classical events and the neutrosophic concept of fuzzy events. These concepts can be applied in computer translators and decision-making theory.
Category: Statistics

[611] viXra:1803.0724 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 10:27:10

Immanuel Kant's Contradictory Subtlety of Four Syllogistic Figures © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2017-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

Kant's contradictory subtlety of four syllogistic figures is not tautologous. This means the logic of Kant is irrelevant to resolve disputes on the origin of the universe or to advance the exegesis of the Old Testament. However, Kant does remain as an historical artifact in the history of philosophy, albeit without value to mathematical logic.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[610] viXra:1803.0723 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 19:33:34

A Review on Entanglement and Maxwell-Dirac Isomorphism

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In RG forum, one senior professor of physics posted a project called: “Future science and technology.” As a response, one of us (VC) wrote in reply: “I think one of future science's tasks is to discover the link between entanglement and classical electromagnetic theory. This is to fulfill Einstein's position that present QM theory is incomplete, a new one must be found. We are on a way to that goal.” Therefore, in this paper we will discuss how entanglement can be explained in terms of Maxwell-Dirac isomorphism. This short review may be considered as Einstein’s dream of completing QM in a classical picture.
Category: Quantum Physics

[609] viXra:1803.0722 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 19:37:26

A Review on Self-Organized Criticality as a Model of the Scientific Development

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 8 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

According to a conventional belief held by most science communities, sciences can advance by two ways: (a) incremental approach by virtue of scientific methods, (b) paradigm shift. The latter term has been advocated by a notorious science historian, Thomas Kuhn. Despite such widespread acceptance, such a term of paradigm shift is not often tested empirically. Therefore, in this paper we review a recent work which uses citation analysis of journal-journal for the past recent years. This analysis reveals that scientific progress seems to follow Self-Organized Criticality. In the last section, we compare this citation analysis result with our model of the origin of the Universe.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[608] viXra:1803.0721 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 19:40:19

On Cantorian Superfluid Vortex Cosmology: 14 Years Later and Still in Progress

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Around 14 years ago, one of these authors’s early paper was published in Apeiron Journal. The complete paper appeared on January 2004 edition, while a condensed version of CSV has been published earlier at July 2003. Among key ideas in those two papers are: (a) a nonlinear cosmology model based on Navier-Stokes turbulence equations, which then they are connected to superfluid turbulence, and (b) the superfluid turbulence can lead to superfluid quantized vortices, which can be viewed as large scale version of Bohr’s quantization rule, and (c) this superfluid quantized vortice interpretation of Bohr’s rule allow us to predict quantization of planetary orbits in solar system including new possible orbits beyond Pluto. This paper is intended as a retrospect of what happened after the publication of those papers, and also some related ideas we have developed since that time. The first author (VC) would like to express sincere gratitude to the late Prof. Robert M. Kiehn for spending precious time to read and suggest corrections to our first paper on Cantorian Superfluid Vortex model, during 2002-2003. And also to Mr. Roy Keys from Apeiron for publishing our three papers describing CSV model. It is our hope that the new proposed view will inspire younger physicists and cosmologists to develop more realistic nonlinear cosmology models, and we also hope the ideas presented here can be verified with observation data.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[607] viXra:1803.0720 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 19:42:23

On Fundamental Flaws of Everett’s Many Worlds Interpretation of QM, and Plausible Resolution based on Maxwell-Dirac Isomorphism

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Despite its enormous practical success, many physicists and philosophers alike agree that the quantum theory is so full of contradictions and paradoxes which are difficult to solve consistently. Even after 90 years, the experts themselves still do not all agree what to make of it. The area of disagreement centers primarily around the problem of describing observations. Formally, the so-called quantum measurement problem can be defined as follows: the result of a measurement is a superposition of vectors, each representing the quantity being observed as having one of its possible values. The question that has to be answered is how this superposition can be reconciled with the fact that in practice we only observe one value. How is the measuring instrument prodded into making up its mind which value it has observed? Among some alternatives to resolve the above QM measurement problem, a very counterintuitive one was suggested by Hugh Everett III in his 1955 dissertation, which was subsequently called the Many-Worlds Interpretation of QM (MWI). In this paper we will not discuss all possible scenarios to solve the measurement problem, but we will only shortly discuss Everett’s MWI, because it has led to spurious debates on possibility of multiverses, beyond the Universe we live in. We also discuss two alternatives against MWI proposal: (a) the so-called scale symmetry theory, (b) the Maxwell-Dirac isomorphism.
Category: Quantum Physics

[606] viXra:1803.0719 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 19:45:17

How Neutrosophic Logic May Resolve Dispute on the Origin of the Universe Through re-Reading Gen. 1:1-2

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages. This paper was writen under guidance of Holy Spirit

In recent years, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDM-Standard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities. But the philosophical problems remain, as Vaas pointed out: Did the universe have a beginning or does it exist forever, i.e. is it eternal at least in relation to the past? This fundamental question was a main topic in ancient philosophy of nature and the Middle Ages, and still has its revival in modern physical cosmology both in the controversy between the big bang and steady state models some decades ago and in the contemporary attempts to explain the big bang within a quantum cosmological (vacuum fluctuation) framework. In this paper we argue that Neutrosophic Logic offers a resolution to the long standing disputes between beginning and eternity of the Universe. In other words, in this respect we agree with Vaas, i.e. it can be shown: “how a conceptual and perhaps physical solution of the temporal aspect of Immanuel Kant’s „first antinomy of pure reason“ is possible, i.e. how our universe in some respect could have both a beginning and an eternal existence. Therefore, paradoxically, there might have been a time before time or a beginning of time in time.” By the help of computational simulation, we also show how a model of early Universe with rotation can fit this new picture. Further observations are recommended.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[605] viXra:1803.0717 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 21:00:11

A Phenomenological Comparison

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

An absurd theatric.
Category: Social Science

[604] viXra:1803.0716 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 03:08:08

How Variable Earth-Moon Distance Really Could Be?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

New understanding of physical background of “Newton’s modification of Kepler’s Third law” allows us revisit significantly variable prehistoric lunar distance idea.
Category: Classical Physics

[603] viXra:1803.0715 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 04:02:45

Queens Puzzle

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 13 Pages.

Complete solution of Queens Puzzle
Category: Number Theory

[602] viXra:1803.0714 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-23 12:45:05

God

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Something has created everything in the universe and we already know what it is, God is similar to something in our body.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[601] viXra:1803.0713 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 05:17:45

Holography and Twistor Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[600] viXra:1803.0712 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 08:06:56

OpenFermion Quantum Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A collaboration of scientists led by Google, and including physicists from Leiden University and TU Delft, have developed a practice tool for chemists called OpenFermion. [28] Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Quantum Physics

[599] viXra:1803.0711 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 09:11:31

Simplest Refutation of Bell's Inequality © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Right Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All right reserved. info@cec-services dot com

See within
Category: Quantum Physics

[598] viXra:1803.0710 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 08:57:21

Physics of Finance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology (Tokyo Tech) have brought the worlds of physics and finance one step closer to each other. [16] Such chirping signals a loss of heat that can slow fusion reactions, a loss that has long puzzled scientists. [15] Physicists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and computer scientists from Lobachevsky University have developed a new software tool called PICADOR for numerical modeling of laser plasmas on modern supercomputers. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[597] viXra:1803.0709 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-30 12:27:40

The Significance of the Charm Quark/Strange Quark mc^2 Ratio is Shown For An HCE8S Universe

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: It is noticed that the charm quark/strange quark mc^2 ratio is not equal to 13.5 (age of the eighth cyclic universe in billion years but is close to it (13.42). The small difference is now seen to be very important.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[596] viXra:1803.0708 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-30 04:58:00

Enough of the Trap of Non-Existent Dark Matter

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 3 Pages. Corrected transcription error of the mass of the galaxy NGC1052-DF2 (2 x 10E8 solar masses) of the article reviewed.

Since the experimental event of abnormal speeds within galaxies was discovered; the so-called dark matter is incessantly sought. But all the experiments still do not find such a ghost. Its justification is supported, in the apparent, simplest explanation: the existence of a matter additional to the baryonic matter within the galaxies. But there is another possible explanation more natural and just as simple: A modification of the gravity due to the occurrence of effects of quantum gravity produced by the repulsive acceleration of the vacuum. A repulsion of the vacuum would produce, as we demonstrated with the experiments with magnets of equal polarity, a pressure towards the center of mass and, therefore, a fictitious increase in mass. In this short article; we calculate the average speed of rotation within the newly discovered ultradiffuse galaxy NGC1052-DF2. This calculation shows that the equation, type MOND, agrees perfectly with the estimated velocities. Therefore, some voices that too quickly have announced that this galaxy (almost without dark matter or anything of it) does not agree with the theories of modified gravitation (we refer to the quantum gravitation that would quantize the equations of Einstein's gravitation, or GR); they are simply avoiding the real explanation: effects of quantum gravity produced by the vacuum (very large masses of galaxies).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[595] viXra:1803.0707 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 12:09:25

Fine-Structure Constant from Golden Ratio Geometry

Authors: Michael A. Sherbon
Comments: 17 Pages. International Journal of Mathematics and Physical Sciences Research, 5, 2, 89-100 (2018).

After a brief review of the golden ratio in history and our previous exposition of the fine-structure constant and equations with the exponential function, the fine-structure constant is studied in the context of other research calculating the fine-structure constant from the golden ratio geometry of the hydrogen atom. This research is extended and the fine-structure constant is then calculated in powers of the golden ratio to an accuracy consistent with the most recent publications. The mathematical constants associated with the golden ratio are also involved in both the calculation of the fine-structure constant and the proton-electron mass ratio. These constants are included in symbolic geometry of historical relevance in the science of the ancients.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[594] viXra:1803.0706 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 13:22:40

Synthetic Biology Technique

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Synthetic biology offers a vision for the future of medicine, where cells could be re-engineered to fight diseases such as cancer and diabetes. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[593] viXra:1803.0705 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 14:02:19

How Magnets Work :an Alternative Explanation

Authors: Fenton J. Doolan
Comments: 4 pages

In Science we explain that a magnet work by the assumption it consists of small entities called domains. The orientation these 'small magnets' or domains determines whether or not the metal will be magnetised or not. So in essence in Science we explain how magnets work by saying they are made up of little magnets. This paper discuss an alternate explanation of how magnets work. We invoke an electromagnetic explanation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[592] viXra:1803.0704 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 13:56:08

Photosynthesis Uses Vibrations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers have discovered a new role for protein vibrations in controlling the transformation of sunshine into useful energy. [13] University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[591] viXra:1803.0701 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 19:29:50

Constructing SandBrick from Microbial Induced Cementing Bacteria (MICP)

Authors: Abdalla Iamm, Mohamed Essam
Comments: 3 Pages.

Needless to say, Egypt is one of the developing countries that faces multiple challenges: Pollution and weak health care system which affect mainly two aspects of life: public health and communication. The grand challenge which our project focused on is pollution; waste and industrial smoke pollute the air with high amounts of toxic gases such as CO₂ and SO₄. So, a solution has been adopted to produce a highly-strengthened brick with a lower price. The solution is about extracting and precipitating silica fume (which is a highly toxic material in the gaseous state) from the industrial smoke, and mixing it with BacillusPasteurii bacteria, urine and calcium chloride to make a brand-new strengthened brick almost as hard as a marble. Based on the obtained results, our project could slightly solve Egypt's major problems, mainly the Pollution Problem.
Category: Biochemistry

[590] viXra:1803.0700 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 01:40:24

On Dark Matter

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

The subject of dark matter seems to have become a universal solution for any anomaly which arises in cosmology today forcing the proverbial square peg into a round hole. It was suspected that galaxies do indeed obey the conventional laws of Kepler and Newton and subsequently a model was obtained so that a more thorough investigation could be made. Upon completion it immediately became apparent that a somewhat naïve interpretation of the rotational properties of galaxies has been used for decades and that the correct interpretation predicts exactly the rotational curve of spiral galaxies without any need for dark matter whatsoever.
Category: Astrophysics

[589] viXra:1803.0699 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 01:48:31

Universal Forecasting Scheme {Version 4}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has presented a Novel Method of Forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[588] viXra:1803.0698 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 01:57:30

Majorana Confidence in Nanowire

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

In the latest experiment of its kind, researchers have captured the most compelling evidence to date that unusual particles lurk inside a special kind of superconductor. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[587] viXra:1803.0697 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 04:49:59

About the Reason for Universe Explosion

Authors: Albert A. Davydov, Nikolay V. Zhavoronkov
Comments: 12 Pages.

The paper states a hypothesis of the process of proton excess accumulation as a result of neutron two-neutrino decay, the process which takes place in superdense substance consisting mainly of neutrons. This accumulation provokes protons electrostatic repulsion, which exceeds gravitational contraction and gives rise to substance expansion and its going out of the state of gravitational collapse. This hypothesis enables to explain the origin of primary cosmic rays of ultrahigh energies (> 10^20 eV), the origin of supernova star shell expansion energy, neutron star magnetic fields, collapsed substance big mass explosions resulting in formation of galaxies, and “Universe Big Bang”, which is unique only on its scale, but not on its nature, and which concerns not the whole universe but only its substantial part. The reason, for which experiments on two-neutrino decay can not evidence the impossibility of this decay in superdense substance of cosmic bodies, is discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[586] viXra:1803.0696 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-29 06:19:03

Teaching Machine in Physical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[585] viXra:1803.0695 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 04:26:14

Brain's Potential for Quantum Computation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[584] viXra:1803.0694 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 04:54:45

How Cloud Computing Impacts Supply Chain Performance and Business Strategies

Authors: SongIl Choe, IlNam Li, WonJun Min, UnChol Li, JongSu Kim
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper explores the managerial perceptions on the use of cloud computing in enterprise supply chain( SC) management. Specifically, this paper seeks to address how cloud computing impacts supply chain performance and bussiness strategies. This paper also presents a comparison of traditional supply chain concepts such as the efficient SC and responsive SC and a new concept for emerging ICT as the cloud computing area with cloud services as traded products. The comparison analysis suggested thatcloud computing can improve supply chain performance and business strategy objectives
Category: Economics and Finance

[583] viXra:1803.0693 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 05:09:00

Quantum Information Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Scientists at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory are conducting fundamental physics research that will lead to more control over mercurial quantum systems and materials. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[582] viXra:1803.0692 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 05:51:24

Quantum Entanglement and Multi-Universe

Authors: Xin Jiang
Comments: 2 Pages.

Quantum entanglement in 2 dimensional world
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[581] viXra:1803.0691 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 05:44:41

Laser Control of Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[580] viXra:1803.0690 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 06:09:42

Photon. Shape, Internal Arrangement and Physical Properties.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 6 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

An attempt has been made to explain theoretically the properties of a photon from the position of the theory of the Elastic Universe.
Category: Classical Physics

[579] viXra:1803.0689 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 06:44:40

Le Monde Des Nombres Premiers

Authors: BERKOUK Mohamed
Comments: 27 Pages.

et si nous essayons d'extraire les nombres composés de l'ensemble des entiers naturels , à commencer par trouver la formule qui génère tous les entiers sans les multiple de 2 et 3 ( 1er polynôme ) puis de générer les entiers sans les multiples de 2,3,5 (2eme polynôme ) le but est de trouver l’équation , la formule ou le polynôme qui ne génèrera que les NOMBRES PREMIERS...
Category: Number Theory

[578] viXra:1803.0688 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 09:01:46

Charging Quantum Batteries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Some physicists are now wondering whether quantum phenomena may revolutionize conventional battery chemistry and lead to the development of an entirely new class of potentially more powerful batteries. [27] Physicists in Italy have designed a " quantum battery " that they say could be built using today's solid-state technology. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[577] viXra:1803.0687 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 09:32:11

Causal Order in Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences develop a new theoretical framework to describe how causal structures in quantum mechanics transform. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[576] viXra:1803.0686 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 10:23:01

Quantum Hyperpolarization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Melbourne have developed a technique which could increase the sensitivity of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for patient diagnosis. [24] Spin physicists first observed the tendency of more neutrons to emerge slightly to the right in proton-proton interactions in 2001-2002, during RHIC's first polarized proton experiments. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information.
Category: Physics of Biology

[575] viXra:1803.0685 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 11:07:42

Self-Assembly of Proteins and DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[574] viXra:1803.0683 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 11:26:32

Molecular Prison Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A team of scientists including Carnegie's Tim Strobel and Venkata Bhadram now report unexpected quantum behavior of hydrogen molecules, H2, trapped within tiny cages made of organic molecules, demonstrating that the structure of the cage influences the behavior of the molecule imprisoned inside it. [32] A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[573] viXra:1803.0682 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 13:25:33

Subatomic Computational Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Scientists have built a "computational microscope" that can simulate the atomic and subatomic forces that drive molecular interactions. [35] Researchers at Griffith University working with Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have unveiled a stunningly accurate technique for scientific measurements which uses a single atom as the sensor, with sensitivity down to 100 zeptoNewtons. [34] Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[572] viXra:1803.0681 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 22:21:05

Refutation of Six Weak Reactions in Nucleosynthesis © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services.com

We find the six weak forces in nucleosynthesis are not tautologous and hence suspicious.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[571] viXra:1803.0680 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 00:45:11

A Small Correction to the Limiting Speed Transmission of Information Due to the Hubble Constant.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 5 Pages. -

It is known that the global constant called the speed of light, which has the meaning of the limiting data transmission speed, is used in the theory of relativity. This rate is determined using the speed of light since no higher speed has been discovered. The constant called Hubble’s constant is also used in research. It means the rate of Universe expansion due to variation in the metrics. This rate is calculated per 1 mega parsec, but it can be calculated for any small distance. According to the axiomatic quantum field theory, there is a distance where axiomatic statements become ineffective when they are shorter. This variable is called distance quantum. Let us calculate Hubble’s constant according to this distance. In fact, the expansion rate is increased by this variable in transition from a distance quantum to the next one. The expansion rate and speed of light yield true data transmission speed. We have calculated the difference in the expansion rates in the different local areas. This difference leads to the difference in the forces of interaction in the different local areas, which makes it possible to discover the force that always results in attraction in all electrical interactions. The proposed calculation gives the value the order of which is close to the force of gravitational interaction. Other properties of this new force appear in explanations for the acceleration of Universe expansion and inertia.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[570] viXra:1803.0679 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 02:12:05

On a Newtonian Cosmos

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

There are only a few equations used by cosmologists to calculate the current view of the Universe all of which can be extracted often with great difficulty and mathematical gymnastics from Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity often covering several pages. Not surprisingly these same equations can also be derived using Newtonian mechanics as Einstein’s theory of General Relativity supposedly reduces to Newton’s equations. The difference is that using only Newtonian mechanics the same result can be achieved with “relative” ease. The results however are not as expected and require that a more critical analysis of the theories of modern cosmology is in order.
Category: Astrophysics

[569] viXra:1803.0678 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-28 04:07:07

Probability and Entanglement

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov
Comments: 8 Pages. Global Journal of Science Frontier Research: FMathematics and Decision Sciences Volume 18 Issue 2 Version 1.0 Year 2018

Here the concept of "TRUE" is defined according to Alfred Tarski, and the concept "OCCURING EVENT" is derived from this definition. From here, we obtain operations on the events and properties of these operations and derive the main properties of the CLASSICAL PROB-ABILITY. PHYSICAL EVENTS are defined as the results of applying these operations to DOT EVENTS. Next, the 3 + 1 vector of the PROBABILITY CURRENT and the EVENT STATE VECTOR are determined. The presence in our universe of Planck's constant gives reason to\linebreak presume that our world is in a CONFINED SPACE. In such spaces, functions are presented by Fourier series. These presentations allow formulating the ENTANGLEMENT phenomenon.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[568] viXra:1803.0676 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 06:54:14

There is Such Hypothesis! Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Red Color of Galaxies on Border of the Universe Indicates Their Fading, Like Fire Sparks.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Red color of galaxies on border of the Universe indicates their fading, like fire sparks.
Category: Astrophysics

[567] viXra:1803.0675 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 06:58:13

A Survey on Reasoning on Building Information Models Based on IFC

Authors: Hassan Sleiman
Comments: 17 Pages.

Building Information Models (BIM) are computer models that act as a main source of building information and integrate several aspects of engineering and architectural design, including building utilisation. They aim at enhancing the efficiency and the effectiveness of the projects during design, construction, and maintenance. Artificial Intelligence, which is used to automate tasks that would require intelligence, has found its way into BIM by applying reasoners, among other techniques. A reasoner is a piece of software that makes the implicit and hidden knowledge as explicit by using logical inferring techniques. Reasoners are applied on BIM to help take enhanced decisions and to assess the construction projects. The importance of BIM in both construction and information technology sectors has motivated many researchers to work on surveys that attempt to provide the current state of BIM, but unfortunately, none of these surveys has focused on reasoning on BIM. In this article we survey the research proposals and toolkits that rely on using reasoning systems on BIM, and we classify them into a two-level schema based on what they are intended for. According to our survey, reasoning is mainly used for solving design problems, and is especially applied for code consistency checking, with an emphasis on the semantic web technologies. Furthermore, user-friendliness is still a gap in this field and case-based reasoning, which was often applied in the past efforts, is still hardly applied for reasoning on BIM. The survey shows that this research area is active and that the research results are progressively being integrated into commercial toolkits.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[566] viXra:1803.0674 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 09:03:48

Understanding Gravity on the Nanoscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[565] viXra:1803.0673 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 09:19:32

A Novel Architecture for Cloud Task Scheduling Based on Improved Symbiotic Organisms Search

Authors: Song−Il Choe, Il−Nam Li, Chang−Su Paek, Jun−Hyok Choe, Su−Bom Yun
Comments: 18 Pages.

Abstract-Task scheduling is one of the most challenging aspects in cloud computing nowadays, which plays an important role to improve the overall performance and services of the cloud such as response time, cost, makespan, throughput etc. Recently, a cloud task scheduling algorithm based on the Symbiotic Organisms Search (SOS) not only have fewer specific parameters, but also take a little time complexity. Symbiotic Organism Search (SOS) is a newly developed metaheuristic optimization technique for solving numerical optimization problems. In this paper, the basic SOS algorithm is reduced and a chaotic local search(CLS) is integrated into the reduced SOS to improve the convergence rate of the basic SOS algorithm. Also, Simulated Annealing (SA) is combined in order to asist the SOS in avoiding being trapped into local minimum. The performance of the proposed SA-CLS-SOS algorithm is evaluated by extensive simulation using MATLAB simulation framework and compared with SOS, SA-SOS and CLS-SOS. Results of simulation showed that improved hybrid SOS performs better than SOS, SA-SOS and CLS-SOS in terms of convergence speed and makespan time.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[564] viXra:1803.0672 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 10:25:25

Terahertz Computer Chip

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[563] viXra:1803.0671 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 11:49:52

Materials for Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[562] viXra:1803.0670 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 12:49:05

Underground Neutrino Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[561] viXra:1803.0669 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 14:37:00

Gif. the Origin of Life.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Lyudmila Churlyaeva.
Comments: 1 Page. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Description of the process of the origin of life from the position of the theory of the Elastic Universe. Using computer GIF animation. GIF Animation: http://i.yapx.ru/BIuoG.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/Life-100-Korotk/Life-03.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u310/Life-03.gif
Category: Physics of Biology

[560] viXra:1803.0668 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-18 10:58:01

On The Proving Method of Fermat's Last Theorem

Authors: Haofeng Zhang
Comments: 19 Pages.

In this paper the author gives an elementary mathematics method to solve Fermat's Last Theorem (FLT), in which let this equation become an one unknown number equation, in order to solve this equation the author invented a method called “Order reducing method for equations”, where the second order root compares to one order root, and with some necessary techniques the author successfully proved when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1) <= x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)-z^(n-2) there are no positive solutions for this equation, and also proves with the increasing of x there are still no positive integer solutions for this equation when x^(n-1)+y^(n-1)- z^(n-1)<=x^(n-2)+y^(n-2)- z^(n-2) is not satisfied.
Category: Number Theory

[559] viXra:1803.0667 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 17:37:40

Possible Maximum Volume of the Universe and Amount of Volume of the Masses(matter and Antimatter) in the Whole Universe0

Authors: Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed
Comments: 5 Pages.

Warning! important finished paper!possible maximum volume of the universe and amount of volume of the masses(matter and antimatter) in the whole universe
Category: Classical Physics

[558] viXra:1803.0666 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 01:55:25

Kinetic Reevaluation on Uranium(vi) Adsorption[ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2017, 56, 3251−3258 and 12745−12754] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Kwang-Il Paek, Hong-Chol Jin, Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this work, the adsorption of uranium (VI) on alkali-activated leather waste and mesoporous carbon were reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order were newly calculated and the rate constants quantitatively compared on both adsorbates and adsorbent
Category: Chemistry

[557] viXra:1803.0665 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-14 03:23:59

Dealing with Optical Fibers in General Relativity

Authors: Ll. Bel
Comments: 5 Pages. Errata and minor errors correctrd

An example of how optical fibers can clarify the influence of a gravitational field on the propagation of light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[556] viXra:1803.0664 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 05:07:03

Quasicrystal Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now, in a study in Nature Communications, a research team led by Nagoya University has discovered superconductivity in a QC for the first time. [37] University of Groningen physicists, and colleagues from Nijmegen and Hong Kong, have induced superconductivity in a monolayer of tungsten disulfide. [35] One can also imagine making a superconducting transistor out of graphene, which you can switch on and off, from superconducting to insulating. That opens many possibilities for quantum devices." [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[555] viXra:1803.0663 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-28 00:30:04

A Theory of Everything in 7 Equations

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 3 Pages.

A geometric version of gravity is submitted that can unify the natural dynamics of large and small scale systems. The relationship between the Gaussian gravitational constant and Planck's constant is given as a testable unified field equation. A perplexing discovery is deduced from a gravitoelectromagnetic equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[554] viXra:1803.0662 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 06:36:52

Energy from Fluctuation of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Researchers at the Laboratory of Organic Electronics at Linköping University have developed a method and a material that generate an electrical impulse when the light fluctuates from sunshine to shade and vice versa. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[553] viXra:1803.0660 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 07:35:36

A Short Note From Myself to Myself to Better Understand Hawking

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this short paper we look at the Hawking temperature from a Newtonian perspective as well as a General Relativity perspective. If we are considering the Hawking temperature, and simply replace the gravitational field input in his 1974 formula with that of Newton, we will get a Hawking temperature of half of that of the well-known Hawking temperature formula. This is very similar to the case where Newton’s theory predicts half the light bending that GR does. Based on recent theoretical research on Newton’s gravitational constant, we also rewrite the Hawking temperature to give a somewhat different perspective without changing the output of the formula, that makes some of the Hawking formulas more intuitive.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[552] viXra:1803.0659 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-27 07:37:52

Self-Assembling Quantum Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A potential revolution in device engineering could be underway, thanks to the discovery of functional electronic interfaces in quantum materials that can self-assemble spontaneously. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[551] viXra:1803.0658 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 12:51:57

Haskell/E-CWB/Isabelle-HOL Based Software Platforms & Informatics - A Simple Suggestion to Probe Multidisciplinary Informatics Using Rigorous Methodologies.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication

In this short technical note it was proposed to show the approximate framework to probe the IT domains using Haskell/E-CWB/Isabelle-HOL Tools.A simple suggestion is depicted in the form of block diagram to help the reader understand the intentions behind our title.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[550] viXra:1803.0657 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 13:17:52

Global Madness

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 6 Pages.

Humanity is in danger, physicists are blinded by unrealistic theories/conclusions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[549] viXra:1803.0656 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 17:50:40

La Roue Relativiste

Authors: Zefram
Comments: 25 Pages. FRANCAIS

Le présent article revient sur la description relativiste du mouvement circulaire uniforme telle que donnée au paragraphe 3 de l’article «The Foudation of Général Relativity>>. Dans cette description, il n’y est pas fait mention de l’influence que peuvent avoir les phénomènes d’aberration de la lumière et l’effet Doppler sur la perception par l’observateur d’un train en rotation sur un circuit circulaire à une vitesse V c'est le modèle du circuit-looping.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[548] viXra:1803.0655 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-15 15:25:45

Heisenberg Quantum Probabilities Leads to a Quantum Gravity Theory that Requires Much Less Mass to Explain Gravitational Phenomena

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper we suggest that through working with the Planck mass and its link to other particles in a simple way, it possible to “convert” the Heisenberg uncertainty principle into a very simple quantum probabilistic model. We further combine this with key elements from special relativity theory and get an interesting quantum relativistic probability theory. Some of the key points presented here could help to eliminate negative and above unity (pseudo) probabilities that often are used in standard quantum mechanics. These fake probabilities may be rooted in a failure to understand the Heisenberg principle fully in relation to the Planck mass. When properly understood, the Heisenberg principle seems to give a probabilistic range of quantum probabilities that is sound. There are no instantaneous probabilities and the maximum probability is always unity. In our formulation, the Planck mass particle is always related to a probability of one. Thus, we have certainty at the Planck scale for the Planck mass particle, or for particles accelerated to reach Planck energy. We are also presenting a relativistic extension of the McCulloch Heisenberg-derived Newton equivalent gravity theory. Our relativistic version requires much less mass than the Newtonian theory to explain gravitational phenomena, and initial investigation indicates it is consistent with perihelion of Mercury.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[547] viXra:1803.0654 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 19:15:54

Sum of Simple Composite Numbers by Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the sum of simple composite numbers by golden patterns.
Category: Number Theory

[546] viXra:1803.0653 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-02 03:36:42

Quantum Model of Gravity Unifies Relativistic Effects, Describes Inflation/Expansion Transition, Matches CMB Data

Authors: Jody A Geiger
Comments: 28 Pages.

Presenting a unified model of motion and gravity has proved difficult as current approaches to quantum and classical physics are incompatible. Using measurement quantization – a model that demonstrates the physical significance of Planck’s units of length, mass, and time – measure is expressed as counts of the fundamental units establishing a common framework for describing quantum and cosmological phenomena with expressions that are defined throughout the entire physical domain. Beginning with the Pythagorean Theorem, we demonstrate an understanding of measure with respect to static and moving references. The model is extended to include the measure of mass thus completing a single approach for describing the contraction and dilation of measure. With this new approach, relativistic effects are now described as properties of quantized finite units of measure. In support of the model, several descriptions of phenomena are resolved that match our most precise data such as the measure of dark energy, universal expansion, mass distribution, and the age of the Cosmic Microwave Background.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[545] viXra:1803.0652 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 00:17:46

AI to Understand Human Brain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[544] viXra:1803.0651 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 00:54:08

Magnets Control Heat and Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Researchers at The Ohio State University have discovered how to control heat with a magnetic field. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[543] viXra:1803.0650 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 01:36:33

The Brain Learns Differently

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Using new theoretical results and experiments on neuronal cultures, a group of scientists, led by Prof. Ido Kanter, of the Department of Physics and the Gonda (Goldschmied) Multidisciplinary Brain Research Center at Bar-Ilan University, has demonstrated that the central assumption for nearly 70 years that learning occurs only in the synapses is mistaken. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25] Advances in microscopy techniques have often triggered important discoveries in the field of neuroscience, enabling vital insights in understanding the brain and promising new treatments for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [24] What is the relationship of consciousness to the neurological activity of the brain? Does the brain behave differently when a person is fully conscious, when they are asleep, or when they are undergoing an epileptic seizure? [23] Consciousness appears to arise naturally as a result of a brain maximizing its information content. So says a group of scientists in Canada and France, which has studied how the electrical activity in people's brains varies according to individuals' conscious states. The researchers find that normal waking states are associated with maximum values of what they call a brain's "entropy". [22] New research published in the New Journal of Physics tries to decompose the structural layers of the cortical network to different hierarchies enabling to identify the network's nucleus, from which our consciousness could emerge. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[542] viXra:1803.0649 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 02:00:46

On Special Relativity

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

In Einstein’s paper of 1905 The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies” more commonly known as special relativity, he makes one intentional and misleading statement which places the whole paper in jeopardy. To understand this single disingenuous change does not require high level mathematics but rather basic linguistics. The erroneous change was first noticed by the author in the mid-sixties in a high school physics class which yielded incorrect results when calculated. The same basic calculation can be done today and yields exactly the same result. It is certainly strange that to this day not a single person has noticed the misleading statement and the common saying that, “the best place to hide something is in plain sight”, could never be truer. This paper shows where the intentional misleading statement occurs and its effect on the entire theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[541] viXra:1803.0648 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 03:37:43

Epstein-Barr Virus is the Cause of Multiple Sclerosis.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 24 Pages. pp. 28. Copyright © 2017 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by:

Objective: This systematic review assesses once again the causal relationship between Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) and multiple sclerosis (MS) for gaining a better understanding of the pathogenesis of this disease. Methods: A systematic review and meat-analysis of some studies is provided aimed to answer among other questions the following question. Is there a cause effect relation-ship between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis? The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis without Epstein-Barr virus no multiple sclerosis. In other words, if multiple sclerosis is present, then Epstein-Barr virus is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Result: The studies analyzed were able to provide evidence that Epstein-Barr virus is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of multiple sclerosis. Furthermore, the studies analyzed provide impressive evidence of a cause-effect relationship between Epstein-Barr virus and multiple sclerosis. Conclusion: Epstein-Barr virus the cause of multiple sclerosis. Keywords Epstein-Barr virus, multiple sclerosis, cause effect relationship, causality
Category: Statistics

[540] viXra:1803.0646 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 05:05:59

Theory of the Observer

Authors: Eric Nemo
Comments: 4 Pages. Don't get too excited

Basic applications of Quaternions and Octonions to Physics in layman's terms.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[539] viXra:1803.0645 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 05:25:31

Formulation of Dirac Equation for an Arbitrary Field from a System of Linear First Order Partial Differential Equations

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 5 Pages.

In our previous works we formulated Dirac equation for a free quantum particle and Maxwell field equations for the electromagnetic field from a system of linear first order partial differential equations. In this work we show that it is possible to formulate Dirac equation for the case when the quantum particle is under the influence of an external field, such as the electromagnetic field, also from a system of linear first order partial differential equations.
Category: Quantum Physics

[538] viXra:1803.0644 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 05:48:27

Victim of the Cometary Flood Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Atlantis – the Victim of the Flood of the Cometary Origin Finishing Ice Age.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Atlantis – the victim of the Flood of the cometary origin finishing Ice Age.
Category: Astrophysics

[537] viXra:1803.0643 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 05:54:02

Kak Super-Kastryulya with Borshchyom Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Yellowstone Volcano is not a Volcano, But Just Huge Abnormal Power Zone.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Yellowstone volcano is not a volcano, but just huge abnormal power zone.
Category: Astrophysics

[536] viXra:1803.0642 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 17:48:58

Heisenberg Probabilistic Quantum Gravity that Holds at the Subatomic and the Macroscopic Scale

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

Here we will present a probabilistic quantum gravity theory derived from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Surprisingly, this theory is fully deterministic when operating with masses that are exactly divisible by the Planck mass. For masses or mass parts less than one Planck mass, we find that probabilistic effects play an important role. Most macroscopic masses will have both a deterministic gravity part and a probabilistic gravity part. In 2014, McCulloch derived Newtonian gravity from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. McCulloch himself pointed out that his theory only seems to hold as long as one operates with whole Planck masses. For those who have studied his interesting theory, there may seem to be a mystery around how a theory rooted in Heisenberg’s principle, which was developed to understand quantum uncertainty, can give rise to a Newtonian gravity theory that works at the cosmic scale (which is basically deterministic). However, the deeper investigation introduced here shows that the McCulloch method is very likely correct and can be extended to hold for masses that are not divisible by the Planck mass, a feature that we describe in more detail here. Our extended quantum gravity theory also points out, in general directions, how we can approach the set up of experiments to measure the gravitational constant more accurately.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[535] viXra:1803.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 18:30:00

The Relation of Relativistic Energy to Particle Wavelength

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 21 pages

In this paper, particle motion is considered in the Energy Wave Theory equations. The addition of particle velocity into the equations derives and explains the nature of relativity as a Doppler effect of a particle’s mean wavelength change. The addition of a change in wave amplitude relates particle spin to magnetism and gravity. These new additions to the equations are first described, and then proven to derive the existing Energy Wave Equations and calculations for particles at rest. Then, they are shown to derive and prove relativistic energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[534] viXra:1803.0640 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 21:17:15

Representing E8 Root Vectors for E8-Cl(16) Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

In my E8-Cl(16) Physics model (viXra 1602.0319 and related papers) I have been as of March 2018 using a particuar 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors to explain my physical interpretation of each E8 Root Vector, but in discussion at Tellus Museum, Cartersville, Georgia on 11-24 March 2018 with Marcelo Amaral, Marni Sheppeard, and Ray Aschheim I have found that a 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors by Ray Aschheimvseems to me to be more fundamental, so I am now changing to Ray’s picture which I describe in this paper. Version 2 (v2) corrects particle identification of E8 Root Vectors in a diagram.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[533] viXra:1803.0639 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 19:12:22

Chromospheric Emission Lines: Rules of Formation

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 10 Pages.

This is a copy of the slides I presented on 3/24/2018 at the Ohio Section Meeting of the American Physical Society at Michigan State University. The accompanying APS abstract in the Bulletin of the APS can be found here: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/OSS18/Session/G2.4 In this talk, when I refer to Condensed Hydrogen Structures (CHS), I am referring to objects such as spicules in the chromosphere.
Category: Astrophysics

[532] viXra:1803.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 06:17:16

The Nonlinear Theory of Elementary Particles

Authors: Kyriakos A.G.
Comments: 285 Pages.

The author proposes a special nonlinear quantum field theory. In a linear approximation, this theory can be presented in the form of the Standard Model (SM) theory. The richer physical structure of this nonlinear theory makes it possible to exceed the limits of SM and remove its known incompleteness. We show that nonlinearity of the field is critical for the appearance of charges and masses of elementary particles, for confinement of quarks, and many other effects, whose description within the framework of SM causes difficulties. In this case, the mechanism of generation of masses is mathematically similar to Higgs's mechanism, but it is considerably simpler. The proposed theory does not examine the theory of gravity, but give the base to build Lorentz-invariant gravitation theory. The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students studying the theory of elementary particles, as well as for specialists working in this field.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[531] viXra:1803.0636 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 18:11:39

Wave Function of Solar System

Authors: Tufail Abbas, Ruud Loeffen
Comments: 22 Pages.

This paper presents an alternative approach and a possible way forward to combine Gravity, Electromagnetism and Quantum Physics, by deriving analogy between ‘parameters of Hydrogen Atom’ and ‘derived parameters of Solar System’ using postulated Root Mean Square Velocity (v-rms) of Solar System. It is shown that derived parameters can be used to write wave function ψ-sol of the solar system. Further it is shown that αsol(= vrms/c) which is the structure constant of the solar system, could be used to derive a dimensionless Gravitational Constant Similar interesting relationship has been derived with other cosmological parameters to interpret a Mathematical Universe evolving from unities of wave function, embedded within structure constants of its constituents.
Category: Astrophysics

[530] viXra:1803.0635 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 20:55:27

A Note on Properties of a Prime-Generating Quadratic 13n^2 + 53n + 41

Authors: Waldemar Puszkarz
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents some properties of a quadratic polynomial 13n^2 + 53n + 41. One of them is unique, while others are shared with other prime-generating quadratics. The main purpose of this note is to emphasize certain common features of such quadratics that may not have been noted before.
Category: Number Theory

[529] viXra:1803.0634 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 22:47:05

Harmonic Unity of Atom Spectrum

Authors: Oleg G. Verin
Comments: 22 Pages.

Recent discovery of the laws of atomic electron shells formation [1] enables to have absolutely new view at the nature of atom spectrum. In particular, the fractional values of a main quantum number testify to excitation of multiple resonances of electronic shells of atoms making for each atom a «special» spectrum. In spite of all diversity of characteristics the regularities showing harmonic unity of each atom clearly appear, that, undoubtedly, becomes reliable guiding line for researchers and will be useful at the analysis and systematization of atomic spectrums. This article is a continuation of study of atomic electron shells properties on the basis of reference data confirmed by trusty experiments.
Category: Quantum Physics

[528] viXra:1803.0633 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-26 06:48:03

Almost All Monotone Circuit Family

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper describes about "Almost all monotone circuit family" and introduce its interesting advantages to measuring problem complexity. Explained in Michael Sipser "Introduction to the Theory of COMPUTATION", circuit family that emulate Deterministic Turing machine (DTM) are almost all monotone circuit family except some NOT-gate that connect input variables (like negation normal form (NNF)). This "NNF Circuit family" have good characteristic which present each accept input exclusivity and symmetry. Each input make some INPUT-gate and NOT-gate output 1 which set is different from another input, and meet these output in OR-gate and finally connect (specified) OUTPUT-gate. That is, NNF circuit start accept input that exclusive each other, and meet each input as symmetry input step by step and finally goal same output. Especially, some different variables which sandwich reject inputs correspond to unique AND-gate. That is, we can measure problem complexity by using different variables of accept inputs. For examples, such number of different variables type of negation HornSAT is at most polynomial size. This is one of reason that we can compute P problem easily.
Category: General Mathematics

[527] viXra:1803.0632 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 01:36:58

A Pure Quantum Universe as an Alternative to Inflation

Authors: Alexey V. Melkikh
Comments: 16 Pages.

A model of the expansion of the universe is proposed, based on the assumption that the universe in its early stages was not in a hot state but in a pure, metastable quantum state. This assumption makes it possible to solve the basic paradoxes of standard cosmology from the unified positions and within the framework of the standard model, namely, the horizon problem, the flatness problem of the universe, the problem of the absence of monopoles, and the problem of the predominance of matter over antimatter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[526] viXra:1803.0631 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 03:07:17

Could Answer to Russian Poison Novichok Come from Holistic Medicine?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 1 Page.

Some experiments show, that replacement of fragments of neural system could in principle be possible. This requires deep rethinking of what we know about human body.
Category: Quantitative Biology

[525] viXra:1803.0630 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 04:07:52

Relativistic Effects Between Objects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

A team led by researchers María José Caturla and Carlos Untiedt, from the University of Alicante Department of Applied Physics, have studied the importance of relativistic effects on long-range interactions between objects. [27] The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[524] viXra:1803.0629 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 04:26:47

Diagnosing using Red Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Optical Mammography, or OM, which uses harmless red or infrared light, has been developed for use in conjunction with X-rays for diagnosis or monitoring in cases demanding repeated imaging where high amounts of ionizing radiation should be avoided. [13] University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[523] viXra:1803.0628 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 07:01:39

Jupiter and the Inverter Magnet Mechanism

Authors: Fenton J. Doolan
Comments: 2 pages

It is hypothesised that Jupiter acts like a gigantic inverter magnet. The recent infrared images of Jupiter north and south poles from the orbiting satellite Juno clearly show 'cyclones' that form the inverter magnet structure. It is thus concluded that the sun and all planets in our solar system ( except possibly Venus ) are acting like inverter magnets. The force of attraction between heavenly bodies is magnetic or electromagnetic in nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[522] viXra:1803.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 08:48:04

Brain-Like Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[521] viXra:1803.0626 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 09:21:10

A New Approach to Quantum Mechanics I :Overview

Authors: Juno Ryu
Comments: 33 Pages.

In this article, a new topological way to define first quantization procedure is overviewed. Technical ingredients and metaphysical ideas used throughout this series of works are introduced in a way as non-technical as possible for motivating both physically and mathematically interested readers. This overview contains schematic summary of part II and part III of this series.
Category: Quantum Physics

[520] viXra:1803.0625 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 11:45:50

Cellular Immortality Ribonucleoprotein

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Biochemistry

[519] viXra:1803.0624 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 13:41:51

The Physics of Anti-Gravity Systems

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 7 Pages.

A geometric version of gravity is submitted that can unify the natural dynamics of large and small scale systems. The relationship between the Gaussian gravitational constant, Planck's constant, and the speed of light is given as a unified field equation that can be tested with numerous predictions. A solution for dark matter is deduced and empirical evidence is provided. Anti-gravity is shown to be possible and a perplexing discovery is made in the conclusion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[518] viXra:1803.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 14:09:13

Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle

Authors: Thomas Neil Neubert
Comments: Pages.

The equivalence principle has been hypothesized as strong, weak , symmetric and so forth. Clear understanding of the equivalence principle is necessary to develop quantum gravity theory. This brief paper sheds light upon the conundrum of the equivalence principle and offers a Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle interpretation of the CERN AEGIS antihydrogen gravitational experiments.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[517] viXra:1803.0622 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:18:35

NN-Harmonic Mean Aggregation Operators-Based MCGDM Strategy in a Neutrosophic Number Environment

Authors: Kalyan Mondal, Surapati Pramanik, Bibhas C. Giri, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 15 Pages.

A neutrosophic number (a + bI) is a significant mathematical tool to deal with indeterminate and incomplete information which exists generally in real-world problems, where a and bI denote the determinate component and indeterminate component, respectively. We define score functions and accuracy functions for ranking neutrosophic numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[516] viXra:1803.0621 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:19:38

Nonlocal Linear Minimum Mean Square Error Methods for Denoising Mri

Authors: P.V. Sudeep, P. Palanisamy, Chandrasekharan Kesavadas, Jeny Rajan
Comments: 10 Pages.

The presence of noise results in quality deterioration of magnetic resonance (MR) images and thus limits the visual inspection and influence the quantitative measurements from the data.
Category: General Mathematics

[515] viXra:1803.0620 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:20:51

Notions of Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs

Authors: Nabeela Ishfaq, Sidra Sayed, Muhammad Akram, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 19 Pages.

Graph theory has numerous applications in various disciplines, including computer networks, neural networks, expert systems, cluster analysis, and image capturing. Rough neutrosophic set (NS) theory is a hybrid tool for handling uncertain information that exists in real life.
Category: General Mathematics

[514] viXra:1803.0619 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:21:50

Nötrosofik Üyelik Fonksiyonlu Bulanık Mantık-Pid (NBMD-Pid) ve Geleneksel Bulanık Mantık-Pid (BMD-Pid) Denetleyicinin Gerçek Zamanlı Karşılaştırılması

Authors: Mehmet Serhat CAN, Ömerül Faruk ÖZGÜVEN
Comments: 12 Pages.

Bu çalışmada, giriş değişkenlerinin nötrosofik küme teorisindeki doğru (T), belirsiz (I) ve yanlış (F) üyelik fonksiyonları kullanılarak, evrensel küme üzerindeki dağılımlarının gruplandırıldığı nötrosofik üyelik değerli bulanık mantık-PID (NBMD-PID) denetleyici ile geleneksel bulanık mantık-PID denetleyicinin (BMD-PID) gerçek zamanlı karşılaştırılması yapılmıştır.
Category: General Mathematics

[513] viXra:1803.0617 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:36:28

N-Valued Refined Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Their Applications in Decision Making Problems and Medical Diagnosis

Authors: Shawkat Alkhazaleh, Ayman A. Hazaymeh
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work we use the concept of a ’n’-valued refined neutrosophic soft sets and its properties to solve decision making problems, Also a similarity measure between two ’n’- valued refined neutrosophic soft sets are proposed. A medical diagnosis (MD) method is established for ’n’-valued refined neutrosophic soft set setting using similarity measures. Lastly a numerical example is given to demonstrate the possible application of similarity measures in medical diagnosis (MD).
Category: General Mathematics

[512] viXra:1803.0616 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:37:21

On Antipodal Single Valued Neutrosophic Graph

Authors: J. Malarvizhi, G.Divya
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we define Antipodal single valued neutrosophic graph and some Isomorphic properties of Antipodal single valued neutrosophic graph are discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[511] viXra:1803.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:38:55

On Distances and Similarity Measures Between Two Integral Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Sudip Bhattacharyya, Bikas Koli Roy, Pinaki Majumdar
Comments: 21 Pages.

An Interval Neutrosophic set (INS) is an instance of a Neutrosophic set and also an emerging tool for uncertain data processing in real scientific and engineering applications. In this paper, several distance and similarity measures between two Interval Neutrosophic sets have been discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[510] viXra:1803.0614 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:40:23

Online Prediction for Contamination of Chlortetracycline Fermentation Based on Dezert–Smarandache Theory

Authors: Jianwen Yang, Xiangguang Chen, Huaiping Jin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Fermentative production of chlortetracycline is a complex fed-batch bioprocess. It generally takes over 90 h for cultivation and is often contaminated by undesired microorganisms.
Category: General Mathematics

[509] viXra:1803.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:41:10

On Neutrosophic Continuity

Authors: Süleyman ŞENYURT, Gülşah KAYA
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, we defined the neutrosophic continuous function, neutrosophic open function, neutrosophic closed function and neutrosophic homeomorphism on neutrosophic topological spaces. Then, we give some characteristics of these functions; neutrosophic closed function is a neutrosophic continuous function, neutrosophic open function is a neutrosophic continuous function.
Category: General Mathematics

[508] viXra:1803.0612 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:42:46

On Neutrosophic Soft Metric Space

Authors: Tuhin Bera, Nirmal Kumar Mahapatra
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of neutrosophic soft metric space (NSMS) is introduced in terms of neutrosophic soft points and several related properties, structural characteristics have been investigated. Then the convergence of sequence in neutrosophic soft metric space is defined and illustrated by examples. Further, the concept of Cauchy sequence in NSMS is developed and some related theorems have been established, too.
Category: General Mathematics

[507] viXra:1803.0611 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:43:45

On Regular Complex Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: P. Thirunavukarasu, R. Suresh
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduced a new concept of complex neutrosophic graphs called regular complex neutrosophic graph with degree for complex neutrosophic graphs and studied some properties of this new concept. The concept of regular complex neutrosophic graph is an extension of complex neutrosophic fuzzy graphs of type.
Category: General Mathematics

[506] viXra:1803.0610 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:44:40

On Single Valued Neutrosophic Refined Rough Set Model and Its Application

Authors: Yan-Ling Bao, Hai-Long Yang
Comments: 14 Pages.

Neutrosophic set (NS) theory was originally established by Smarandache for handling indeterminate and inconsistent information. In this paper, we introduce single valued neutrosophic refined rough sets by combining single valued neutrosophic refined sets with rough sets and further study the hybrid model from two perspectives—constructive viewpoint and axiomatic viewpoint.
Category: General Mathematics

[505] viXra:1803.0609 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:46:20

Paired Structures in Knowledge Representation

Authors: J. Montero, H. Bustince, C. Franco, J.T. Rodríguez, D. Gómez, M. Pagola, J. Fernández, E. Barrenechea
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this position paper we propose a consistent and unifying view to all those basic knowledge representa- tion models that are based on the existence of two somehow opposite fuzzy concepts.
Category: General Mathematics

[504] viXra:1803.0608 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:48:21

Paraconsistent Semantics for Pavelka Style Fuzzy Sentential Logic

Authors: E. Turunen, M.Öztürk, A.Tsoukiás
Comments: 15 Pages.

The root of this work is on the one hand in Belnap’s four valued paraconsistent logic,and on the other hand on Pavelka’s papers further developed by Turunen.
Category: General Mathematics

[503] viXra:1803.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:49:30

Parallel C-Means Algorithm for Image Segmentation on a Reconfigurable Mesh Computer

Authors: Omar Bouattane, Bouchaib Cherradi, Mohamed Youssfi, Mohamed O. Bensalah
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, we propose a parallel algorithm for data classification, and its application for Magnetic Resonance Images (MRI) segmentation. The studied classification method is the well-known c-means method.
Category: General Mathematics

[502] viXra:1803.0606 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:50:46

Partitioned Heronian Means Based on Linguistic Intuitionistic Fuzzynumbers for Dealing with Multi-Attribute Group Decision Making

Authors: makingPeide Liu, Junlin Liu, José M. Merigó
Comments: 28 Pages.

Heronian mean (HM) operator has the advantages of considering the interrelationships between parame-ters, and linguistic intuitionistic fuzzy number (LIFN), in which the membership and non-membership areexpressed by linguistic terms, can more easily describe the uncertain and the vague information existingin the real world.
Category: General Mathematics

[501] viXra:1803.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:51:48

Perception Granular Computing in Visual Haze-Free Task

Authors: Hong Hu, Liang Pang, Dongping Tian, Zhongzhi Shi
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the past decade, granular computing (GrC) has been an active topic of research in machine learning and computer vision. However, the granularity division is itself an open and complex problem.
Category: General Mathematics

[500] viXra:1803.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:53:48

Proposed Model for Evaluating Information Systems Quality Based on Single Valued Triangular Neutrosophic Numbers

Authors: Samah Ibrahim Abdel Aal, Mahmoud M. A. Abd Ellatif, Mohamed Monir Hassan
Comments: 14 Pages.

One of the most important reasons for information systems failure is lack of quality. Information Systems Quality (ISQ) evaluation is important to prevent the lack of quality. ISQ evaluation is one of the most important Multi-Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[499] viXra:1803.0601 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:55:53

Ranking and Selecting the Best Performance Appraisal Method Using the Multimoora Approach Integrated Shannon’s Entropy

Authors: Abteen Ijadi Maghsoodi, Gelayol Abouhamzeh, Mohammad Khalilzadeh, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas
Comments: 21 Pages.

The selection process of appropriate Performance Appraisal (PA) methods for organizations in today’s dynamic and agile environments along with its funding scales is a complex problem.
Category: General Mathematics

[498] viXra:1803.0600 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:57:56

Reasoning About Actions with Imprecise and Incomplete State Descriptions

Authors: Célia da Costa Pereira, Andrea G.B.Tettamanzi
Comments: 19 Pages.

This article is a first step in the direction of extending possibilistic planning to account for incomplete and imprecise knowledge of the worlds tate.
Category: General Mathematics

[497] viXra:1803.0599 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:58:48

Retinal Blood Vessels Separation a Survey

Authors: Sindhu Saranya, V. Ellappan
Comments: 10 Pages.

Segmenting blood vessel from the retinal image is important for detecting many retinal vascular disorders. Diseases which are all affecting the blood vessels of the eye are known as Retinal vascular disorders.
Category: General Mathematics

[496] viXra:1803.0598 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:59:39

Review on BCI/BCK-Algebras and Development

Authors: M.Kaviyarasu, K.Indhira
Comments: 8 Pages.

The aim of the paper is to investigate the relationship between BCK/BCIalgebras and other algebras namely d-algebras, Q-algebras-BCH-algebras- TM-algebras-INK-algebras and we introduce some algebraic system.
Category: General Mathematics

[495] viXra:1803.0597 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:00:55

Rough Neutrosophic Digraphs with Application

Authors: Sidra Sayed, Nabeela Ishfaq, Muhammad Akram, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 20 Pages.

A rough neutrosophic set model is a hybrid model which deals with vagueness by using the lower and upper approximation spaces. In this research paper, we apply the concept of rough neutrosophic sets to graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[494] viXra:1803.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:02:44

Row-Products of Soft Matrices with Applications in Multiple-Disjoint Decision Making

Authors: Hüseyin Kamacı, Akın Osman Atagün, Abdullah Sönmezoglu
Comments: 23 Pages.

In this paper, we firstly introduce row-products of the soft matrices and investigate their properties and algebraic structures in detail. We aim to show that these row-products can be used in handling decision making problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[493] viXra:1803.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:03:53

Segmentation of Dental X-Ray Images in Medical Imaging Using Neutrosophic Orthogonal Matrices

Authors: Mumtaz Ali, Le Hoang Son, Mohsin Khan, Nguyen Thanh Tung
Comments: 8 Pages.

Over the last few decades, the advance of new technologies in computer equipment, cameras and med- ical devices became a starting point for the shape of medical imaging systems.
Category: General Mathematics

[492] viXra:1803.0593 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:08:13

Self-Centered Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: V.Krishnaraj, R.Vikramaprasad, R.Dhavaseelan
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper, we introduce the concepts of length, distance, eccentricity, radius, diameter, status, total status, median and central vertex of a single valued neutrosophic graph. We present the concept of self-centered single valued neutrosophic graph. We investigated some properties of self-centered single valued neutrosophic graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[491] viXra:1803.0591 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-26 01:33:44

Technology-Embedded Hybrid Learning

Authors: Muzammil Behzad, Nida Adnan, Sanna Aziz Merchant
Comments: 12 Pages. Presented at International Conference on Professional Development in Higher Education: Trends and Practices, Prospects and Innovations, by Higher Education Commission of Pakistan, March 2018

With the rapid surge in technological advancements, an equal amount of investment in technology-embedded teaching has become vital to pace up with the ongoing educational needs. Distance education has evolved from the era of postal services to the use of ICT tools in current times. With the aid of globally updated content across the board, technology usage ensures all students receive equal attention without any discrimination. Importantly, web-based teaching allows all kind of students to learn at their own pace, without the fear of being judged, including professionals who can learn remotely without disturbing their job schedules. Having web-based content allows low-cost and robust implementation of the content upgradation. An improved, yet effective, version of the education using such tools is Hybrid Learning (HL). This learning mode aims to provide luxurious reinforcement to its legitimate candidates while maintaining the quality standards of various elements. Incorporated with both traditional and distance learning methods, along with exploiting social media tools for increased comfort level and peer-to-peer collaboration, HL ultimately facilitates the end user and educational setup. The structure of such a hybrid model is realized by delivering the study material via a learning management system (LMS) designed in compliance with quality standards, which is one of the fundamental tackling techniques for controlling quality constraints. In this paper, we present the recently piloted project by COMSATS Institute of Information Technology (CIIT) which is driven by technology-embedded teaching model. This model is an amalgam of the traditional class room model with the aid of state-of-the-art online learning technologies. The students are enrolled as full-time students, with all the courses in traditional classroom mode, except one course offered as hybrid course. This globally adapted model helps the students to benefit from both face-to-face learning as well as gaining hands-on experience on technology-enriched education model providing flexibility of timings, learning pace, and boundaries. Our HL model is equipped with two major synchronous and asynchronous blocks. The synchronous block delivers real-time live interaction scenarios using discussion boards, thereby providing a face-to-face environment. Interactions via social network has witnessed equally surging improvement in the output performance. The asynchronous block refers to the lecture videos, slides and handouts, prepared by imminent professors, available 24/7 for students. To ensure quality output, our HL model follows the course learning outcomes (CLOs), and program learning outcomes (PLOs) as per international standards. As a proof of concept, we have deployed a mechanism at the end of each semester to verify the effectiveness of our model. This mechanism fundamentally surveys the satisfaction levels of all the students enrolled in the HL courses. With the surveys already conducted, a significant level of satisfaction has been noted. Extensive results from these surveys are presented in the paper to further validate the efficiency and robustness of our proposed HL model.
Category: Education and Didactics

[490] viXra:1803.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:10:11

Shortest Path Problem on Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Said Broumi, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Kishore Kumar P.K.
Comments: 6 Pages.

single valued neutrosophic graph is a generalized structure of fuzzy graph, intuitionistic fuzzy graph that gives more precision, flexibility and compatibility to a system when compared with systems that are designed using fuzzy graphs and intuitionistic fuzzy graphs.
Category: General Mathematics

[489] viXra:1803.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:12:55

Single Valued Neutrosophic Cross-Entropy for Multicriteria Decision Making Problems

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 6 Pages.

single valued neutrosophic set (SVNS) is an instance of a neutrosophic set, which give us an additional possibility to represent uncertainty, imprecise, incomplete, and inconsistent information which exist in real world.
Category: General Mathematics

[488] viXra:1803.0585 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:14:38

Photonic Biosensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

University Professor of Applied Physics Stephen Arnold and his team at the New York University Tandon School of Engineering have made a discovery that could lead to Star Trek-like biosensor devices capable of flagging the barest presence in blood of a specific virus or antibody, or protein marker for a specific cancer; or sniffing out airborne chemical warfare agents while they are still far below toxic levels. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[487] viXra:1803.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:16:05

Single Valued Neutrosophic Exponential Similarity Measure for Medical Diagnosis and Multi Attribute Decision Making

Authors: J.Dhivya, B.Sridevi
Comments: 9 Pages.

Neutrosophic set (NS) is very useful to express incomplete, uncertainty, and inconsistent information in a more general way. In the modern medical technologies, each element can be expressed as NS having different truth – membership, indeterminacy – membership, and falsity – membership degrees.
Category: General Mathematics

[486] viXra:1803.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:17:19

Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Choquet Aggregation Operators for Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Xin Li, Xiaohong Zhang
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper aims at developing new methods for multi-attribute decision making (MADM) under a single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy environment, in which each element has sets of possible values designed by truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership hesitant functions.
Category: General Mathematics

[485] viXra:1803.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:21:24

Smarandache BL-algebra

Authors: A. Borumand Saeid, A. Ahadpanah, L. Torkzadeh
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper we define the Smarandache BL-algebra, Q -Smarandache ideal and Q - Smarandache implicative ideal, we obtain some related results. After that by considering the notions of these ideals we determine relationships between ideals in BL-algebra and Q -Smarandache (implicative) ideals of BL-algebra. Finally we construct quotient of Smarandache BL-algebras via MV-algebra and prove some theorems.
Category: General Mathematics

[484] viXra:1803.0578 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:23:24

Smarandache Curves in Euclidean 4 Space e 4

Authors: Mervat Elzawy
Comments: 4 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to study Smarandache curves in the 4-dimensional Euclidean space E 4 , and to obtain the Frenet–Serret and Bishop invariants for the Smarandache curves in E 4 . The first, the second and the third curvatures of Smarandache curves are calculated. These values depending upon the first, the second and the third curvature of the given curve.
Category: General Mathematics

[483] viXra:1803.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:24:24

Smarandache Curves in the Galilean 4-Space G 4

Authors: M. Elzawy, S. Mosa
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we study Smarandache curves in the 4-dimensional Galilean space G 4 . We obtain Frenet- Serret invariants for the Smarandache curve in G 4 . The first, second and third curvature of Smarandache curve are calculated. These values depending upon the first, second and third curvature of the given curve. Examples will be illustrated.
Category: General Mathematics

[482] viXra:1803.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:33:11

Solving Multi-Criteria Group Decision Making Problems Under Environments with a High Number of Alternatives Using Fuzzy Ontologies and Multi-Granular Linguistic Modelling Methods

Authors: J.A. Morente-Molinera, G. Kou, R. González-Crespo, J.M. Corchado, E. Herrera-Viedma
Comments: 11 Pages.

Classic multi-criteria group decision making models that have a high amount of alternatives are unman- ageable for the experts.
Category: General Mathematics

[481] viXra:1803.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:34:24

Some Hybrid Weighted Aggregation Operators Under Neutrosophic Set Environment and Their Applications to Multi Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Harish Garg, Nancy
Comments: 18 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets (NS) contain the three ranges: truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership degrees,and are very useful for describing and handling the uncertainties in the real life problem.
Category: General Mathematics

[480] viXra:1803.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:40:16

Spanning Tree Problem with Neutrosophic Edge Weights

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Arindam Dey, Le Hoang Son
Comments: 10 Pages.

Neutrosophic set and neutrosophic logic theory are renowned theories to deal with complex, not clearly explained and uncertain real life problems, in which classical fuzzy sets/models may fail to model properly.
Category: General Mathematics

[479] viXra:1803.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:41:13

Special Equiform Smarandache Curves in Minkowski Space-Time

Authors: E.M. Solouma
Comments: 7 Pages.

A regular non-null curve in Minkowski space-time, whose posi- tion vector is composed by Frenet frame vectors on another regular curve, is called a Smarandache curve.
Category: General Mathematics

[478] viXra:1803.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:42:30

Special Timelike Smrandache Curves in Minkowski 3-Space

Authors: E. M. Solouma
Comments: 16 Pages.

In Smarandache geometry, a regular non-null curve in Minkowski 3-space, whose position vector is collected by the Frenet frame vectors of other regular non-null curve, is said to be Smarandache curve.
Category: General Mathematics

[477] viXra:1803.0562 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:43:57

Strong Degrees in Single Valued Neutrosophic Graphs

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Seema Mehra, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Manjeet Singh
Comments: 9 Pages.

The concept of single valued neutrosophic graphs (SVNGs) generalizes the concept of fuzzy graphs and intuitionistic fuzzy graphs. The purpose of this research paper is to define different types of strong degrees in SVNGs and introduce novel concepts, such as the vertex truth-membership, vertex indeterminacy-membership and falsity-membership sequence in SVNG with proof and numerical illustrations.
Category: General Mathematics

[476] viXra:1803.0561 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:45:12

Summary of the Special Issue “Neutrosophic Information Theory and Applications” at “Information” Journal

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Jun Ye
Comments: 4 Pages.

Over a period of seven months (August 2017–February 2018), the Special Issue dedicated to “Neutrosophic Information Theory and Applications” by the “Information” journal (ISSN 2078-2489), located in Basel, Switzerland, was a success.
Category: General Mathematics

[475] viXra:1803.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:46:35

Sustainable Decision-Making in Civil Engineering, Construction and Building Technology

Authors: Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Jurgita Antucheviciene, Tatjana Vilutiene, Hojjat Adeli
Comments: 21 Pages.

Sustainable decision-making in civil engineering, construction and building technology can be supported by fundamental scientific achievements and multiple-criteria decision-making (MCDM) theories.
Category: General Mathematics

[474] viXra:1803.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:47:57

Terminological Difficulties in Fuzzy Set Theory—The Case of “Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets”

Authors: Didier Dubois, Siegfried Gottwald, Petr Hajek, Janusz Kacprzyk, Henri Prade
Comments: 7 Pages.

This note points out a terminological clash between Atanassov’s “intuitionistic fuzzy sets” and what is currently understood as intuitionistic logic. They differ both by their motivations and their underlying mathematical structure.
Category: General Mathematics

[473] viXra:1803.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:51:29

Testing the Event Witnessing Status of Microbloggers from Evidence in Their Micro-Blogs

Authors: Marie Truelove, Maria Vasardani, Stephan Winter
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper demonstrates a framework of processes for identifying potential witnesses of events from evidence they post to social media.
Category: General Mathematics

[472] viXra:1803.0557 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:52:43

The Complex Neutrosophic Soft Expert Set and Its Application in Decision Making

Authors: Ashraf Al-Quran, Nasruddin Hassan
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper presents a novel complex neutrosophic soft expert set (CNSES) concept. The range of values of CNSES is extended to the unit circle in the complex plane by adding an additional term called the phase term which describes CNSES’s elements in terms of the time aspect.
Category: General Mathematics

[471] viXra:1803.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:54:08

The Optimization of Intelligent Control Interfaces Using Versatile Intelligent Portable Robot Platform

Authors: Victor Vladareanu, Radu I. Munteanu, Ali Mumtaz, Florentin Smarandache, Luige Vladareanu
Comments: 8 Pages.

The paper presents a VIPRO versatile, intelligent and mobile platform for robots, using an original virtual projection method which involves the representation of modern mobile robots in a 3D virtual environment using a strong robotic simulator, an open architecture system and adaptive networks over the classical control system of the robot, developing intelligent control interfaces The advanced control technologies adapted to the robot environment such as neutrosophic control, robot Extenics control and robot haptic control are used. The obtained results lead to the conclusion that the VIPRO platform is to be integrated on the IT market as a new component alongside the existing ones, allowing a correct evaluation of robot behaviours in hazardous or challenging environments and high level real-time simulation in order to correctly model interactions among the robots and between the robots and the environment.
Category: General Mathematics

[470] viXra:1803.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:56:25

The Use of the Pivot Pairwise Relative Criteria Importance Assessment Method for Determining the Weights of Criteria

Authors: Dragisa STANUJKIC, Edmundas Kazimieras ZAVADSKAS, Darjan KARABASEVIC, Florentin SMARANDACHE, Zenonas TURSKIS
Comments: 18 Pages.

The weights of evaluation criteria could have a significant impact on the results obtained by applying multiple criteria decision-making methods.
Category: General Mathematics

[469] viXra:1803.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:57:29

The “Vertical” Generalization of the Binary Goldbach’s Conjecture as Applied on “Iterative” Primes with (Recursive) Prime Indexes (i-Primeths)

Authors: Andrei-Lucian Drăgoi
Comments: 32 Pages.

This article proposes a synthesized classification of some Goldbach-like conjectures, including those which are “stronger” than the Binary Goldbach’s Conjecture (BGC) and launches a new generalization of BGC briefly called “the Vertical Binary Goldbach’s Conjecture” (VBGC), which is essentially a metaconjecture, as VBGC states an infinite number of conjectures stronger than BGC, which all apply on “iterative” primes with recursive prime indexes (i-primeths).
Category: General Mathematics

[468] viXra:1803.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 08:59:08

Very True Pseudo-BCK Algebras

Authors: Lavinia Corina Ciungu
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper we introduce the very true operators on pseudo-BCK algebras and we study their properties. We prove that the composition of two very true operators is a very true operator if and only if they commute.
Category: General Mathematics

[467] viXra:1803.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 09:02:07

Thinking Out Loud on Primeval Atom, Big Bang & Biblical Account of Creation

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 11 Pages.

In recent years, the Big Bang as described by the Lambda CDM-Standard Model Cosmology has become widely accepted by majority of physics and cosmology communities.
Category: General Mathematics

[466] viXra:1803.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 09:03:20

Time-Aware Trustworthiness Ranking Prediction for Cloud Services Using Interval Neutrosophic Set and Electre

Authors: Hua Ma, Haibin Zhu, Zhigang Hu, Wensheng Tang
Comments: 19 Pages.

The imprecise quality of service (QoS) evaluations from consumers may lead to the inappropriate pre- diction for the trustworthiness of cloud services in an uncertain cloud environment.
Category: General Mathematics

[465] viXra:1803.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 10:15:03

A Note on Some Class of Prime-Generating Quadratics

Authors: Waldemar Puszkarz
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note lists all the known prime-generating quadratics with at most two-digit positive coefficients that generate at least 20 primes in a row. The Euler polynomial is the best-known member of this class of six.
Category: Number Theory

[464] viXra:1803.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 10:11:36

Trying to Understand the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[463] viXra:1803.0544 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 13:38:18

3-D Single-Atom Measurements

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers at Griffith University working with Australia's Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organisation (CSIRO) have unveiled a stunningly accurate technique for scientific measurements which uses a single atom as the sensor, with sensitivity down to 100 zeptoNewtons. [34] Researchers at the Center for Quantum Nanoscience within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have made a major breakthrough in controlling the quantum properties of single atoms. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A collaboration between the lab of Judy Cha, the Carol and Douglas Melamed Assistant Professor of Mechanical Engineering & Materials Science, and IBM's Watson Research Center could help make a potentially revolutionary technology more viable for manufacturing. [27] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[462] viXra:1803.0543 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:11:35

Modeling Synergies in Multi-Criteria Supplier Selection and Order Allocation: an Application to Commodity Trading

Authors: Mariya A. Sodenkamp, Madjid Tavana, Debora Di Caprio
Comments: 16 Pages.

We propose a novel meta-approach to support collaborative multi-objective supplier selection and order allocation (SSOA) decisions by integrating multi-criteria decision analysis and linear programming (LP).
Category: General Mathematics

[461] viXra:1803.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:12:38

Modeling Virus as Elastic Sphere in Newtonian Fluid Based on 3d Navier Stokes Equations

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

Although virus is widely known to significantly affect many biological form of life, its physical model is quite rare. In this regard, experiments on the acoustic vibrations of elastic nanostructures in fluid media have been used to study the mechanical properties of materials, as well as for mechanical and biological sensing.
Category: General Mathematics

[460] viXra:1803.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:14:05

Models for Multiple Attribute Decision-Making with Dual Generalized Single-Valued Neutrosophic Bonferroni Mean Operators

Authors: JieWang, Xiyue Tang, Guiwu Wei
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this article, we expand the dual generalized weighted BM (DGWBM) and dual generalized weighted geometric Bonferroni mean (DGWGBM) operator with single valued neutrosophic numbers (SVNNs) to propose the dual generalized single-valued neutrosophic number WBM (DGSVNNWBM) operator and dual generalized single-valued neutrosophic numbers WGBM (DGSVNNWGBM) operator. Then, the multiple attribute decision making (MADM) methods are proposed with these operators. In the end, we utilize an applicable example for strategic suppliers selection to prove the proposed methods.
Category: General Mathematics

[459] viXra:1803.0540 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:15:13

Moth-Flame Swarm Optimization with Neutrosophic Sets for Automatic Mitosis Detection in Breast Cancer Histology Images

Authors: Gehad Ismail Sayed, Aboul Ella Hassanien
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper presents an automatic mitosis detection approach of histopathology slide imaging based on using neutrosophic sets (NS) and moth-flame optimization (MFO).
Category: General Mathematics

[458] viXra:1803.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:17:58

Multi-criteria Decision-making Approach based on Multi-valued Neutrosophic Geometric Weighted Choquet Integral Heronian Mean Operator

Authors: Juan-juan Peng, Jian-qiang Wang, Jun-hua Hu, Chao Tian
Comments: 14 Pages.

Multi-valued neutrosophic sets (MVNSs) have recently become a subject of great interest for researchers, and have been applied widely to multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problems. In this paper, the multi-valued neutrosophic geometric weighted Choquet integral Heronian mean (MVNGWCIHM) operator, which is based on the Heronian mean and Choquet integral, is proposed, and some special cases and the corresponding properties of the operator are discussed.
Category: General Mathematics

[457] viXra:1803.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:19:00

Multi-Expert Performance Evaluation of Healthcare Institutions Using an Integrated Intuitionistic Fuzzy AHP&DEA Methodology

Authors: Irem Otay, Basar Oztaysi, Sezi Cevik Onar, Cengiz Kahraman
Comments: 17 Pages.

Healthcare management and healthcare industry have been one of the popular and complex topics that many researchers and professionals have focused on.
Category: General Mathematics

[456] viXra:1803.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:21:20

Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Method Using Correlation Coefficients of Normal Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 10 Pages.

The normal distribution is a usual one of various distributions in the real world. A normal neutrosophic set (NNS) is composed of both a normal fuzzy number and a neutrosophic number, which a significant tool for describing the incompleteness, indeterminacy, and inconsistency of the decision-making information.
Category: General Mathematics

[455] viXra:1803.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:22:25

Multiple Attribute Group Decision Making: a Generic Conceptual Framework and a Classification Scheme

Authors: Özgür Kabak, Bilal Ervural
Comments: 18 Pages.

The research activities in group decision making have dramatically increased over the last decade. In particular, the application of multiple attribute decision-making methods to group decision-making problems occupies a vast area in the related literature. However, there is no systematic classification scheme for these researches.
Category: General Mathematics

[454] viXra:1803.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:24:39

Multiple Criteria Decision Making Approach with Multi-Valued Neutrosophic Linguistic Normalized Weighted Bonferroni Mean Hamacher Operator

Authors: Bao-lin Li, Juan-ru Wang, Li-hua Yang, Xue-tao Li
Comments: 32 Pages.

The neutrosophic set and linguistic term set are widely applied in recently years. Motivated by the advantages of them, we combine the multi-valued neutrosophic set and linguistic set and define the concept of the mult i-valued neutrosophic linguistic set (MVNLS).
Category: General Mathematics

[453] viXra:1803.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:26:00

Multi-Sensors Systems using Semi-Active Control for Monitoring and Diagnoses of the Power Systems

Authors: Victor Vladareanu, Rozica Moga, Paul Schiopu, Luige Vladareanu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The work presents the studies and research in order to implement new techniques concerning semi-active control of the magneto rheological dissipaters dynamic systems with applications to the antivibration isolating systems and the reducing of structural vibrations of the power systems.
Category: General Mathematics

[452] viXra:1803.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:27:56

Multi-Valued Collaborative Qos Prediction for Cloud Service Via Time Series Analysis

Authors: Hua Ma, Haibin Zhu, Zhigang Hu, Wensheng Tang, Pingping Dong
Comments: 14 Pages.

Aiming at the diversity of user features, the uncertainty and the variation characteristics of quality of service (QoS), by exploiting the continuous monitoring data of cloud services, this paper proposes a multivalued collaborative approach to predict the unknown QoS values via time series analysis for potential users.
Category: General Mathematics

[451] viXra:1803.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:29:33

Nature-Inspired Optimal Tuning of Input Membership Functions of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang Fuzzy Models for Anti-Lock Braking Systems

Authors: Radu-Emil Precup, Marius-Csaba Sabau, Emil M. Petriu
Comments: 15 Pages.

This paper suggests a synergy of fuzzy logic and nature-inspired optimization in terms of the nature-inspired optimal tuning of the input membership functions of a class of Takagi-Sugeno-Kang (TSK) fuzzymodels dedicated to Anti-lock Braking Systems (ABSs).
Category: General Mathematics

[450] viXra:1803.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:31:18

Ncm:neutrosophic C-Means Clustering Algorithm

Authors: Yanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Sengur
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper,a new clustering algorithm, neutrosophic c-means (NCM),is introduced for uncertain dataclustering, which is inspired from fuzzy c-means and the neutrosophic set framework.
Category: General Mathematics

[449] viXra:1803.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:34:50

Neutrosofia în Galápagos

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 Pages.

În mod paradoxist, există pinguini la ecuator! Atât de mici în comparație cu cei din Antarctica...
Category: General Mathematics

[448] viXra:1803.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:42:15

Neutrosophic Classifier: an Extension of Fuzzy Classifer

Authors: A.Q. Ansari, Ranjit Biswas, Swati Aggarwal
Comments: 11 Pages.

Fuzzy classification has become of great interest because of its ability to utilize simple linguistically interpretable rules and has overcome the limitations of symbolic or crisp rule based classifiers.
Category: General Mathematics

[447] viXra:1803.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:45:35

Neutrosophic Hough Transform

Authors: Ümit Budak, Yanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Sengür, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 12 Pages.

Hough transform (HT) is a useful tool for both pattern recognition and image processing communities. In the view of pattern recognition, it can extract unique features for description of various shapes, such as lines, circles, ellipses, and etc.
Category: General Mathematics

[446] viXra:1803.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:46:34

Neutrosophic Ideals of Neutrosophic ku-Algebras

Authors: Bijan Davvaz, Samy M. Mostafa, Fatema F.Kareem
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, the concept of a neutrosophic KU-algebra is introduced and some related properties are investigated. Also, neutrosophic KU-ideals of a neutrosophic KU-algebra are studied and a few properties are obtained. Furthermore, a few results of neutrosophic KU-ideals of a neutrosophic KU-algebra under homomorphism are discussed
Category: General Mathematics

[445] viXra:1803.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:47:35

Neutrosophic Ideals of Semirings

Authors: Debabrata Mandal
Comments: 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic ideals of a semiring are introduced and studied in the sense of Smarandache[14], along with some operations such as intersection, composition, cartesian product etc. on them. Among the other results/characterizations, it is shown that all the operations are structure preserving.
Category: General Mathematics

[444] viXra:1803.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:48:36

Neutrosophic Linear Equations and Application in Traffic Flow Problems

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 10 Pages.

A neutrosophic number (NN) presented by Smarandache can express determinate and/or indeterminate information in real life. NN (z = a + uI) consists of the determinate part a and the indeterminate part uI for a, u 2 R (R is all real numbers) and indeterminacy I, and is very suitable for representing and handling problems with both determinate and indeterminate information.
Category: General Mathematics

[443] viXra:1803.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:50:26

Neutrosophic Logics: Prospects and Problems

Authors: Umberto Rivieccio
Comments: 9 Pages.

Neutrosophy has been introduced some years ago by Florentin Smarandache as a new branch of philosophy dealing with “the origin, nature and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra”.
Category: General Mathematics

[442] viXra:1803.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:52:20

Neutrosophic N-Structures and Their Applications in Semigroups

Authors: Madad Khan, Saima Anis, Florentin Smarandache, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 17 Pages.

The notion of neutrosophic N-structure is introduced, and applied it to semigroup. The notions of neutrosophic N-subsemigroup, neutrosophic N-product and "-neutrosophic N-subsemigroup are introduced, and several properties are investigated.
Category: General Mathematics

[441] viXra:1803.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 06:54:24

Neutrosophic Number Nonlinear Programming Problems and Their General Solution Methods under Neutrosophic Number Environments

Authors: Jun Ye, Wenhua Cuim Zhikang Lu
Comments: 10 Pages.

The possible optimal ranges of the decision variables and NN objective function are indicated when the indeterminacy I is considered for possible interval ranges in real situations.
Category: General Mathematics

[440] viXra:1803.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:00:46

Neutrosophic Q-Fuzzy Left N-Subgroups of a Near-Ring

Authors: K. Thirusangu, S. Poornavel, R. Vasuki
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, the notion of neutrosophic Q- fuzzy left N-subgroups is introduced in a near ring and investigated some related properties. Characterization of neutrosophic Q- fuzzy left N-subgroups with respect to T-norm and S-norm are given. Few homomorphic image and its pre-image on neutrosophic Q- fuzzy are obtained.
Category: General Mathematics

[439] viXra:1803.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:01:30

Neutrosophic (Q, L)-Fuzzy Subgroup

Authors: K. Thirusangu, S. Poornavel, R. Vasuki
Comments: 6 Pages.

Goguen [1967] introduced L-fuzzy set. Murali [1991] analyzed lattice of fuzzy algebras and closure systems. Saibaba [2008] initiated fuzzy lattice ordered groups, and studied many properties on fuzzy lattice. Swamy and Raju [1991] gave a detailed findings on algebraic fuzzy system.
Category: General Mathematics

[438] viXra:1803.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:02:26

Neutrosophic Refined Sets in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: A.Edward Samuel, R.Narmadhagnanam
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper, a new approach (cosecant similarity measure) is proposed to construct the decision method for medical diagnosis by using neutrosophic refined set. Also, we develop a technique to diagnose which patient is suffering from what disease.
Category: General Mathematics

[437] viXra:1803.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:03:32

Neutrosophic Rough Set Algebra

Authors: C. Antony Crispin Sweety, I. Arockiarani
Comments: 9 Pages.

A rough set is a formal approximation of a crisp set which gives lower and upper approximation of original set to deal with uncertainties. The concept of neutrosophic set is a mathematical tool for handling imprecise, indeterministic and inconsistent data. In this paper, we defne concepts of Rough Neutrosophic algebra and investigate some of their properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[436] viXra:1803.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:06:01

Neutrosophic Soft Rough Graphs with Application

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Hafsa M. Malik, Sundas Shahzadi, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 27 Pages.

Neutrosophic sets (NSs) handle uncertain information while fuzzy sets (FSs) and intuitionistic fuzzy sets (IFs) fail to handle indeterminate information.
Category: General Mathematics

[435] viXra:1803.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:08:16

Neutrosophic Triplet Normed Space

Authors: Mehmet Şahin, Abdullah Kargın
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper; new properties for neutrosophic triplet groups are introduced. A notion of neutrosophic triplet metric space is given and properties of neutrosophic triplet metric spaces are studied.
Category: General Mathematics

[434] viXra:1803.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:09:29

Neutrosophic Vague Generalized Pre-Closed Sets in Neutrosophic Vague Topological Spaces

Authors: A.Mary Margaret, M.Trinita Pricilla
Comments: 13 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to introduce and develop a new class of sets namely neutrosophic vague generalized pre-closed sets in neutrosophic vague topological space. Further we have analyse the properties of neutrosophic vague generalized pre-open sets.
Category: General Mathematics

[433] viXra:1803.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:14:54

Neutrosophy, a Sentiment Analysis Model

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Mirela Teodorescu, Daniela Gîfu
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper describes the importance of Neutrosophy Theory in order to find a method that could solve the uncertainties arising on discursive analysis.
Category: General Mathematics

[432] viXra:1803.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:15:46

New Approach for Failure Mode and Effect Analysis Using Linguistic Distribution Assessments and Todim Method

Authors: Jia Huang, Zhaojun Li, Hu-Chen Liu
Comments: 8 Pages.

As a proactive risk management instrument, failure mode and effect analysis (FMEA) has been broadly utilized to recognize, evaluate and eliminate failure modes of products, processes, systems and services. Nevertheless, the conventional FMEA method suffers from many important deficiencies when used in the real world.
Category: General Mathematics

[431] viXra:1803.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 07:17:41

New Neutrosophic Approach to Image Segmentation

Authors: Yanhui Guo, H.D.Cheng
Comments: 9 Pages.

Neutrosophic set (NS), a part of neutrosophy theory, studies the origin, nature and scope of neutralities, as well as their interactions with different ideational spectra.
Category: General Mathematics

[430] viXra:1803.0502 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-02 10:05:58

Demonstrating the Relationship Between Quantum Mechanics and Relativity

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 8 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[429] viXra:1803.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 11:48:26

Neutrosophic Logic as a Five-Valued Vector Space © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

Neutrosophic logic is defined as a five-valued logic on {-0, 0, 0<p<1, 1, 1+}. We map this using Meth8/VL4 and find it not tautologous. We next map the multiplication look up table of sub-indeterminacies and find it a vector space. Neutrosophic logic is not suitable as a universal logic to map and confirm all other logic systems.
Category: General Mathematics

[428] viXra:1803.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 15:56:29

A Global Consumer-Driven Low-Carbon Investment Fund for Development and Adaptation

Authors: Anthony J. Webster
Comments: 4 Pages.

A successful response to climate change offers the greatest public health opportunity of the century, but intervention is needed to prevent catastrophic climate change and to realise this tantalising possibility. A global investment fund for development, R&D, and low-carbon investments can succeed, with long-term dividends used for adaptation to the climate. It can be funded by numerous small voluntarily paid levies on purchases and transactions, encouraged by global icons, and paid by multinational companies that benefit from good publicity and growing markets. A grassroots response can start arbitrarily small, but aspire to include all transactions.
Category: Economics and Finance

[427] viXra:1803.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 19:18:51

Refutation of Dezert-Smarandache Theory © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The Dezert-Smarandache theory arises from the following scenario with Alice and Bob as suspects. That either Alice or Bob is not innocent or both Alice and Bob are not innocent is a tautology. If cast with a probability, that either Alice or Bob is not innocent or both Alice and Bob are not innocent is ordinal one. Neither scenario is tautologous in the Meth8/VL4 modal logic model checker.
Category: General Mathematics

[426] viXra:1803.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 20:24:32

On the Non-Trivial Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: John Herapath, Quincy Howard Xavier, Carl Wigert
Comments: 1 Page.

In this document, we present several important insights concerning the Riemann Zeta function and the locations of its zeros. More importantly, we prove that we should be awarded the $1 000 000 prize for proving or disproving the Riemann hypothesis
Category: Functions and Analysis

[425] viXra:1803.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 20:47:27

On Point Processes in Multitarget Tracking

Authors: Ronald Mahler
Comments: 18 Pages.

The finite-set statistics (FISST) approach to multitarget tracking---random finite sets (RFS's), belief-mass functions, and set derivatives---was introduced in the mid-1990s. Its current extended form---probability generating functionals (p.g.fl.'s) and functional derivatives---dates from 2001. In 2008, an "elementary" alternative to FISST was proposed, based on "finite point processes" rather than RFS's. This was accompanied by single-sensor and multisensor versions of a claimed generalization of the PHD filter, the "multitarget intensity filter" or "iFilter." Then in 2013 in the Journal of Advances in Information Fusion (JAIF) and elsewhere, the same author went on to claim that the FISST p.g.fl./functional derivative approach is actually "due to" (a "corollary" of) a 50-year-old pure-mathematics paper by Moyal; and described a "point process" p.g.fl./functional derivative approach to multitarget tracking supposedly based on it. In this paper it is shown that: (1) non-RFS point processes are a phenomenologically erroneous foundation for multitarget tracking; (2) nearly every equation, concept, discussion, derivation, and methodology in the JAIF paper originally appeared in FISST publications, without being so attributed; (3) FISST cannot possibly be "due to Moyal"; and (4) the "point process" approach described in JAIF differs from FISST only in regard to terminology and notation, and thus in this sense appears to be an obscured, phenomenologically erroneous, and improperly attributed copy of FISST. The paper concludes with the following question: Given the above, do the peer-review standards of the Journal of Advances in Information Fusion rise to the level expected of any credible scientific journal? It is also shown that the derivations of the single-sensor and multisensor iFilter appear to have had major errors, as did a subsequent recasting of the multisensor iFilter as a "traffic mapping filter."
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[424] viXra:1803.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 20:50:57

Diamonds for Medical Imaging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[423] viXra:1803.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 21:44:53

"Pagan Christmas" Research Project

Authors: Holló Csanádi, Emília Kissné Dóczi, Andrea Lőrincz
Comments: 2 Pages.

The following short essay summarizes the findings of our 2017 short-term research project. The project's objective was to shed some light on the the Christmas practices of those people, who identify themselves as pagans in our times.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[422] viXra:1803.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 22:28:25

Prime Number Prediction Formula

Authors: Elizabeth Gatton-Robey
Comments: 22 Pages.

The current mathematical consensus is that Prime numbers, those integers only divisible by one and themselves, follow no standard predictable pattern. This body of work provides the first formula to predict prime numbers. In doing so, this proves that prime numbers follow a pattern, and proves Goldbach’s Conjecture to be true. This is done by forming an algorithm that considers all even integers, systematically eliminates some, and the resulting subset of even integers produces all prime numbers once three is subtracted from each.
Category: Number Theory

[421] viXra:1803.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-23 03:20:36

A Precise Value of the Hubble Constant in the Planck Model

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 3 pages

The matter density parameter omega_m and Hubble constant H_0 appear together twice in the equations of the Planck Model. First, the entropy of the Hubble sphere is given by the product of omega_m and the Bekenstein-Hawking entropy of a black hole of Hubble radius c/H_0. When omega_m and H_0 take realistic values the entropy approximates closely to a special value within a binary scheme formulated for black holes. With the entropy set exactly to that special value, one may write down an equation in which H_0 is a function of omega_m. Second, the dark energy density has a definite value that is related to the Bohr radius. Consequently, one may write down a second equation in which H_0 is a function of omega_m. Solving the two equations simultaneously one finds that omega_m = 0.358 and H_0 = 75.4 km/s/Mpc.
Category: Astrophysics

[420] viXra:1803.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:45:26

Haskell Ffi – Gentle Compiler Construction System Interaction Via “C” Programs in the Context of Cryo-em Image Processing Application.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Communication

Haskell - FFI – Gentle Compiler System Interaction via “C” programs in the context of cryo-EM Image Processing Application is an interesting idea to be explored.Hence this short technical note is presented in the context of cryo-EM Image Processing domain to probe Nano-Bio Systems.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[419] viXra:1803.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:44:38

Correlation Coefficients of Probabilistic Hesitant Fuzzy Elements and Their Applications to Evaluation of the Alternatives

Authors: Zhong-xing Wang, Jian Li
Comments: 18 Pages.

Correlation coefficient is one of the broadly use indexes in multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) processes. However, some important issues related to correlation coefficient utilization within probabilistic hesitant fuzzy environments remain to be addressed.
Category: General Mathematics

[418] viXra:1803.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:46:50

Cosine Based and Extended Transmissibility Damage Indicators for Structural Damage Detection

Authors: Yun-Lai Zhou, Magd Abdel Wahab
Comments: 9 Pages.

Structural damage detection using vibration-based techniques and transmissibility is investigated and proposed with elaborating the mathematical interrelationship between modal assurance criterion (MAC) and cosine similarity measure.
Category: General Mathematics

[417] viXra:1803.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:48:03

Decision Process in MCDM with Large Number of Criteria and Heterogeneous Risk Preferences

Authors: Jian Liu, Hong-Kuan Zhao, Zhao-Bin Li, Si-Feng Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new decision process is proposed to address the challenge that a large number criteria in the multicriteria decision making (MCDM) problem and the decision makers with heterogeneous risk preferences.
Category: General Mathematics

[416] viXra:1803.0487 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-28 00:15:21

Dynamical Dark Energy and the Relativistic Bohm-Poisson Equation

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 19 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[415] viXra:1803.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:48:57

Determining Strategy Based Supplier Pre-Qualification Criteria With Fuzzy Relational Maps

Authors: Gülcan Petriçli, Gül Gökay Emel
Comments: 30 Pages.

Supplier Selection is one of the most studied areas in management and decision sciences. However, it is still a highly problematic subject since decision-makers take an educated guess after a certain stage in real life practices.
Category: General Mathematics

[414] viXra:1803.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:50:04

Discovered “Angel Particle”, which is Both Matter and Antimatter, as a New Experimental Proof of Unmatter

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Dmitri Rabounski
Comments: 1 Page.

“Angel particle” bearing properties of both particles and anti-particles, which was recently discovered by the Stanford team of experimental physicists, is usually associated with Majorana fermions (predicted in 1937 by Ettore Majorana). In this message we point out that particles bearing properties of both matter and anti-matter were as well predicted without any connexion with particle physics, but on the basis of pure mathematics, namely — neutrosophic logic which is a generalization of fuzzy and intuitionistic fuzzy logics in mathematics.
Category: General Mathematics

[413] viXra:1803.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:51:42

Doua Probleme de Minim Geometric

Authors: Ion PATRASCU, Florentin SMARANDACHE
Comments: 3 Pages.

In acest articol rezolvam doua probleme de minim geometric.
Category: General Mathematics

[412] viXra:1803.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:53:19

Entropy-Based Weights on Decision Makers in Group Decision-Makingsetting with Hybrid Preference Representations

Authors: Chuan Yue
Comments: 13 Pages.

The weights of decision makers play an important role in group decision-making problems. Entropy is avery important measure in information science.
Category: General Mathematics

[411] viXra:1803.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:55:52

Evaluation of Classification Algorithms for Intrusion Detection in Manets

Authors: Sergio Pastrana, Aikaterini Mitrokotsa, Agustin Orfila, Pedro Peris-Lopez
Comments: 19 Pages.

Mobile Ad hoc Networks (MANETs) are wireless networks without fixed infrastructure based on the cooperation of independent mobile nodes.
Category: General Mathematics

[410] viXra:1803.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:56:25

Reminder on the Kernel Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Mysterious Whirlwinds on Gas Planets Are the Investigation of Power Streams of Kernels of Planets.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Mysterious whirlwinds on gas planets are the investigation of power streams of kernels of planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[409] viXra:1803.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:57:02

Evaluation of e-Commerce Websites: an Integrated Approach Under a Single-Valued Trapezoidal Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Ruxia Liang, Jianqiang Wang, Hongyu Zhang
Comments: 16 Pages.

E-commerce website evaluation is recognized as a complex multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) problem involving vast amounts of imprecise and inconsistent evaluation data. Single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic numbers (SVTNNs), which are elements in single-valued trapezoidal neutrosophic sets (SVTNSs), have a strong capacity to model such complex evaluation information.
Category: General Mathematics

[408] viXra:1803.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:58:19

Evidence Supporting Measure of Similarity for Reducing the Complexity in Information Fusion

Authors: Xinde Li, Jean Dezert, Florentin Smarandache, Xinhan Huang
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper presents a newmethod for reducing the number of sources of evidence to combine in order to reduce the complexity of the fusion processing. Such a complexity reduction is often required in many applications where the real-time constraint and limited computing resources are of prime importance.
Category: General Mathematics

[407] viXra:1803.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:59:37

Evidential Cognitive Maps

Authors: Bingyi Kang, Yong Deng, Rehan Sadiq, Sankaran Mahadevan
Comments: 10 Pages.

In order to handle uncertain information, this paper proposes evidential cognitive maps (ECMs), similar to the fuzzy cognitive maps (FCMs). ECMs are uncertain-graph structures for representing causal reasoning through the combination of cognitive maps and Dempster Shafer evidence theory. The framework of ECMs is developed in detail and an application to socio-economic model is used to illustrate the application of the proposed methodology.
Category: General Mathematics

[406] viXra:1803.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:00:22

Evolving an Integral Ecology of Mind

Authors: Chris Lucas
Comments: 7 Pages.

A deliberation upon the possibility of generating a comprehensive view of ‘mind as a whole’ by integrating biology, psychology and sociology, and considering ‘Mind’ as a dynamical interplay between values existing over many levels and scales of complex systems.
Category: General Mathematics

[405] viXra:1803.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:02:25

Frank Choquet Bonferroni Mean Operators of Bipolar Neutrosophic Sets and Their Application to Multi-criteria Decision-Making Problems

Authors: Le Wang, Hong-yu Zhang, Jian-qiang Wang
Comments: 16 Pages.

In this study, comprehensive multi-criteria decision-making (MCDM) methods are investigated under bipolar neutrosophic environment. First, the operations of BNNs are redefined based on the Frank operations considering the extant operations of bipolar neutrosophic numbers (BNNs) lack flexibility and robustness.
Category: General Mathematics

[404] viXra:1803.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:05:45

Fully-Automated Segmentation of Fluid Regions in Exudative Age-Related Macular Degeneration Subjects: Kernel Graph Cut in Neutrosophic Domain

Authors: Abdolreza Rashno, Behzad Nazari, Dara D. Koozekanani, Paul M. Drayna, Saeed Sadri, Hossein Rabbani, Keshab K. Parhi
Comments: 26 Pages.

A fully-automated method based on graph shortest path, graph cut and neutrosophic (NS) sets is presented for fluid segmentation in OCT volumes for exudative age related macular degeneration (EAMD) subjects.
Category: General Mathematics

[403] viXra:1803.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:06:54

Fuzzy Based Optimal QoS Constraint Services Composition in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

Authors: P Veeresh, R Praveen Sam, C Shoba Bindu
Comments: 9 Pages.

In recent years, computational capability of mobile devices such as Laptops, mobile phones, PDAs, etc., are greatly improved. Implementation of SOA ("Service Oriented Architectures") in mobile ad hoc networks increases the flexibility of using mobile devices.
Category: General Mathematics

[402] viXra:1803.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:08:06

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps Approach to Identify Risk Factors of Diabetes

Authors: Ashraful Alam
Comments: 9 Pages.

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) have been applied in many fields successfully to show the causes and effect relationship. In this research work, the relationship between risk factors band symptoms of Diabetes has been analyzed with the help of FCM. FCM is a fuzzy-graph modeling approach based on expert’s opinion.
Category: General Mathematics

[401] viXra:1803.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:09:20

Fuzzy Dematel Method for Identifying LMS Evaluation Criteria

Authors: Muhammad Nazir Muhammad, Nadire Cavus
Comments: 8 Pages.

Today, many common activities have been transformed to electronic and online based environments because of the increased usage of technology and the Internet. Education is one of the sectors that is using computer technologies for training and delivering learning information to learners.
Category: General Mathematics

[400] viXra:1803.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:16:21

Generalizations of Neutrosophic Subalgebras in Bck=bci-Algebras Based on Neutrosophic Points

Authors: Seon Jeong Kim, Seok-Zun Song, Young Bae Jun
Comments: 16 Pages.

As a more general platform which extends the notions of the classical set, fuzzy set, interval valued fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set and interval valued intuitionistic fuzzy set, Smarandache developed the concept of neutrosophic set which consists of three member functions, so called truth membership function, indeterminacy membership function and falsity membership function.
Category: General Mathematics

[399] viXra:1803.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:17:31

Generalized Interval Neutrosophic Rough Sets and its Application in Multi-Attribute Decision Making

Authors: Hai-Long Yang, Yan-Ling Bao, Zhi-Lian Guo
Comments: 23 Pages.

Neutrosophic set (NS) was originally proposed by Smarandache to handle indeterminate and inconsistent information. It is a generalization of fuzzy sets and intuitionistic fuzzy sets. Wang and Smarandache proposed interval neutrosophic sets (INS) which is a special case of NSs and would be extensively applied to resolve practical issues.
Category: General Mathematics

[398] viXra:1803.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:19:06

Generalized Neutrosophic Contra-Continuity

Authors: R. Dhavaseelan, S. Jafari, C. Ozel, M. A. Al-Shumrani
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper, the concepts of generalized neutrosophic contra-continuous function, gen- eralized neutrosophic contra-irresolute function and strongly generalized neutrosophic contra-continuous function are introduced. Some interesting properties are also studied.
Category: General Mathematics

[397] viXra:1803.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:24:56

Toroidal Approach to the Doubling of the Cube

Authors: Gerasimos T. Soldatos
Comments: Published in: FORUM GEOMETRICORUM, VOL. 18, PAGES 93-97

A doubling of the cube is attempted as a problem equivalent to the doubling of a horn torus. Both doublings are attained through the circle of Apollonius.
Category: Geometry

[396] viXra:1803.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:25:44

Graph Structures in Bipolar Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Muzzamal Sitara, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 20 Pages.

A bipolar single-valued neutrosophic (BSVN) graph structure is a generalization of a bipolar fuzzy graph. In this research paper, we present certain concepts of BSVN graph structures.We describe some operations on BSVN graph structures and elaborate on these with examples. Moreover, we investigate some related properties of these operations.
Category: General Mathematics

[395] viXra:1803.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:27:06

Group Decision Making Using Neutrosophic Soft Matrix: an Algorithmic Approach

Authors: Sujit Das, Saurabh Kumar, Samarjit Kar, Tandra Pal
Comments: 20 Pages.

This article proposes an algorithmic approach for group decision making (GDM) problems using neutrosophic soft matrix (NSM) and relative weights of experts. NSM is the matrix representation of neutrosophic soft sets (NSSs), where NSS is the combination of neutrosophic set and soft set.
Category: General Mathematics

[394] viXra:1803.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:28:01

Haptic Interfaces for Compensating Dynamics of Rescue Walking Robots

Authors: Octavian Melinte, Luige Vladareanu, Radu A. Munteanu, Hongnian Yu
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper presents a Neural Network approach to compensate dynamic terms, friction force in particular, of a rescue walking robot used in haptic interfaces. The impedance control through dynamic compensation of the friction force is studied, followed by the implementation of neural intelligent networks in the feed-forward loop in order to eliminate the corresponding terms in the dynamics, friction force in particular. The friction force model is analyzed using a general compensation method after which a trained Multi-Layer Neural Network is introduced in order to obtain an accurate friction model so that the movement of the walking robot feels free and unconstraint.
Category: General Mathematics

[393] viXra:1803.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:29:14

How a Synthesizer Works

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their classic book, the art of thinking, Robert Bramson and Allen Harrison describe five thinking styles that one tends to adopt: pragmatist, analyst, realist, synthesist, and idealist. In this paper, we tell our story on thinking modes we often use, and sometimes we took a synthesizer mode, i.e. to combine three or four of the above thinking styles. We present some examples too. We hope this retelling may be useful for young scientists and mathematicians in developing new theories either in theoretical physics and cosmology.
Category: General Mathematics

[392] viXra:1803.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:30:28

How Objective a NeutralWord Is? A Neutrosophic Approach for the Objectivity Degrees of NeutralWords

Authors: Mihaela Colhon, Stefan Vladutescu, Xenia Negrea
Comments: 14 Pages.

In the latest studies concerning the sentiment polarity of words, the authors mostly consider the positive and negative constructions, without paying too much attention to the neutral words, which can have, in fact, significant sentiment degrees.
Category: General Mathematics

[391] viXra:1803.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:31:43

Identifikasi Struktur Dasar Smarandache Near-Ring

Authors: Yohana Yunet Bakarbessy, Henry W. M. Patty, Elvinus R. Persulessy
Comments: 6 Pages.

Penelitian ini membahas identifikasi struktur-struktur tersebut melalui definisi dan teorema dengan tahapan sebagai berikut : mengidentifikasi struktur ring dan perkembangannya seperti lapangan, near-ring dan near-field, mengidentifikasi struktur dasar Smarandache near-ring yang dibangun oleh near-ring dengan himpunan bagian sejatinya near-field, mengidentifikasi struktur dasar Smarandache near-ring lainnya berdasarkan perkembangan struktur dasar Smarandache near-ring.
Category: General Mathematics

[390] viXra:1803.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:33:52

Improved Cosine Similarity Measures of Simplified Neutrosophic Sets for Medical Diagnoses

Authors: Jun Ye
Comments: 9 Pages.

In pattern recognition and medical diagnosis, similarity measure is an important mathematical tool. To overcome some disadvantages of existing cosine similarity measures of simplified neutrosophic sets (SNSs) in vector space, this paper proposed improved cosine similarity measures of SNSs based on cosine function, including single valued neutrosophic cosine similarity measures and interval neutrosophic cosine similarity measures. Then, weighted cosine similarity measures of SNSs were introduced by taking into account the importance of each element. Further, a medical diagnosis method using the improved cosine similarity measures was proposed to solve medical diagnosis problems with simplified neutrosophic information.
Category: General Mathematics

[389] viXra:1803.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:35:20

Individual Tree Crown Delineation Using Multi-Wavelength Titan LiDAR Data

Authors: F. Naveed, B. Hu
Comments: 6 Pages.

The inability to detect the Emerald Ash Borer (EAB) at an early stage has led to the enumerable loss of different species of ash trees. Due to the increasing risk being posed by the EAB, a robust and accurate method is needed for identifying Individual Tree Crowns (ITCs) that are at a risk of being infected or are already diseased.
Category: General Mathematics

[388] viXra:1803.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:36:53

Inductive Learning in Shared Neural Multi-Spaces

Authors: Edjard de Souza Mota, Jacob M. Howe, Artur S. d'Avila Garcez
Comments: 12 Pages.

The learning of rules from examples is of continuing interest to machine learning since it allows generalization from fewer training examples. Inductive Logic Programming (ILP) generates hypothetical rules (clauses) from a knowledge base augmented with (positive and negative) examples.
Category: General Mathematics

[387] viXra:1803.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:39:17

Innovative Approaches for N-valued Interval Neutrosophic Sets and their Execution in Medical Diagnosis

Authors: A. Edward Samuel, R. Narmadhagnanam
Comments: 12 Pages.

The objective of the study was to find out the relationship between the disease and the symptoms seen within patients and diagnose the disease that impacted the patient using n-valued interval neutrosophic sets. Neoteric methods were devised in n-valued interval neutrosophic sets. Utilization of medical diagnosis was commenced with using prescribed procedures to identify a person suffering from the disease for a considerable period. The result showed that the proposed methods were free from shortcomings that affect the existing methods and found to be more accurate in diagnosing the diseases. It was concluded that the techniques adopted in this study were more reliable and easier to handle medical diagnosis problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[386] viXra:1803.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:50:01

The Mass of Lepton Tau

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the mass of lepton tau (1776.947 MeV and 1776.944 MeV) in two different elegant ways.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[385] viXra:1803.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:50:12

Interval Target-Based Vikor Method Supported on Interval Distance and Preference Degree for Machine Selection

Authors: Arian Hafezalkotob, Ashkan Hafezalkotob
Comments: 13 Pages.

By considering target values for attributes in addition to beneficial and non-beneficial attributes, a traditional MADM technique is converted to a comprehensive form. In many machine selection problems, some attributes have given target values.
Category: General Mathematics

[384] viXra:1803.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:51:19

Interval-Valued Neutrosophic Graph Structures

Authors: Muhammad Akram, Muzzamal Sitara
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this research article, we introduce certain notions of interval-valued neutrosophic graph structures.
Category: General Mathematics

[383] viXra:1803.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:07:53

Introduction to the Special Section on Image and Video Processing

Authors: Florentin SMARANDACHE
Comments: 4 Pages.

Image and video processing research has undergone enormous changes and development in recent decades. This is due to the rapid advancements of visual technologies and their use in portable devices, medical imaging, and video streaming, for applications in photography, social media, entertainment, security and health care, among others. As images and video have become main means of communication and verification, the creation, transfer, and storage of high-quality imagesand videos require special attention.
Category: General Mathematics

[382] viXra:1803.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:09:15

Intuitionistic Continuous, Closed and Open Mappings

Authors: J. G. Lee, P. K. Lim, J. H. Kim, K. Hur
Comments: 21 Pages.

First of all, we dene an intuitionistic quotient mapping and obtain its some properties. Second, we dene some types continuities, open and closed mappings. And we investigate relationships among them and give some examples. Finally, we introduce the notions of an intuitionistic subspace and the heredity, and obtain some properties of each concept.
Category: General Mathematics

[381] viXra:1803.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:10:12

Intuitionistic Fuzzy Set Vs. Fuzzy Set Application in Medical Pattern Recognition

Authors: Vahid Khatibi, Gholam Ali Montazer
Comments: 10 Pages.

One of the toughest challenges in medical diagnosis is uncertainty handling.The detection of intestinal bacteria such as Salmonella and Shigella which cause typhoid fever and dysentery, respectively, is one such challenging problem for microbiologists.
Category: General Mathematics

[380] viXra:1803.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:11:35

Intuitionistic Topological Spaces

Authors: J. H. Kim, P. K. Lim, J. G. Lee, K. Hur
Comments: 18 Pages.

First of all, we list some concepts and results introduced by[10, 15]. Second, we give some examples related to intuitionistic topologies and intuitionistic bases, and obtain two properties of an intuitionistic base and an intuitionistic subbase. And we dene intuitionistic intervals in R.Finally, we dene some types of intuitionistic closures and interiors, and obtain their some properties.
Category: General Mathematics

[379] viXra:1803.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:15:01

Logarithmic Similarity Measure Between Interval-Valued Fuzzy Sets and Its Fault Diagnosis Method

Authors: Zhikang Lu, Jun Ye
Comments: 12 Pages.

Fault diagnosis is an important task for the normal operation and maintenance of equipment. In many real situations, the diagnosis data cannot provide deterministic values and are usually imprecise or uncertain.
Category: General Mathematics

[378] viXra:1803.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:16:40

MCDM Method for N-Wise Criteria Comparisons and Inconsistent Problems

Authors: Azeddine Elhassouny, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 13 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to present an e[xtension and alternative of the hybrid method based on Saaty’s Analytical Hierarchy Process and Technique for Order Preference by Similarity to Ideal Solution method (AHP-TOPSIS), that based on the AHP and its use of pairwise comparisons, to a new method called α -D MCDM-TOPSIS( α -Discounting Method for multicriteria decision making-TOPSIS).
Category: General Mathematics

[377] viXra:1803.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:19:12

Fuzzy Equivalence on Standard and Rough Neutrosophic Sets and Applications to Clustering Analysis

Authors: Nguyen Xuan Thao, Le Hoang Son, Bui Cong Cuong, Mumtaz Ali, Luong Hong Lan
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the concept of fuzzy equivalence on standard neutrosophic sets and rough standard neutrosophic sets. We also provide some formulas for fuzzy equivalence on standard neutrosophic sets and rough standard neutrosophic sets. We also apply these formulas for cluster analysis. Numerical examples are illustrated.
Category: General Mathematics

[376] viXra:1803.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:20:28

Model for Residential House Element and Material Selection by Neutrosophic Multimoora Method

Authors: Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Romualdas Bausys, Birute Juodagalviene, Inga Garnyte-Sapranaviciene
Comments: 10 Pages.

This article aims to create a theoretical evaluation model based on decision support methods for the residential house construction materials and elements selection. The research and analyses of most of the scientists are invoked on individual elements and materials of the building, which have an impact on different aspects of sustainability.
Category: General Mathematics

[375] viXra:1803.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:22:21

Modeling and Characterization of Vegetation, Aquatic and Mineral Surfaces Using the Theory of Plausible and Paradoxical Reasoning from Satellite Images: Case of the Toumodi-Yamoussoukro-Tiébissou Zone in V Baoulé (Côte D’Ivoire)

Authors: Jean-Claude Okaingni, Sié Ouattara, Adles Kouassi, Wognin J. Vangah, Aubin K. Koffi, Alain Clement
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this paper, the theory of plausible and paradoxical reasoning of Dezert-Smarandache (DSmT) is used to take into account the paradoxical character through the intersections of vegetation, aquatic and mineral surfaces. In order to do this, we developed a classification model of pixels by aggregating information using the DSmT theory based on the PCR5 rule using the NDVI, MNDWI and NDBaI spectral indices obtained from the ASTER satellite images.
Category: General Mathematics

[374] viXra:1803.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 10:30:01

Finite Volcano Potentials Admitting a Rational Eigenfunction

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 40 Pages.

Starting with a general rational wave function, we search for potentials admitting it as a bound energy eigenfunction. We thus derive singular and regular potentials asymptotically decaying as the inverse of x squared, with the latter being simple or multiple volcanoes having a finite number of bound eigenstates. We present specific examples and examine the transition from singular to volcano potentials.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[373] viXra:1803.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 06:13:35

Sequences for Polymers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[372] viXra:1803.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:32:36

Earth and Mars Motions Interaction

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 38 Pages.

Why does Earth rotate 4-years Cycle (1461 days? Because there's an interaction and coherence between Earth, Moon and Mars Motions, this interaction causes this 4-years Cycle This paper tries to prove this fact, and explains its mechanism. Also we discuss here the "Distance" and "Time" Definitions, explaining how to distinguish between the matter and space.
Category: Astrophysics

[371] viXra:1803.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:33:12

A Study of Early Prediction and Classification of Arthritis Disease using Soft Computing Techniques

Authors: S. Shanmugam, J. Preethi
Comments: 13 Pages.

Arthritis is the most familiar element of disability in the World. At a rate of 20 million people in the US are suffering from Arthritis. It characterizes around 200 rheumatic diseases and conditions that influence joints. The tissues surround the joint, and other connective tissue.
Category: General Mathematics

[370] viXra:1803.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:36:47

A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Swara and Waspas Methods: Theory and Applications with Recent Fuzzy Developments

Authors: Abbas Mardani, Mehrbakhsh Nilashi, Norhayati Zakuan, Nanthakumar Loganathan, Somayeh Soheilirad, Muhamad Zameri Mat Saman, Othman Ibrahim
Comments: 28 Pages.

The Multiple Criteria Decision Making (MCDM) utility determining approaches and fuzzy sets are considered to be new development approaches, which have been recently presented, extended, and used by some scholars in area of decision making.
Category: General Mathematics

[369] viXra:1803.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:40:13

Automated Breast Cancer Detection and Classification Using Ultrasound Images: a Survey

Authors: H.D. Cheng, JuanShan, Wen Ju, Yanhui Guo, Ling Zhang
Comments: 19 Pages.

Breast cancer is the second leading cause of death for women all over the world. Since the cause of the disease remains unknown, early detection and diagnosis is the key for breast cancercontrol,and it can increase the success of treatment, save lives and reduce cost.
Category: General Mathematics

[368] viXra:1803.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:44:29

Axiomatic Generalization of the Membership Degree Weighting Function for Fuzzy C Means Clustering: Theoretical Development and Convergence Analysis

Authors: Arkajyoti Saha, Swagatam Das
Comments: 17 Pages.

For decades practitioners have been using the center-based partitional clustering algorithms like Fuzzy C Means (FCM), which rely on minimizing an objective function, comprising of an appropriately weighted sum of distances of each data point from the cluster representatives.
Category: General Mathematics

[367] viXra:1803.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:46:01

Behavioral Simulation and Optimization of Generation Companies in Electricity Markets by Fuzzy Cognitive Map

Authors: S.F. Ghaderi, A. Azadeh, B. Pourvalikhan Nokhandan, E. Fathi
Comments: 12 Pages.

Simulation can be used in a wide range of applications in an electricity market. There are many reasons that market players and regulators are very interested in anticipating the behavior of the market. Behavior of a generation company (GENCO) in electricity market is an important factor that affects the market behavior. Several factors affect the behavior of a GENCO directly and indirectly.
Category: General Mathematics

[366] viXra:1803.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:48:23

Binary Classification Using Ensemble Neural Networks and Interval Neutrosophic Sets

Authors: Pawalai Kraipeerapun, Chun Che Fung
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper presents an ensemble neural network and interval neutrosophic sets approach to the problem of binary classification.
Category: General Mathematics

[365] viXra:1803.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:50:43

Bipolar Neutrosophic Soft Sets and Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Mumtaz Ali, Le Hoang Son, Irfan Deli, Nguyen Dang Tien
Comments: 11 Pages.

Neutrosophic set, proposed by Smarandache considers a truth membership function, an indeterminacy membership function and a falsity membership function. Soft set, proposed by Molodtsov is a mathematical framework which has the ability of independency of parameterizations inadequacy, syndrome of fuzzy set, rough set, probability.
Category: General Mathematics

[364] viXra:1803.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:51:46

Cercurile Apollonius de Rangul −1

Authors: Ion PATRASCU, Florentin SMARANDACHE
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this Note, the authors present some properties of Apollonius circles of rank −1 associated to a triangle.
Category: General Mathematics

[363] viXra:1803.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:56:02

Color Texture Image Segmentation Based on Neutrosophic Set and Wavelet Transformation

Authors: Abdulkadir Sengura, Yanhui Guo
Comments: 11 Pages.

Efficient and effective image segmentation is an important task in computer vision and pattern recognition. Since fully automatic image segmentation is usually very hard for natural images, interactive schemes with a few simple user inputs are good solutions.
Category: General Mathematics

[362] viXra:1803.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:57:06

Combined Endeavor of Neutrosophic Set and Chan-Vese Model to Extract Accurate Liver Image from CT Scan

Authors: Sangeeta K Siri, Mrityunjaya V. Latte
Comments: 9 Pages.

Many different diseases can occur in the liver, including infections such as hepatitis, cirrhosis, cancer and over effect of medication or toxins. The foremost stage for computer-aided diagnosis of liver is the identification of liver region.
Category: General Mathematics

[361] viXra:1803.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:58:18

Comparative Review of Image Denoising and Segmentation Approaches For Detection of Tumor in Brain Images

Authors: Harmeet Kaur, Navdeep Singh
Comments: 8 Pages.

A group of defective cells that grow inside or around the brain referred as Barin Tumor. The number of Brain Tumor cases around the World is increasing day by day. So, it is significant to detect it at anearly stage. Segmentation of brain images holds thesignificant part for detection of Tumor brain.
Category: General Mathematics

[360] viXra:1803.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 07:59:54

Comparative Studies of Theories of Force as well as Generalized Theories Clusters of Force and Fifth Force

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 9 Pages.

As No.4 of comparative physics series papers, this paper mainly discusses the comparative studies of various theories (or formulae) of force, and on this basis, presents the concepts of generalized theory of force and generalized theories clusters of force.
Category: General Mathematics

[359] viXra:1803.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:01:12

Complex System with Flows and Synchronization

Authors: Linfan MAO
Comments: 20 Pages.

A complex system S consists of m components, maybe inconsistence with m ≥ 2 such as those of self-adaptive systems, particularly the biological systems and usually, a system with contradictions, i.e., there are no a classical mathematical subfield applicable. Then, how can we hold its global and local behaviors or true face?
Category: General Mathematics

[358] viXra:1803.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:02:37

Complex Vague Set Based Concept Lattice

Authors: Prem Kumar Singh
Comments: 9 Pages.

Recently, the calculus of concept lattice is extended from unipolar to bipolar fuzzy space for precise measurement of vagueness in the attributes based on their acceptation and rejection part. These ex- tensions still unable to highlight the uncertainty in vague attributes and measurement of fluctuation at given phase of time.
Category: General Mathematics

[357] viXra:1803.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:03:28

Computation of Smarandache Curves According to Darboux Frame in Minkowski 3-Space

Authors: H.S. Abdel-Aziz, M. Khalifa Saad
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, we study Smarandache curves according to Darboux frame in the three-dimensional Minkowski space E 3 1 . Using the usual transformation between Frenet and Darboux frames, we investi- gate some special Smarandache curves for a given timelike curve lying fully on a timelike surface. Finally, we defray a computational example to confirm our main results.
Category: General Mathematics

[356] viXra:1803.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:07:29

Computer Aided Thyroid Nodule Detection System Using Medical Ultrasound Images

Authors: Deepika Koundal, Savita Gupta, Sukhwinder Singh
Comments: 14 Pages.

Thyroid nodule is one of the endocrine problem caused due to abnormal growth of cells. This survival rate can be enhanced by earlier detection of nodules. Thus, the accurate detection of nodule is of utmost importance in providing effective diagnosis to increase the survival rate. However, accuracy of nodule detection from ultrasound images is suffered due to speckle noise. It considerably deteriorates the image quality and makes the differentiation of fine details quite difficult.
Category: General Mathematics

[355] viXra:1803.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:15:56

Computing Minimum Spanning Tree in Interval Valued Bipolar Neutrosophic Environment

Authors: X), Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, Rajkumar Verma
Comments: 5 Pages.

Interval valued bipolar neutrosophic sets is a new generalization of fuzzy set, bipolar fuzzy set, neutrosophic set and bipolar neutrosophic set so that it can handle uncertain information more flexibly in the process of decision making. In this paper, an algorithm for finding minimum spanning tree (MST) of an undirected neutrosophic weighted connected graph (UNWCG) in which the edge weights is represented by a an interval valued bipolar neutrosophic number is presented.
Category: General Mathematics

[354] viXra:1803.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:17:34

Computing the Greatest X-eigenvector of Fuzzy Neutrosophic Soft Matrix

Authors: M. Kavitha, P. Murugadas, S. Sriram
Comments: 15 Pages.

Uncertainty forms have a very important part in our daily life. During the time we handle real life problems involving uncertainty like Medical elds, Engineering, Industry and Economics and so on.
Category: General Mathematics

[353] viXra:1803.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:18:26

Context-Aware Cloud Service Selection Model for Mobile Cloud Computing Environments

Authors: Xu Wu
Comments: 19 Pages.

Mobile cloud computing (MCC) has attracted extensive attention in recent years. With the prevalence of MCC, how to select trustworthy and high quality mobile cloud services becomes one of the most urgent problems.
Category: General Mathematics

[352] viXra:1803.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 08:21:38

Correlation Coefficient of Single-Valued Neutrosophic Hesitant Fuzzy Sets and Its Applications in Decision Making

Authors: Rıdvan Sahin, Peide Liu
Comments: 9 Pages.

As a combination of the hesitant fuzzy set (HFS) and the single-valued neutrosophic set (SVNS), the single-valued neutrosophic hesitant fuzzy set (SVNHFS) is an important concept to handle uncertain and vague information existing in real life, which consists of three membership functions including hesitancy, as the truthhesitancy membership function, the indeterminacy-hesitancy membership function and the falsity-hesitancy membership function, and encompasses the fuzzy set, intuitionistic fuzzy set (IFS), HFS, dual hesitant fuzzy set (DHFS) and SVNS.
Category: General Mathematics

[351] viXra:1803.0402 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 16:35:25

Letter to a Friend on Rumsfeld's Unknown Unknown ...

Authors: Elemer E Rosinger
Comments: 14 Pages. It may also interest the VIXRA Category of "Religion and Spirituality"

The essay is about how to recover the vast majority of the present day Western world from their aggressive secularism, and do so with the help of the concept of UNKNOWN UNKNOWN introduced - rather accidentally - back in 2002 by Donald Rumsfeld ...
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[350] viXra:1803.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 20:09:35

A Shorter Refutation of Neutrosophic Logic © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

In neutrosophic logic, the designated values are ((1 or 0) or (less_than 1 and greater_than 0)) as three sets. As rendered, it is not tautologous, not bivalent, and hence refuted. Note: This paper was uploaded to General Mathematics because of the deluge of neutrosophic papers mainly from PRC, but is more properly under the heading Set theory and logic where our other papers are regarding neutrosophic matters.
Category: General Mathematics

[349] viXra:1803.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 21:22:50

Evaluation of Activation Energies for Adsorption of Dyes by Modified Activated Carbons [J. Environ. Manage. 206 (2018) 170-177 and 383-397] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong, Wei-dong Chen
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work, the acridine orange (AO) adsorption onto ZnO/almond shell activated carbon (ZnO-AC) and the rhodamine B (RB) onto magnetic CeO2 – activated carbon (CeO2 -AC) were reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[348] viXra:1803.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 22:17:16

Causal Inference for Survival Analysis

Authors: Vikas Ramachandra
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we propose the use of causal inference techniques for survival function estimation and prediction for subgroups of the data, upto individual units. Tree ensemble methods, specifically random forests were modified for this purpose. A real world healthcare dataset was used with about 1800 patients with breast cancer, which has multiple patient covariates as well as disease free survival days (DFS) and a death event binary indicator (y). We use the type of cancer curative intervention as the treatment variable (T=0 or 1, binary treatment case in our example). The algorithm is a 2 step approach. In step 1, we estimate heterogeneous treatment effects using a causalTree with the DFS as the dependent variable. Next, in step 2, for each selected leaf of the causalTree with distinctly different average treatment effect (with respect to survival), we fit a survival forest to all the patients in that leaf, one forest each for treatment T=0 as well as T=1 to get estimated patient level survival curves for each treatment (more generally, any model can be used at this step). Then, we subtract the patient level survival curves to get the differential survival curve for a given patient, to compare the survival function as a result of the 2 treatments. The path to a selected leaf also gives us the combination of patient features and their values which are causally important for the treatment effect difference at the leaf.
Category: Statistics

[347] viXra:1803.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 23:21:41

Kinetic Reevaluation on Adsorption of Cu(ii), Cd(ii) and Pb(ii) Metal I Ons Over Functionalization of Polyacrylonitrile/na-Y-Zeolite[chem. Eng. J. 332 (2018) 727–736] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the adsorption of of Cu(II), Cd(II) and Pb(II) metal ions over functionalization of polyacrylonitrile/Na-Y-zeolite [Chem. Eng. J. 332 (2018) 727–736] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction orders were newly calculated and rate constants were quantitatively compared on both adsorbates and adsorbent. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetic, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[346] viXra:1803.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 00:51:36

Energy Required to Keep the Universe Expanding: an Insight on Dark Energy

Authors: Keaten Wood
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is popularly known that dark matter is responsible for the accelerating expansion of our universe, as well as many other phenomena. This could very well be the case. Through many mathematical steps, using mechanical laws and calculus, I have determined the amount of energy needed to expand the universe a certain distance quickly converges, meaning that all the universe needs is a sufficient amount of energy in order to expand infinitely, either given initially by the big bang or gradually by dark matter.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[345] viXra:1803.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 02:13:09

The Black Hole Catastrophe Paradox

Authors: Eran sinbar, Yoav Weinstein, Gabriel Sinbar
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s field equations , mass curves space time and curvature of space-time dictates the gravitational field around the mass. This article tries to show a paradox that leads to the conclusion that if the gravitational field increases in a local region of the universe ,anti –gravity must increase throughout the universe to prevent a catastrophe that might lead to the end of space-time and information.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[344] viXra:1803.0395 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-15 11:49:58

Massa uit het Niets

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. Dit behoort bij het Hilbert Book Model project

Massa blijkt een vluchtige eigenschap te zijn die uit het niets lijkt voort te komen en snel verwatert in het toenemende volume van het universum
Category: Quantum Physics

[343] viXra:1803.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 05:29:34

Golden Optical Disk

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Scientists from Australia and China have drawn on the durable power of gold to demonstrate a new type of high-capacity optical disk that can hold data securely for more than 600 years. [35] Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[342] viXra:1803.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 05:57:02

Microstrip Quad-Channel Diplexer Using Quad-Mode Square Ring Resonators

Authors: Jinli Zhang, Doudou Pang, Wei Wang, Haihua Chen, Ming He, Lu Ji, Xu Zhang, Xinjie
Comments: 4 Pages.

A new compact microstrip quad-channel diplexer (2.15/3.60 GHz and 2.72/5.05 GHz) using quad-mode square ring resonators is proposed. The quad-channel diplexer is composed of two quad-mode square ring resonators (QMSRR) with one common input and two output coupled-line structures. By adjusting the impedance ratio and length of the QMSRR, the resonant modes can be easily controlled to implement a dual-band bandpass filter. The diplexer show a small circuit size since it’s constructed by only two QMSRRs and common input coupledline structure while keeping good isolations (> 28 db). Good agreements are achieved between measurement and simulation.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[341] viXra:1803.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:09:07

A Retinal Vessel Detection Approach Based on Shearlet Transform and Indeterminacy Filtering on Fundus Images

Authors: Yanhui Guo, Ümit Budak, Abdulkadir Sengür, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 10 Pages.

A fundus image is an effective tool for ophthalmologists studying eye diseases. Retinal vessel detection is a significant task in the identification of retinal disease regions. This study presents a retinal vessel detection approach using shearlet transform and indeterminacy filtering.
Category: General Mathematics

[340] viXra:1803.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:11:09

A Review of Multi-Criteria Decision-Making Applications to Solve Energy Management Problems: Two Decades from 1995 to 2015

Authors: Abbas Mardania, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Zainab Khalifah, Norhayati Zakuan, Ahmad Jusoh, Khalil Md Nor, Masoumeh Khoshnoudi
Comments: 41 Pages.

Energy management problems associated with rapid institutional, political, technical, ecological, social and economic development have been of critical concern to both national and local governments worldwide for many decades; thus, addressing such issues is a global priority.
Category: General Mathematics

[339] viXra:1803.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:14:29

A Side Scan Sonar Image Target Detection Algorithm Based on a Neutrosophic Set and Diffusion Maps

Authors: XiaoWang, Jianhu Zhao, Bangyan Zhu, Tingchen Jiang, Tiantian Qin
Comments: 16 Pages.

To accurately achieve side scan sonar (SSS) image target detection, a novel target detection algorithm based on a neutrosophic set (NS) and diffusion maps (DMs) is proposed in this paper. Firstly, the neutrosophic subset images were obtained by transforming the input SSS image into the NS domain. Secondly, the shadowed areas of the SSS image were detected using the single gray value threshold method before the diffusion map was calculated.
Category: General Mathematics

[338] viXra:1803.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:15:23

A Strategy of Dynamic Routing Based on SDN

Authors: Lei Cai, Dianjun Chen, Luyong Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Decoupling characteristics of Software Defined Network(SDN) control plane and data plane provides us with a new idea to improve dynamic routing. SDN controllers can easily obtain the global situation of the whole network. The network topology information and bandwidth data are applied to the classical Dijstra algorithm.
Category: General Mathematics

[337] viXra:1803.0388 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-04 12:06:15

Generating Mass from Nothing

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 3 Pages. This belongs to the Hilbert Book Model Project

Having mass stands for having the capability to deform the living space of the owner of the mass. This description makes mass a very transient property that recurrently must be regenerated because deformations spread over the living space. Consequently, deformations quickly fade away. It looks as if mass generates out of nothing and then dilutes into nothing. Due to their simple structure, the generation of electrons encounters little problems. This enables the computation of the generation rate of their constituents.
Category: Quantum Physics

[336] viXra:1803.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:57:03

The Quantum Bang Equation

Authors: Patrick Tonin
Comments: Pages.

It is hypothesised that the fundamental dimensions of Time, Length, Mass, Charge and Temperature are linked. To support this hypothesis, the Quantum Bang Equation is proposed. The equation is correct to 6 digits (which is the maximum given the relative uncertainty on the gravitational constant G)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[335] viXra:1803.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 11:22:51

Weyl Semimetals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Weyl fermions are novel particles that were predicted to be seen in high-energy physics experiments but have not been observed. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[334] viXra:1803.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 14:34:33

Diamond Maser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Quantum Physics

[333] viXra:1803.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 15:28:01

Ambiguities in Einstein’s Relativity

Authors: Roger J Anderton
Comments: 8 Pages.

Einstein’s Relativity is not well-defined; especially special relativity is not well-defined. I will deal with some examples of where it is not well-defined, but there are many other places it is not well-defined. Unfortunately, people seem predisposed that when they encounter a place in Einstein’s writings that is vague they then make different guesses as to what they think must have been meant; and so, come up with different interpretations of what they think Einstein’s relativity “is” instead of recognizing that it is not well-defined. Thus, when dealing with Einstein’s relativity what people engage in is mathematical modelling i.e. Einstein’s relativity is more a mathematical model than it is a theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[332] viXra:1803.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 04:03:18

Evaluation of Activation Energies on F Adsorption by Hydrous Zro2 Decorated Polyaniline Nanofibres [J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 508 (2017) 342– 358]

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, the F- adsorption on hydrous ZrO2 decorated polyaniline nanofibres (HZrO2@PANI NFs) published by Parashar et al. [J. Colloid Interf. Sci. 508 (2017) 342– 358] was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DKM). As the result, the reaction order and the activation energies were newly calculated. Keywords: Adsorption, Kinetics, Modeling, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[331] viXra:1803.0382 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 21:28:29

Kinetic Reevaluation on Dyes Adsorption by Zeolite Imidazolate Framework-9 [ New J. Chem. 2018, 42, 717-724] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 6 Pages.

ABSTRACT The dyes adsorption on zeolitic imidazolate framework-9 (ZIF-9) published at New J. Chem. [2018, 42, 717-724 by Han et al. was reevaluated using deactivation kinetics model (DK M). As the result, the reaction orders, the activation energies were newly evaluated and the adsorption rate constants of each component were calculated and compared. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetics, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[330] viXra:1803.0381 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-13 08:35:12

Kinetic Reevaluation of the Competitive Adsorption [J. Hazard. Mater. 326 (2017) 211–220] Using Deactivation Kinetics Model

Authors: Yong-Son Hong
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this discussion, the competitive adsorption published by Fan et al. were reevaluated kineti cally using deactivation kinetics model. As the result, kinetic conclusions could be obtained as following. First, single component adsorption and binary component adsorption occur in different mechanisms. Second, the adsorption rate of one component can be calculated how times faster than the other in competitive system. Keywords: Adsorption Kinetic, Heterogeneous Reaction, Deactivation Kinetics Model
Category: Chemistry

[329] viXra:1803.0380 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-22 10:59:18

A Fundamental Description of the Universe and Its Associated Workings

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 48 Pages.

Abstract: Mainstream physics typically ignores the energy type condition of ontological-reality and its associated effects after the Big Bang explosion. This includes the holistic universal real life condition and its associated units of influences as well, which includes nature. I propose that by considering the effects of the universe’s four primary informational energy types it is possible to ontologically develop a meaningful reference frame of local and non-local information to satisfy this contemporary scientific anomaly. I further suggest that my approach provides indicative insight into what might be the energy-type of the conditionless-void matrix of reality as well. This is all that “IS”. I believe that following the release of the energy-type of the Big Bang the Big Bang itself became the point of singularity for all the conditions, influences and effects that constitute the universe that scientists theorise it probably is. I propose that the primary energy effect of the Big Bang was an ontological irreducible one. I believe that this irreducible energy effect provides the essential conditions of all universal life forms and their associated informational meaning. The human mind is an energy type that is informationally representative of the wider irreducible energy type. This presentation seeks to structurally demonstrate this entangled holistic-reality condition. conceptscience@bigpond.com
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[328] viXra:1803.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 05:24:45

Crystal Lattice from Polaritons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

An international research team produced an analog of a solid-body crystal lattice from polaritons, hybrid photon-electron quasiparticles. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[327] viXra:1803.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 05:39:01

Origin of Mass and a Unified Theory for Four Fundamental Forces in Nature

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 7 Pages.

Atoms have the stationary orbits. Our solar-system also have the stationary orbits. Question arises that is there any similarity between atoms and our solar system? If yes then how do we know that? Can we prove it using some very fundamental rules which nature follows? Also, can we prove that what is the origin of mass? Can we provide one lines of thought and unified all forces (including the four fundamental forces) in nature? In this paper we will discuss about the origin of stationary orbits in an atom, origin of mass and origin of all forces (including the four fundamental forces namel;, gravitational, electrical, magnetic and nuclear force) in nature. We shall use Max Planck black-body idea, Brillouin zones construction rules and Bragg's diffraction conditions and will show that the origin of stationary orbit, origin of mass and origin of every force in nature arises due to quantum mechanical effect. We will use quantum mechanical rules and will explain that \textit{why} Venus, Uranus, Neptune and Pluto rotates clockwise about their axis while other planets rotates anti-clockwise.
Category: Condensed Matter

[326] viXra:1803.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 06:15:57

A Benchmark for Breast Ultrasound Image Segmentation (BUSIS)

Authors: Min Xian, Yingtao Zhang, H. D. Cheng, Fei Xu, Kuan Huang, Boyu Zhang, Jianrui Ding, Chunping Ning, Ying Wang
Comments: 9 Pages.

Breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation is challenging and critical for BUS Computer-Aided Diagnosis (CAD) systems. Many BUS segmentation approaches have been proposed in the last two decades, but the performances of most approaches have been assessed using relatively small private datasets with different quantitative metrics, which result in discrepancy in performance comparison.
Category: General Mathematics

[325] viXra:1803.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 06:21:05

Accuracy of Rule Extraction Using a Recursive-Rule Extraction Algorithm with Continuous Attributes Combined with a Sampling Selection Technique for the Diagnosis of Liver Disease

Authors: Yoichi Hayashi, Kazuhiro Fukunaga
Comments: 13 Pages.

Although liver cancer is the second most common cause of death from cancer worldwide, because of the limited accuracy and interpretability of extracted classification rules, the diagnosis of liver disease remains difficult. In addition, hepatitis, which is inflammation of the liver, can progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, or even liver cancer.
Category: General Mathematics

[324] viXra:1803.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 06:30:21

Accurate Segmentation of Complex Document Image Using Digitalshearlet Transform with Neutrosophic Set as Uncertainty Handling Tool

Authors: Soumyadip Dhara, Malay K. Kundu
Comments: 15 Pages.

tIn any image segmentation problem, there exist uncertainties. These uncertainties occur from gray leveland spatial ambiguities in an image.
Category: General Mathematics

[323] viXra:1803.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:02:01

A Fast Combination Method in DSmT and Its Application to Recommender System

Authors: Yilin Dong, Xinde Li, Yihai Liu
Comments: 25 Pages.

In many applications involving epistemic uncertainties usually modeled by belief functions, it is often necessary to approximate general (non-Bayesian) basic belief assignments (BBAs) to subjective probabilities (called Bayesian BBAs).
Category: General Mathematics

[322] viXra:1803.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:30:24

High-Speed Quantum Internet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

Researchers from the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology have rediscovered a material that could be the basis for ultra-high-speed quantum internet. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[321] viXra:1803.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:41:58

A ga-LR Wrapper Approach for Feature Selection in Network Intrusion Detection

Authors: Chaouki Khammassi, Saoussen Krichen
Comments: 23 Pages.

Intrusions constitute one of the main issues in computer network security. Through malicious actions, hackers can have unauthorised access that compromises the integrity, the confidentiality, and the availability of resources or services. Intrusion detection systems (IDSs) have been developed to monitor and filter network activities by identifying attacks and alerting network administrators.
Category: General Mathematics

[320] viXra:1803.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:45:02

A Hybrid Fuzzy C-Means and Neutrosophic for Jaw Lesions Segmentation

Authors: Mutasem K. Alsmadi
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is really important to diagnose jaw tumor in its early stages to improve its prognosis. A differential diagnosis could be performed using X-ray images; therefore, accurate and fully automatic jaw lesions image segmentation is a challenging and essential task. The aim of this work was to develop a novel, fully automatic and effective method for jaw lesions in panoramic X-ray image segmentation.
Category: General Mathematics

[319] viXra:1803.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:46:04

Air Quality Analysis Using Complex Neutrosophic Concept Lattice

Authors: Prem Kumar Singh
Comments: 26 Pages.

The precise measurement of uncertainty exists in the complex fuzzy attributes and their graphical analytics is a mathematically expensive tasks for knowledge processing researchers. To deal with this problem recently, the calculus of complex neutrosophic sets are introduced to characterize the uncertainty in data based on its truth, indeterminacy, and falsity membership– value, independently.
Category: General Mathematics

[318] viXra:1803.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:47:15

Algorithms for Interval Neutrosophic Multiple Attribute Decision-Making Based on Mabac, Similarity Measure, and Edas

Authors: Xindong Peng, Jingguo Dai
Comments: 27 Pages.

In this paper, we define a new axiomatic definition of interval neutrosophic similarity measure, which is presented by interval neutrosophic number (INN). Later, the objective weights of various attributes are determined via Shannon entropy theory; meanwhile, we develop the combined weights, which can show both subjective information and objective information.
Category: General Mathematics

[317] viXra:1803.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:48:30

Algorithms for Neutrosophic Soft Decision Making Based on Edas, New Similarity Measure and Level Soft Set

Authors: Xindong Peng, Chong Liu
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper presents three novel single-valued neutrosophic soft set (SVNSS) methods. First, we initiate a new axiomatic definition of single-valued neutrosophic similarity measure, which is expressed by single-valued neutrosophic number (SVNN) that will reduce the information loss and remain more original information. Then, the objective weights of various parameters are determined via grey system theory.
Category: General Mathematics

[316] viXra:1803.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:49:51

A Multi-attribute VIKOR Decision-making Method Based on Hesitantneutrosophic Sets

Authors: Run-yu Zhang, Mingyang Yu, Yan Gao
Comments: 6 Pages.

By co mbin ing neutrosophic sets and hesitant fuzzy sets, the definition of hesitant neutrosophic sets is presented. Based on the Euclidean distance and the cosine similarity formu la, the similarity formu la of neutrosophic sets is constructed. Then its similarity formu la is also provided. According to the similarity formu la of hesitant neutrosophic sets, a new mu lti-attribute VIKOR decision-making method for hesitant neutrosophic information is develop. At last an illustrative example is given to verify its practicality and effectiveness.
Category: General Mathematics

[315] viXra:1803.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:52:52

Ultra - Light Communication an be Achieved Immediately

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 19 Pages.

Through the analysis of several key experiments, the influence of the detector's advantages and disadvantages on the micro world is demonstrated.and the interaction of the photons is pointed out. This interaction is not a superdistance force, but it can indeed be faster than the speed of light. It determines the interference of the photon, using it to achieve superlight communication.
Category: Quantum Physics

[314] viXra:1803.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:57:40

Question 444 : Tribonacci Constant and Pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

This note presents some formulas related with pi.
Category: Number Theory

[313] viXra:1803.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:56:24

Analyzing Mobile Banking Quality Factors Under Neutrosophic Set Perspective: a Case Study of Turkey

Authors: Serpil Altinirmak, Basil Okoth, Mustafa Ergun, Caglar Karamasa
Comments: 14 Pages.

Mobile banking, also known as m-banking, provides low cost, innovative and easily accessible services to customers with technological developments as compared to retail banking. In this context, m-banking quality factors of the banks are considered to be important issues for customers. The aim of this study is to analyze the m-banking quality factors and to rank banks offering this service in Turkey under incomplete, inconsistent and indeterminate information.
Category: General Mathematics

[312] viXra:1803.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:58:11

An Application of Smarandache Curve

Authors: Süleyman ŞENYURT, Selin SİVAS
Comments: 15 Pages.

In this paper, Firstly we define NC-Smarandache curve, then we calculate the curvature and torsion of NB and TNB- Smarandache curves together with NC-Smarandache curve. Here T, N and B are Frenet vectors of a curve α and vector C is unit Darboux vector.
Category: General Mathematics

[311] viXra:1803.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:00:34

Question 443 :Golden Mean and pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this note we recall some formulas for pi. they express pi in terms of the Golden Ratio.
Category: General Mathematics

[310] viXra:1803.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 07:59:46

An Efficient Method for Choosing Most Suitable Cloud Storage Provider Based on Multi-Criteria Decision Making

Authors: Mostafa El-Baz, Ibrahim El-Henawy
Comments: 5 Pages.

Cloud Computing has already changed the way that people think about and use the information technology services. Cloud data storage is one of such services in which data is stored, managed, remotely backed up and accessed by users over the Internet. when the organization need to depend on cloud computing solution as intelligent solution ,the first problem facing the organization is to choosing the appropriate provider between different providers available especially in the cases of confused portfolios which contain complex pricing models and different criteria's. for addressing this problem the thesis providing a multi-criteria algorithm which based on neutrosophic to help the organization to choose the best appropriate providers achieving high degree of security and privacy according their requirements map .
Category: General Mathematics

[309] viXra:1803.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:02:10

An Efficient Similarity Measure for Content Based Image Retrieval Using Memetic Algorithm

Authors: Mutasem K. Alsmadi
Comments: 11 Pages.

Content based image retrieval (CBIR) systems work by retrieving images which are related to the query image (QI) from huge databases. The available CBIR systems extract limited feature sets which confine the retrieval efficacy. In this work, extensive robust and important features were extracted from the images database and then stored in the feature repository.
Category: General Mathematics

[308] viXra:1803.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:03:21

An Ensemble Design of Intrusion Detection System for Handling Uncertainty Using Neutrosophic Logic Classifier

Authors: B. Kavitha, S. Karthikeyan, P. Sheeba Maybell
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the real world it is a routine that one must deal with uncertainty when security is concerned. Intrusion detection systems offer a new challenge in handling uncertainty due to imprecise knowledge in classifying the normal or abnormal behaviour patterns
Category: General Mathematics

[307] viXra:1803.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:06:02

A Neutrosophic Approach to Image Segmentation Based on Watershed Method

Authors: Ming Zhang, LingZhang, H.D.Cheng
Comments: 8 Pages.

Neutrosophy studies the origin, nature,scope of neutralities,and their interactions with different ideational spectra.
Category: General Mathematics

[306] viXra:1803.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:17:29

Time Scale on Optical Clock

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

(NICT) generated a real-time signal of an accurate time scale by combining an optical lattice clock and a hydrogen maser. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[305] viXra:1803.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:27:50

A New Approach in Failure Modes and Effects Analysis Based on Compromise Solution by Considering Objective and Subjective Weights with Interval-Valued Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets

Authors: Z. Hajighasemi, S. M. Mousavi
Comments: 23 Pages.

Failure modes and effects analysis (FMEA) is a well-known risk analysis approach that has been conducted to distinguish, analyze and mitigate serious failure modes.
Category: General Mathematics

[304] viXra:1803.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:32:22

A New Approach of Dynamic Fuzzy Cognitive Knowledge Networks in Modelling Diagnosing Process of Meniscus Injury

Authors: Antigoni P. Anninou, Peter P. Groumpos, Panagiotis Poulios, Ioannis Gkliatis
Comments: 6 Pages.

A new approach of Dynamic Fuzzy Cognitive Knowledge Networks is presented. This is an evolutionary type of Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) that arose from the need for updating classic methodology in order to overcome its drawbacks, concerning the single calculation rule, stability and real time problems and expands its use in a varity of applications.
Category: General Mathematics

[303] viXra:1803.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:33:31

A New Hesitant Fuzzy Linguistic TOPSIS Method for Group Multi-Criteria Linguistic Decision Making

Authors: Fangling Ren, Mingming Kong, Zheng Pei
Comments: 19 Pages.

Hesitant fuzzy linguistic decision making is a focus point in linguistic decision making, in which the main method is based on preference ordering.
Category: General Mathematics

[302] viXra:1803.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:35:08

A New Hybrid Simulation-Based Assignment Approach for Evaluating Airlines with Multiple Service Quality Criteria

Authors: Mehdi Keshavarz Ghorabaee, Maghsoud Amiri, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Zenonas Turskis, Jurgita Antucheviciene
Comments: 16 Pages.

Evaluation of airlines based on service quality criteria can help to improve the processes of airlines, and also can give guidance to travel agencies to provide better choices for passengers and tourists. In this study, a hybrid simulation-based assignment approach is proposed to deal with multi-criteria decision making problems with a group of decision-makers.
Category: General Mathematics

[301] viXra:1803.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:42:59

A New Mathematical Modelling Approach for Viticulture and Winemaking Using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps

Authors: Groumpos P. Peter, Anninou P. Antogoni, Groumpos P. Vasileios
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to present a new approach in modelling wine quality and quantity using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps trained by non linear Hebbian learning algorithm. The methodology described extracts the knowledge from the experts and exploits their experience on wine production. Two case studies with data from real vineyards were examined. The results of this study show that software tools using Fuzzy Cognitive Maps could be explored further and problems that arise during the wine production could be prevented by an efficient decision support system.
Category: General Mathematics

[300] viXra:1803.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:46:50

A New Modified Neutrosophic Set Segmentation Approach

Authors: Eser Sert
Comments: 17 Pages.

Segmentation is paramount to 3D video systems employing multi-view video-plus-depth data (MVD) to implement free-viewpoint navigation and comfortable 3D viewing, modeling, and comprehension.
Category: General Mathematics

[299] viXra:1803.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:49:49

A New Multi-Criteria Model Based on Interval Type-2 Fuzzy Sets and Edas Method for Supplier Evaluation and Order Allocation with Environmental Considerations

Authors: Mehdi Keshavarz Ghorabaee, Maghsoud Amiri, Edmundas Kazimieras Zavadskas, Zenonas Turskis, Jurgita Antucheviciene
Comments: 19 Pages.

Nowadays environmental performance of suppliers becomes more important because of competitive conditions. Besides, the economic performance has been a significant factor for companies to choose their suppliers.
Category: General Mathematics

[298] viXra:1803.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 08:50:57

A Newtonian-Vortex Cosmology Model from Solar System to Galaxy to Large Scale Structures: Navier-Stokes-Inspired Cosmography

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 4 Pages.

Some years ago, Matt Visser asked the following interesting questions: How much of modern cosmology is really cosmography? How much of modern cosmology is independent of the Einstein equations? (Independent of the Friedmann equations?)
Category: General Mathematics

[297] viXra:1803.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-14 12:42:13

The Nuclear Force and Limitations to the Lorentz Electrostatic Force Equation

Authors: Michael Singer
Comments: 11 Pages.

If we need to find the total electric field vector from multiple charges at a point in space we add the vectors to get the resultant vector. When we do this for two electrons near to each other we find that the field vectors oppose in a region between the electrons. This tells us that there is partial field cancellation there. Field cancellation reduces the field energy density leading to attractive forces in this region. With two electrons the net effect of all of space is one of increased energy density and hence net repulsion, so the attractive forces in the region between the electrons is overcome by greater repulsive forces elsewhere. However, with the bounded electric fields of neutrons this attractive region dominates over a limited region leading to first attractive then repulsive forces as the neutrons approach closer and closer to each other. This suggests in turn that the Lorentz Force Equation is limited to particles whose electric fields are not truncated but extend to infinity.
Category: Classical Physics

[296] viXra:1803.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 09:16:18

Double Life Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now scientists have probed the superconducting behavior of its electrons in detail for the first time. They discovered it's even weirder than they thought. Yet that's good news, they said, because it gives them a new angle for thinking about what's known as "high temperature" superconductivity, a phenomenon that could be harnessed for a future generation of perfectly efficient power lines, levitating trains and other revolutionary technologies. [36] University of Groningen physicists, and colleagues from Nijmegen and Hong Kong, have induced superconductivity in a monolayer of tungsten disulfide. [35] One can also imagine making a superconducting transistor out of graphene, which you can switch on and off, from superconducting to insulating. That opens many possibilities for quantum devices." [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33]
Category: Quantum Physics

[295] viXra:1803.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 09:42:26

An Interval-Valued Hesitant Fuzzy Multigranulation Rough Set Over Two Universes Model for Steam Turbine Fault Diagnosis

Authors: Chao Zhang, Deyu Li, Yimin Mu, Dong Song
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the field of mechanical engineering, steam turbine fault diagnosis is a difficult task for mechanical engineers who are confronted with challenges in dealing with copious amounts of uncertain information.
Category: General Mathematics

[294] viXra:1803.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 09:43:35

An Improved Clustering Method for Text Documents Using Neutrosophic Logic

Authors: Nadeem Akhtar, Mohammad Naved Qureshi, Mohd Vasim Ahamad
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a technique of Information Retrieval, we can consider clustering as an unsupervised learning problem in which we provide a structure to unlabeled and unknown data.
Category: General Mathematics

[293] viXra:1803.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 09:45:00

Anomaly Detection Using the Correlational Paraconsistent Machine with Digital Signatures of Network Segment

Authors: Eduardo H.M. Pena, Luiz F. Carvalho, Sylvio Barbon Jr.Joel J.P.C. Rodrigues, Mario Lemes Proença Jr.
Comments: 16 Pages.

This study presents the correlational paraconsistent machine (CPM), a tool for anomaly detection that incorporates unsupervised models for traffic characterization and principles of paraconsistency, to inspect irregularities at the network traffic flow level.
Category: General Mathematics

[292] viXra:1803.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 09:50:34

A Novel Breast Ultrasound Image Segmentation Algorithm Based on Neutrosophic Similarity Scoreand Level Set

Authors: setYanhui Guo, Abdulkadir Sengür, Jia-Wei Tian
Comments: 11 Pages.

Breast ultrasound (BUS) image segmentation is a challenging task due to the speckle noise,poor quality of the ultrasound images and size and location of the breast lesions.
Category: General Mathematics

[291] viXra:1803.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 09:54:30

A Novel Generalized Simplified Neutrosophic Number Einstein Aggregation Operator

Authors: Baolin Li, Juanru Wang, Lihua Yang, Xuetao Li
Comments: 6 Pages.

In order to handle the indeterminate information and inconsistent information in some complex decision-making environment, some novel aggregation operators are firstly proposed based on Einstein operational laws and generalized aggregation operators under simplified neutrosophic environment, where the truth-membership degree, indeterminacy-membership degree and falsity-membership degree of each element are singleton subsets in [0,1] .
Category: General Mathematics

[290] viXra:1803.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 09:56:11

A Novel Hybrid Kpca and SVM with ga Model for Intrusion Detection

Authors: Fangjun Kuanga, Weihong Xua, Siyang Zhang
Comments: 7 Pages.

tA novel support vector machine (SVM) model combining kernel principal component analysis (KPCA)with genetic algorithm (GA) is proposed for intrusion detection.
Category: General Mathematics

[289] viXra:1803.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:05:20

A Novel Trapezoidal Intuitionistic Fuzzy Information Axiom Approach: an Application to Multicriteria Landfill Site Selection

Authors: Cengiz Kahraman, Selcuk Cebi, Sezi Cevik Onar, Basar Oztaysi
Comments: 16 Pages.

Information axiom is used to determine the best option among the potential alternatives. In case of uncertain parameters, information axiom has been extended to its ordinary fuzzy versions in the literature. In this paper, we developed a trapezoidal intuitionistic fuzzy information axiom model in order to handle the hesitancy of experts.
Category: General Mathematics

[288] viXra:1803.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:06:35

A Novel Triangular Interval Type-2 Intuitionistic Fuzzy Sets and Their Aggregation Operators

Authors: Harish Garg, Sukhveer Singh
Comments: 25 Pages.

The objective of this work is to present a triangular interval type-2 (TIT2) intuitionistic fuzzy sets and their corresponding aggregation operators, namely, TIT2 intuitionistic fuzzy weighted averaging, TIT2 intuitionistic fuzzy ordered weighted averaging and TIT2 intuitionistic fuzzy hybrid averaging based on Frank norm operation laws.
Category: General Mathematics

[287] viXra:1803.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 10:07:46

An Overview on the Roles of Fuzzy Set Techniques in Big Data Processing: Trends, Challenges and Opportunities

Authors: Hai Wang, Zeshui Xu, Witold Pedrycz
Comments: 16 Pages.

In the era of big data, we are facing with an immense volume and high velocity of data with complex structures. Data can be produced by online and offline transactions, social networks, sensors and through our daily life activities.
Category: General Mathematics

[286] viXra:1803.0318 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 06:51:30

Refutation of Abductive Reasoning © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

Abductive logic of C.S. Peirce is refuted as not tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[285] viXra:1803.0317 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-09 06:07:22

Analysis of Riemann's Hypothesis

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: 8 Pages.

Let p(c,r,v)=e^{(c-1)(r+2v)} log({{\lambda(r+v)}\over{q(r+v)}}) log({{\lambda(v)}\over{q(v)}}), f(c,r)=\int_{-\infty}^\infty p(c,r,v)+p(c,-r,v) dv. Let c be a real number such that 0 Suppose that

f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial}\over{\partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all $r\ge 0$ while {{\partial}\over{\partial c}}f(c,r)<0 and {{\partial^2}\over {\partial c \partial r}}f(c,r)>0 for all r>0.

Then \zeta(c+i\omega) \ne 0 for all \omega.
Category: Number Theory

[284] viXra:1803.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 03:44:05

Interpretation of the Longest C-C Bond Reported by Ishigaki et al

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 2 pages, one Figure 1

The recently observed longest C-C bond of length 1.806 Å has been interpreted in this short article in terms of the Bohr radii of C and O, just when the hydroxyl groups break away from C by reduction with Zn. A figure drawn to scale has been presented.
Category: Chemistry

[283] viXra:1803.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 05:58:22

Origin of Color in Nature

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 12 Pages.

Human minds are always curious about the different of colors that exist in nature. A number of efforts has been made to describes the origin of colors in different materials. Till now the explanations are mostly based on using reflectivity and emissivity of the materials using classical phenomenological models. In this paper we will discuss about the origin of color using the Brillouin zones and Bragg's diffraction conditions and will show that the origin of color is purely arises due to quantum mechanical effect. We will also show that the origin of finite conductivity in any material at an arbitrary electrochemical potential is also arises due to quantum mechanical effect. We will also show that the origin of anisotropy in conductivity and in effective mass of electron in any metal are arises due to the quantum mechanical effect as well.
Category: Condensed Matter

[282] viXra:1803.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 07:51:34

Notes on the Philosophy of Physics

Authors: Henrique Lara, João Corte-Real, Regina Corte-Real
Comments: 9 Pages. feel free to exchange ideas about what the main author (H. Lara) wrote, with the support of the other authors.

The way space has been thought by physics remains an obstacle to the coherent integration between its various theories. The Authors seek, with the help of a fundamental analogy, to present a new path for their complete unification.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[281] viXra:1803.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 07:50:31

Turning Photon Energy into Mass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

The theory of the Breit-Wheeler process says it should be possible to turn light into matter by smashing two particles of light (photons) together to create an electron and a positron. However, past attempts to do this have required the addition of other high-energy particles. [26] Dr. Pascal Del'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16]
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[280] viXra:1803.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 08:28:04

Two Dimensions Quantum Bits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Two novel materials, each composed of a single atomic layer and the tip of a scanning tunneling microscope, are the ingredients for a novel kind of quantum dot. [28] A "superacid" much stronger than automobile battery acid has enabled a key advance toward a new generation of LED lighting that's safer, less expensive and more user friendly. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[279] viXra:1803.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 09:07:18

Mystery of Superconducting Dome

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

University of Groningen physicists, and colleagues from Nijmegen and Hong Kong, have induced superconductivity in a monolayer of tungsten disulfide. [35] One can also imagine making a superconducting transistor out of graphene, which you can switch on and off, from superconducting to insulating. That opens many possibilities for quantum devices." [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[278] viXra:1803.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 09:46:55

Optical Computers on the Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Optical chips are still some way behind electronic chips, but we're already seeing the results and this research could lead to a complete revolution in computer power. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[277] viXra:1803.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 10:52:52

Unique Crystals for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A new particle detector design proposed at the U.S. Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) could greatly broaden the search for dark matter—which makes up 85 percent of the total mass of the universe yet we don't know what it's made of—into an unexplored realm. [28] University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[276] viXra:1803.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 11:01:02

On the Relations Between the Theorem of Four Colors and the Upper Limit of Dimension of Space

Authors: Ling Shuwei
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Color Dimension Theorem is divided into two parts: The first part gives a constructive proof of the four-color theorem, and points out that the existence of the "one-dimensional-two-color, two-dimensional-four-color" relationship is not accidental; The second part discusses the upper limit of the dimensionality of the space. The method is: suppose the space above the N dimension exists, there must be a geometry. Considering the projection of this geometry on the plane, we will find that this projection image produces a paradox, which means N The space above the dimension does not exist
Category: General Mathematics

[275] viXra:1803.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 11:40:13

Electron Spi 1/2 is "Hidden" Electromagnetic Field Angular Momentum

Authors: U. Kayser-Herold
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is to present and discuss an alternative method for precise analytical determination of electron spin angular momentum 1/2. The method is based on the Lorentz-force acting on a point-like charge moved through the entire magnetic dipole-field of the electron. The result hbar/2 coincides with a previous result based on Lagrangian electrodynamics and confirms the "hidden" electromagnetic origin of spin angular momentum. Both methods reveal a key role of the "classical" electron radius.
Category: Quantum Physics

[274] viXra:1803.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 12:09:53

First Steps of Photosynthesis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Photosynthesis has driven life on this planet for more than 3 billion years—first in bacteria, then in plants—but we don't know exactly how it works. [11] Scientists of the Tomsk State University (Russia), with colleagues from Sweden and Finland, have created an algorithm for calculating the photophysical and luminescent characteristics of molecules. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[273] viXra:1803.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 12:33:13

Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics is an Implication and not an Equivalency © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The zeroth law of thermodynamics is confirmed as an implication, but which cannot be coerced into equivalency. Subsequent laws of thermodynamics as based on the zeroth law become implications and not equivalencies. This serves to weaken assertions based on the laws of thermodynamics as equivalencies as reduced to implications.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[272] viXra:1803.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 13:01:18

Essence and Emergence of Biological Life

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Lyudmila Churlyaeva.
Comments: 50 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Added probably the last missing element in the foundation of the biological sciences. This element consists in describing the nucleation of living molecules from inanimate ones. The origin of life coincides with the appearance of vibrations of molecular flagella under the action of quanta of energy flowing from a molecule to water. The evolution of living molecules to cellular organisms has been speculatively traced. An attempt has been made, while not rigorous, to inscribe this element in the existing system of biological knowledge. The role of living molecules in modern organisms has been established. Several new hypotheses have been formulated with the participation of a new element: on aging, on diabetes; about the causes of cancer and some others. For further advancement, it is necessary to concentrate theoretical efforts in the detected directions.
Category: Physics of Biology

[271] viXra:1803.0303 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 07:10:36

The Experiments Of The Bottle And The Beam For The Lifetime Of The Neutron: A Theoretical Approximation Derived From The Casimir Effect

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 9 Pages. Corrected Feynman diagram writing error

The last neutron life-time experiments using the bottle method rule out possible experimental errors and possible sources of interference; mainly the interaction of the neutrons with the material of the walls of the bottle. Therefore, the discrepancy between the lifetimes of the neutron by experiments of the beam and the bottle require a theoretical explanation.The main and crucial difference between the beam and bottle experiments is the different topology of the experiments. While in the beam experiment the neutrons are not confined; in the experiment of the bottle a confinement takes place. In our theoretical approach we postulate the existence of a type of Casimir effect that due to the different geometry-topology of the experiments; it produces an induction-polarization of the vacuum by the confinement and the existence of the trapped neutrons; in such a way that there is an increase in the density of the quarks u, d, gluons and the virtual W and Z bosons. This density increase, mainly, of the neutral Z bosons; would be responsible for the increased probability of the decay of a neutron in a proton; and therefore of the shortening of the decay time of the neutron in the experiment of the bottle; of 877.7 seconds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[270] viXra:1803.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 14:05:15

Flying Microlaser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[269] viXra:1803.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 15:26:28

Mathematical Modeling Technique

Authors: R.T.Longo
Comments: 25 Pages.

In this paper, a general modeling principle is introduced that was found useful for modeling complex physical systems for engineering applications. The technique is a nonlinear asymptotic method (NLAM), constructed from simplified physical theories, i.e., physical theories that were developed from particular points of view, that can be used to construct a more global theory. Originally, the technique was envisioned primarily for engineering applications, but its success has led to a more general principle. Four examples are presented to discuss and illustrate this method.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[268] viXra:1803.0300 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-25 12:58:26

In a Rotating Hologram-Universe a Big Bang-Universe Gives Entrance to Other Big Bang-Universes.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 9 Pages.

A new cosmology-theory presents a spectacular statement: By this article the rotation and expansion of a fast rotating vacuum below the Planck-scale is described with approximately 10^21 rad/s. This subquantum vacuum-rotation emerges approximately 10^18 Hertz x-rays above the Planck-scale. Meanwhile it is a fact that x-ray-radiation is observed by several observatory with an energy of about 3,5 keV in accordance to the possible existence of sterile neutrinos. However, the energy here mentioned is used for direct evidence for the existence of ‘light-holes’, which seen from a distance replaces the Planck-scale in rotating vacuum and in perspective of my new cosmological model, the rotating hologram-universe. The new model discards the single modern-classic Big Bang-universe as not-fundamental. It means coming closer to ‘light-holes’ high-frequent x-rays become lower in frequency due to an also earlier published formula Tdan , which shows vacuum expands by ‘the crumbling of the vacuum-quantum-unit’. Hence, closer to the ‘light-hole’, a parallel Big Bang-universe will appear to be a part of the fundamental rotating hologram-universe. Let it be noticed the exercises given here are obviously ahead of media-pre-announced Hawking-Hertog publications about how to measure the existence of other Big Bangs, because I already carry on the evidence for this in this article.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[267] viXra:1803.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:42:49

Simple Composite Numbers by Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the quantity of simple composite numbers that exist by golden patterns.
Category: Number Theory

[266] viXra:1803.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:51:15

Criteria for Fundamental Physics Principles

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 9 Pages.

What makes a description more fundamental than other descriptions? More fundamental descriptions are simpler, more useful, and apply to the entire universe including areas of mathematics, physical sciences, life, and society. For example, if a principle appears simpler for the data in physics but fails in life and society observations, then the principle is false. Human survival requires creativity for advancement and adapting to a changing environment. Creativity's essence appears to be the synthesis of a large diversity of observational types. The amount of unexplained observational data is huge. We need to think about it. We need to form a new, more inclusive paradigm.
Category: Classical Physics

[265] viXra:1803.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:49:20

Matter and Mass ///// Материя и масса

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Matter and Mass

Matter and mass. In this article, the principle "nature is finite" and the consequences that follow from it are discussed. The author states the presence in nature of a minimal fundamental particle (FP) – an atom of matter (AM). An atom of matter is a real natural standard, a material carrier of two basic properties: the minimum amount of matter in nature and the minimum length in nature (the diameter of an atom of matter). These properties are reflected in physics in the form of basic physical quantities of matter and length. Matter is naturally introduced into physics as the basic physical quantity. Then the mass of an atom of matter (a fundamental particle) is defined as the ratio of physical quantities of matter and length (diameter of AM or FP). +++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье обсуждается принцип «природа конечна» и вытекающие из него следствия. Автор констатирует наличие в природе минимальной элементарной частицы – крупицы материи. Крупица материи является реальным природным эталоном, материальным носителем двух основных свойств: минимального количества материи в природе и минимальной длины в природе (диаметр крупицы материи). Эти свойства отражаются в физике в виде основных физических величин материя и длина. Материя естественным образом вводится в физику в качестве основной физической величины. Тогда масса крупицы материи (элементарной частицы) определяется, как отношение физических величин материи и длины (диаметр КМ или ЭЧ).
Category: Classical Physics

[264] viXra:1803.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 21:55:41

Stoe Electric Charge

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model of hods and plenum is extended to model charge and electric fields. The hods' movements are generating vortices in the plenum. These vortices are the electric charge and also cause the coherent ripples postulated in the Hodge Experiment simulation. Free hods are the electromagnetic signal. Gauss's Law is a simplification of the STOE model.
Category: Classical Physics

[263] viXra:1803.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 23:22:34

Dreams of a Mathematical Museum

Authors: D Williams
Comments: 14 Pages.

A Mathematical Museum is described for INSPIRING students and the general public and provide an alternative to the soul-destroying 19th century institutionalised rote-learning (with subsequent near-instantaneous forgetting) of barely understood material in assembly-line schools/factories of "learning" by people who are thereby taught to HATE mathematics.
Category: General Mathematics

[262] viXra:1803.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 23:59:49

The Hitchhikers' Guide to Reading and Writing Health Research

Authors: Arindam Basu
Comments: 33 Pages. 33

In this paper, we introduce the concepts of critically reading research papers and writing of research proposals and reports. Research methods is a general term that includes the processes of observation of the world around the researcher, linking background knowledge with foreground questions, drafting a plan of collection of data and framing theories and hypotheses, testing the hypotheses, and finally, drafting or writing the research to evoke new knowledge. These processes vary with the themes and disciplines that the researcher engages in; nevertheless, common motifs can be found. In this paper, we propose three methods are interlinked: a deductive reasoning process where the structure of the thought can be captured critically; an inductive reasoning method where the researcher can appraise and generate generalisable ideas from observations of the world; and finally, abductive reasoning method where the world can be explained or the phenomena observed can be explained or be accounted for. This step or reasoning is also about framing theories, testing and challenging established knowledge or finding best theories and how theories best fit the observations. We start with a discussion of the different types of statements that one can come across in any scholarly literature or even in lay or semi-serious literature, appraise them, and identify arguments from non-arguments, and explanations from non-explanations. Then we outline three strategies to appraise and identify reasonings in explanations and arguments. We end with a discussion on how to draft a research proposal and a reading/archiving strategy of research.
Category: Social Science

[261] viXra:1803.0292 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 19:48:25

Phoson’s Theory (a New Theory of Quantization, Electrons’ Generation by Waves, Electrons’ Structure, Relativistic Mass and Conflict with De Broglie’s Theory)

Authors: Yaseen Ali Mohamed Al Azzam
Comments: Pages.

By an alternative interpretation of Compton effect experiment, I concluded that waves can generate electrons and that waves are quantized into units of mass (which I called phosons). A phoson is a fundamental unit of energy carrying mass and the origin of quantization while Photons are a misconception in interpreting the photoelectric experiment. I concluded a model to describe the particles’ behavior of phosons based on describing its propagation as a continuous interchange of two type of energies (spinning and translational) and a mass variation proportional to the translational kinetic energy. Also, I concluded a model that explains how electrons are comprised of phosons besides the role of these phosons in giving the electron its mass, energy and shape. Since my theories state that phosons do have mass and the nature of the concluded electron’s structure contradicts with the definition of relativistic mass according to the theory of relativity and with De Broglie’s theory in describing the wave behavior of the electron, I discussed both theories showing how both failed to describe the electron’s properties and behavior. The electron- wave interrelation explains how the properties of each is originated by the other, accordingly the calculation of some of the electron’s properties like its intrinsic angular velocity from wave parameters and the unquantized intrinsic angular momentum and magnetic moment became much clearer.
Category: Quantum Physics

[260] viXra:1803.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 03:11:20

Impossibility of the Topological Insulators in Nature

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 7 Pages.

In nature material only exist in \textit{metal}, \textit{semi-metal}, and in \textit{perfect-insulator}. Recently a new theory has been discovered and named it as a \textit{topological-insulator} theory after using the tight binding model, spin of electron and time reversal symmetry\cite{Halande} \cite{kosterlitz} \cite{noblelecture}. The discoverers \cite{Halande} \cite{kosterlitz}\cite{noblelecture} \textit{claims} that the new material should behaves like a conductor in surface, and insulators in bulk \textit{along the same principal-direction}. Inventors uses tight binding model, expanded Bloch wave-functions using atomic like basis functions, uses spin of electron, time reversal symmetry, and $punctured$ the band-gap which arises after single Bragg's plane diffraction condition. In this paper we will use the full Brillouin zones and Bragg's diffraction conditions and will show that there will $never$ be any topological insulator in nature, otherwise Bragg's diffractions condition will break-down! We will provide the fundamental difference between the topological insulators and in semi-metals, and will show that all the existing and $claimed$ topological insulators are semi-metals.
Category: Condensed Matter

[259] viXra:1803.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 03:12:43

Discovery of an Interaction Constant, Variation of the Principal Constants, and Consequences for Cosmology

Authors: Terrence J. McMahon
Comments: 23 Pages. Note: This updates and extends 1701.0524, however both works contain sufficient differences to be separate articles. However, where there is conflict between the two papers, this research is to be preferred.

An ‘interaction constant’ with the irrational number phi is discovered, unifying Nature’s principal constants with gravity. This constant reveals an elegant symmetry permitting the universe to have change, while conserving principal parameter ratios. New relationships for principal constants are shown. Magnetic permeability and electric permittivity of free space, set by convention last century are found to have new values. This allows an exact value for the Planck constant, and a precise value for the elementary charge e to be obtained. Errors in current Planck units are discussed. A reevaluation of dimensional analysis introduces new dimensional units for G, ε, µ, gravity, the Coulomb constant and electric force. The fine-structure constant is found to have dimensions Hz. Pi and phi are found to have dimensions in some configurations. Energy variation causes most principal constants to run, while still adhering to this scale invariant, overall symmetry. Electromagnetic and gravitational forces also run, with gravity dominating at high energies as expected. Wavelength red-shifting occurs via dilation of space-time, attenuated by running of gravity and energy. Structural symmetry requires a new cosmic model where the universe has a constant form. Discussion of a toroidal cosmology introduces candidates for the Hubble and cosmological constants, and a mass-density parameter. These are found to have identical values to most recent Planck data. Standard Model anomalies become redundant. This study confirms and extends general relativity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[258] viXra:1803.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 03:18:10

New Discovery on Goldbach Conjecture

Authors: Bado idriss olivier
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we are going to give the proof of Goldbach conjecture by introducing a new lemma which implies Goldbach conjecture .By using Chebotarev-Artin theorem , Mertens formula and Poincare sieve we establish the lemma
Category: Number Theory

[257] viXra:1803.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 03:40:23

Alternative Explanation of Magnetism Without Spin

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 16 Pages.

Magnetic materials are known from ages. Spin of electrons has been used to explain the magnetism and classify the magnetic materials into different class. In this paper we will provide the alternative explanation of magnetism by using the Brillouin zones, Bragg's diffraction conditions, band-structure of materials and will explain that the fundamental origin of magnetism is same in all the three cases, namely; in ferromagnet (Fe, Co, Ni, Gd, Dy), magnetism arises due to the passing of electric current in metallic wire, and magnetism in every semiconductor or in perfect insulator after heavily doping by $p$-type dopant, so that the electrochemical potential (Fermi energy) of the material either cut or touch the valance-band maxima. We will explain that why iron have more than one valance electron at the Fermi-level using the Brillouin zones, Bragg's diffraction condition, and band-structures of iron. We will explain the origin of the exchange magnetic field that present in every magnetic materials. We will also explain that why $\mathrm{Fe, \enspace Co,\enspace Ni},$ and $\mathrm{Gd}$ behaves as a ferromagnet while $\mathrm{Cr}$ is anti-ferromagnet. We will develop a general rule which applicable to all crystal structure to classify them into a ferromagnetic, diamagnetic, paramagnetic, ferrimagnetic and anti-ferromagnetic in nature. We will use our developed rule and will explain the giant magneto-resistance (GMR), tunneling magneto-resistance (TMR), spin-transfer-torque random access memory (STT-RAM), and magnetic-cluster femto-second switching devices on equal footing. We will also discuss about the $flaw$ that exist in the current existing models which have been extensively used for the explaining the magnetic devices.
Category: Condensed Matter

[256] viXra:1803.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-21 03:42:58

Discrepancy in Velocity Dispersion and Rotation Curve of Galaxy

Authors: Mitali
Comments: 4 Pages.

The difference between observed and expected values of velocity discrepancy in mid 1930s gave rise to the problem of missing mass in galaxies. Further extra mass calculated from the gravitational lensing effect also supported strongly in favor of missing mass, called dark matter. However, this non-baryonic matter has not been detected directly. Meanwhile, effect of gravitational waves energy from galaxy and result of its angular momentum on rotational curve of spiral arms in outskirts of galaxy is not taken into consideration. Here, it is discussed how gravity waves energy can eliminate the necessity of dark matter and can explain the observational facts which are thought to be purely effect of dark matter.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[255] viXra:1803.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 07:20:22

Under One Blanket Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Phobos Has Caused a General Flood on Mars, Has Covered Him with a Dusty Red Blanket, Has Forced Out the Atmosphere and Water to His Internal Area, and All Cloak Has Followed on a Surface. the Atacama Desert O

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Phobos has caused a general flood on Mars, has covered him with a dusty red blanket, has forced out the atmosphere and water to his internal area, and all cloak has followed on a surface. The Atacama Desert on Earth was comprehended by the same fate that confirms this hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[254] viXra:1803.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 07:30:12

They Will be Together Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Milky Put and Andromeda Won't Face, They Will Just Merge in a Uniform Power Stream, Like Charged Particles.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Milky Put and Andromeda won't face, they will just merge in a uniform power stream, like charged particles.
Category: Astrophysics

[253] viXra:1803.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 07:56:15

Nervous Oscillations on a Twisted Cylinder

Authors: Arturo Tozzi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Borsuk-Ulam theorem is a general principle able to describe a large amount of brain functions. However, when assessing the neurodata extracted from EEG and fMRI, the BUT-related methods, based on projections and mappings among different functional brain dimensions, are impractical and computationally expensive. Here we show how the BUT’s antipodal features with matching description (say, two far apart brain areas that are activated simultaneously and display the same value of entropy) can be described in terms of closed paths on a Möbius strip. This allows to evaluate the nervous system’s dynamics in terms of trajectories taking place onto the well-established, easily manageable phase space of a twisted cylinder.
Category: Mind Science

[252] viXra:1803.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 07:55:36

Without Knot, But with the Hitch Nikitin V. N., Nikitina M.i. the Reason of Formation of Spots on Gas Planets and the Suchkovykh of Rings at Trees is a Result of the Directed Movement of Power Streams Concerning an Object.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The reason of formation of spots on gas planets and the suchkovykh of rings at trees is a result of the directed movement of power streams concerning an object.
Category: Astrophysics

[251] viXra:1803.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 08:03:17

Flaw in Duncan's Paradox

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 6 Pages.

Sheehan \cite{Sheehan1} recently discussed the possibility of existence of dynamically-controlled pressure or temperature gradient in black-body cavity. Duncan \cite{Duncan} proposed that if this pressure gradient exist and can be measured in laboratory then it will violate the $2^{nd}$ law of thermodynamics. Sheehan et.al \cite{Sheehna2} performed black-body cavity experiment by using tungsten and rhenium metals, $H_2$ and $He$ as reactants in gas-surface interface reaction and claim that they have indeed measured the temperature difference (equivalent to the pressure difference according to their definition). In this paper we will discuss about the flaw that exist in Duncan's paradox and in Sheehan \cite{Sheehna2} analysis. We will show that $2^{nd}$ law of thermodynamics is still valid in their experiment.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[250] viXra:1803.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 09:19:57

The Advantages and Disadvantages of the Detector

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 16 Pages.

Through the analysis of several key experiments, this paper makes an in-depth demonstration.The impact of the detector on the micro world,Make it clear to the reader.The truth of wave-particle duality.
Category: Quantum Physics

[249] viXra:1803.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 09:50:26

Holistic Resource Management System

Authors: InResLab scarl
Comments: 7 Pages.

I sistemi di facility management, definiti come dei sistemi contenenti dei veicoli e del personale al quale vengono associati dei determinati oggetti in un determinato spazio tridimensionale per lo svolgimento di una determinata operazione, sono un luogo di lavoro dinamico e complesso: mezzi in movimentazione, alta quantità di personale, elevato numero di potenziali situazioni di rischio, grande varietà di strumentazioni (talora anche pericolose), alto numero di scenari differenti. In un contesto così variegato, pertanto, risulta di fondamentale importanza una gestione meticolosa e puntale di tutti gli aspetti caratteristici del sistema di facility management stesso, al fine di migliorare la gestione e la sicurezza dei lavoratori. Vista la varietà di scenari in cui il facility management si cala, nel presente progetto si è cercato di astrarre gli aspetti fondamentali, studiando tecniche e metodologie per realizzare un management intelligente di tali sistemi sotto vari punti di vista, tra cui: gestione delle risorse, sicurezza, prevenzione degli infortuni, alerting e reportistica. Lo studio portato avanti è di tipo metodologico e modellistico, legato all’accuratezza del dato acquisito e al grado di automatizzazione dell’acquisizione. Per tale motivo si è proceduto alla realizzazione di un sistema di tracciamento delle entità – basato non solo sul più noto GPS, ma anche su tecnologie trasversali, in grado di avere informazioni valide in molteplici scenari – in grado di fornire informazioni con elevata accuratezza. Il progetto si prefigge in seguito l’obiettivo di validare statisticamente la precisione delle misurazioni, incrociando i dati provenienti da dispositivi, tecnologie e modalità di acquisizione dati differenti.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[248] viXra:1803.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 12:19:56

New Platforms for Quantum Circuitry

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

If a metal or other conductive material could be made to resemble such a kagome pattern at the atomic scale, with individual atoms arranged in similar triangular patterns, it should in theory exhibit exotic electronic properties. [21] Each individual molecule can conduct electrons. This phenomenon is interesting because the conducting molecules produce unique quantum properties that could potentially be useful in electronics such as transistors, superconducting switches and gas sensors. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[247] viXra:1803.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 12:55:35

Charge Density Analysis Attending Bond Torsion: A Bond Bundle Case Study

Authors: Jordan Goss, Tim Wilson, Amanda Morgenstern, Mark Eberhart
Comments: 19 Pages.

For nearly a century chemical understanding has been tied to the properties of bonds, though more often than not, these bond properties are rooted in molecular orbital or valence bond representations of the electronic structure. Technological advances, however, are allowing for experimental measurements of the density via high resolution x-ray diffraction, while theoretical insights are opening the door to its direct calculation using fast and potentially versatile orbital free DFT methods. Capitalizing on these emerging tools without sacrificing hard won orbital derived understanding has spurred a search for density based representations that deliver the same information available from the orbital perspective. We show that recent extensions of the QTAIM formalism are useful as a means of recovering some of the bond properties that have become an intrinsic part of our chemical understanding. Specifically, we compute from the density the changing bond order accompanying the rotation about a double bond using the well-studied fulvene molecule as a test case. We compare the picture that emerges from this density based perspective with that stemming from molecular orbital approaches and argue that the two viewpoints are compatible.
Category: Chemistry

[246] viXra:1803.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 08:42:25

On the Possible Nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is assumed that the dark matter particle can be a structural unit of cosmological scale (superphoton) emitted by the active center of galaxies, analogous to a photon and ball lightning (macrophoton), which are structural units of micro- and macroscales. The low density, potential and temperature of superphotons make them invisible during astronomical observations, and their negative charge prevents the galaxies from approaching each other that can explain the phenomenon of dark energy. It is shown that the existence of superphotons together with the presence of cosmic rays indicates the conservation of the electric charge as a whole in cosmological scales. It is assumed that the superphoton, like a giant ball lightning with energy of 1.03×1017 J, could collide with the Earth that could explain the Tunguska phenomenon.
Category: Astrophysics

[245] viXra:1803.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 09:18:03

An Universe Finite :Cosmic Microwave Background and Newton Law of Gravitation

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 4 Pages.

Is the Universe finite or infinite ? In this paper we assume that the Universe is finite . The sites for posible stars the Universe could admit of is finite . Such number can be described from a dimensionless parameter . This dimensionless parameter consists of two particular length dimensions : Bohr radius and Planck’s length . Besides length dimensions , since the universe is dynamic , we must include an exponential parameter .
Category: Astrophysics

[244] viXra:1803.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 12:23:21

Sustainable Reason-Based Governance After the Globalisation Complexity Threshold

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 17 pages, 17 refs; work submitted for the Global Challenges Prize 2017, https://globalchallenges.org/en/our-work/the-new-shape-prize; only minor linguistic corrections and references added in this version with respect to the original article

We propose a qualitatively new kind of governance for the emerging need to efficiently guide the densely interconnected, ever more complex world development, which is based on explicit and openly presented problem solutions and their interactive implementation practice within the versatile, but unified professional analysis of complex real-world dynamics, involving both the powerful central units and the attached creative worldwide network of professional representatives. We provide fundamental and rigorous scientific arguments in favour of introduction of just that kind of governance at the modern development stage, after the complexity threshold in the real world dynamics evolution (sometimes intuitively designated as "globalisation"), where the traditional spontaneous-empirical kind of development and related administrative governance lose dramatically and inevitably their efficiency and the necessity of explicit consistent understanding and guidance of complex real-world dynamics becomes evident.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[243] viXra:1803.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 15:25:25

Loose Comments on the Topics of Speed of Light, Generalized Continuity and Abductive Reasoning in Science

Authors: Jerzy Hanckowiak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The possible conclusions resulting from the huge speed of massless objects and certain remarks related to continuity in physics accompanying revolutionary changes are presented. We also show the relationship of the constant velocity of waves propagating in a vacuum with the principle of relativity. We also mention abduction reasoning (retroduction) in science.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[242] viXra:1803.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 16:03:04

The Slowdown of Empty Space with Time "Deceleration" Can Replace Dark Energy Hypothesis

Authors: Mohammed Abdelwhab
Comments: 8 Pages.

It is known that space expands at an increasing rate. In this paper we find that phenomenon of space expansion with accelerated rate can be well explained and understood if we postulate that "empty space have a velocity and its velocity is decreased or slowdown with time, this deceleration makes the meter in past is contracted with respect to the meter in present and second in past is dilated with respect to the second in present. The slowdown of space itself means that length contraction and time dilation are decreased with time, the decreasing in length contraction is observed as space expansion because the light travels from the more contracted space to the less contracted space, while decreasing in time dilation of the universe is observed as time speedup because the light travels from a space with more dilated time to another space with less dilated time. Motion of space itself with different velocities opens the door in front of a new branch of relativity called "empty space relativity" that is refer to change of scales of length and time of the empty space along the timeline of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[241] viXra:1803.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 05:24:07

The Mystery of Mass as Understood from Atomism

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 17 Pages.

Over the past few years I have presented a theory of modern atomism supported by mathematics [1, 2]. In each area of analysis undertaken in this work, the theory leads to the same mathematical end results as Einstein’s special relativity theory when using Einstein-Poincar ́e synchronized clocks. In addition, atomism is grounded in a form of quantization that leads to upper boundary limits on a long series of results in physics, where the upper boundary limits traditionally have led to infinity challenges. In 2014, I introduced a new concept that I coined “time-speed” and showed that this was a way to distinguish mass from energy. Mass can be seen as time-speed and energy as speed. Mass can also be expressed in the normal way in form of kg (or pounds) and in this paper we will show how kg is linked to time-speed. Actually, there are a number of ways to describe mass, and when they are used consistently, they each give the same result. However, modern physics still does not seem to understand what mass truly is. This paper is mainly aimed at readers who have already spent some time studying my mathematical atomism theory. Atomism seems to offer a key to understanding mass and energy at a deeper level than modern physics has attained to date. Modern physics is mostly a top-down theory, while atomism is a bottom-up theory. Atomism starts with the depth of reality and surprisingly this leads to predictions that fit what we can observe.
Category: Quantum Physics

[240] viXra:1803.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 22:29:23

The Course of History :Substantive Philosophy of History and the Scientific Study of History Explained

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 14 Pages.

The ultimate cause of much historical, social and cultural change is the gradual accumulation of human knowledge of the environment. Human beings use the materials in their environment to meet their needs and increased human knowledge of the environment enables human needs to be met in a more efficient manner. The human environment has a particular structure so that human knowledge of the environment is acquired in a particular order. The simplest knowledge is acquired first and more complex knowledge is acquired later. The order of discovery determines the course of human social and cultural history as knowledge of new and more efficient means of meeting human needs, results in new technology, which results in the development of new social and ideological systems. This means human social and cultural history, has to follow a particular course, a course that is determined by the structure of the human environment. Given that a certain level of knowledge will result in a particular type of society, it is possible to ascertain the types of societies that were inevitable in human history. The course of history is not random and can be rationally and scientifically understood.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[239] viXra:1803.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 00:20:16

Discussing Modern Updated Criteria for Judging Autoimmune Disease

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 5 Pages.

Witebsky’s criteria for autoimmune diseases were used for decades since 1957. His postulates are: 1. Direct demonstration of free circulating antibodies active at body temperature 2. Recognition of the specific antigen 3. Production of antibodies against same antigen in experimental animals 4. Experimental animal demonstrates same tissue changes in human. More updated and applicable criteria for autoimmune disorders are required due to recent advance in molecular immunology. Here, I propose new criteria. Possible criteria is HLA association. Probable criteria is HLA association plus TH subtype restriction without pathogen. Definite criteria is experimentally reproducible by autoantibody or self reactive T cell transfer. Optional criteria is Clinical or pathology clues. This new criteria is more practical. It should help to explore the actual disease pathophysiology and lead to better diagnosis and treatment strategies.
Category: Biochemistry

[238] viXra:1803.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 04:19:58

Interference Mitigation Techniques in Modern Wireless Communication Systems

Authors: Alexandros-Apostolos A. Boulogeorgos
Comments: 231 Pages. PhD Thesis

During the last decades, wireless communications have evolved from a scarce technology, used by professionals for niche applications to a rapidly advancing research field. Ever increasing proliferation of smart devices, the introduction of new emerging multimedia applications, together with an exponential rise in wireless data (multimedia) demand and usage are already creating a significant burden on existing wireless systems. Future wireless networks, with improved data rates, capacity, latency, and quality of service (QoS) requirements, are expected to be the panacea of most of the current wireless systems’ problems. Interference management is critical towards this goal, whereas transceiver design and implementation are expected to play an important role. This thesis investigates the influence of interference in wireless systems, revisits promising network- and user-side interference management solutions, as well as studies the impact of interference, caused by hardware imperfections, on the performance of the wireless link and propose countermeasures. The thesis is divided into two parts. In the first part of the thesis, different types of interference and modern interference management solutions, which are expected to be used in the future wireless networks, are reviewed. Moreover, the influence of fading and interference, due to the existence of multiple possible users operating simultaneously in the same carrier frequency, on the spectrum sensing capability of a low-complexity energy detector (ED) is investigated. Analytical tools for the performance evaluation of this problem, i.e., the false alarm and detection probabilities, are derived, while the problem of appropriately selecting the energy detection threshold and the spectrum sensing duration, in order to satisfy a specific requirement, is discussed. The results reveal the detrimental effect of interference and the importance of taking into consideration the wireless environment when evaluating the ED spectrum sensing performance and selecting the ED threshold. Finally, the offered analytical framework can be applied in cognitive radio systems, which are included in several wireless standards, and are expected to be employed in ultra-dense wireless environments. The second part of this thesis investigates the impact of transceivers radio frequency (RF) front-end imperfections on the performance of the wireless system. RF imperfections generally result to signal distortion in single-carrier communications, while, in multi-carrier communications, they additionally cause interference. In both cases, RF imperfections may cause significant degradation to the quality of the wireless link, which becomes more severe as the data rates increases. Motivated by this, after briefly illustrating the influence of different types of RF imperfections, namely in-phase and quadrature imbalance (IQI), phase noise, and amplifiers non-linearities, the analytical framework for the evaluation and quantification of the effect of IQI on wireless communications in the context of cascaded fading channels, is derived. To this end, closed-form expressions for the outage probability over N∗Nakagami-m channels for both the cases of single- and multi-carrier communications, when at least one communication node suffers from IQI, are provided. To justify the importance and practical usefulness of the analysis, the offered expressions along with several deduced corresponding special cases are employed in the context of vehicle-to-vehicle communications. This study gives critical insight for the performance degradation in wireless communications, due to RF imperfections, and indicates the need for designing proper RF imperfections compensation techniques. Next, the impact of IQI and partial successive interference suppression (SIS) in the spectrum sensing of full duplex CR systems, for both the cases of single- and multi-carrier ED, is studied. In this context, closed-form expressions are derived for the false alarm and detection probabilities, in the general case, where partial SIS and joint transmitter and receiver IQI are considered. The derived expressions can be used in order to properly select the energy detection threshold that maximizes the ED spectrum sensing capabilities. Additionally, the joint influence of fading and several RF impairments on energy detection based spectrum sensing for CR systems in multi-channel environments is investigated. After assuming flat-fading Rayleigh channels and complex Gaussian transmitted signals, as well as proving that, for a given channel realization, the joint effect of RF impairments can be modeled as a complex Gaussian process, closed-form expressions for the probabilities of false alarm and detection are derived. Based on these expressions, the impact of RF impairments and fading on the spectrum sensing capability of the ED is studied. The results illustrated the degrading influence of RF imperfections on the ED spectrum sensing performance, which bring significant losses in the utilization of the spectrum. Furthermore, the impact of uncompensated IQI on orthogonal frequency division multiple access (OFDMA) systems, in which a power allocation (PA) policy is employed in order to maximize each user’s capacity, is demonstrated. To overcome, the user’s capacity loss, due to IQI, a novel, low-complexity PA strategy is presented, which, by taking into account the levels of IQI of the served users, notably enhance each user’s achievable capacity. Finally, a novel low-complexity scheme, which improves the performance of single-antenna multi-carrier communication systems, suffering from IQI at the receiver, is proposed. The proposed scheme, which we refer to as I/Q imbalance self-interference coordination (IQSC), not only mitigate the detrimental effect of IQI, but, through appropriate signal processing, also coordinates the self-interference terms produced by IQI, in order to achieve second-order frequency diversity. In order to evaluate the performance of IQSC, closed-form expressions for the resulting outage probability and symbol error rate are derived. The findings reveal that IQSC is a promising low-complexity technique for significantly increasing the reliability of low-cost devices that suffer from high levels of IQI.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[237] viXra:1803.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 04:29:40

Plasmons in Nanotube Quantum Wells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

A novel quantum effect observed in a carbon nanotube film could lead to the development of unique lasers and other optoelectronic devices, according to scientists at Rice University and Tokyo Metropolitan University. [39] This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[236] viXra:1803.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-19 06:42:39

"Impossibility of the Simple Cubic Metal in Nature"

Authors: Gokaran Shukla
Comments: 12 Pages.

In nature, metal only exist in $bcc$, $fcc$ and $hcp$ crystal structure. Question arises that why we do not have simple cubic metal in nature. In this paper we will discuss about the impossibility of the existence of the simple cubic metal by using the Brillouin zones and Bragg's plane diffraction condition and will show that the ``impossibility'' arises due to pure quantum mechanical effect rather than the packing fraction. We will also show that $why$ certain material have the band-gap while others are not. We will develop a general rule applicable to all crystal structures to decide whether it will be insulator, semi-metal or metal in nature. For a test case we will use our developed rule and will explain the long lasting mysterious question in condense matter physics that $why$ boron is insulator while aluminum is metal although they belong to the same group in periodic table; why carbon is insulator in diamond cubic crystal structure while metal in graphite form; why antimony and bismuth are such a poor conductor (semi-metal); why $hcp$ crystal structure $\frac{c}{a}$ ratio must be distorted in-order to behaves like a metal.
Category: Condensed Matter

[235] viXra:1803.0265 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-03 05:16:57

The Admissible Domain of the Non-Trivial Zeros of the Riemann Zeta Function

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the present study we used the Dirichlet eta function as an extension of the Riemann zeta function in the strip Re(s) in ]0, 1[. We then determined the domain of admissible complex zeros of the Riemann zeta function in this strip using minimal constraints and the symmetries of the function. We also checked for zeros outside this strip. We found that the admissible domain of complex zeros excluding the trivial zeros is the critical line given by Re(s) = 1/2 as stated in the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: Number Theory

[234] viXra:1803.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 16:45:33

Hawking Radiation: A Violation of the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamics

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 8 Pages.

This is a copy of the slides I presented on 3/17/2018 at the New England Section Meeting of the American Physical Society in Boston, MA. The link to the abstract is as follows: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/NES18/Session/D01.3
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[233] viXra:1803.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 17:12:50

QSO – The Mathematics and Physics of Quasi-Spherical Orbits

Authors: R. G. Chester
Comments: 275-page book in English. Links to internet resources are included.

The purpose of this work is to present a more realistic model for a number of dynamic three–dimensional physical phenomena which are traditionally depicted statically in two dimensions and are therefore misleading. It is also to provide a model for phenomena which are regarded as conceivable only in abstract mathematical terms, and are therefore thought to be permanently inaccessible to the non–specialist. The use of the QSO model will reveal pattern and enable analysis in hitherto untouched areas.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[232] viXra:1803.0262 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-22 04:41:26

Double Slit Experiment

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

The double slit experiment has a measurement problem, physicists believe that the results are magical but they are not. They don't realize that there is a hidden element in that experiment, those interference waves are not created by the particles.
Category: Quantum Physics

[231] viXra:1803.0261 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 01:45:55

Equivalence Principle is not Correct

Authors: Ranganath G. Kulkarni
Comments: 1 Page.

It is found that mass and time are absolute quantities. If the psuedo force is acting, then the mass of the body is constant at all instants of time. We can distinguish the type of force acting on the body. Therefore equivalence principle is not correct.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[230] viXra:1803.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 02:54:43

On Hawkings Error

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

Hawking radiation is currently considered by the academic community as being a proven fact however nothing could be further from the truth. It is nothing more than a theory based upon several other as yet unproven theories. Hawking radiation is a theory that can be disproven so simply that any high school physics student can accomplish this with just one equation and little basic logic. There are also blatantly obvious logical errors in the theory itself which will be explained. It does however require thought and the motivation to do so which is the purpose of this paper suggesting why the Hawking radiation theory should be abandoned.
Category: Astrophysics

[229] viXra:1803.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-18 03:39:59

Mysticism of the Russian Flag.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky
Comments: 4 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Similarities were found between the colors of the Russian flag and the location of haplogupp N1 and R1a on the territory of Russia.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[228] viXra:1803.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 06:21:19

Discussion About the Interaction Between Current Elements Proposal of a New Force Law

Authors: Sánchez Uriarte Óscar, Sánchez Cánovas Julio
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this article, a new force law between current elements is proposed which holds the 3rd Newton's Law and concides with known experimental measurements avoiding the contradictions of Ampère and Grassman expressions. Likewise, an interaction expression between point charges is postulated which satisfies action reaction principle and is Galileo Invariant. This opens the way to a revision of the concept of magnetic field and a further study of the interaction between moving charged bodies. Keywords: Grassman, Ampère, Whittaker, Maxwell, Lorentz Force, Third Newton's Law, Action-Reaction Principle, Magnetic Field.
Category: Classical Physics

[227] viXra:1803.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 06:52:01

Piezomagnetic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33]
Category: Condensed Matter

[226] viXra:1803.0256 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-25 22:23:55

Quantum Gravity: Reconciliation of Gravity and Quantum Mechanics

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: Pages.

There cannot be quantum gravity.
Although gravity and the other "forces" all work by the same means -- threads -- the situation and configurations are totally different.

Gravitational Force:

This is an atom representation: ~~~~~(●)~~~~~
This is a thread network unit (Flux): ~~~~~╳~~~~~ It is made from 10 full length threads joined at their centers (or 20 radii emanating from a common center)

Gravity is full length threads pulling atoms together via simple thread tension.

~~~~~(●)~~~~~∙~~~~~╳~~~~~∙~~~~~╳~~~~~∙~~~~~(●)~~~~~

There must be individual yet connected threads pulling something together. The distance can be small -- for instance one thread separation -- but it cannot be inside of an atom. That is NOT the way it works -- gravity is one or more full length threads with tension on them. If stuff gets close enough to touch -- other "forces" take over.

Electro-magnetic Force:

Here are two electrons...

~~~~~∗~~~~~ ~~~~~∗~~~~~

When electrons are close enough to attach or bond together: there are two full length threads -- one from each electron -- completely twisted together (but still full length).

~~~~~∗≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The electrons are literally tied to one another, that is much stronger than a simple thread tension pull.

Strong Force:

A free proton would look like this ~~~~~●~~~~~(that's one free thread, 18 balled, one free thread)
A free neutron would look like this ●~~~~~ (19 balled, and one free thread)
A free neutrino would look like this (20 balled)
A free electron would look like this ~~~~~∗~~~~~ (one free thread, 18 free threads in a disc shape, one free thread)

When one proton thread ~~~~~●~~~~~
and the neutron thread ●~~~~~
ball up (knot) together ●●~~~~~ that is the strong force.
Add an electron to that package ●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~ and you also get the EM force (package aka deuterium)

neutron / knot / proton / twist / electron / thread

●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~

The "knot" is just threads (like everything else) and it is balled-up between the neutron and the proton so you cannot see it. A balled-up knot is much stronger than a twist.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[225] viXra:1803.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:22:23

Interaction Between the Nucleons in the Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Nesho Kolev Neshev
Comments: 5 Pages.

The work presented here considers the cause and character of the nuclear forces acting between the nucleons in the atomic nucleus. It postulates that the nuclear interaction is the result of resonance phenomena between the interacting nucleons. The presented model of the interaction is shown to match known experimental data with great accuracy.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[224] viXra:1803.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:27:33

Misconceptions Concerning Negative Absolute Temperatures.

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 3 Pages.

The issue of negative absolute temperatures is addressed anew in the light of fairly recent publications in the scientific literature which have totally misrepresented the position of such temperatures on the accepted absolute temperature scale. In particular, claims have been advanced that such temperatures are in fact lower than positive absolute temperatures in violation of the Third Law of Thermodynamics and incidentally in violation of all the work - both theoretical and experimental - of the original investigators of the phenomenon.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[223] viXra:1803.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:30:16

Zero Field Switching

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

An unexpected phenomenon known as zero field switching (ZFS) could lead to smaller, lower-power memory and computing devices than presently possible. [39] This "piezomagnetic" material changes its magnetic properties when put under mechanical strain. [38] Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[222] viXra:1803.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:38:49

Tait, Force and Entropy

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 4 Pages.

Almost 150 years ago, Peter Guthrie Tait gave a lecture to a British Association meeting and took as his subject 'force'. His conclusions were both interesting and controversial but possibly offer a means to understanding better the notion of entropy as it appears in classical thermodynamics. This suggestion, however, applies to entropy - or, more accurately, to entropy difference - as it appears in classical thermodynamics and not to the quantity with the same name which occurs in statistical mechanics and information theory. Finally, there is included a brief examination of the plethora of recent claims to have identified violations of the Second Law of Thermodynamics in nanosized systems. Doubt is cast on the validity of such claims.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[221] viXra:1803.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:44:35

Some Thoughts on Basic Thermodynamics

Authors: Jeremy Dunning-Davies
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here attention returns to the fundamental starting point for classical thermodynamics - the notion of a heat engine working in a cycle. What follows is based exclusively on the lucid writings of Peter Guthrie Tait and much of the argument closely follows his original. However, this is used to illustrate how modern physics has tended to stray away from the basics of this crucially important topic of thermodynamics. Attention is drawn to the difference between such classical thermodynamics and statistical thermodynamics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[220] viXra:1803.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-24 09:43:00

The Simplest and Accurate Theory of Proton and Neutron Based on Only Six Parameters that are Experimental Values

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 14 Pages.

Here, we present the simplest version of the atom-like structure of baryons. We use six parameters only that are experimental values. They are the three fundamental physical constants, the mass of electron and the two masses of pions. There do not appear free parameters. We calculated masses of nucleons and their magnetic moments. Obtained results are in very good consistency with experimental data. For example, calculated magnetic moment of proton is +2.7928471 (the experimental value is +2.792847351(9) [2]) so the 7 first significant digits are the same. The same is for the mass of proton - we obtained 938.272065 MeV (the experimental result is 938.272081(6) MeV [2]). Here we apply the experimental central values for five from the six parameters because accuracy of the experimental mass of neutral pion is very low. To obtain the perfect results, we use the theoretical mass of neutral pion (134.97678 MeV) which overlaps with the interval defined by experiments: 134.9770(5) MeV [2]. Due to future more precise data for mass of neutral pion, we will able to verify presented here theory of nucleons. Emphasize that our results are much, much better than values obtained within the Standard Model despite the fact that our model contains at least 5 times less parameters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[219] viXra:1803.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 09:20:30

Black Holes Like Aspirin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

When Stephen Hawking postulated in the mid-1970s that black holes leak radiation, slowly dissolving like aspirin in a glass of water, he overturned a core tenet of the Universe. [10] That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[218] viXra:1803.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 10:22:49

Neural Tissue Mimic

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

U.S. Army-funded researchers at Brandeis University have discovered a process for engineering next-generation soft materials with embedded chemical networks that mimic the behavior of neural tissue. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[217] viXra:1803.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 11:26:59

Weak Turbulence Makes Chirping

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Such chirping signals a loss of heat that can slow fusion reactions, a loss that has long puzzled scientists. [15] Physicists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and computer scientists from Lobachevsky University have developed a new software tool called PICADOR for numerical modeling of laser plasmas on modern supercomputers. [14]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[216] viXra:1803.0245 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-31 04:43:44

[Add to Mendeley] [Add to Citeulike] [Add to Facebook] Mycobacterium Avium Subspecies Paratuberculosis is the Cause of Crohn's Disease

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 30 pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukcic, Jever, Germany. Published by: Modern Health Science, Vol. 1, No. 1, 2018. https://doi.org/10.30560/mhs.v1n1p19

Objective: This systematic review assesses the causal relationship between Mycobac-terium avium subspecies paratuberculosis (MAP) and Crohn’s disease (CD). Methods: A systematic review and meat-analysis of some impressive PCR based stud-ies is provided aimed to answer among other questions the following question. Is there a cause effect relationship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease? The method of the conditio per quam relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis guarantees the presence of Crohn’s disease. In other words, if Crohn’s disease is present, then Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Result: The studies analyzed (number of cases and controls N=1076) were able to pro-vide evidence that Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) and sufficicent conditions of Crohn’s disease. Furthermore, the studies analyzed provide impressive evidence of a cause-effect relation-ship between Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis and Crohn’s disease. Conclusion: Mycobacterium avium subspecies paratuberculosis is the cause of Crohn’s disease
Category: Statistics

[215] viXra:1803.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 14:28:12

Are the “quarks” and the “electron” Elementary Particles?

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 9 Pages.

The value of the charge of the “quark down” that is 1/3 of the value of the charge of the electron, limits the smallest charge subdivision has hitherto been identified. This means that all the particles with multiple charges, thus “quark up” and “electron”, are divisible particles. In this paper will identify the subdivisions of the quarks and the electron and will study how these particles are created from these subdivisions. In Fig. 2 of this work are given the structures of quarks up and down and of the electron. Extending for a bit the subject of the work, suggests in Figure 3, a new structure of the atom where the various stages of the creation of the sub-atomic particles are noted too.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[214] viXra:1803.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 16:13:04

Energy Wave Equations: Correction Factors

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 10 pages

The equations in Energy Wave Theory accurately model particle energy, photon energy, forces, atomic orbitals and derive 19 fundamental physical constants from only five wave constants. Yet three correction factors are apparent in the equations, even though all three can be derived from the wave constants. In this paper, a potential reason for these factors is discussed and the potential of consolidating the three factors into one, based on the velocity of the Earth, which was neglected in the original construction of the Energy Wave equations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[213] viXra:1803.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 18:19:17

Proof of Playfair’s Axiom Hits a Roadblock

Authors: Prashanth R. Rao
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Playfair’s axiom is considered an equivalent of Euclid’s fifth postulate or parallel postulate in Euclidean planar geometry. It states that in a given plane, with a line in the plane and a point outside the line that is also in the same plane, one and only one line passes through that point that is also parallel to the given line. Previous proofs of Euclid’s postulate or the Playfair’s axiom have unintentionally assumed parallel postulate to prove it. Also, these axioms have different results in hyperbolic and spherical geometries. We offer proof for the Playfair’s axiom for subset of cases in the context of plane Euclidean geometry and describe another subset of cases that cannot be proven by the same approach.
Category: Geometry

[212] viXra:1803.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 01:29:00

As Twin Brothers Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Nature of Origin of a Crater of "Monster Eyes" on Earth is Similar to a Crater "Spider" on Mercury /

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The nature of origin of a crater of "Monster eyes" on Earth is similar to a crater "Spider" on Mercury /
Category: Astrophysics

[211] viXra:1803.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 01:39:47

Concerning Relativity Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. in the Universe Everything Concerning Space of Anything, God and Time! it Belongs Both to Material, and to Inner World!

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the Universe everything concerning space of Anything, God and Time! It belongs both to material, and to inner world!
Category: Astrophysics

[210] viXra:1803.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 02:59:08

Maxwell Field Equations in Euclidean Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work we formulate Maxwell field equations in Euclidean relativity. Since there is no upper limit for the speed of transmission in Euclidean relativity, the Euclidean relativistic electromagnetic field and the Euclidean relativistic Dirac field may be applied to rectify the EPR paradox in quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[209] viXra:1803.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 03:15:42

The Banded Future Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. Rings of Saturn Are a Consequence of the Climatic Climate Changes of Solar System Caused by Her Movement in the Galaxy and the Galaxy in the Universe.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 3 Pages.

Rings of Saturn are a consequence of the climatic climate changes of Solar system caused by her movement in the galaxy and the galaxy in the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[208] viXra:1803.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 03:26:50

Shadows Disappear at Midnight Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Luminescence of the Moon in the Period of a Lunar Eclipse is Caused by a Deviation of Rays of Light Near Massive Objects Specularly in Different Directions.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The luminescence of the Moon in the period of a lunar eclipse is caused by a deviation of rays of light near massive objects specularly in different directions.
Category: Astrophysics

[207] viXra:1803.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 03:39:23

As Stub Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. the Cause of Climatic Rings of Saturn and Annual Rings of Trees – Same.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 2 Pages.

The cause of climatic rings of Saturn and annual rings of trees – same.
Category: Astrophysics

[206] viXra:1803.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 04:10:36

In Vain Look for the Cat Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.v. the Solar System Should Have no Eighth Planet, and Gravitational Impact on Planets of Solar System is Exerted by Her Power Cover.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The Solar system should have no eighth planet, and gravitational impact on planets of Solar system is exerted by her power cover.
Category: Astrophysics

[205] viXra:1803.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 07:55:12

Quantum Spin Liquid Prepared

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[204] viXra:1803.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 09:01:45

Spin Arrangement Observation by Neutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

For the first time in the world, NIMS, JAEA and J-PARC jointly succeeded in observing electron spin arrangements in sample materials by applying a neutron beam to a sample and quantifying the neutrons transmitted through it. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[203] viXra:1803.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 09:33:47

Diodes Made of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

'Haye and his team at NPL have created an optical version of a diode that transmits light in one direction only, and can be integrated in microphotonic circuits. [25] Operation at the single-photon level raises the possibility of developing entirely new communication and computing devices, ranging from hardware random number generators to quantum computers. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20] A team of researchers from the U.S. and Italy has built a quantum memory device that is approximately 1000 times smaller than similar devices— small enough to install on a chip. [19] The cutting edge of data storage research is working at the level of individual atoms and molecules, representing the ultimate limit of technological miniaturisation. [18] This is an important clue for our theoretical understanding of optically controlled magnetic data storage media. [17] A crystalline material that changes shape in response to light could form the heart of novel light-activated devices. [16] Now a team of Penn State electrical engineers have a way to simultaneously control diverse optical properties of dielectric waveguides by using a two-layer coating, each layer with a near zero thickness and weight. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[202] viXra:1803.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 10:02:19

Spin-Based Memory Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A voltage sensing scheme developed by researchers from Singapore could improve the accuracy of reading data from spin-based memory systems with only minimal modifications. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[201] viXra:1803.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 10:25:59

Ultra-Dense Electron-Positron Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and computer scientists from Lobachevsky University have developed a new software tool called PICADOR for numerical modeling of laser plasmas on modern supercomputers. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[200] viXra:1803.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 10:32:34

Refutation of Time as the Coexistence of Past, Present, Future © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

No abstract needed for this elementary proof.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[199] viXra:1803.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 13:42:56

All Special Relativity Equations Obtained with Galilean Transformation & Einstein Field Equations Obtained Only with Gauss Curvature and Zoom Universe Model Characteristics.( Zoom Theory )

Authors: Sergio Garcia Chimeno
Comments: 20 Pages. Two previous "letters" in vixra joined in an article

Demonstration of how to do that the light velocity c be the same independently of the velocity of the observer and obtain the mass-energy equivalence E = mc^2 using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics. Demonstration of how to interpret it the time dilation/length contraction typical of the special relativity using the Galilean transformations and the 4 dimensions zoom-universe model characteristics. Demonstration of how to obtain the typical waves equation with transmission velocity c and how to obtain it through the medium for transmission of light given by the zoom-universe model. Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations without using the Stress-Energy Tensor, without using the Bianchi Identities and without using the Energy Conservation to obtain it. Demonstration of how to obtain the Einstein Field Equations only using the Gauss Curvature and the zoom universe model characteristics. Gravity in zoom universe model. Special relativity zoom. General relativity zoom. Sphere and Hypersphere example to understand it better.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[198] viXra:1803.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 20:17:04

Sum of Simple Prime Numbers

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the sum of simple prime numbers by golden pattern.
Category: Number Theory

[197] viXra:1803.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 15:03:20

The Geocentric Testimony of our Tides

Authors: Robert Bennett
Comments: 4 Pages.

Static gravity alone accounts for the observation of the double tides on opposite sides of the earth and the different range of the lunar and solar tides. When the centrifugal acceleration of the Earth’s orbital speed is added to the gravitational accelerations, the HelioC theory is exposed as fictitious. There is no evidence of a centrifugal acceleration ...or force... in the tidal behavior. This agrees with other GC tests, like Newton’s Bucket, Sagnac’s rotor and R. Wang’s linear Sagnac version. Conversely, there are no proofs by scientific method testing or realistic interpretation that the Earth orbits the Sun. The rise and fall of the tides around the world is a semi-diurnal repetitive demonstration of the Earth’s central position in the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[196] viXra:1803.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 23:10:52

ЦАРское слово русского языка.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 24 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Abstract. Авторами найдено и обосновано одно из самых распространённых, древних, и основных слов русского языка. Статья опубликована в 2007 на нескольких российских научных форумах, на сайте Universe100, и на Макспарке в 2011 году.
Category: Linguistics

[195] viXra:1803.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 01:01:57

Русь изначальная. Тартария.

Authors: Alexander I. Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 5 Pages. dubinyansky@mail.ru

Изложена краткая история России. Новый взгляд.
Category: Social Science

[194] viXra:1803.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 02:19:32

Experiment that Find Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

University of Houston scientists are helping to develop a technology that could hold the key to unraveling one of the great mysteries of science: what constitutes dark matter? [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] “We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit.” [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[193] viXra:1803.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 02:37:45

Compact Fiber Optic Sensor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers have developed a new flexible sensor with high sensitivity that is designed to perform variety of chemical and biological analyses in very small spaces. [37] In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[192] viXra:1803.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 05:37:57

Redefining Imaginary and Complex Numbers, Defining Imaginary and Complex Objects

Authors: Huseyin Ozel
Comments: 44 Pages.

The existing definition of imaginary numbers is solely based on the fact that certain mathematical operation, square operation, would not yield certain type of outcome, negative numbers; hence such operational outcome could only be imagined to exist. Although complex numbers actually form the largest set of numbers, it appears that almost no thought has been given until now into the full extent of all possible types of imaginary numbers. A close look into what further non-existing numbers could be imagined help reveal that we could actually expand the set of imaginary numbers, redefine complex numbers, as well as define imaginary and complex mathematical objects other than merely numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[191] viXra:1803.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 06:27:40

Magnon Spin Currents

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

In the emerging field of magnon spintronics, researchers seek to transport and process information by means of so-called magnon spin currents. [25] Working together, Miller, Boehme, Vardeny and their colleagues have shown that an organic-based magnet can carry waves of quantum mechanical magnetization, called magnons, and convert those waves to electrical signals. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[190] viXra:1803.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 08:22:32

On the Dark Covering Capacity of Light and the Unification of Dark with Light

Authors: Tejas Chandrakant Thakare.
Comments: 10 Pages.

Light has properties such as polarization, interference, diffraction etc. This paper presents the new property of light and its relation with dark. This relation also useful for describing dark in terms of light`s parameter. We treated dark as absence of light but this paper presents dark`s systematical description and hence presents dark`s relation with light.
Category: Quantum Physics

[189] viXra:1803.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 09:14:20

No Actually Quantum Speed Limits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

The results are surprising, as previous research has suggested that quantum speed limits are purely quantum in nature and vanish for classical systems. [30] In recent years, however, the limits to that technology have become clear: Chip components can only get so small, and be packed only so closely together, before they overlap or short-circuit. If companies are to continue building ever-faster computers, something will need to change. [29] This new understanding of the origin of magnetic flux noise could lead to frequency-tunable superconducting qubits with improved dephasing times for practical quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[188] viXra:1803.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 09:47:56

Space Lattice Theory

Authors: Bruce Nappi
Comments: 244 pages, 30 figures

Space Lattice Theory is a study of the fundamental structure of the universe. The study asks what that structure might be like if, instead of being mostly an empty void, space is a densely packed, crystal-like Lattice, and the existence and interaction of what we call matter is due to movable defects or dislocations in the Lattice. This theoretical study found that a dislocation model could produce a comprehensive set of simple, visualizable explanations for most of the concepts of physics, including many that are currently unanswered. It explains matter, time, cause and effect, energy, and how energy converts to matter. It explains gravity and electric and magnetic fields; how they can be physical realities, and how they could work.

Space Lattice Theory supports a “big bang”-like beginning for a 3-D “visible” universe, explaining how it could easily emerge from what appears to be the nothingness of space, but without having to change any laws of physics. Puzzles like the particle-wave nature of photons are explained. Problems with current theories for subatomic particles, cosmology and Special Relativity are discussed. New models are suggested.

Most significantly, Space Lattice Theory presents a comprehensive model for the Grand Unification of all forces and matter in the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[187] viXra:1803.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 10:00:00

World of Dark Matter Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

There is absolutely no guarantee that we will discover a dark matter particle. But we might. And that could change our understanding of everything. [23] A team of researchers from the U.S., New Zealand, Australia and Germany has found evidence suggesting that a type of star formation near the center of the Milky Way is responsible for large gamma ray emissions, not dark matter. [22] The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[186] viXra:1803.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 12:14:05

Spin Current in DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Recently, researchers from the China University of Mining and Technology have theoretically exposed the fundamental aspects of this thermal transport along double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules. This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Physics of Biology

[185] viXra:1803.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 12:19:50

The Atoms Energy Stores and Photon

Authors: Markos Georgallides
Comments: 36 Pages.

Article [67] is a Summary of prior [64-65-66] and because of its energy value , I believe that a wider discussion of it is for the benefit both the scientific development of knowledge from misconceptions of science , the application to new sources of energy , and in which is referred , a.. The Material points are produced from the unclashed , Matter (+) and Anti-matter (-) , lying into Energy-Chaos and following the Glue-Bond-Principle and NOT the Forced-collision . b.. The Spin of monads which is the Angular-Momentum vector ,B, due to the eternal rotation of (+) Space around the (-) Anti-space and the HOW and the WHY Spin is  ½ or  1 . c.. Part of the Total-Energy produced in Primary particles from a ,Circular-motion, is trapped into wavelength λ, of particles as a Stationary-wave with 1,2,3,,n, lobes and ,n, frequencies following the Stationary-Wave-Nodes-Principle and which consists the Energy-tanks of particles . d.. Part of the Total-Energy produced in Primary particles from a ,Cycloidal-motion, is stored in Energy-tanks of cave ,λ, as the ,n, frequencies due to oscillations , and additionally because of the centrifugal acceleration is created the Skin-effect at Stress-common-curve and the Kinetic-energy as an Electromagnetic-wave moves Outward the cave . Electromagnetic-wave and others are following the Breakage-Principle which is [(+) Space as the Electric-field , (-) Anti-space as the Magnetic-field , and (0=λ) the Energy-loop as the Energy-tank of particle . e.. In case of the Compound particles as the Bohr model of atoms Breakage-Principle is still existing , particularly on the three Constituents and on all Total structure (formation) as , the Nucleus = The Space = the matter and the equal in charge counterpart Electron = The Anti-space = the Anti-matter , and Orbitals = The Energy loop as the Energy-tanks of atom. All above were analytically presented in the three prior articles and the present is a general summary of forgoing.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[184] viXra:1803.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 12:26:45

Confirmation of the Crothers Refutation for the Special Theory of Relativity © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

Using four variables, we replicate the logic in and confirm the refutation of Stephen J. Crothers for the special theory of relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[183] viXra:1803.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 12:47:07

A Revised and Improved Energy Flow Diagram is Shown for an HCE8S Universe

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 5 Pages.

Abstract: A more complete and improved forward-time, reverse-time energy cycle of the 9th cycle of an HCE8S universe for a full loop of the cycle shown.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[182] viXra:1803.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 13:08:18

Single Molecule Electrical Conductance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Each individual molecule can conduct electrons. This phenomenon is interesting because the conducting molecules produce unique quantum properties that could potentially be useful in electronics such as transistors, superconducting switches and gas sensors. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12] For the first time, physicists have performed an experiment confirming that thermodynamic processes are irreversible in a quantum system—meaning that, even on the quantum level, you can't put a broken egg back into its shell. The results have implications for understanding thermodynamics in quantum systems and, in turn, designing quantum computers and other quantum information technologies. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[181] viXra:1803.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 13:08:33

Minkowski-Einstein Spacetime: Insight from the Pythagorean Theorem

Authors: Stephen J Crothers
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Pythagorean Theorem, combined with the analytic geometry of a right circular cone, has been used by H. Minkowski and subsequent investigators to establish the 4-dimensional spacetime continuum associated with A. Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity. Although the mathematics appears sound, the incorporation of a hyper-cone into the analytic geometry of a right triangle in Euclidean 3-space is in conflict with the rules of pure mathematics. A metric space of n dimensions is necessarily defined in terms of n independent coordinates, one for each dimension. Any coordinate that is a combination of the others for a given space is not independent so cannot be an independent dimension. Minkowski-Einstein spacetime contains a dimensional coordinate, via the speed of light, that is not independent. Consequently, Minkowski-Einstein spacetime does not exist.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[180] viXra:1803.0206 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-18 20:27:50

Stephen W. Hawking's Grand Legacy

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 8 Pages.

Main paper and foreword.
Category: Social Science

[179] viXra:1803.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 20:57:49

A 2018 Cosmological Redshift Data Set Analysis

Authors: douG Snell
Comments: 19 Pages. Keywords: Cosmological Redshift, Hubble Expansion, Relativity, Gravity, covariance.

Abstract- This paper is an analysis of three data sets modeled to represent the physical processes of single mass points in a well defined geometric space. The First data set represents gravitational contraction modeled as derivative of Einstein Field Equation(s), a well confirmed accepted equation with theory. The Second data set modeled is a reverse of the First data set. This is a model of the physical processes of expansion of single mass points in well defined space using the reverse of First data set’s modeled physical processes. The Third data set represents the Hubble Space Telescope Key Project cosmological redshift data set modeled as single mass points, representing the Hubble expansion. All three data sets are modeled with respective physical processes, represented by 3 dimensional cubes with vector arrows plotted, then analyzed by comparison of three individual single dimension slices of each of the three data set models. The three dimensional slices are analyzed, comparing one slice from each of the x, y z axis with each of the three data sets. The Second data set when compared to the Third data set provides significant findings. The Third data set indicates physical processes limited to a single dimension, the z axis, giving a appearance of a self-centered expansion. The First and Second data set Point of View analysis indicate no contradiction, the Third data set Point of View analysis indicates a contradiction.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[178] viXra:1803.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 03:46:25

Revival of the Sakaton

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sakaton, S=p,n,Λ with integral charges, 1,0,0, respectively, and treated as forming the fundamental representation of SU(3) group, was successful in explaining the octet mesons but failed to describe the structure of baryons. This was replaced by fractionally charged quarks. Q=u,d,s providing the fundamental representation of the SU(3) group. This has been a thumping success. Thus a decent burial was given to the concept of the Sakaton. However, there is another model, the Topological Skyrme model, which has been providing a parallel and successful description of the same hadrons. Nevertheless, sometimes this other model gives tantalizing hints of new structures in hadrons. In this paper we prove that this topological Skyrme model, leads to a clear revival of the above concept of Sakaton, as a real and a genuine physical entity. This provides a new perspective to the hypernuclei. ’t Hooft anomaly matching gives an unambiguous support to this revival of the Sakaton.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[177] viXra:1803.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 03:53:57

Cold Plasma Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

University of British Columbia researchers have found a new system that could help yield 'warmer' quantum technologies. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[176] viXra:1803.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-23 05:35:52

Recent Advances in Refutations and Validations Using Meth8 Modal Logic Model Checker © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 263 Pages. © Copyright 2016-2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Abstract updated at: ersatz-systems.com Email: info@cec-services dot com

We evaluate 187 items for 1008 assertions to validate 230 as tautology and 778 as not (77%). We use Meth8 that is a modal logic checker in five models. The Meth8 modal theorem prover implements the logic system variant VŁ4 which corrects the quaternary Ł4 of Łukasiewicz. There are two sets of truth values on the 2-tuple {00, 10, 01, 11} as respectively {False proof for contradiction; Contingent for falsity; Non contingent for truthity; Tautology for proof} and {Unevaluated; Improper; Proper; Evaluated}. The designated proof value is T for tautology and E for evaluated. DRAFT ONLY Abstract updated at: ersatz-systems.com Email: info@cec-services dot com
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[175] viXra:1803.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-27 05:50:10

Refutation of the Pauli Exclusion Principle © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

The generalized and specific forms of the Pauli exclusion principle are separately not tautologous and jointly not equivalent. A weakening of the argument by using the implication connective fails.
Category: Quantum Physics

[174] viXra:1803.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 05:10:54

Artificial and Biological Cells Together

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[173] viXra:1803.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 06:13:56

Quantum Simulation of Topological Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Symmetry plays a fundamental role in understanding complex quantum matter, particularly in classifying topological quantum phases, which have attracted great interests in the recent decade. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[172] viXra:1803.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 08:29:13

Quantum Yield of Fluorescence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists of the Tomsk State University (Russia), with colleagues from Sweden and Finland, have created an algorithm for calculating the photophysical and luminescent characteristics of molecules. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[171] viXra:1803.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 09:37:08

Steep Quantum Walls for Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Now, a team of scientists from the Joint Quantum Institute (JQI), in collaboration with researchers from the Institute for Quantum Optics and Quantum Information in Innsbruck, Austria, has circumvented the wavelength limit by leveraging the atoms' inherent quantum features, which should allow atomic lattice neighbors to get closer than ever before. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[170] viXra:1803.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 10:15:19

On the Ground State of Potentials with, at Most, Finite Discontinuities and Simple Poles

Authors: Spiros Konstantogiannis
Comments: 12 Pages.

For one-dimensional potentials having, at most, finite discontinuities and simple poles at which the wave functions have simple zeros, we give an algebraic – i.e. operator-based – proof that an eigenfunction having no other zeros is a minimum-energy eigenfunction, and thus it describes the ground state.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[169] viXra:1803.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-26 17:31:06

New Coordinate Vacuum Solution in General Relativity Theory

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 4 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we discover new vacuum solution by Einstein’s gravity field equation in general relativity theory. We investigate the new coordinate in general relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[168] viXra:1803.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 12:54:14

A Series of 15 Essays Relating to the Spatial/Temporal Distinction, and the Cosmological Shape and Observer-Centric Characteristics of the 4D Global/3D Observable Universe

Authors: William JE Brown
Comments: 117 Pages.

Although mathematically basic, the geometrical principles enshrined within Edwin Abbott Abbott’s 1884 work, Flatland: A Romance of Many Dimensions are unyieldingly consistent, and although Albert Einstein did not directly credit EA Abbott in Part III of his 1916 popular work Relativity, he deployed the little Flatlanders to great effect assuring us that ‘the three-dimensional spherical space is quite analogous to the two-dimensional spherical surface’. In this series of 15 concise scientific essays we will follow through on the simplicity and consistency of Abbott’s approach. Deriving from Flatland a set of named principles [Appendix 1] which are held to be true of the geometrical relationships between (n-1)D, nD, and (n+1)D, these are brought to bear on the contemporary scientific paradigm with the aim of exploring the potential for a consistent dimensional structure for the whole of nature. Flatland extrapolation through 1/2/3/4D reveals the action of the temporal dimension to be a product of the dimensional viewpoint of the observer; time is therefore not intrinsic to the 4th Dimension. The dimensional structure thus derived exists as a fundamental framework for all of nature, of which combinations of length, width, height, and time merely exhibit properties. Within this structure the universe emerges at the level of the 3rd Dimension (observable) and 4th Dimension (global), adhering strictly to Flatland principles applied spherically throughout. The model described is the finite 3-sphere of Einstein, with the crucial difference that observer and origin are located at antipodean centres (poles) of the 3-hemispheres, rendering the whole ‘observer-centric’. Without altering constants, GR, or QM, the model solves the horizon problem of CMB uniformity, explains the 1998 distant SNe Ia light anomaly, shows the universe to have net zero gravity (explaining so-called dark energy), reveals the correct mechanism behind expansion, shows in terms of information transfer why both gravity and light exist at c, describes the mechanism by which the universe diminishes to a Big Bang singularity, and provides a theoretical basis for the Equivalence principle. In the process it dispenses with infinity, superluminality, Cosmic Inflation, the G/DE knife-edge, recent acceleration, and the cosmological constant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[167] viXra:1803.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 12:43:36

Researchers at Mit and Harvard University Found that Photons Interaction Proved the Theory I Proposed More Than 20 Years Ago

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 4 Pages.

Remind people to pay attention to it,The most influential scientific journal of the 2017, science,Points out the articles in the journal Science,It proves Cui Hailong's theory more than 20 years ago.The latest experiment introduced in this article is a big step in the right direction.
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:1803.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-14 02:45:45

A Probabilistic Interpretation of the Last Theorem of Fermat

Authors: Andrea Prunotto
Comments: 4 Pages.

The equiprobability among two events involving independent extractions of elements from a finite set is shown to be related to the solutions of Fermat's Diophantine equation.
Category: Number Theory

[165] viXra:1803.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 07:42:57

Electric Charge is not a Seperate Entity

Authors: Ranganath G Kulkarni
Comments: 1 Page.

The quantization of energy is due to the existence of smallest unit of energy. This leads to quantization of electric charge. We find that electric charge is equivalent to mass.
Category: Quantum Physics

[164] viXra:1803.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 07:52:17

Petahertz Electronics Milestone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

In a semiconductor, electrons can be excited by absorbing laser light. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[163] viXra:1803.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 08:17:34

Magnetism in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Flows of molten metal can generate magnetic fields. This so-called dynamo effect creates cosmic magnetic fields, like those found on planets, moons and even asteroids. [25] Working together, Miller, Boehme, Vardeny and their colleagues have shown that an organic-based magnet can carry waves of quantum mechanical magnetization, called magnons, and convert those waves to electrical signals. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[162] viXra:1803.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 08:45:03

Mismatch in Cosmic Expansion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[161] viXra:1803.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 09:11:53

Gamma Ray not from Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team of researchers from the U.S., New Zealand, Australia and Germany has found evidence suggesting that a type of star formation near the center of the Milky Way is responsible for large gamma ray emissions, not dark matter. [22] The PRISMA researchers propose a scenario in which two dark matter particles collide, resulting in their mutual annihilation. [21] A new model introduces a charge for dark matter, which would allow it to radiate energy and form compact objects such as dark stars or dark galaxies. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium— the vast, largely empty space between galaxies—to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[160] viXra:1803.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 10:24:22

Protoclusters and Quasars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Using Hyper Suprime-Cam (HSC) mounted on the Subaru Telescope, astronomers have identified nearly 200 "protoclusters," the progenitors of galaxy clusters, in the early universe, about 12 billion years ago, about ten times more than previously known. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[159] viXra:1803.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 10:43:42

Quantum Dot Lighting Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A "superacid" much stronger than automobile battery acid has enabled a key advance toward a new generation of LED lighting that's safer, less expensive and more user friendly. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[158] viXra:1803.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 11:10:25

Quantum Communication

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 7 Pages.

Great theories give birth to great industries, ignoring my theory, Will make America lose its great 20 years, lost hundreds of thousands of billion dollar industry, this is not the American people are willing to see, is not allowed by the American people, it's not your responsibility is allowed My theory is that, The theory that immediately makes quantum communication possible,Not a quantum key,Instead, quantum communication,Quantum keys can be cracked,Quantum communication is the only thing Our goal.
Category: Quantum Physics

[157] viXra:1803.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 11:16:04

Strain Induced Electric Effects in Materials

Authors: Yuanjie Huang
Comments: 39 Pages.

In this work, we put forward Yuheng Zhang equation, a newly found law for condensed materials. Utilizing this law, we mainly investigate the mechanical-electric coupling effect in materials, which is named asYuheng Zhang effect. Through investigations, it is found that 1) under strain gradient, materials could behave as a p-n junction, exhibiting current-rectifying properties; 2) thermoelectric power or Seebeck coefficient of materials is contributed by thermal expansion (contraction) and Yuheng Zhang effect, which may be described by Yuheng Zhang coefficient; 3) this effect gives a new mechanism of electron-phonon interaction; 4) an electric field always accompanies defects in materials, such as dislocations, Abrikosov vortices and so on, and their electric field and related electrical potential are given; 5) strain gradient can cause an electric polarization in dielectric materials; 6) the gravity induced electric field persists within planets including the earth; 7) Yuheng Zhang effect may be the microscopic physical origin of flexoelectric effect and the flexoelectric coefficients can be derived by means of Yuheng Zhang equation; 8) microscopic theory of shock polarization, another long-standing problem in the world, may be clarified in terms of Yuheng Zhang effect. In all, Yuheng Zhang equation and Yuheng Zhang effect offer people new understanding of electric properties of strained materials, and may find various applications in multi-areas.
Category: Condensed Matter

[156] viXra:1803.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 11:32:25

Roton Excitation in Quantum Droplets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Quasiparticles called rotons have been seen for the first time in a Bose-Einstein condensate (BEC) of ultracold atoms. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[155] viXra:1803.0180 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-13 17:40:00

Refutation of the Euathlus Paradox: Neither Pay © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

Regardless of who wins the lawsuit of Portagoras, Euathlus does not pay. Hence the Euathlus paradox is refuted and resolved by default in favor of Euathlus.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[154] viXra:1803.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 18:18:40

Continuity, Non-Constant Rate of Ascent, & The Beal Conjecture

Authors: Morgan Osborne
Comments: 22 Pages. Keywords: Beal, Diophantine, Continuity (2010 MSC: 11D99, 11D41)

The Beal Conjecture considers positive integers A, B, and C having respective positive integer exponents X, Y, and Z all greater than 2, where bases A, B, and C must have a common prime factor. Taking the general form A^X + B^Y = C^Z, we explore a small opening in the conjecture through reformulation and substitution to create two new variables. One we call 'C dot' representing and replacing C and the other we call 'Z dot' representing and replacing Z. With this, we show that 'C dot' and 'Z dot' are separate continuous functions, with argument (A^X + B^Y), that achieve all positive integers during their continuous non-constant rates of infinite ascent. Possibilities for each base and exponent in the reformulated general equation A^X +B^Y = ('C dot')^('Z dot') are examined using a binary table along with analyzing user input restrictions and 'C dot' values relative to A and B. Lastly, an indirect proof is made, where conclusively we find the continuity theorem to hold over the conjecture.
Category: Number Theory

[153] viXra:1803.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-16 15:50:40

Simple Prime Numbers Per Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martin
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper develops the formula that calculates the quantity of simple prime numbers that exist by golden patterns.
Category: Number Theory

[152] viXra:1803.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 01:03:42

Possible Models of Ring Current Oscillations in DNA

Authors: Vadim V. Guschin, Oksana Polesskaya, Nelli Zyryanova, Alexey Tovmash, Abraham Mara, Elena Erdyneeva, Max Myakishev-Rempel
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is well established that ring currents are formed in pi electron clouds of DNA bases under the influence of external magnetic field. Recently, we hypothesized that Fe-containing enzymes can magnetize DNA in nature and create static and oscillating magnetic fields and suggested biological functions for these effects. Here we suggest possible mechanisms for oscillations of ring currents in DNA.
Category: Physics of Biology

[151] viXra:1803.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-13 05:00:44

Full Answer to Mr. Igor Stark //// Ответ Игорю Старку

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 11 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Full Answer to Mr. Igor Stark

The article touches upon the question of the correlation between the concepts of matter and mass in physics and gives a dialectical-materialistic scientific solution to this question. At the same time, this article is a complete answer to the leading participant of the runet's physical forum Mr. Igor Stark on one of his replicas during his speech at the site of the physical forum sciteclibrary.ru. The answer is given in a style characteristic of the style of communication on this forum. The author of the answer addresses both Mr. Stark and all participants in the dialogue and conversation. +++++++++++++++++ В статье затрагивается вопрос о соотношении понятий материя и масса в физике и даётся диалектико-материалистическое научное решение этого вопроса. В то же время эта статья есть полный ответ ведущему участнику физического форума сети рунет г. Игорю Старку на одну из его реплик в ходе его выступления на площадке физического форума sciteclibrary.ru. Ответ дан в стиле характерном для стиля общения на этом форуме. Автор ответа обращается и к г. Старку и ко всем участникам диалога, разговора.
Category: Classical Physics

[150] viXra:1803.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 08:20:46

Quantum Gravity Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[149] viXra:1803.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 09:00:13

Algorithmic Information Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Researchers have discovered that input-output maps, which are widely used throughout science and engineering to model systems ranging from physics to finance, are strongly biased toward producing simple outputs. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[148] viXra:1803.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 09:30:15

Polarizations as States and Their Evolution in Geometric Algebra Terms with Variable Complex Plane

Authors: Alexander Soiguine
Comments: 10 Pages.

Recently suggested scheme of quantum computing uses g-qubit states as circular polarizations from the solution of Maxwell equations in terms of geometric algebra, along with clear definition of a complex plane as bivector in three dimensions. Here all the details of receiving the solution, and its polarization transformations are analyzed. The results can particularly be applied to the problems of quantum computing and quantum cryptography. The suggested formalism replaces conventional quantum mechanics states as objects constructed in complex vector Hilbert space framework by geometrically feasible framework of multivectors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[147] viXra:1803.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 10:01:20

Computer Memory Magnetic Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[146] viXra:1803.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-13 08:05:06

The Purging Hypothesis; the New Paradigm for Solar System Formation, Solving All SNDM Paradoxes While Fully Integrating Solar and Planetary Formation

Authors: R. Winnubst
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Solar Nebular Disk Model (SNDM) is the widely accepted paradigm for solar system formation. However, this modern variant of the almost 300 year-old ‘Nebular Hypothesis’ is plagued by an unacceptable number of paradoxes and unsolved issues such as the angular momentum paradox, the formation of terrestrial planets and abundant presence of water. Suspecting SNDM may be fundamentally flawed, a new paradigm was synthesised via ‘connective reversed engineering’ under the most challenging design parameters possible: 1.None of SNDM’s paradoxes are allowed to remain 2.All formation aspects must be consistent with the latest footage of Hubble ST, Spitzer ST and ALMA 3.All formation aspects must logically interconnect to provide a solid end-to-end ‘story line’. After nearly 2 years of re-designing efforts, eliminating countless sequence permutations, only one process emerged that can explain solar system formation in the required integrated and paradox free way: The Purging Hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[145] viXra:1803.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 11:00:27

Crystallization in Real Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[144] viXra:1803.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 11:21:36

Quantum Magnetic Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Working together, Miller, Boehme, Vardeny and their colleagues have shown that an organic-based magnet can carry waves of quantum mechanical magnetization, called magnons, and convert those waves to electrical signals. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[143] viXra:1803.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 20:29:57

Influence of Laser Spot Scanning Speed on Micro Polishing Using uv Nano-Second Pulse Laser

Authors: Jang Pong-Ryol, Kim Chun-Gun, Han Guang-Pok, Pea Uyong-Guk
Comments: 10 Pages.

During laser micro polishing of the metallic surface, it is very important to choose the optimal laser energy density and laser spot scanning speed. In this paper, during micro-polishing on the metallic surface by using UV nanosecond pulse laser, the influence of laser spot scanning speed on the polishing effect was investigated in terms of the relationship with the laser energy density. The experimental and analytical considerations were shown that there is the optimal scanning speed of laser spot for the best laser polishing effect when the laser energy density on the workpiece surface was rated, and the influence of the overlap ratio of the scanning lines was also considered. In addition, the optimal process parameters for the laser micro polishing of Ti and Ni metallic surfaces were obtained and the laser micro polishing experiments on theose metallic surfaces were conducted. For Ti and Ni metallic surfaces, the surface roughness improvements of up to 51.6% and 52 % were respectively obtained.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[142] viXra:1803.0165 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-15 19:50:42

The Universe

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 5 Pages.

The universe is enormous and it looks endless to us, but a clue tells us that it must also have a shell. That clue is the speed properties of light, they are similar to the properties of a transfer speed of a medium. A transfer speed of a medium is an internal speed that can only be found in a medium with a shell, and that tells us that the universe is a medium with some kind of a shell.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[141] viXra:1803.0163 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-15 04:32:21

On the Division of Plane Figures in Consecutive Prime Parts

Authors: Juan Moreno Borrallo
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper it is discussed the following problem: "A mathematician wants to divide is garden into consecutive prime parts (first in two parts, after in three parts, and so on), only making straight paths, in a simple way (without retracing his own steps), and without going out of his plot of land. In how many parts can the mathematician divide his garden?"
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[140] viXra:1803.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 04:14:01

A Decisive Experiment

Authors: CuiHaiLong
Comments: 4 Pages.

By reviewing the history of science, we discussed the criteria of testing science theory, criticized the most fashionable concept in twentieth Century, and put forward a concrete plan to achieve super light speed communication.
Category: Quantum Physics

[139] viXra:1803.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-12 05:44:31

Metastable Quantum Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

The phenomenon of metastability, in which a system is in a state that is stable but not the one of least energy, is widely observed in nature and technology. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[138] viXra:1803.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 05:58:43

Masses and Diameters of Five Fundamental Particles///Таблица масс и диаметров пяти элементарных частиц

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 5 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov © Masses and Diameters of five Fundamental Particles

To the attention of readers in this article we offer a table of values of masses and diameters of the five most known fundamental particles: tau particle, neutron, proton, muon, and electron. The physical quantities are presented in the table in SI units (m, kg) and in units of the absolute system of units. In this article two graphs are also presented, indicating the location of fundamental particles on a single hyperbola. ++++++++++ Вниманию читателей в настоящей статье предлагаются таблица значений масс и диаметров пяти самых известных элементарных частиц: тау-частицы, нейтрона, протона, мюона и электрона. Физические величины представлены в таблице в единицах СИ (m, kg) и в единицах абсолютной системы единиц. В настоящей статье представлены также два графика с указаниями мест размещения на гиперболе элементарных частиц.
Category: Classical Physics

[137] viXra:1803.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 07:58:47

A Class of Converted Target Functions Preserving the Set of Minimizers

Authors: Yuly Shipilevsky
Comments: 4 Pages.

A class of converted target functions preserving the set of minimizers
Category: General Mathematics

[136] viXra:1803.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 08:56:42

The Anteros Hypothesis

Authors: Dan James
Comments: 4 Pages. 1500 words

It is widely accepted that Valles Marineris is tectonic in origin, but despite almost five decades of research this remains a hypothesis and it is generally agreed that there is no other evidence for tectonic activity on Mars. Using Valles Marineris to prove a tectonic theory is therefore a circular argument. Despite the observation that most planetary surfaces have been modified principally by impact events, dismissing an impact event as an origin for Valles Marineris has been trivially easy owing to the lack of any rigorous or plausible mechanism. Here I propose a mechanism for an impact event which is consistent with observation and physical theory, and which, I claim, has far more explanatory power than a tectonic hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[135] viXra:1803.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 09:07:10

Merger Between Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A merger between galaxies can trigger can intense radiation from bursts star formation and from the accretion of gas onto the two supermassive black holes at their centers. [26] However, a surprising new discovery from a Caltech researcher suggests that the Schrödinger Equation—the fundamental equation of quantum mechanics—is remarkably useful in describing the long-term evolution of certain astronomical structures. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[134] viXra:1803.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 09:51:26

How Laser Start from Chaos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[133] viXra:1803.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 10:39:42

Chemical Chain Reaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Tailor-made protein drugs in the fight against cancer and other diseases are a step close, with the Centre for NanoScale Science and Technology at Flinders playing a part in one of the latest chemistry discoveries in effectively modifying therapeutic proteins. [30] New research published in Nature Methods will dramatically improve how scientists "see inside" molecular structures in solution, allowing for much more precise ways to image data in various fields, from astronomy to drug discovery. [29] Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Biochemistry

[132] viXra:1803.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 11:07:41

Ultra-Cold Quantum Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[131] viXra:1803.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-18 13:46:53

A Speculative Relationship Between the Proton Mass, the Proton Radius, and the Fine Structure Constant and Between the Fine Structure Constant and the Hagedorn Temperature

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this short note we present a possible connection between the proton radius and the proton mass using the fine structure constant. The Hagedorn temperature is related to the energy levels assumed to be required to free the quarks from the proton, where hadronic matter is unstable. We also speculate that there could be a connection between the Hagedorn temperature and the Planck temperature through the fine structure constant. Whether there is something to this, or it is purely a coincidence, we will leave to others and future research to explore. However, we think these possible relationships are worth further investigation.
Category: Quantum Physics

[130] viXra:1803.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 16:37:39

Riemann Zeta Function Constants, Approximations, and Some Related Functions

Authors: Pedro Caceres
Comments: 21 Pages.

The Riemann zeta function or Euler–Riemann zeta function, ζ(s), is a function of a complex variable z that analytically continues the sum of the Dirichlet series: ζ(z)=∑_(k=1)^∞ k^(-z) The Riemann zeta function is a meromorphic function on the whole complex z-plane, which is holomorphic everywhere except for a simple pole at z = 1 with residue 1. One of the most important advance in the study of Prime numbers was the paper by Bernhard Riemann in November 1859 called “Ueber die Anzahl der Primzahlen unter einer gegebenen Grösse” (On the number of primes less than a given quantity). In this paper, Riemann gave a formula for the number of primes less than x in terms the integral of 1/log(x), and also provided insights into the roots (zeros) of the zeta function, formulating a conjecture about the location of the zeros of ζ(z) in the critical line Re(z)=1/2. The Riemann Zeta function is one of the most studied and well known mathematical functions in history. In this paper, we will formulate new propositions to advance in the knowledge of the Riemann Zeta function. a) A constant C that can be used to express ζ(2n+1)≡a/b*C^(2n+1) b) An approximation to the values of ζ(s) in R given by ζ(s)=1/(1-π^(-s)-2^(-s)) c) A theorem that states that the infinite sums ∑_(j=1)^∞[ζ(u*k±n)-ζ(v*k±m)] converge to a value in the interval (-1,1) for all u≥1,v≥1,n,m ∈N such that (u*k±n)>1 and (v*k±m)>1 for all j∈N d) A new set of constants CZ_(u,n,v,m)calculated from infinite sums involving ζ(z) e) A function in C2(x,a,b)= 2*x^(-a)*(∑_(j=1)^(x-1) [j^(-a)*cos(b*(ln(x/j)))]) in R with zeros in(a,b) with a=1/2 and b=Im(z*), with z*=non-trivial zero of ζ(z). f) A C-transformation that allows for a decomposition of ζ(z) that can be used to study the Riemann Hypothesis. g) Linearization of the Harmonic function using Non-Trivial zeros of ζ(z). h) An expression that links any two Non-Trivial zeros of ζ(z).
Category: Number Theory

[129] viXra:1803.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 00:12:33

Gif Annihilation and Creation of a Pair of Elementary Particles.

Authors: Alexander I.Dubinyansky, Pavel Churlyaev.
Comments: 2 Pages. Russian: http://universe100.narod.ru/ English: http://universe100.narod.ru/100-Oglavlenie.html http://universe100.narod.ru/210-Photon.html dubinyansky@mail.ru

Abstract. Description of the processes of annihilation and pair production from the position of the theory of the Elastic Universe. GIF annihilation: http://i.yapx.ru/BDq5J.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u270/b15.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u210/image017.gif GIF- pair production: http://i.yapx.ru/BDq6G.gif http://universe100.narod.ru/u270/b16.gif
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[128] viXra:1803.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 03:26:27

Crisis in Quantum Field Theory and Its Overcoming (Axiomatic Approach Versus Heuristic)

Authors: Kyriakos A.G.
Comments: 24 Pages.

Many known scientists have noted the presence of crisis in fundamental physics. Despite mathematical success, quantum theory not answers many questions that are asked by scientists. Which of our basic physical assumptions are wrong? What we need to change? The proposed article tries to answer these questions using a new approach.
Category: Quantum Physics

[127] viXra:1803.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 04:53:55

Derivation Using the Method of Academician Logunov A.a. of the New Relativistic Space-Time Theory Transformation (Instead of Lorentz Transformation)

Authors: Mamaev A.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Transformation of the new relativistic space-time theory based only on the single Galileo’s relativity principle is derived using the method of academician Logunov A.A. Keywords: New relativistic space-time theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[126] viXra:1803.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 06:28:53

On the Similarity of Polynucleosomal Structures with Metamaterials

Authors: Nelli Zyryanova L, B, Elena Erdyneeva L, B, Oksana PolesskayaL, U, Max Myakishev-Rempel
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is well-established that DNA behaves similar to an insulated electric wire. Previously, it has been suggested by the authors that DNA wrapped around the nucleosome behaves like electric induction coil. It had also been hypothesized by the authors that similar nucleosomal structures would resonate with each other. Here, it is further hypothesized that natural polynucleosomal structures have similar electromagnetic property as metamaterials because polynucleosomes and metamaterials have induction coils positioned at nearly perpendicular angles to each other. Based on that, it is predicted here that polynucleosomal structures in the cell would exhibit some of the properties of metamaterials. That is when an incident wave of specific frequency excites the polynucleosomal structure, it would create an electromagnetic field which would spread outside of the polynucleosomal structure and interfere with the incident wave, creating complex patterns of electromagnetic field as it is happening in metamaterials. It is also hypothesized here that such secondary electromagnetic field structures produced outside of polynucleosomes can be dynamic and can be used by the nature to regulate chromatin structure, catalyze reactions in the nucleus and the cytoplasm and collectively produce the morphogenetic field of the organism. Therefore, understanding of electromagnetic resonance in polynucleosomes should lead to better understanding of electromagnetic nature of morphogenesis and morphostasis. We noticed that tetranucleosomes resemble nanomaterial, more specifically Negative-Refraction Metamaterial. We suggest that tetranucleosomes may produce external patterns of electromagnetic fields which could be utilized by nature for 1. Gene regulation, 2. Control of cellular processes 3. Control of morphogenesis and morphostasis.
Category: Physics of Biology

[125] viXra:1803.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 06:57:13

Refutation of Tensor Product and Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The tensor product and Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm are sequentially refuted.
Category: Quantum Physics

[124] viXra:1803.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 08:46:55

Dark Energy and Recent Controversy.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. Questioning the dark energy?

The concept of gravity and calculation from red shift may not be correct and we are confused by our approach from relativity theory. Our universe is much more dynamic and non isotropic than we think or standard model suggests. Recently, I have published more than a dozen papers to re look our basic concepts and interpret correctly from my theories .
Category: Astrophysics

[123] viXra:1803.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 09:10:54

Breakthrough in Circuit Design

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13] Physicists have shown that the three main types of engines (four-stroke, twostroke, and continuous) are thermodynamically equivalent in a certain quantum regime, but not at the classical level. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[122] viXra:1803.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 10:17:24

Quantum States on the Surface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16] Physicists have proposed a new type of Maxwell's demon—the hypothetical agent that extracts work from a system by decreasing the system's entropy—in which the demon can extract work just by making a measurement, by taking advantage of quantum fluctuations and quantum superposition. [15] Pioneering research offers a fascinating view into the inner workings of the mind of 'Maxwell's Demon', a famous thought experiment in physics. [14] For more than a century and a half of physics, the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which states that entropy always increases, has been as close to inviolable as any law we know. In this universe, chaos reigns supreme. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[121] viXra:1803.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 10:37:38

Quantum Photonic Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[120] viXra:1803.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 16:16:33

On EPR Paradox and Matter Wave in Euclidean Relativity

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 7 Pages.

: In our previous works, we showed that the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen (EPR) paradox could be resolved by constructing a Euclidean relativity that not only leads to the same results obtained from Einstein general relativity but also permits an instantaneous transmission of interaction. However, there still remains the question about the nature of these physical fields and their mathematical formulations if they exist. In this work we show that it is possible to formulate Euclidean relativistic field equations similar Dirac equation from a general system of linear first order partial differential equation. Since the speeds of the Euclidean relativistic fields have no upper values, they can be used to rectify the quantum entanglement in quantum mechanics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[119] viXra:1803.0134 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-27 21:40:15

Proton Puzzle

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo
Comments: 4 Pages.

Through a further analysis on the problem of charge radius of muonic hydrogen, the enormous complexity of the ether is highlighted.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[118] viXra:1803.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-10 03:12:47

The Schwarzschild Solution Saturates to Constant Velocity at Far Distances, the Newtonian Limit is a Special Case Only

Authors: Franz Unterleitner
Comments: 8 Pages.

The focus of this work is on an integration constant which appears when the geodesic equations for the Schwarzschild solution are solved directly. The constant has a dimension of speed-squared and is interpreted as vacuum energy. When it is set to zero, the solution is Newtonian in the far limit, otherwise it causes orbital velocities to be constant in the long range, explaining flat rotation curves. The literature is rich of examples where the four geodesic equations are solved, but the constant was not produced. This is because the direct solution one of the geodesic equations was avoided and an `equivalent` equation was solved instead. In this work the direct solution is achieved by using an integrating factor which results in the hitherto unknown integration constant. The existence of fossile disks in the velocity profiles of galaxies is interpreted as a consequence of the vacuum energy decreasing in time. Again, in short: The geodesic equations in their geometric form are second order differential equations. They deliver additional integration constants when they are integrated to first order. Not all of the constants survive, but one of them does and when it is not deliberately set to zero it saturates velocities at far distances.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[117] viXra:1803.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 05:41:53

Prime Pillar Method

Authors: Suraj deshmukh
Comments: 1 Page.

It was just found luckily. It is a new method to get primes easily. Just a rearrangement of numbers.
Category: General Mathematics

[116] viXra:1803.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:15:03

Objects Spending Zero Time Interval

Authors: Yahya Sharif
Comments: 2 Pages.

This article aims to analyze mathematically objects spending zero time interval in reality.
Category: Classical Physics

[115] viXra:1803.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:21:36

Anthropic Principle as a Consequence of the Time Emergence

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[114] viXra:1803.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:25:16

Anthropic Principle as a Consequence of the Time Emergence (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 7 Pages.

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[113] viXra:1803.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 07:39:07

Visibility into Quantum Information Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[112] viXra:1803.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 08:22:53

The Generalized Bernstein-Vazirani Algorithm for Determining an Integer String

Authors: Koji Nagata, Tadao Nakamura, Han Geurdes, Josep Batle, Ahmed Farouk, Do Ngoc Diep
Comments: 3 pages

We present the generalized Bernstein-Vazirani algorithm for determining a restricted integer string. Given the set of real values $\{a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_N\}$ and a function $g:{\bf R}\rightarrow {\bf Z}$, we shall determine the following values $\{g(a_1),g(a_2),g(a_3),\ldots, g(a_N)\}$ simultaneously. The speed of determining the values is shown to outperform the classical case by a factor of $N$. The method determines the maximum of and the minimum of the function $g$ that the finite domain is $\{a_1,a_2,a_3,\ldots,a_N\}$.
Category: Quantum Physics

[111] viXra:1803.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 08:18:41

Cryo-em Image Processing Using Helmholtz Equation Based on Imagej/jikesrvm – a Simple Suggestion on the Usage of Helmholtz Equation.

Authors: Nirmal
Comments: 3 Pages. Short Technical Note

This technical note proposes one of the image analysis methodologies for visualizing the electromagnetic fields in the context of Cryo-EM Image Processing. In this paper, visualized electromagnetic field images are analyzed based on Image J/JikesRVM & its Helmholtz equation based Helmholtz plugin.The Helmholtz equation enables us to extract the parameters characterizing the electromagnetic phenomena.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[110] viXra:1803.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 08:29:16

Gravitation. My Discoveries

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 125 Pages. I discovered a new Gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale!

"The value of your brain is given by your discoveries" Adrian Ferent Couple of my discoveries: 1. I am the first who discovered a new quantum theory which breaks the wall of Planck 2. I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field 3. I am the first who explained what Black holes are: Black holes are Ferent matter 4. I am the first who discovered that the majority of dark matter is in the core of the supermassive black holes 5. I am the first who discovered another wall, the Ferent wall, beyond the Planck wall 6. I am the first who discovered Graviton energy: E = aν 7. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons are faster than light 8. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational waves are Gravitons 9. I am the first who explained that Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong 10. I am the first who explained in the last 100 years that Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is wrong, because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong 11. I am the first who explained that Gravitational field lines are gravitons 12. I am the first who replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle with Ferent Uncertainty Principle 13. I am the first who discovered that String theory, LQG… are wrong theories, because it is wrong to Unify Einstein's Gravitation theory with Quantum Mechanics when Einstein's Gravitation theory is wrong 14. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function, how you learned from your professors in the last 200 years 15. I am the first who discovered that Dark Energy is Gravitons 16. I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation 17. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons with highest energy are emitted by Black holes 18. I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations 19. I am the first who calculated the Gravitons frequency emitted by a planet, by Earth: ν < 4.176×1056 Hz 20. I am the first who calculated the Gravitons energy emitted by a Black hole: E > 4.14559 × 105 GeV 21. I am the first who discovered that there are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy 22. I am the first who explained that the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth 23. I am the first who explained how to understand Gravity in the frame of quantum mechanics 24. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons kill people 25. I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift with Gravitons 26. I am the first who explained the Gravitational lensing with Gravitons 27. I am the first who discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction: E = h × f + a × f - a × ν 28. I am the first who explained that the momentum of the graviton is negative: p = - m × v 29. I am the first who explained that Mass does not bend space 30. I am the first who explained that Mass does not bend time 31. I am the first who explained that Gravitational time dilation is caused by negative momentum, negative energy 32. I am the first who calculated the speed of the Gravitons: va = 1.001762 ×1017 m/s 33. I am the first who discovered that it is not possible to have a Big Bounce from the Planck scale 34. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons kill aliens 35. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational field is Gravitons 36. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum 37. I am the first in the last 100 years who explained that Einstein's Gravitation theory is wrong and Einstein's Gravitational waves do not exist 38. I am the first who explained the power density and the graviton flux 39. I am the first who discovered the force function for finite speed of the gravitons, the Ferent gravitational force function 40. I am the first who discovered that a black hole attracts with greater force a planet, than the planet attracts the black hole 41. I am the first who explained that Newton's third law is wrong 42. I am the first who discovered that the Gravitational waves have their energy contained in gravitons 43. I am the first who explained Gravitation with high speed gravitons v = 1.001762 × 1017 m/s, with Negative Momentum, Negative Relativistic Mass and Negative Energy 44. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons must be Faster than Light (FTL) 45. I am the first who discovered the Ferent length, much smaller than the Planck length 46. I am the first who discovered the Ferent frequency much higher than the Planck frequency 47. I am the first who discovered because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body 48. I am the first who discovered the equation for an elementary particle which emits a graviton: 49. I am the first who discovered the Ferent wave equation of the graviton: 50. I am the first who discovered: Quantum Gravity Theory (QGT) “Nobody in lectures say ‘I discovered these things’, that is why nobody understands what the contributions to the lecture by the speaker are!” Adrian Ferent “Your quotations are the CV of your wisdom” Adrian Ferent “I discovered a new Gravitation theory, a new Evolution theory and Transdisciplinarity equations!” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[109] viXra:1803.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 08:41:01

New Relativistic Quantum Star

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

In a paper recently published in Physical Review Letters, Carballo-Rubio describes a novel mathematical model combining general relativity with the repulsive effect of quantum vacuum polarization. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[108] viXra:1803.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 10:43:27

Construction of the Golden Patterns

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper develops the construction of the Golden Patterns for different prime divisors, the discovery of patterns towards infinity. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. The golden pattern works with the simple prime numbers that are known as rough numbers and simple composite number.
Category: Number Theory

[107] viXra:1803.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 11:42:29

Topological Superconductor Solve Decoherence in Quantum Computers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A team of researchers from Japan, the U.S. and China, has identified a topological superconducting phase for possible use in an iron-based material in quantum computers. [28] Physicists have shown that superconducting circuits—circuits that have zero electrical resistance—can function as piston-like mechanical quantum engines. The new perspective may help researchers design quantum computers and other devices with improved efficiencies. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[106] viXra:1803.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-09 09:44:09

The Flow of Dirac-Ricci

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 2 pages, written in french

Following the definition of the flow of Ricci and with help of the Dirac operator, we construct a flow of hermitian metrics for the spinors fiber bundle.
Category: Geometry

[105] viXra:1803.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 13:50:28

Heat Switch for Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[104] viXra:1803.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 23:52:23

On the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 2 Pages.

In 1687 Isaac Newton published “Philosophiæ Naturalis Principia Mathematica” , which established the three laws of motion and the law of Universal Gravitation which laid the groundwork for classical mechanics. The relationship between force, mass and distance inspired by Kepler’s earlier work gave rise to the value what is now more commonly referred to as the gravitational constant “G”. The value of this constant has since become a fundamental part of almost every cosmological theory to the current day. This paper analyzes the profound effect Newton had upon modern cosmology.
Category: Astrophysics

[103] viXra:1803.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-09 04:18:41

Entangled Quantum Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[102] viXra:1803.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 06:01:11

Quantum Spin Liquid in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[101] viXra:1803.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 06:41:04

Question 441 :Eight Series for pi

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 5 Pages.

This note presents eight series for pi.
Category: General Mathematics

[100] viXra:1803.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 06:44:51

Question 440 : Nested Radicals and Trigonometric Formulas

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 4 Pages.

This note presents some trigonometric formulas that involving nested radicals.
Category: Number Theory

[99] viXra:1803.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 06:46:16

Nano-Drops Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

A revolutionary, cutting-edge technology, developed by researchers at Bar-Ilan University's Institute of Nanotechnology and Advanced Materials (BINA), has the potential to provide a new alternative to eyeglasses, contact lenses, and laser correction for refractive errors. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[98] viXra:1803.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 10:32:37

Light-Speed Electron with Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

A paper published in the journal Physical Review X presents evidence of a radiation reaction occurring when a high-intensity laser pulse collides with a high-energy electron beam. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[97] viXra:1803.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 10:52:05

X-Ray Holographic Images of Viruses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

In a recent study featured on the March 2018 cover of Nature Photonics, researchers developed a new holographic method called in-flight holography. With this method, they were able to demonstrate the first X-ray holograms of nano-sized viruses that were not attached to any surface. [38] A paper published in the journal Physical Review X presents evidence of a radiation reaction occurring when a high-intensity laser pulse collides with a high-energy electron beam. [37] Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Physics of Biology

[96] viXra:1803.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 21:22:05

Göttlers' Proof of the Collatz Conjecture

Authors: Henry Göttler, Chantal Göttler, Heinrich Göttler, Thorsten Göttler, Pei-jung Wu
Comments: 7 Pages. Proof of Collatz Conjecture

Over 80 years ago, the German mathematician Lothar Collatz formulated an interesting mathematical problem, which he was afraid to publish, for the simple reason that he could not solve it. Since then the Collatz Conjecture has been around under several names and is still unsolved, keeping people addicted. Several famous mathematicians including Richard Guy stating “Dont try to solve this problem”. Paul Erd¨os even said ”Mathematics is not yet ready for such problems” and Shizuo Kakutani joked that the problem was a Cold War invention of the Russians meant to slow the progress of mathematics in the West. We might have finally freed people from this addiction.
Category: Number Theory

[95] viXra:1803.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 02:06:20

DNA: the Double Helix or the Ribbon Helix?

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 10 Pages. Russian popular science journal "Chemistry and Life" (1999, No. 9)

The well-known difficulty of the Watson-Crick model gives the right to assume its incorrectness. An alternative model of the structure of the DNA molecule called a ribbon helix is proposed. Unlike the double helix, in it two chains are not intertwined, but go in parallel; unlike another earlier proposed structure, the so-called side-by-side model, it differs in that it has a homogeneous, dextrorotatory character. The advantages of the proposed structure are shown.
Category: Physics of Biology

[94] viXra:1803.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 05:41:57

Precision Atom Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A new progress in the scaling of semiconductor quantum dot-based qubits has been achieved by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China. [38] This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology—a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today—a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[93] viXra:1803.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 07:30:45

Free Will Readiness Potential Ratios, the Key for a Multiverse Number Calculation.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical differenctial research on RPI and RPII of extended Libet experiments described here should support these ideas as a base for the number of participants ( and even universes) involved. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If we are able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained. .
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[92] viXra:1803.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 08:52:21

Maxwell's Demon in Quantum Zeno

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[91] viXra:1803.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 09:05:15

3-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel martin
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers-3, the discovery of a pattern to infinity, the demonstration of the inharmonics that are 2,3, and the harmony of 1. The discovery of infinite harmony represented in fractal numbers and patterns. This is a family before the prime numbers. This paper develops a formula to get simple prime number-3 and simple composite number-3 The simple prime numbers-3 is known as the 5-rough numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[90] viXra:1803.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 09:58:06

The Truth About Exoplanet False Positives

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

In this paper two diagrams are shown. One explains what the dogma considers a “false positive” with reference to exoplanet discovery, the other shows that false positives are not false positives. Reasoning is provided based on the new worldview.
Category: Astrophysics

[89] viXra:1803.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 10:03:27

Numerical Recipe for Molecular Orbitals: Antisymmetric Polynomials, Infinitesimal Cubes and Monte Carlo Method.

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try to obtain the ground state of complex molecules
Category: Chemistry

[88] viXra:1803.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 10:16:31

Computer Understanding Hypertension

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers from North Carolina State University have modeled and analyzed the binding modes of 210 molecules previously reported to inhibit the function of a family of enzymes involved in regulating salt and blood pressure in the human body. [30] New research published in Nature Methods will dramatically improve how scientists "see inside" molecular structures in solution, allowing for much more precise ways to image data in various fields, from astronomy to drug discovery. [29] Prof WANG Zhisong and his research team from the Department of Physics, NUS have developed two sets of conceptually new mechanisms that enable artificial nanowalkers to move in a self-guided direction using their internal mechanics. [28] Gene editing is one of the hottest topics in cancer research. A Chinese research team has now developed a gold-nanoparticle-based multifunctional vehicle to transport the "gene scissors" to the tumor cell genome. [27] Cells can be programmed like a computer to fight cancer, influenza, and other serious conditions – thanks to a breakthrough in synthetic biology by the University of Warwick. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[87] viXra:1803.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-07 17:10:19

Refutation of Cantor's Original Continuum Hypothesis Via Injection and Binary Trees © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

This is the briefest known such refutation of Cantor's continuum conjecture.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[86] viXra:1803.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 11:25:32

Skyrmion Interference Black Holes, Photonic Molecules, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 23 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Skyrmion based Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Skyrmion Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[85] viXra:1803.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 12:43:00

Electron-Phonon Interactions in a Nanowire

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Researchers use a cavity-coupled double quantum dot to study electron-phonon interactions in a nanowire. [13] Quantum behavior plays a crucial role in novel and emergent material properties, such as superconductivity and magnetism. [12] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[84] viXra:1803.0091 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-30 05:02:05

Life and Death

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Life and death can be seen as the state in which we find ourselves, we can be alive or dead. We don't know why we are alive and we don't know what happens when we die, but we know that we can only be conscious of being alive. We think that our consciousness is created by our brain, but a quantum process tells us that our consciousness belongs to our atoms. And what happens to our atoms when we die, they don't die. So if our consciousness belongs to our atoms, then we are also conscious of ourselves when we are dead.
Category: Physics of Biology

[83] viXra:1803.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 00:31:21

Twin-Body Orbital Motion in Special Relativity

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

A stellar system of two identical stars in orbital motion is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity. Both stars move around each other in a non-circular orbit. The single gravitational force between two stars demands that total momentum of this stellar system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that the momentum expression from Special Relativity violates conservation of momentum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[82] viXra:1803.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 02:50:41

Universal Forecasting Scheme : Two Methods {Version 1}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[81] viXra:1803.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-07 03:33:06

The Continuum Hypothesis

Authors: Chris Pindsle
Comments: 12 Pages.

A proof of the Continuum Hypothesis as originally posed by Georg Cantor in 1878; that an uncountable set of real numbers has the same cardinality as the set of all real numbers. Any set of real numbers can be encoded by the infinite paths of a binary tree. If the binary tree has an uncountable node it must have a descendant with 2 uncountable successors. Each of those will have descendants with 2 uncountable successors, recursively. As a result the infinite paths of an uncountable binary tree will have the same cardinality as the set of all real numbers, as will the uncountable set of real numbers encoded by the tree.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[80] viXra:1803.0086 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-10 11:51:12

Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field in Riemannian and in Finsler-Lagrange Approximation.

Authors: Jaykov Foukzon, S.A.Podosenov, A.A.Potapov, E.Menkova
Comments: 135 Pages.

In present article the original proposition is a generalization of the Einstein's world tensor g ij by the introduction of pure inertial field tensor g ac ij such that R α μνλ (g ac ij )≠0 .Bimetric theory of gravitational-inertial field is considered for the case when the gravitational-Inertial field is governed by either a perfect magnetic fluid.In a series of papers published during the past decade with respect to Mössbauer experiments in a rotating system [71]-[75],it has been experimentally shown that the relative energy shift ΔE/E between the source of resonant radiation (situated at the center of the rotating system) and the resonant absorber (located on the rotor rim) is described by the relationship ΔE/E=−ku 2 /c 2 , where u is the tangential velocity of the absorber, c the velocity of light in vacuum, and k some coefficient, which -- contrary to what had been classically predicted equal 1/2 (see for example [35]) -- turns out to be substantially larger than 1/2. It cannot be stressed enough that the equality k=1/2 had been predicted by general theory of relativity (GTR) on account of the special relativistic time dilation effect delineated by the tangential displacement of the rotating absorber, where the "clock hypothesis" by Einstein (i.e., the non-reliance of the time rate of any clock on its acceleration [35]) was straightly adopted. Hence, the revealed inequality k>1/2 indicates the presence of some additional energy shift (next to the usual time dilation effect arising from tangential displacement alone) between the emitted and absorbed resonant radiation. By using Bimetric Theory of Gravitational-Inertial Field [76] we obtain k=0.625 in a good agreement with experimental result k=0.69 [75].
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[79] viXra:1803.0085 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-27 08:31:42

Input Relation and Computational Complexity

Authors: Koji KOBAYASHI
Comments: 18 Pages.

This paper describes about complexity of PH problems by using "Almost all monotone circuit family" and "Accept input pair that sandwich reject inputs". Explained in Michael Sipser "Introduction to the Theory of COMPUTATION", circuit family that emulate Deterministic Turing machine (DTM) are almost all monotone circuit family except some NOT-gate that connect input variables (like negation normal form (NNF)). Therefore, we can find out DTM limitation by using this "NNF Circuit family". To clarify NNF circuit family limitation, we pay attention to AND-gate and OR-gate relation. If two accept "Neighbor input" pair that sandwich reject "Boundary input" in Hamming distance, NNF circuit have to meet these different variables of neighbor inputs in AND-gate to differentiate boundary inputs. NNF circuit have to use unique AND-gate to identify such neighbor input. The other hand, we can make neighbor input problem "Neighbor Tautology DNF problem (NTD)" in PH. NTD is subset of tautology DNF that do not become tautology if proper subset of one variable permutate positive / negative. NTD include many different variables which number is over polynomial size of input length. Therefore NNF circuit family that compute NTD are over polynomial size of length, and NTD that include PH is not in P.
Category: General Mathematics

[78] viXra:1803.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 11:03:37

Light and Matter Coupling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Researchers from Würzburg and London have succeeded in controlling the coupling of light and matter at room temperature. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[77] viXra:1803.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 11:49:00

Machine Learning Guide Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Now researchers at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and UC Berkeley have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13] With the help of artificial intelligence, chemists from the University of Basel in Switzerland have computed the characteristics of about two million crystals made up of four chemical elements. The researchers were able to identify 90 previously unknown thermodynamically stable crystals that can be regarded as new materials. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that - surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch - the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[76] viXra:1803.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 11:51:29

Der Vorschlag Eines Experimentes Zur Überprüfung Der Gültigkeit Von Lorentz-Transformationen

Authors: Walter Orlov
Comments: 7 Pages. In German

A proposal of an experiment to check the validity of the Lorentz transformations. Lorentz's interpretation of the experiment by Michelson and Morley is logical in the sense of geometric optics. But the light consists of the electromagnetic waves. This leads to conflict, if we recall that the electromagnetic fields can interact with charged particles. A vivid experiment can leave the validity of the Lorentz transformations regardless of the existence of the ether wind. Fourth figure shows the experimental setup.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[75] viXra:1803.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 07:03:15

A Strong Force Potential Formula and the Classification of the Strong Interaction

Authors: Zhengdong Huang
Comments: 29 Pages.

The most difficult problem in the research on strong interaction is to solve the mechanical expression of strong nuclear force, thus failing to comprehensively describe the state in and between hadrons. In this paper, reasonable strong force potential hypothesis is proposed through analysis, and strong interaction is classified into 5 types according to different stress particles; then, different internal symmetrical structures are correspondingly obtained, and Dirac equation is adopted to describe the intrinsic states of 13 particles of 5 types; finally, the theoretical value and the experimental value of the mass ratio of the same-charged particles and the neutral particles are compared to prove the complete set of research method and verify the correctness of the strong force potential formula supposed thereby.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[74] viXra:1803.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 14:23:55

Refutation of Quantum Computing on the Unitary Operator © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

The standard unitary operator is not tautologous. It can be coerced into tautology with two steps: 1. Reversing the order of the antecedent with the consequent in the equivalency; and 2. Replacing the equivalence connective with the implication connective. However, that result is not quantum computing as universally defined, but something else.
Category: Quantum Physics

[73] viXra:1803.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 17:28:31

A Modified Newtonian Quantum Gravity Theory Derived from Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle that Predicts the Same Bending of Light as GR

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

Mike McCulloch has derived Newton's gravity from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in a very interesting way that we think makes great sense. In our view, it also shows that gravity, even at the cosmic (macroscopic) scale, is related to the Planck scale. Inspired by McCulloch, in this paper we are using his approach to the derivation to take another step forward and show that the gravitational constant is not always the same, depending on whether we are dealing with light and matter, or matter against matter. Based on certain key concepts of the photon, combined with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, we get a gravitational constant that is twice that of Newton's when we are working with gravity between matter and light, and we get the (normal) Newtonian gravitational constant when we are working with matter against matter. This leads to a very simple theory of quantum gravity that gives the correct prediction on bending of light, i.e. the same as the General Relativity theory does, which is a value twice that of Newton's prediction. One of the main reasons the theory of GR has surpassed Newton's theory of gravitation is because Newton's theory predicts a bending of light that is not consistent with experiments.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[72] viXra:1803.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 21:17:37

The No-Boundary Proposal in Quantum Space-Time

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 2 Pages.

An aspect of the continuum paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[71] viXra:1803.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-31 23:59:47

Unification of Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 68 Pages. For book lovers, the printed version is available at https://www.morebooks.de/store/gb/book/unification-of-science/isbn/978-613-9-57823-8

A MONOGRAPH DEALING WITH UNIFICATION IN RELATION TO DARK ENERGY, DARK MATTER, COSMIC EXPANSION, E= mc2, QUANTUM GRAVITY, "IMAGINARY" COMPUTERS, CREATION OF THE INFINITE AND ETERNAL UNIVERSE USING ELECTRONIC BITS + PI + "IMAGINARY" TIME, EARTHLY EDUCATION, SCIENCE-RELIGION UNION, THE HUMAN CONDITION, SUPERCONDUCTIVITY, PLANETARY FIELDS, HOW GRAVITATION CAN BOOST HEALTH, SPACE-TIME PROPULSION FROM THE EMDRIVE TO THE BROUWER FIXED-POINT THEOREM, "LIGHT MATTER", ETC. THESE EFFECTS WERE ORIGINALLY DISCUSSED IN SEVERAL SHORT INTERNET ARTICLES.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[70] viXra:1803.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 01:44:19

Finite Statistics Loophole in CH, Eberhard, CHSH Inequalities

Authors: Justin Lee
Comments: 16 Pages.

Clauser-Horne (CH) inequality, Eberhard inequality, and Clauser-Horne-Shimony-Holt (CHSH) inequality are used to determine whether quantum entanglement can contradict local realism. However, the "finite statistics" loophole is known to allow local realism to violate these inequalities if a sample size is small [1]. Remarkably though, this paper shows that this loophole in conjunction with an improper statistical analysis and incorrect singles counts can cause a violation of Eberhard inequality even with a large sample size, e.g. a 13 sigma violation was achieved despite 12,000,000 total trials in a Monte Carlo simulation of a local realist photonic experiment, and furthermore, a 27 sigma violation was produced when a small, acceptable 0.2% production rate loophole was applied. In order to properly analyze the data, a sample mean of Eberhard inequality values should be used to calculate the statistical strength, instead of using an aggregate Eberhard inequality value, and the correct singles counts should be used. Secondly, this paper shows that if a sample size does not far exceed the "large enough" value for the normal approximation of a Binomial distribution, it can still violate these inequalities, e.g. CHSH violation of 2:43 +/- 0:31 was achieved with 280 total trials and 2:16 +/- 0:13 even with 3,000 total trials. This paper introduces the aforementioned loopholes as plausible local realist explanations to two observed violations reported by Giustina, et al. [2], and Hensen, et al. [3].
Category: Quantum Physics

[69] viXra:1803.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-10 00:27:19

On the Function of DNA Magnetism

Authors: Vadim V. Guschin, Oksana Polesskaya, Nelli Zyryanova, Alexey Tovmash, Abraham Mara, Elena Erdyneeva, Max Myakishev-Rempel
Comments: 11 Pages.

Although magnetism of DNA in strong fields is well established, it is not commonly considered magnetic in natural weak fields. SInce the behavior of strings of magnetic balls resembles some of DNA behaviors such as in replication and transcription, we hypothesize that DNA is magnetic and that DNA strands are magnetized in antiparallel orientation. We hypothesise that magnetism of DNA is based on ring currents of pi electrons in its bases. We hypothesize that ring currents are fueled by heat, enzymes or active forms of water. Accordingly, we proposed a helical model of magnetic lines in DNA. We also suggested a new way how the magnetic field in DNA may oscillate and that these oscillations will be sequence dependent. We suggest that collective oscillations of interspersed and periodic repetitive DNA sequences could contribute to electromagnetic communications between the cells and creation of Gurwitch morphogenic field. We suggest that primary cilium may be an antenna for sending and receiving electromagnetic oscillations by the genome.
Category: Physics of Biology

[68] viXra:1803.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 03:20:57

Graphene Insulator or Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

One can also imagine making a superconducting transistor out of graphene, which you can switch on and off, from superconducting to insulating. That opens many possibilities for quantum devices." [34] A team of scientists has detected a hidden state of electronic order in a layered material containing lanthanum, barium, copper, and oxygen (LBCO). [33] Now in a new study, researchers have discovered the existence of a positive feedback loop that gratly enhances the superconductivity of cuprates and may shed light on the origins of high-temperature cuprate superconductivity— considered one of the most important open questions in physics. [33] Using ultracold atoms, researchers at Heidelberg University have found an exotic state of matter where the constituent particles pair up when limited to two dimensions. [32] Neutron diffraction at the Australian Centre for Neutron Scattering has clarified the absence of magnetic order and classified the superconductivity of a new next-generation of superconductors in a paper published in Europhysics Letters. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Excitonmediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[67] viXra:1803.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 03:34:57

Universal Forecasting Scheme {Version 1}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[66] viXra:1803.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 03:56:19

Nucleus CT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[65] viXra:1803.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 04:39:44

Universal Forecasting Scheme {Version 2}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[64] viXra:1803.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-06 04:45:06

Universal Forecasting Scheme {Version 3}

Authors: Ramesh Chandra Bagadi
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this research investigation, the author has detailed a novel method of forecasting.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[63] viXra:1803.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 07:50:27

Cryo-EM Image Processing Using Pixels,Processing & Python – A General Introduction.

Authors: D.N.T.Kumar
Comments: 4 Pages. A General Introduction on Using Pixels,Processing & Python.

In this short communication,the author intends to demonstrate a simple informatics framework to process cryo-EM images using “Processing” and Python.To the best of our knowledge,this is one of the pioneering efforts.Many cryo-EM image processing software both open source or commercial have good presence of python in their source code.So,it is an inspiration to probe and process cryo-EM images using python based interaction and pixel based image processing concepts.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[62] viXra:1803.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 08:02:12

Wave and Particle Explained from Mass Volume Distance and Time Prespective

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 2 Pages.

its about the dual properties of matter
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[61] viXra:1803.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 08:40:49

Stellar Explosions Model

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[60] viXra:1803.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 10:03:11

Research on the Method About Designing of Solar-Wind Complex Generation Street Light System and the Enhancement of the Reliability of Its Power System by Realizing MPPT Maneuver Using Dspic30f4013

Authors: Kang Kyong-Mo, Ri Un-Chol, Kim Yun-Chol, Kim Shong-Jae, Ri kyong-Ju, Cho Zhongo-Huan
Comments: 6 Pages.

This article describes the design principles, design conditions, and design methods of combined wind power and solar power generation system, and discusses a new method for improving the Increasing trust of solar-wind complex generation street lighting system by DSPIC30F4013. In addition, by using the characteristics of this piece with four PWM control outlets, it is possible to smoothly perform the MPPT control of several DC-DC converters, to give a new steering algorithm, and to control the DC-DC converter To improve the stability and the life of the battery, thereby raising the trust level of thesolar-wind complex generation street lighting system.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[59] viXra:1803.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 10:29:44

Seeing the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[58] viXra:1803.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 11:32:08

Astrophysics by Schrodinger Equation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

However, a surprising new discovery from a Caltech researcher suggests that the Schrödinger Equation—the fundamental equation of quantum mechanics—is remarkably useful in describing the long-term evolution of certain astronomical structures. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[57] viXra:1803.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 20:52:29

On the Hubble Law

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since the announcement that supernovae data shows that the universe is expanding there has been little to no further analysis of the claim. Recent observations have cast doubt upon this result and suggest that new physics may be required. It is thought by the author that existing physics is adequate to explain current anomalous observations. To achieve an acceptable solution, there is however a requirement not only to accept the overwhelming observational data but also to set aside any preconceived notions that may exist in relation to the Hubble law and red-shift in general. It will be shown that an aspect of the mathematical model upon which almost all of the claims to recessional velocity are based, may indeed be erroneous.
Category: Astrophysics

[56] viXra:1803.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 22:32:07

Cancer Detection Through Handwriting

Authors: Alaa Tarek, Shorouk Alalem, Maryam El-Fdaly, Nehal Fooda
Comments: 31 Pages.

Having a look at the medical field in the previous years and the drawbacks in it, Egypt's health level is declining year after year; due to the statistical study on the health level published by the British medical journal Lancet in 2016 Egypt ranked 124 out of 188 countries. Cancer is a major burden of disease worldwide. Each year, 10,000,000 of people are diagnosed with cancer around the world, and more than half of the patients eventually die because of it. In many countries, cancer ranks the second most common cause of death following cardiovascular diseases. With significant improvement in treatment and prevention of cardiovascular diseases, cancer has or will soon become the number one killer in many parts of the world. Nearly 90,000 people do not know they have got cancer until they arrive at Accident and Emergency wards, by that time only 36 percent will live longer than a year. So, we needed to find controlled ways to diagnose patients earlier. As no aspect of human life has escaped the impact of the information age, and perhaps in no area of life is information more critical than in health and medicine. However, computers have become available for all aspects of human endeavors. After so, we have designed a program that could detect if a person has cancer or not through your handwriting. We chose “efficiency, cost, and applicability” as the design requirements that have been tested. The program could be tested by scanning the text, searching for specific features that are related to cancer and displaying “1” or “0” according to your state. After testing the program many times, we finally reached a mean efficiency of 93.75%. So, this program saves lives, time and money.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[55] viXra:1803.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 00:13:14

Brief Primer on the Fundaments of Quantum Computing

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 140 Pages.

This QC primer is based on excerpts from the breakthrough volume Universal Quantum Computing (ISBN: 978-981-3145-99-3) which touts having dissolved the remaining barriers to implementing Bulk Universal Quantum Computing (UQC), and as such most likely describes the most advanced QC development platform. Numerous books, hundreds of patents, thousands of papers and a Googolplex of considerations fill the pantheon of QC R&D. Of late QC mathemagicians claim QCs already exist; but by what chimeric definition. Does flipping a few qubits in a logic gate without an algorithm qualify as quantum computing? In physics, theory bears little weight without rigorous experimental confirmation, less if new, radical or a paradigm shift. This volume develops quantum computing based on '3rd regime' physics of Unified Field Mechanics (UFM). What distinguishes this work from a myriad of other avenues to UQC under study? Virtually all R&D paths struggle with technology and decoherence. If the currently highly favored room-sized cryogenically cooled quantum Hall anyon bilayer graphene QCs ever become successful, they would be reminiscent of the city block-sized Eniac computer of 1946. In 2017 quantum Hall techniques experimentally discovered additional dimension, said to be inaccessible and were called ‘artificial’. This scenario will not last long; the floodgates will open momentarily. Then we will have actual QCs! The QC prototype proposed herein is room temperature and tabletop. It is dramatically different in that it is not confined to the limitations of quantum mechanics; since it is based on principles of UFM, the Uncertainty Principle and Decoherence no longer apply. Thus, this QC model could be implemented on any other quantum platform!
Category: Quantum Physics

[54] viXra:1803.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 00:51:20

Harmonic Oscillation in Special Relativity

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

A physical system of a mechanical spring is chosen to manifest a physics law, conservation of momentum, in Special Relativity. Two identical objects are attached to the ends of this mechanical spring. The single force between two identical objects demands that total momentum of this physical system remains constant in any inertial reference frame in which the center of mass moves at a constant velocity. The calculation of total momentum in two different inertial reference frames shows that the momentum expression from Special Relativity violates conservation of momentum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[53] viXra:1803.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 01:21:25

In a New Way Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. Russian National Fairy Tale "Turnip" in a New Way as Result of Effective Informative and Creative Communication with the Child.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 1 Page.

Russian national fairy tale "Turnip" in a new way as result of effective informative and creative communication with the child.
Category: Astrophysics

[52] viXra:1803.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 01:34:01

You Are Simply Divine, the Chicken of Ryaba! Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.i. in the Beginning there Was Information on the Universe, and Then Already Her Materialization.

Authors: Nikitin V.N., Nikitina M.I.
Comments: 1 Page.

In the beginning there was information on the Universe, and then already her materialization.
Category: Astrophysics

[51] viXra:1803.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 03:32:36

Yang–Mills Existence and Mass Gap Concerned by the Theory with Consolidation

Authors: Gaurav Biraris
Comments: 9 Pages.

The theory with consolidation (TWC) published recently offers newer paradigm for theoretical fundamental physics. It has derived the four interactions and quantum existence in geometric manner. Outcomes of TWC address many critical problems in fundamental physics. The problem of Yang-Mills existence and mass gap needs understanding of physical mechanisms in pure mathematical sense. Appreciating Yang-Mills existence in TWC perspective takes us to a step forward towards solution of the problem. Existence of the mass gap and that of QFT is discussed in the article.
Category: Quantum Physics

[50] viXra:1803.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 04:24:38

Some Basic Computational Aspects of Chemistry.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

an alternative basis for atomic physics is presented allowing for semiclassical representations.
Category: Chemistry

[49] viXra:1803.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-05 04:33:59

Preparation of Hydrogen Peroxide by Electrochemical Method

Authors: Ri Kwang Il, Kim Dok Sung, Pak Chol Min, YongSon Hong
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nowadays all of the world most of hydroxide peroxide producing at industrial scale has been using as bleaching agent of light industry product such as paper, fibre et all, and the demand on it continuously has increased. Specially, in paper industry hydroxide peroxide not only bring about a substantial improvement of the quality of paper but also has no influence upon the human body and environment, and so is widely using as bleaching agent of hypochlorite. But for serious reasons on the use such as storage and transport of hydroxide peroxide in work shop is the main trend at present. We studied the preparation of hydrogen peroxide by a new and facile method based on cathodic reduction of oxygen with the gas diffusion type-oxygen electrode.
Category: Chemistry

[48] viXra:1803.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 05:55:27

Tunnel Similar Modeling Notation and Spherical Viewpoint

Authors: Alexey Podorov
Comments: 11 Pages.

The article proposes a spherical model of perception, groups and levels of complexity, notation for modeling abstractness, complexity
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[47] viXra:1803.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-05 02:35:08

A Close Look at the Foundation of Quantized Inertia

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

In his recent work, physicist Mike McCulloch has derived what he has coined ``Quantized Inertia'' from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle. He has published a series of papers indicating that quantized inertia can predict everything from galaxy rotations (without relying on the concept of dark matter) to the EM drive. Clearly, it is an interesting theory that deserves some attention until proven or disproven. We think McCulloch has some excellent insights, but it is important to understand the fundamental principles from which he has derived his theory. We will comment on the derivation in his work and suggest that it possibly could be interpreted from a different perspective. Recent developments in mathematical atomism appear to have revealed new concepts concerning the Planck mass, the Plank length, and their link to special relativity, gravity, and even the Heisenberg principle. We are wondering if Quantized Inertia is compatible with the atomist view of the world and, if so, how should McCulloch's theory be interpreted in that light?
Category: Quantum Physics

[46] viXra:1803.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 10:27:13

Interactions in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 9 Pages.

The accelerated motion of particles is considered. It is shown that the accelerated motion of particles can lead to the emission of other particles. An explanation of the nature of the electric charge is proposed. It is shown that the functions of elementary particles form, with the accuracy specified in the article, the complete basis of the expansion for the scalar field of the Metauniverse. Based on the consideration of the interaction of two particles, it is found why virtual particles appear and what properties they possess. It is shown why and how renormalization works in quantum field theory. It is shown that in the ESTM theory there are no ultraviolet and infrared divergences. A division into the main particles that form matter and particles-carriers of interactions added for the completeness of the basis is introduced.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[45] viXra:1803.0050 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-05 11:16:01

The Flow of Ricci over an Hermitian Fiber Bundle

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 1 page, written in french

The flow of Ricci is defined for the hermitian metrics of a complex fiber bundle.
Category: Geometry

[44] viXra:1803.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 12:03:58

Modeling Dark Energy -- Gravimetric Analysis of a Tensegrity Icosahedron Simulates Universal Accelerated Expansion

Authors: R. G. Chester
Comments: 17 Pages.

Tensegrity structures exhibit several counterintuitive behaviors. Among these is expansion resulting solely from internal tension. Replacing the physical tendons of a six-strut tensegrity icosahedron with classical gravitational attraction suggests that universal accelerated expansion may be due to ordinary gravity acting solely as an inverse second-power attractive force. Speculation is included on the ultimate fate of the universe.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[43] viXra:1803.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 12:17:26

Refutation of the Principle of Superposition of States © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

In the argument for the superposition principle, we find all equations are not tautologous. A recent advance used in mathematical logic is disallowing the Equivalent connective of the ℝ real domain when applied to the ℂ complex domain and replacing it with the Imply connective.
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1803.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 13:37:36

Nanophotonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Nanophotonics Researchers have developed a three-dimensional dynamic model of an interaction between light and nanoparticles. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1803.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 15:14:39

Toward a Pragmatic Science of Mind

Authors: Richard L Amoroso
Comments: 16 Pages. Preprint: Quantum Biosystems 2015; 6 (1): 99-114

For the field of Consciousness Studies or Cognitive Science to advance pragmatically, rigorous quantifiable theoretical elements with experimentally testable protocols leading to a wide range of applicable results must occur. In this work we introduce a new unit of physical measure called the ‘Psychon’ named in honor of Nobelist Sir John Eccles to formally quantify ‘mental energy’. Additionally, an experimental design is outlined to falsify the model. If the procedure for quantifying mind is successful it will have far reaching consequences for ‘mind science’ breaking down the 1st person - 3rd person barrier leading to a new class of ‘conscious technology’. The task introduces a new age of discovery in the progression Newtonian Mechanics to Quantum Mechanics to a 3rd regime of reality - Unified Field Mechanics (UFM); a paradigm shift fraught with detail and new nomenclature.
Category: Mind Science

[40] viXra:1803.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-05 03:05:46

Newton's Gravity from Heisenberg's Uncertainty Principle. An In-Depth Study of the McCulloch Derivation

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

Mike McCulloch has derived Newton's gravity from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in an innovative and interesting way. Upon deeper examination, we will claim that his work has additional important implications, when viewed from a different perspective. Based on recent developments in mathematical atomism, particularly those exploring the nature of Planck masses and their link to Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, we uncover an insight on the quantum world that leads to an even more profound interpretation of the McCulloch derivation than was put forward previously.
Category: Quantum Physics

[39] viXra:1803.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 03:30:05

Astronomers do not Know, How to Calculate Masses

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 3 Pages.

Shortcomings of lucky guess of Newton, that central mass can be calculated, using orbital parameters of secondary celestial body are highlighted. Analysis of calculation from the point of vortical physics is made. Results support low viscosity Sun and semi-liquid Earth concepts.
Category: Classical Physics

[38] viXra:1803.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-04 04:37:38

Alternating Consciousness. From Perception to Infinities and Back to Free Will

Authors: Claus Janew
Comments: 46 Pages. CC-BY 4.0 / Janew, Claus. 2014. Dialogue on Alternating Consciousness: From Perception to Infinities and Back to Free Will. Journal of Consciousness Exploration & Research 5, no. 4: 351-391.

Can we trace back consciousness, reality, awareness, and free will to a single basic structure without giving up any of them? Can the universe exist in both real and individual ways without being composed of both? This dialogue founds consciousness and freedom of choice on the basis of a new reality concept that also includes the infinite as far as we understand it. Just the simplest distinction contains consciousness. It is not static, but a constant alternation of perspectives. From its entirety and movement, however, there arises a freedom of choice being more than reinterpreted necessity and unpredictability. Although decisions ultimately involve the whole universe, they are free in varying degrees also here and now. The unity and openness of the infinite enables the individual to be creative while this creativity directly and indirectly enters into all other individuals without impeding them. A contrary impression originates only in a narrowed awareness. But even the most conscious and free awareness can neither anticipate all decisions nor extinguish individuality. Their creativity is secured.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[37] viXra:1803.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 05:51:16

Jets from Supermassive Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13]
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1803.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 06:09:35

New Quantum Particle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Scientists at Amherst College and Aalto University have created, for the first time a three-dimensional skyrmion in a quantum gas. [38] Using lasers, U.S. and Austrian physicists have coaxed ultracold strontium atoms into complex structures unlike any previously seen in nature. [37] A team of researchers has now presented this state of matter in the journal Physical Review Letters. The theoretical work was done at TU Wien (Vienna) and Harvard University, the experiment was performed at Rice University in Houston (Texas). [36] The old question, whether quantum systems show recurrences, can finally be answered: Yes, they do—but the concept of recurrence has to be slightly redefined. [35] Researchers at Purdue University have performed the first experimental tests of several fundamental theorems in thermodynamics, verifying the relationship between them and providing a better understanding of how nanoparticles behave under fluctuation. [34] Identifying right-handed and left-handed molecules is a crucial step for many applications in chemistry and pharmaceutics. [33] A team of researchers from several institutions in Japan has described a physical system that can be described as existing above "absolute hot" and also below absolute zero. [32] A silicon-based quantum computing device could be closer than ever due to a new experimental device that demonstrates the potential to use light as a messenger to connect quantum bits of information—known as qubits—that are not immediately adjacent to each other. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[35] viXra:1803.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 08:23:41

Frequency-Comb Spectroscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

In a new paper published today in Science Advances, researchers under the direction of Columbia Engineering Professors Michal Lipson and Alexander Gaeta (Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics) have miniaturized dual-frequency combs by putting two frequency comb generators on a single millimeter-sized chip. [36] Researchers have, for the first time, integrated two technologies widely used in applications such as optical communications, bio-imaging and Light Detection and Ranging (LIDAR) systems that scan the surroundings of self-driving cars and trucks. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[34] viXra:1803.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 06:22:57

Does Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Collapse at the Planck Scale? Heisenberg’s Uncertainty Principle Becomes the Certainty Principle

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper we show that Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle, combined with key principles from Max Planck and Einstein, indicates that uncertainty collapses at the Planck scale. In essence we suggest that the uncertainty principle becomes the certainty principle at the Planck scale. This can be used to find the rest-mass formula for elementary particles consistent with what is already known. If this interpretation is correct, it means that Einstein’s intuition that “God Does Not Throw Dice with the Universe” could also be correct. We interpret this to mean that Einstein did not believe the world was ruled by strange uncertainty phenomena at the deeper level, and we will claim that this level is the Planck scale, where all uncertainty seems to collapse. The bad news is that this new-found certainty can only can last for one Planck second! We are also questioning, without coming to a conclusion, if this could have implications for Bell’s theorem and hidden variable theories.
Category: Quantum Physics

[33] viXra:1803.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-02 13:03:33

Liar Paradox and Completeness of Theory

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 10 Pages.

Let us define the completeness of the complex system as a state where all individual components composing the system are in equilibrium. Mathematically it can be expressed as the case when the sum of systems constituents is equal to zero. Any deviation from the completeness state would be consequently defined as the incompleteness of the system. Here we postulate that the incompleteness of the system whether it is the formulation of any logical conclusion, the technical construction or physical law leads to paradoxes or instabilities of the system itself.
Category: Classical Physics

[32] viXra:1803.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-23 04:09:01

Atomic Nuclei Modelled Without Exotic Particles and Magic Forces

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 13 Pages. Version 3 is an extension of the model presented in version 2 and shows interesting similarities with publicly presented potential energy density values of uranium and hydrogen

Atomic nuclei are normally drawn as a combination of protons and neutrons grouped together as close as possible. Given the enormous repulsive force between two protons such a configuration cannot represent reality. Quantum physics pretends to solve this problem by means of quarks, held together by gluons. This article presents a model without such particles and forces.
Category: Quantum Physics

[31] viXra:1803.0035 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-30 04:51:32

Why Heisenberg-Schrödinger’s Atomic Model is Invalid

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 5 Pages. Version 2 contains editorial changes in version 1

Outstanding surprisingly the misconception regarding the phenomenon potential energy most likely caused the change from Rutherford-Bohr’s to Heisenberg-Schrödinger’s atomic model.
Category: Quantum Physics

[30] viXra:1803.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-18 08:30:52

Meth8/VŁ4 on Complex Numbers (ℂ) Copyright © 2008, 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

Imaginary numbers in Meth8/ VŁ4 are rendered as implications and not equivalences, which serves to reason since complex numbers are imaginary and literally not real. Hence the complex number space (ℂ) is arguably a probabilistic vector space and never exact. Quantum field theory as based on ℂ is probabilistic, not bivalent, and hence suspicious.
Category: Quantum Physics

[29] viXra:1803.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-02 09:17:58

Quantum Dot Photoemission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors.
Category: Quantum Physics

[28] viXra:1803.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-02 10:07:55

Store Time in a Quantum Superposition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Computer models of systems such as a city's traffic flow or neural firing in the brain tends to use up a lot of memory. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26]
Category: Quantum Physics

[27] viXra:1803.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-02 11:09:00

Sharp Dark Matter Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1803.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 06:17:58

Three-Qubit System

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

A new progress in the scaling of semiconductor quantum dot-based qubits has been achieved by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China. [38] This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology—a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today—a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[25] viXra:1803.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 06:34:58

Circuit Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Simulation of quantum chemistry is one of the killer applications of quantum computers. [39] A new progress in the scaling of semiconductor quantum dot-based qubits has been achieved by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China. [38] This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology—a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today—a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[24] viXra:1803.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 07:51:17

CUORE Constrains Neutrino Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[23] viXra:1803.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 08:43:28

Is GR Right?

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages.

Attempt to discredit the GR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[22] viXra:1803.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:20:21

Dark Matter from the First Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter—the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1803.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:41:28

AI for Safer Cities

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Computers may better predict taxi and ride sharing service demand, paving the way toward smarter, safer and more sustainable cities, according to an international team of researchers. [29] For the first time, physicists have demonstrated that machine learning can reconstruct a quantum system based on relatively few experimental measurements. [28] AlphaZero plays very unusually; not like a human, but also not like a typical computer. Instead, it plays with "real artificial" intelligence. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[20] viXra:1803.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:49:19

Path-Breaking Directions of Nanotechnology-Based Chemotherapy and Molecular Cancer Therapy

Authors: Coccia M., Wang L.
Comments: 28 Pages.

A fundamental question is how to detect likely successful anticancer treatments based on nanotechnology. We confront this question here by analyzing the trajectories of nanotechnologies applied to path-breaking cancer treatments, which endeavour to pinpoint ground-breaking and fruitful directions in nanomedicine. Results tend to show two main technological waves of cancer treatments by nanotechnology applications. The early technological wave in the early 2000s was embodied in some types of chemotherapy agents with a broad spectrum, while after 2006, the second technological wave appeared with new nano-technological applications in both chemotherapy agents and molecular target therapy. The present study shows new directions of nanotechnology-based chemotherapy and -molecular cancer therapy in new treatments for breast, lung, brain and colon cancers. A main finding of this study is the recognition that, since the late 2000s, the sharp increase of several technological trajectories of nanotechnologies and anticancer drugs seems to be driven by high rates of mortality of some types of cancers (e.g. pancreatic and brain ones) in order to find more effectiveness anticancer therapies that increase the survival of patients. The study here also shows that worldwide leader countries in these vital research fields and in particular the specialization of some countries in applications of nanotechnology to treat specific cancer (e.g. Switzerland in prostate cancer, Japan in colon, China in ovarian and Greece in pancreatic cancer). These ground-breaking technological trajectories are paving new directions in biomedicine and generating a revolution in clinical practice that may lead to more effective anticancer treatments in a not-too-distant future.
Category: Social Science

[19] viXra:1803.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:51:48

Evolutionary Growth of Knowledge and New Technological Directions of Non-Thermal Plasma Technology in Medicine

Authors: Coccia M., Finardi U.
Comments: 24 Pages.

The paper analyzes the evolution of scientific production and patenting, main proxies of scientific and technological breakthroughs, concerning non-thermal plasma for biomedical applications in order to detect emerging technological trajectories. New scientific directions of non-thermal plasma in medicine play a critical role because they might generate important innovations that could change the clinical practice. Occurrences of scientific products and patents are retrieved with Boolean queries on SciVerse database after a meticulous procedure to delineate the most promising applications in biomedical sciences. Data are analyzed with two methodological approaches: an exponential model of growth and regression analysis. Results show high rates of scientific growth for applications of nonthermal plasma in disinfection, anticancer treatments, dermatology, whereas for surgery, although values of occurrences are similar to the other research fields, it shows a different trend that after the 2005 is decreasing due to the peculiar application to materials for implantation. Some arguments are discussed at the end of the paper.
Category: Social Science

[18] viXra:1803.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:54:51

Emerging Scientific Directions in Plasma Technology for Food Decontamination

Authors: Coccia M., Finardi U.
Comments: 24 Pages.

The purpose of this research is to analyze the evolutionary growth of knowledge in nonthermal plasma technologies applied for food decontamination in order to pinpoint emerging scientific directions. The sample uses 22,836 articles and 2,282 patents from Scopus/SciVerse database in order to calculate the rate of scientific and technological growth that may detect emerging technological trajectories and applications. Results show that emerging plasma technology for food decontamination are mainly cold atmospheric pressure plasma and gas plasma. Moreover, plasma seems to be a promising technology for decontamination of fresh food from bacteria Staphylococcus Aureus, Listeria Monocytogenes and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa, respectively. However, key limitations are the relatively early state of technology development, and the largely unexplored impacts of non thermal plasma on nutritional qualities of treated foods. Nevertheless, this technology shows promise for biodecontamination and is the subject of active research to enhance efficacy and open up crucial opportunities to industrial and social safety.
Category: Social Science

[17] viXra:1803.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:56:34

Technological Innovations in Agricultural Tractors: Adopters’ Behaviour Towards New Technological Trajectories and Future Directions

Authors: Ferrari E., Bollani L., Coccia M., Cavallo E.
Comments: 33 Pages.

Latest advancements in tractors engineering have allowed farmers to increase productivity, and simultaneously to reduce operator’s hazards. However, little attention has been given to farmers’ behaviour and attitude toward the adoption of technological innovations concerning agricultural tractors. The study explores farmers’ behaviours on agricultural tractors current and future technological trajectories. A main case study concerning Italy is analyzed. Results show three different behaviours of farmers concerning tractors’ technological innovations. These adopters’ profiles would help developing new technologies that satisfy, more and more, farmers’ needs and expectations, speeding up the adoption process, enhancing agricultural tractors’ efficacy and efficiency.
Category: Social Science

[16] viXra:1803.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 09:57:52

Population and Technological Innovation: the Optimal Interaction Across Modern Countries

Authors: Coccia M.
Comments: 23 Pages.

Population growth is one of the major problems facing the world today because it affects the pattern of sustainable economic growth. Theory of endogenous growth shows that total research output increases faster than proportionally with population due to increases in the size of the market, more intensive intellectual contact and greater specialization. The study here analyses the relationship between population growth and level of technological outputs (patent applications of residents), focusing on OECD countries. The study seems to show the existence of an inverted-U shaped curve between the growth rate of population and the patents with an optimal zone in which the average rate of growth of the population (roughly 0.3131%) is likely to be associated to a higher level of technological outputs. The policy implications of the study are that, in average, it is difficult to sustain a optimal level of technological outputs either with a low (lower than 0.2197%) or high (higher than 1.0133%) average growth rate of population (annual). In addition, the estimated relationship of technological outputs vs. population growth tends to be affected by decreasing returns of technological innovation to population growth.
Category: Social Science

[15] viXra:1803.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-03 12:13:21

Zero Application and Synchronization of Prime Numbers. Theorem and Condition of the Twin Primes

Authors: Pablo Hernan Pereyra
Comments: 4 Pages.

A discrete condition for twin prime numbers is established by Wilson's theorem. By synchronization is obtained a linear diophantine equation that implies by Bertrand Chebyshev's theorem the existence of infinite twin prime numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[14] viXra:1803.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 10:43:13

СУДЬБА Электромагнитная механика Вселенной Начала теории материи –––––– Виталий Парпура –––––– Аннотация В своей научно-популярной теории (гипотезе – по-научном

Authors: Vitaliy Parpura
Comments: 105 Pages. Русский

СУДЬБА Электромагнитная механика Вселенной Начала теории материи –––––– Виталий Парпура –––––– Аннотация В своей научно-популярной теории (гипотезе – по-научному) я изложил несколько иной взгляд на устройство мира, нежели принят ныне. Используя, как основу, старую добрую древ-негреческую идею эфира, вместо него, вводится понятие поля материи Вселенной как единст-венного источника бытия. Как единственной среды, которая создаёт всё в нашем мире, вклю-чая и духовный мир. Создаёт посредством силы материи (силы поля материи), также единой и единственной силы в Природе. Создаёт с помощью своих вихрей материи, идею которых наи-более подробно развил давно ещё Рене Декарт. Вихри материи – это кирпич и цемент Вселен-ной. Всё из материи! (Мечта Декарта). В этой работе даётся простое, и немного неожиданное, понимание сущности времени в физическом и пространственном аспектах. Даётся простое и наглядное толкование спина системы. Имеют место рассуждения об инерции, фотоне и электромагнитных волнах. Ут-верждается, что весь наш мир – это электромагнитный мир, созданный стоящими и бегущи-ми электромагнитными колебаниями плотности поля материи Вселенной. И в заключение предпринята попытка ввести в науку понятие Судьбы – судьбы человека, судьбы всего человечества и Судьбы Вселенной, как единой и единственной всеобщей электро-магнитной структуры поля материи Вселенной, виртуальное существование которой (одно-временно во всех временах) создаёт всеобщую предопределённость событий в Мире. Всё едино! – главная идея этой теории.
Category: Classical Physics

[13] viXra:1803.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 10:50:16

Hadronisation in Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[12] viXra:1803.0014 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-12 09:01:34

The World is an Autology Derived from All Tautologies

Authors: Alexandre Harvey Tremblay
Comments: 75 Pages.

We report a mathematical construction that is autological, universal and tautological. The autological property allows the derivation of the laws of physics from the construction, while the other two properties explain why the construction is universally and necessarily applicable to the world. The construction can explain the World at its most fundamental level up to and including the derivation of the familiar laws of physics. It is formulated as a statistical ensemble of feasible mathematics (an algorithmic information theory analog to statistical physics) and its domain is the set of all analytical statements of logic ---here they take the role of the permissible facts of the world. The familiar laws of physics are emergent from the ensemble as entropic laws; this includes special relativity, general relativity, dark energy, the Schrödinger equation, the Dirac equation, quantum field theory, the speed of light as a maximal speed, and the space-time background. Furthermore, the construction provides tentative solutions in regard to the quantum measurement problem, the unification of physics and the arrow of time. In this context, the laws of physics are interpreted as the limits applicable to the feasible verification of the elements of the set of all analytical facts (they limit the actual facts of the world). The scope is universal (applies to the whole world), it is constructed tautologically (is irrefutable) and it is autological (allows the derivation of the laws of physics) ---thus, it is a tentative final theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1803.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 11:51:03

Speed Record for Trapped-Ion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Researchers at Oxford University have set a new speed record for the 'logic gates' that form the building blocks of quantum computing-a technology that could transform the way we process information. [40] Simulation of quantum chemistry is one of the killer applications of quantum computers. [39] A new progress in the scaling of semiconductor quantum dot-based qubits has been achieved by researchers at the University of Science and Technology of China. [38] This has the double benefit of potentially allowing a new method of chip-to-chip communication with silicon, currently only possible with much more expensive materials, but also pushing mobile communications to much higher frequency and allowing the transmission of more data. [37] Based on complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor (COMS) technology—a standard low-cost, high-volume chip manufacturing technique used for most processors and chips today—a group of researchers from IBM Research in Zurich, Switzerland, together with a consortium working under the EU-funded project "ADDAPT," have demonstrated a novel optical receiver (RX) that can achieve an aggregate bandwidth of 160 Gb/s through four optical fibers. [36] An international team of researchers has taken an important step towards solving a difficult variation of this problem, using a statistical approach developed at the University of Freiburg. [35] Storing information in a quantum memory system is a difficult challenge, as the data is usually quickly lost. At TU Wien, ultra-long storage times have now been achieved using tiny diamonds. [34] Electronics could work faster if they could read and write data at terahertz frequency, rather than at a few gigahertz. [33] A team of researchers led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory has demonstrated a new method for splitting light beams into their frequency modes. [32] Quantum communication, which ensures absolute data security, is one of the most advanced branches of the "second quantum revolution". [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[10] viXra:1803.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 13:19:40

Redshift/CBR as Intrinsic Blackbody Cavity-QED Absorption/Emission Equilibrium Dynamics

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 35 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0007

Alternative interpretations for the two main pillars of Big Bang cosmology are formally introduced. A redshift / CBR complementarity is delineated as complex blackbody equilibrium conditions intrinsic to the Cavity-QED resonance dynamics of the spin exchange coupling inherent in extended spacetime hyperstructure oscillations rotating relativistically within the topology of a higher dimensional (HD) form of a covariant polarized Dirac vacuum, with correspondence to the usual asymptotically flat Einstein/Minkowski energy-dependent spacetime metric, . In this frame a Vigier style dissipative redshift mechanism is described as absorption and Cosmic Microwave Background Radiation (CBR) as emission within the context of an extended de Broglie-Bohm-Vigier causal interpretation of quantum theory that includes extended EM theory and photon mass anisotropy.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1803.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 14:03:14

Refutation of Poincaré Recurrence Theorem © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

We refute the equation μ⁢(E-An)≤μ⁢(Ao-An)=μ⁢(Ao)-μ⁢(An)=0. Through modification by replacing the Equivalent to connective with the Imply connective, the equation may be coerced into something other than the original. We then ask how experimental quantum results can be reconciled with the refuted Poincaré recurrence theorem. We reply that assuming the so-far non-replicated physical experiment cannot be falsified (such as by probabilistic objections), then those experimental quantum results are obviously misinterpreted into a mistaken conclusion.
Category: Quantum Physics

[8] viXra:1803.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 15:21:18

Refutation of Set of Cycles in Classical Real Minkowski Plane © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved.

In the classical real Minkowski plane, we confirm the set of points as tautologous. However, we refute the set of cycles as being not tautologous and not contradictory. This means that basing quantum theory on the set of cycles in the classical real Minkowski plane is suspicious.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[7] viXra:1803.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 16:17:11

Implications of Multidimensional Geometries and Measurement

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 24 Pages. Complexification of Maxwell’s equations with an extension of the gauge condition to non-Abelian algebras, yields a putative metrical unification of relativity, electromagnetism and quantum theory. This unique new approach also yields a universal nonlocali

Complexification of Maxwell’s equations with an extension of the gauge condition to non-Abelian algebras, yields a putative metrical unification of relativity, electromagnetism and quantum theory. This unique new approach also yields a universal nonlocality with implications for Bell’s Theorem and the possibility of instantaneous quantum connections because spatial separation can vanish by utilizing the complex space.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[6] viXra:1803.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 21:29:03

A Study on the Optimum Control of stair Step Hydropower Plant by the Considering Operation Characteristics of Turbine

Authors: Kim Chol-Gyong, Sin Gyong-Il, Ri Un-Chol, Pak Il-Un, Chon Gi-Sam, Ri Guang-il, Kim Chol-Ho, Kim Su-Song
Comments: 6 Pages.

Long - term optimal control of hydroelectric power plants plays an important role in improving the utilization efficiency of the water resource, but it is not elaborate to calculate the calculation results of the optimization model by using the established output power. Speaking of this problem, in general, the hydraulic turbine efficiency in the total efficiency of hydroelectric power plants depends on the power generation head and power. Changes in the generation head during the mid-long-term operation of hydroelectric power plants lead to changes in the efficiency of the turbines. The relationship between power generation head - output and efficiency is show in the overall operating characteristic curve of the turbines. However, considering the calculation methods so far, it is consider that the average output power is use in the mid - to long - term optimal control of the stepped hydroelectric power plant and the calculation is not detailed and the operation characteristics of the turbines are not considered. In this case, the total operating characteristic curve of the turbine is use to obtain the change of the turbine efficiency according to the change of the generation water head of the long-term optimum control process of the hydroelectric power plant, and the output of the power plant is obtained based in theory. As shown in the long series calculation of the stair Step hydroelectric power station of Chong-chon River, the relative error of the between this method and multi - year average generation amount of stationary side method is 2.7%, which is more suitable for production practice. Therefore, this method has a relatively good reference effect on the development of mid - and long - term subdivision management of stepped hydroelectric power plants.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[5] viXra:1803.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 22:40:27

An Experimental Measurement of Power Amplification Effect Via Parasitic Dipole Inside Waveguide

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Qichang Liang, Yu Liang
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this work, transmission coefficient S21 was measured through a waveguide. The electromagnetic wave entered into a waveguide through a horn at one end and it was measured at the other end. By inserting a parasitic dipole inside the waveguide, the wave amplitude at lower adjacent frequency of dipole resonant was amplified. This effect is similar to that of Yagi-Uda antenna in open space. It is stated in textbook that a Yagi-Uda antenna can diffract the electromagnetic wave in open space and focus the power in forward direction. However, a dipole inside a waveguide cannot diffract electromagnetic wave from the open space. The observation in this work indicated that the wave was amplified by the parasitic dipole.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1803.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-02 01:45:47

Is Einstein GR Descredited by Dark Matter and Big Bang and Black Holes?

Authors: Dmitri Martila
Comments: 2 Pages.

Is perfectly known, that the Einstein has disapproved the Black Hole solutions. It was horrible to have an divergence, the infinities (BH, BB) in the equations? The Einstein has assumed Matter conservation during the derivation of GR, but it is violated in the consequences: BH, BB. Thus, the GR is wrong. Recall, the Nikola Tesla (who was blessed by his father, Eastern Orthodox Christian) that Nikola was in disagreement with Einstein.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[3] viXra:1803.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-02 14:53:45

Gravitational Force and Conservation of Momentum

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the history of physics, momentum has been represented by two expressions. One from Issac Newton, the other from Special Relativity. Both expressions are expected to describe a physical system that demands conservation of momentum. By examining the gravitational force between two identical particles in two different inertial reference frames, the momentum expression from Issac Newton is found to obey conservation of momentum while the momentum expression from Special Relativity is found to violate conservation of momentum.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[2] viXra:1803.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 01:53:26

Is a Different Search Protocol Required for Success in SETI Research?

Authors: Richard L Amoroso, Elizabeth A Rauscher
Comments: 18 Pages. https://doi.org/10.1142/9789812839312_0013.

In an Anthropic Multiverse intelligent civilizations are purported to be the rule rather than the statistical exception, providing circumstantial evidence that the current SETI search protocol to find civilizations similar to our own is inadequate since the SETI program is over fifty years old. From the current cosmological perspective researchers are content to perform straight forward searches for narrow-band electromagnetic transmissions from technologically based extra-solar civilizations. Here it is suggested that the scenario in an Anthropic Multiverse requires a radical new observational approach.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1803.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-05 04:58:02

Expansion Into Bernoulli Polynomials Based on Matching Definite Integrals of Derivatives

Authors: Andrej Liptaj
Comments: 8 Pages.

A method of function expansion is presented. It is based on matching the definite integrals of the derivatives of the function to be approximated by a series of (scaled) Bernoulli polynomials. The method is fully integral-based, easy to construct and presumably slightly outperforms Taylor series in the convergence rate. Text presents already known results.
Category: Functions and Analysis