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1807 Submissions

[503] viXra:1807.0535 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-13 10:34:51

The Near Abortion of Gravistrong

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a brief overview of the concise unification between gravitation and strong-nuclear
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[502] viXra:1807.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 08:14:49

Optical Fibers Sense Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Condensed Matter

[501] viXra:1807.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 08:23:22

Proof of the Fourth Landau's Problem (Russian Version)

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is the third result of applying Formula of Disjoint Sets of Odd Numbers
Category: Number Theory

[500] viXra:1807.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 08:39:29

The Pochhammer's Symbol at Rational Argument and the Finite Product of Gamma Functions

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 5 Pages.

I derive some finite product representations of gamma functions for the Pochhammer's symbol at rational argument.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[499] viXra:1807.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 08:51:26

Optical Fibers Monitoring

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

A fiber optic sensing system developed by researchers in China and Canada can peer inside supercapacitors and batteries to observe their state of charge. [35] The idea of using a sound wave in optical fibers initially came from the team's partner researchers at Bar-Ilan University in Israel. Joint research projects should follow. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Condensed Matter

[498] viXra:1807.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 09:27:59

Diamond in Fusion Technology

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Fusion power plants promise nearly unlimited climate-friendly energy and scientists worldwide cooperate to reach this goal. [12] Lead researcher Dr Jonathan Breeze, from Imperial's Department of Materials, said: "This breakthrough paves the way for the widespread adoption of masers and opens the door for a wide array of applications that we are keen to explore. We hope the maser will now enjoy as much success as the laser." [11] Japanese researchers have optimized the design of laboratory-grown, synthetic diamonds. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9] A UNSW Australia-led team of researchers has discovered how algae that survive in very low levels of light are able to switch on and off a weird quantum phenomenon that occurs during photosynthesis. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[497] viXra:1807.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 09:58:32

A Method for Calculating Orbital Velocities in Expanding or Contracting Space-Time

Authors: John S. Huenefeld
Comments: 8 Pages. Up to now, an unsolved problem in physics.

We are told that as expansion of the universe continues to accelerate, stars will eventually be ripped from galaxies, then planets will be ripped from their stars. Eventually the planets themselves will be torn apart by the force of expanding space-time and then even molecules and atoms. When asked at what specific expansion rates these things will happen, no one has an answer. Galaxy models used to estimate the amount of dark matter required to explain observed rotation rates do not account for universal expansion in the calculations, as if expansion is not happening within galaxies at all. The consensus is that expansion is very small, and is easily overcome by local forces. This may be true on Earth, or in our solar system, but galaxies are very large, and orbits in galaxies take place in a realm of very small accelerations acting over very large distances. Within a galaxy the size of the Milky Way, outward drift due to expansion may exceed inward fall due to gravity, on a per second basis, by up to thirteen orders of magnitude. It is difficult to imagine how gravity overcomes these relatively large expansion rates and calls into question the correctness of ignoring universal expansion in galaxy models. If ignoring expansion is correct, then does it mean that universal expansion does not actually happen within galaxies? And if not, why not? Why do we see red shift in the light from distant galaxies, clearly a sign of an expanding universe, and yet see no evidence of expansion going on locally in the solar system or within our galaxy? If a method for calculating the orbital velocities of gravitationally bound objects including the effect of expansion (or contraction) of space-time could be developed, these questions will have definitive answers. That is the object of this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[496] viXra:1807.0528 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 10:24:28

Molecular Excitation by Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Specifically, the authors model the impact of an incoming photon on electrons and nuclei as the electrons approach an excited state. [40] A team of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Stanford University and Europe has captured the clearest glimpse yet of a photochemical reaction—the type of light-fueled molecular transformations responsible for photosynthesis, vision and the ozone layer. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[495] viXra:1807.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 10:44:28

Quantum Interpretation of the Nucleon Anomalous Magnetic Moment

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages.

A century’s proliferation of Quantum Interpretations has been driven by an incomplete understanding of the measurement problem, by an incomplete understanding of the unobservable wavefunction and its unobservable interactions. Yet it remains that the observer effect - observing a phenomenon necessarily changes that phenomenon - is at the historical foundation of quantum mechanics. The semantic confusion, that wavefunction interactions are unobservable yet the observer effect is irrefutable, can be resolved by considering the difference between simple passive measurement and active transfer function measurement. In the first, one registers whatever lump of energy lands upon a sensor, and there is no observer effect. In the second, one excites the system of interest and measures the response, and there is an observer effect. Magnetic moment measurements are transfer function measurements. To measure an amplitude one must align the spin, applying a magnetic field to separate the energy eigenstates, and excite the system to measure their difference. A paper presented to Spin 2016 suggests that the measured anomaly is not an intrinsic property of the fermionic proton, but rather an observer effect. In our presentation to Spin 2018 we propose to extend the Spin 2016 interpretation to the neutron anomalous moment.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[494] viXra:1807.0526 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 10:44:38

Cell-to-Cell Cancer Treatments

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Pioneering new research into the way in which cells communicate with each other could hold the key to unlocking new, improved treatment for life-threatening diseases, including cancer. [31] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis—inflammation of the small blood vessels—appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[493] viXra:1807.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 11:42:35

Still Further Improvement of the Accuracy of HCE8S Theory: the Neutron and Z Boson Masses and More

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: The HCE8S theory accuracy of the neutron, proton, Z boson and other particle masses has been further improved
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[492] viXra:1807.0524 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 11:46:17

A Derivation of Fluidic Maxwell-Proca Equations for Electrodynamics of Superconductors and Implication to Chiral Cosmology model

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Yunita Umniyati
Comments: 9 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal. Your comments are welcome

In a rather old paper, Mario Liu described a hydrodynamic Maxwell equations. While he also discussed potential implications of these new approaches to superconductors, such a discussion of electrodynamics of superconductors is made only after Tajmar's paper. Therefore, in this paper we present for the first time a derivation of fluidic Maxwell-Proca equations. The name of fluidic Maxwell-Proca is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Maxwell-Proca and Hirsch's theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to cosmology modeling too, for instance we consider a hypothetical argument that photon mass can be origin of gravitation. Then, after combining with the so-called chiral modification of Maxwell equations (after Spröessig), then we consider chiral Maxwell-Proca equations as possible alternative of gravitation theory. Such a hypothesis has never been considered in literature to the best of our knowledge.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[491] viXra:1807.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 13:33:42

The Theory of Gearbox

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 1 Page. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to present a brief introduction to my theory of gearbox
Category: Classical Physics

[490] viXra:1807.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 15:51:49

Interstellar Flight of Outer Solar System

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 36 Pages.

Author researches, discusses and estimates the need parameters of launch systems the mini automatic probe for flight to the nearest star systems “Alpha-Centauri” and others. He shows that problem is very difficult for current and future technology. Launch requests gigantic energy, expensive equipment and large trip time. The conventional nuclear and thermonuclear on-board reactors cannot also solve this problem (Part 1). Author offers and researches three new possible perspective propulsion systems: multi-reflex light system used new sell-multi-reflex mirror and lasers (Part 2); cold plasma beam from Earth (Part 3) and on-board Micro Black Hole (MBH) nuclear photon rocket (Part 4). In all methods, he offered innovations, which make possible to implement all with current technology. Two first methods request the high altitude (40 ÷ 80 km) mast. He estimates: the requested launch system (laser multi-reflect propulsion, cold plasma beam propulsion, MBH nuclear propulsion, etc.);grown and board equipment, energy installation (generator and accelerator); interstellar flight; environmental, medium drag; interstellar micro particles; communication with Earth. Author showed – the most realistic interstellar launch system is laser beam used the cell reflective mirror or ultra-cold plasma beam.
Category: Classical Physics

[489] viXra:1807.0521 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 16:01:18

Rocket with Unusual Rocket Body and Engine

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Conventional modern rocket has existed for more than a half century. However, there has been little or no significant progress in their basic data. They are very exceedingly complex and generally very expensive to build. Designers ordinarily try to improve them by simplifying in order to reduce the cost payload launches. They try to use the first stagy of rocket sometimes, because the rocket engine and body are expensive. But no significant success. The author offers a new type of rocket which does not have the usual rocket body and engine (only open solid rocket fuel). This new rocket is cheap to fabricate, may be switched on and switched off many times and has specific impulse more than conventional solid fuel engine (i.e., close to liquid fuel). One can be used for launch as well as vector correcting rocket. This method is particularly suitable for micro-spacecraft (up to 1 kg). It allows to reduce the launch weight of the rocket to 50 ÷ 1000 kg. Key words: non-body rocket, non-engine rocket, explosive rocket propulsion, AB rocket.
Category: Classical Physics

[488] viXra:1807.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 16:08:25

Suggestions for Improving Patenting

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 2 Pages.

Brief Summary. Suggestions: 1.The application for the invention is drawn up under all Rules of the PTO (history of the invention, detailed description with figures, claims, patent research, etc.). Inventor can add to it the terms of transfer, cost leasing or purchase. The application is posted on an open, widely known website (Google Patent, Archive.org, http://intellectualarchive.com, PTO or special web side) with free access, which puts the placement date. Give ordinary courts the right to accept statements of claim from the author (or his close relatives in the event of his death), if promulgated non-patented inventions for violation of intellectual property (somebody is using given invention for profit). 2.During the period of validity of the patent (usually 20 years), the author can submit an application to the PTO for examination and issuance of a patent. Only then he pays a fair PTO fee for the examination of the application and the issuance of a patent. 3.The total maximum fee cannot exceed $ 100 for individual inventor. Payments for "maintaining" the patent (Maintence Fees) should be canceled. 4.The inventor over 65 years of age having only SSI can patent for free. 5.The State Committee for Inventions (or the department in the PTO) is needed, where authors of inventions that are important for the defense, security or technical progress of the country can apply. If the experts recognize the invention as such, then the invention becomes state property or secret, the PTO patent this invention for free. In the future, the author will get 1% of the cost of products using this invention, and the Committee (or PTO) 0.5% for the content of the Committee (PTO). 6.All PTO profits should be used to support individual inventors with low income and for inventor over 65 years of age.
Category: Classical Physics

[487] viXra:1807.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 18:49:19

Proton Electron Universe and Their Directions of Force

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 15 Pages.

Lately we found that the proton is most associated with gravitation and the electron with charge. In this paper we find that gravitation is from a force in just one direction, associated with the mass of the proton and the electron, and charge is from a force in a combination of the x, y, and z perpendicular directions. This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[486] viXra:1807.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 12:19:09

Generalised Quantum-Electrodynamics: A Theory of Quantum Gravity.

Authors: Sp Cottle
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this model the force of gravity is mediated by the electron, the W+ and the W- particle. The electron, from its bound state around a nucleus, tunnels into other atoms and exerts a force of attraction over the proton(s) in the nucleus of those atoms. This attractive force amounts to the exchange of a W+ boson to, or from, the nucleus. To make this consistent with quantum mechanics, the electron in its bound state must tunnel roughly once every Planck time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[485] viXra:1807.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 13:10:53

Nanoparticles Chemotherapy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Illinois at Chicago have demonstrated that magnetic nanoparticles can be used to ferry chemotherapy drugs into the spinal cord to treat hard-to-reach spinal tumors in an animal model. [30] Small vessel vasculitis—inflammation of the small blood vessels—appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Physics of Biology

[484] viXra:1807.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 13:27:59

AI Optical Component Design

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Recent successful applications of deep learning include medical image analysis, speech recognition, language translation, image classification, as well as addressing more specific tasks, such as solving inverse imaging problems. [23] Researchers at Caltech have developed an artificial neural network made out of DNA that can solve a classic machine learning problem: correctly identifying handwritten numbers. [22] Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand—and much faster than recently possible. [21] Humans have 46 chromosomes, and each one is capped at either end by repetitive sequences called telomeres. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[483] viXra:1807.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 18:13:37

Buenaventura Suarez, el Primer Astrónomo Americano en Sudamérica V.3

Authors: Ramón Isasi
Comments: 12 Pages. In Spanish

En este breve ensayo, consideramos algunos detalles de la vida del Padre Buenaventura Suarez, sus investigaciones astronómicas y labores como artesano en la construcción completa de sus instrumentos científicos empleando como únicos medios los materiales ofrecidos por la naturaleza donde las Misiones Jesuíticas estaban localizadas. También se incluye una breve biografía, una corta descripción de su producción científica y comunicaciones. Se hace además, un breve comentario de su libro Lunario de un Siglo 4ta. Ed. que fue publicado en 1752.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[482] viXra:1807.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 18:56:24

Confirmation that Every Straight Line Through a Point Inside a Circle Intersects the Circumference

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

"An interior point inside the circle and an exterior point outside the circle imply that every straight line intersecting both points intersects a point on the circle." This conjecture is comfirmed.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[481] viXra:1807.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 19:17:57

The Locations of M, L, T and Y Brown Dwarfs on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

According to establishment brown dwarfs are strange and not connected to the regular path of stellar evolution or planet formation. Unfortunately this is false, and has been false since brown dwarfs have been discovered, and will continue to be false well into the future after the failed star false knowledge is scrubbed from the science textbooks. Brown dwarfs straddle the line between strongly radiant stars and stars that no longer shine brightly, the line between very massive stars and small ones, and the line between young and old stars. They are not failed stars at all as is accepted by the establishment, but intermediate aged ones. This means M, L, T and Y type brown dwarfs can be easily placed on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram with reference to the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[480] viXra:1807.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 22:07:40

Proof of the Legendre's Conjecture (Russian Version)

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is the second result of applying Formula of Disjoint Sets of Odd Numbers
Category: Number Theory

[479] viXra:1807.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 01:48:43

Dahl_Pascals_electron_proton_V3.0

Authors: David E. Fuller, Dahl Winters
Comments: 5 Pages.

Pressure & Volume Based Derivation of Quantum Mechanics
Category: Quantum Physics

[478] viXra:1807.0510 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-25 05:18:13

On the Representation of Even Integers by the Sum of Prime Numbers

Authors: Elhadj Zeraoulia
Comments: 13 Pages.

The main objective of this short note is prove that some statements concerning the representation of even integers by the sum of prime numbers are equivalent to some true trivial case. This implies that these statements are also true. The analysis is based on a new prime formula and some trigonometric expressions.
Category: Number Theory

[477] viXra:1807.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 06:56:29

Confirmation of Playfair's Axiom

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

Per "De Morgan that this proposition is logically equivalent to Playfair’s axiom. ... Let X be the set of pairs of distinct lines which meet and Y the set of distinct pairs of lines each of which is parallel to a single common line. If z represents a pair of distinct lines, then the statement, For all z, if z is in X then z is not in Y, is Playfair's axiom, and its logically equivalent contrapositive, For all z, if z is in Y then z is not in X, is Euclid I.30, the transitivity of parallelism." This is confirmed as tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[476] viXra:1807.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 07:05:08

Coulomb Drag and Indirect Excitons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Mystifying experimental results obtained independently by two research groups in the USA seemed to show coupled holes and electrons moving in the opposite direction to theory. [31] An international team of scientists, including NUST MISIS's Professor Gotthard Seifert, has made an important step toward the control of excitonic effects in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. [30] Carbon nanotubes – cylindrical formations of carbon atoms with incredible strength and electrical conductivity – hold great promise for creating new micron-scale low-power electronic devices. [29] An electrically conductive hydrogel that takes stretchability, self-healing and strain sensitivity to new limits has been developed at KAUST. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[475] viXra:1807.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 07:51:50

Recursive Data Compression Method

Authors: John Archie Gillis
Comments: 22 Pages.

Recursive compression of random data is generally deemed to be an impossible process that defies the laws of physics (Shannon Entropy). This paper explains why this perception is incorrect and provides a proof that explains how such a compression system may be achieved. The practicality of the method has yet to be determined.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[474] viXra:1807.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 08:10:25

P=NP Methods of Organizing Data

Authors: John Archie Gillis
Comments: 37 Pages.

The present methods take a novel approach to solving NP-Complete problems and provide steps that a computational device and software program can follow to accurately solve NP-class problems without the use of heuristics or brute force methods.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[473] viXra:1807.0505 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 08:22:58

Future Neuromorphic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

The brain requires surprisingly little energy to adapt to the environment to learn, make ambiguous recognitions, have high recognition ability and intelligence, and perform complex information processing. [35] One recent measure to improve the visualization of the brain has been to create more comprehensive brain models that simulate neural activity. [34] Brain-machine interfaces provide one way to connect with this puzzling organ system, including the brain. [33] Measuring optical blood flow in the resting human brain to detect spontaneous activity has for the first time been demonstrated by Wright State University imaging researchers, holding out promise for a better way to study people with autism, Alzheimer's and depression. [32] UCLA biologists report they have transferred a memory from one marine snail to another, creating an artificial memory, by injecting RNA from one to another. [31] Scientists at the Wellcome Trust/ Cancer Research UK Gurdon Institute, University of Cambridge, have identified a new type of stem cell in the brain which they say has a high potential for repair following brain injury or disease. [30] A team of researchers working at the Weizmann Institute of Science has found that organoids can be used to better understand how the human brain wrinkles as it develops. [29] A team of biologists has found an unexpected source for the brain's development, a finding that offers new insights into the building of the nervous system. [28] Researchers discover both the structure of specific brain areas and memory are linked to genetic activity that also play important roles in immune system function. [27] The inner workings of the human brain have always been a subject of great interest. Unfortunately, it is fairly difficult to view brain structures or intricate tissues due to the fact that the skull is not transparent by design. [26] But now there is a technology that enables us to "read the mind" with growing accuracy: functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). [25]
Category: Mind Science

[472] viXra:1807.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 08:39:51

The Quantum Relativity and Dynamical Spacetime

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 17 Pages.

Quantum field theory (QFT) based on the principles of special relativity (SR) and it is in fact the \emph{kinematic theory of fields}. The root assumption is that there is ``relativistic description" of \emph{any} isolated quantum system in the so-called class of inertial systems even if the internal interactions or self-interactions lie outside of the formal QFT itself. In such a situation we cannot be sure that the principle of relativity in the present form is universally applicable since this principle arose from the Maxwell electrodynamics. As we know Einstein was insisted to generalize this principle in the attempt to find the relativistic description of gravity. Together with this the Galileo-Newton principle of inertia was modified with essential reservations \cite{Einstein_1921,Le13,Le15,Le16,Le18}. New kind of sub-atomic interactions have definitely more complicated nature and mostly unknown laws. It is clear that the present QFT (kinematic theory of fields) may serve merely as a limit of some \emph{dynamical theory of quantum fields}.
Category: Quantum Physics

[471] viXra:1807.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 08:40:53

Chemical Future of Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Molecular electronics, which aims to use molecules to build electronic devices, could be the answer. [32] Mystifying experimental results obtained independently by two research groups in the USA seemed to show coupled holes and electrons moving in the opposite direction to theory. [31] An international team of scientists, including NUST MISIS's Professor Gotthard Seifert, has made an important step toward the control of excitonic effects in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. [30] Carbon nanotubes – cylindrical formations of carbon atoms with incredible strength and electrical conductivity – hold great promise for creating new micron-scale low-power electronic devices. [29] An electrically conductive hydrogel that takes stretchability, self-healing and strain sensitivity to new limits has been developed at KAUST. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[470] viXra:1807.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 09:17:34

Solar Fuel Generation Revolution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

The researchers extracted a 2-D material they call hematene from ordinary iron ore. The material is only three atoms thick and is thought to have enhanced photocatalytic properties. [29] A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[469] viXra:1807.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 09:59:17

Electromagnetic Wave Function and Equation in Rindler Space-Time

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you for reading

In the general relativity theory, we find the electro-magnetic wave function and equation in Rindler space-time. Specially, this article is that electromagnetic wave equation is corrected by the gauge fixing equation in Rindler space-time.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[468] viXra:1807.0499 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 12:12:31

Confirmation of the Triangle Inequality

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

"[T]he triangle inequality states that for any triangle, the sum of the lengths of any two sides must be greater than or equal to the length of the remaining side." We rewrite this as contradiction F implies tautology T using absolute values of distances: "If qr is not greater than pq with pr, then both qr is greater than pq and qr is greater than pr." Hence the triangle inequality is confirmed as tautologous. Remark: This exercise indirectly speaks to the fact that the vector space is not bivalent.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[467] viXra:1807.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 12:41:53

Confirmation of a Trivial Vector Conjecture

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

"From the distance between two points, a third point always has the same distance to the other points." We rewrite this as: "If two points imply the necessity of a third point, then the respective distances are possibly the same." This is tautologous, hence confirming the conjecture. Remark: This exercise indirectly speaks to the fact that the vector space is not bivalent.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[466] viXra:1807.0497 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 18:52:13

Understanding the "Chain Rule" by Deriving Your Own Version

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 12 Pages.

Because the Chain Rule can confuse students as much as it helps them solve real problems, we put ourselves in the shoes of the mathematicians who derived it, so that students may understand the motivation for the rule; its limitations; and why textbooks present it in its customary form. We begin by finding the derivative of sin2x without using the Chain Rule. That exercise, having shown that even a comparatively simple compound function can be bothersome to differentiate using the definition of the derivative as a limit, provides the motivation for developing our own formula for the derivative of the general compound function g[f(x)]. In the course of that development, we see why the function f must be continuous at any value of x to which the formula is applied. We finish by comparing our formula to that which is commonly given.
Category: General Mathematics

[465] viXra:1807.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-09 22:46:24

Bell's Inequality Refuted on Bell's Terms

Authors: Gordon Watson
Comments: 6 Pages.

We refute Bell’s inequality by showing quite simply that his terms lead to an algebraic inequality that never fails while his famous inequality fails algebraically more often than not.
Category: Quantum Physics

[464] viXra:1807.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 02:19:14

Neutronization Equations

Authors: Antonio Puccini
Comments: 14 Pages.

With the neutronization protons(Ps) and electrons(es) fuse together to form neutrons(Ns) and release electronic neutrinos(e): e + P  N + e(1). This is possible because the electron in the neutronization equation is equipped with a very high energy, just provided by a collapsing star, or by a neutron star. In those extreme conditions electrons become relativistic, since they acquire a 200MeV energy, so as to fill the conspicuous energy gap between N and P. However, Eq.(1) appears incomplete because it does not explain the ex abrupto appearance of the e. One may wonder: how was it produced? As it is known matter and antimatter particles are always produced as a couple. Where is the antiparticle of e, i.e. the ῡe, not represented in Eq.(1)? In our opinion, Eq.(1) implies some intermediate steps not represented. A phenomenon associated with neutronization is photoannihilation, characterized by the materialization of the electromagnetic radiation(γ), with consequent production of pairs, such as: γ  ῡe + e(2). If we enter Eq.(2) in Eq.(1), we have: e+ P  e + P + γ  e + P + ῡe + e  N + e(3), that is:e + P + ῡe + e ↔ N + e(4), i.e.:e + P + ῡe ↔ N(5). From Eq.(5) it emerges that to N corresponds a compound of 3 particles, i.e. a multiplet:[e, P, ῡe]. This is in agreement with Spin Statistics, as well as with Quantum Mechanics, since the relativistic electron has an energy>140MeV. Furthermore, let's try to read Eq.(5) in reverse: N  e + P + ῡe(6). It is surprising: Eq.(6) shows exactly the decay products of N, corresponding precisely to the famous Fermi equation describing the N decay, providing a counter-test to Eq.(5)
Category: Mathematical Physics

[463] viXra:1807.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 04:59:52

Proof of the Goldbach's Conjecture (Russian Version)

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is the first result of applying Formula of Disjoint Sets of Odd Numbers
Category: Number Theory

[462] viXra:1807.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 06:27:30

Nuclear Stability and the Long­haul in Physics

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

why physics may NEVER return to local-realism
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[461] viXra:1807.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 06:36:29

Characteristics of the Prime Goddess and Her Twin Sister, Lucinda

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

53 years of research and life as a human being on Earth have produced this remarkable document about the prime attributes of God and Her Twin
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[460] viXra:1807.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 06:45:32

Dr. Farrell and His Version of Truth

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

Dr. Joseph Farrell is a highly regarded and respected author who has some interesting ideas about our religions and absolute truth; this brief essay explains my complementary ideas relating to his
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[459] viXra:1807.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 07:08:56

Black Holes Witout Paradox

Authors: Dariusz Dudało
Comments: 2 Pages.

Next part of Simply Theory
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[458] viXra:1807.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 07:08:05

Machine Learning Chemical Sciences

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new tool is drastically changing the face of chemical research – artificial intelligence. In a new paper published in Nature, researchers review the rapid progress in machine learning for the chemical sciences. [25] A new type of artificial-intelligence-driven chemistry could revolutionise the way molecules are discovered, scientists claim. [24] Tired of writing your own boring code for new software? Finally, there's an AI that can do it for you. [23] Welcome to Move Mirror, where you move in front of your webcam. [22] Understanding how a robot will react under different conditions is essential to guaranteeing its safe operation. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm—called MPLasso—that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[457] viXra:1807.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 07:53:38

LHC Gamma Factory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[456] viXra:1807.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 08:53:40

Image Blood Vessels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Small vessel vasculitis—inflammation of the small blood vessels—appears as a stain of tiny, red dots covering the skin that, depending on the severity, can evolve into painful pustules or ulcers. [29] Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Physics of Biology

[455] viXra:1807.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 07:02:51

The Permanent and Diagonal Products on the Set of Nonnegative Matrices with Bounded Rank

Authors: Yair Lavi
Comments: 5 Pages.

We formulate conjectures regarding the maximum value and maximizing matrices of the permanent and of diagonal products on the set of stochastic matrices with bounded rank. We formulate equivalent conjectures on upper bounds for these func- tions for nonnegative matrices based on their rank, row sums and column sums. In particular we conjecture that the permanent of a singular nonnegative matrix is bounded by 1/2 times the minimum of the product of its row sums and the product of its column sums, and that the product of the elements of any diagonal of a singular nonnegative matrix is bounded by 1/4 times the minimum of the product of its row sums and the product of its column sums.
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[454] viXra:1807.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 07:23:42

Intuitionistic Evidence Sets

Authors: Yangxue Li; Yong Deng
Comments: 25 Pages.

Dempster-Shafer evidence theory can express and deal with uncertain and imprecise information well, which satisfies the weaker condition than the Bayes probability theory. The traditional single basic probability assignment only considers the degree of the evidence support the subsets of the frame of discernment. In order to simulate human decision-making processes and any activities requiring human expertise and knowledge, intuitionstic evidence sets (IES) is proposed in this paper. It takes into account not only the degree of the support, but also the degree of non-support. The combination rule of intuitionstic basic probability assignments (IBPAs) also be investigated. Feasibility and effectiveness of the proposed method are illustrated by using an application of multi-criteria group decision making.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[453] viXra:1807.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 07:29:36

Proof of the Second Landau's Problem (Russian Version)

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 4 Pages.

Destroyed another fortress of unproven tasks
Category: Number Theory

[452] viXra:1807.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 07:29:47

DNA to X-Ray

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The goal is to find bits of DNA in common between the known relatives and the unidentified remains, suggesting both belong to a particular lineage. One analysis develops a profile that combines what's found at 23 spots in the DNA, for example. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[451] viXra:1807.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 07:48:38

3D Bioprinting of Scaffolds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Now, researchers from the University of Saskatchewan are looking at how we can use 3-D printing to help damaged nervous systems to regrow. [24] The goal is to find bits of DNA in common between the known relatives and the unidentified remains, suggesting both belong to a particular lineage. One analysis develops a profile that combines what's found at 23 spots in the DNA, for example. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[450] viXra:1807.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 08:09:54

Charge Shared among Multiple Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Since the charge is shared among multiple atoms—the non-classical model—the molecule has more flexibility to undergo a diverse array of reactions, including those needed to break apart the strong bonds of alkanes. [33] New research, led by the University of St Andrews and the College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, has led to the ability to trap two minuscule spinning particles, which offers fascinating insights into the world around us and could help create future precise sensors for measurement. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[449] viXra:1807.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 14:58:34

An Open Correction to James Hutton's Famous Quote Concerning Uniformitarianism as First Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A quote is taken from the father of modern Geology and given correction, so that deeper fundamentals can have the flood gates opened concerning deep time. In effect, it is one of the ideals, deep time, that is supported while another conflicting belief is removed. Explanation is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[448] viXra:1807.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 15:30:27

Will Newton's Second Law Apply to This Situation ? Edited

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 3 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to show that Newton’s second law as well as Newton’s third law do not apply to a specific situation on physics. Edited by adding the equation.
Category: Classical Physics

[447] viXra:1807.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 16:50:58

Refutation of the Heisenberg Principle as a no-go Axiom, and Its Trivial Replacement Theorem

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

The Heisenberg uncertainty principle "states that the more precisely the position of some particle is determined, the less precisely its momentum can be known, and vice versa". This is refuted as not tautologous. In terms of the statistic of deviation, a trivial replacement theorem is: "If position is greater than momentum, then position and momentum are greater than position or momentum."
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[446] viXra:1807.0477 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-29 09:52:37

Union of Two Arithmetic Sequences - Basic Calculation Formula (2)

Authors: Waldemar Zieliński
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper is a supplement to the previous "Union of two arithmetic sequences - Basic calculation formula (1)” (viXra:1712.0636). We will derive a simpler version of formula for the union of two arithmetics progressions.
Category: General Mathematics

[445] viXra:1807.0476 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-14 18:50:20

Heuristic Methods for the Calculation of Mass for Particles and Their Possible Interpretation in Terms of Diagrammatic Expansions.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 10 pages, 1 figure.

Heuristic methods for the calculation of mass for leptons, baryons and mesons proposed by Barut and other authors in the 1970s to 1990s are discussed, as well as an extension by the present author. Particles are associated with loops of revolving charge, interpreted by the author either as coherent or incoherent loops of waves. Results are consistent with the kinetic energies obtained for the physically analogous superconducting loop case, treated theoretically by Byers and Yang, which scales as n^2(in which n is a Bohr-Sommerfeld quantum number) and displays periodicity as a function of the amount of trapped magnetic flux inside a loop. From Barut´s model we obtain the mass for the tau-lepton, corresponding to n=4, and for n=3 a “proton” with m ≈ 945 Mev/c^2 mass. The masses for other baryons can be obtained by considering the coherence breaking effect of trapped flux on the modulation of the mass-energy behavior as a function of n, with a theory quite similar to that for charge density waves in rings. We discuss also the interpretation of these calculations in field-theoretic terms as presented by other authors in terms of diagrammatic expansions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[444] viXra:1807.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 20:40:47

Infinite Product Representations for Some Surd Numbers and Infinite Sum Representations for Some Logarithm Constants

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 15 pages.

I derived identities for some surd numbers, involving gamma functions; thence, I have represented them as infinite products.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[443] viXra:1807.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 01:31:28

Metal Halide Greenhouse Lighting on Mars

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

an informative and funny essay about how we really need to Prepare Before we try to colonize Mars
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[442] viXra:1807.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-29 04:45:48

Immune Recognition of Nucleic Acid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

An extensive experiment testing the immune effects of a broad group of lab-designed nucleic acid nanoparticles did not find a strong, uniform immune response, as had been predicted. [24] The goal is to find bits of DNA in common between the known relatives and the unidentified remains, suggesting both belong to a particular lineage. One analysis develops a profile that combines what's found at 23 spots in the DNA, for example. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Physics of Biology

[441] viXra:1807.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 15:42:55

Refutation of Relevance Logic Via Routely and Meyer

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

The conjecture "A → B is true at a world a if and only if for all worlds b and c such that Rabc (R is the accessibility relation) either A is false at b or B is true at c" is not tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[440] viXra:1807.0471 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-06 07:34:05

Common Sense Defies “Physics”

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 2 Pages. One sentence has been added to the end of the abstract

All my theoretical research on physics, created by and since Einstein, have led me to the belief that the higher the level of intelligence of the physicist, the more that can be a threat to the health of physical sciences. Einstein started the decline of this science with his Special Theory of Relativity!
Category: Quantum Physics

[439] viXra:1807.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 19:12:21

Model of Universe as Described by Dynamic Universe Model

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. This is a new model of Universe, where all the processes of Universe oare explained without USING bibang based physics

In this paper we will see the model of Universe according to Dynamic Universe Model of Cosmology by visualizing various processes that are happening in the Universe as per experimental evidences. For simplifying the matter here we will see in part1: about the Galaxy life cycle, where the birth and death of Galaxies discussed. Probably Universe gives guidance for the movement of Galaxies. We call this Part 1: Thinking and Reproducing Universe or Mindless Universe? (Galaxy life cycle). We see every day Sun, Stars, Galaxies etc., dissipating enormous energy in the form of radiation by the way of fusion of Hydrogen to helium. So after sometime all the Hydrogen is spent and Universe will die, is it not? … Dynamic Universe Model says that the energy in the form of electromagnetic radiation passing grazingly near any gravitating mass changes its in frequency and finally will convert into neutrinos (mass). Hence Dynamic Universe Model proposes another process where energy will be converted back into matter and the cycle energy to mass to energy continues, sustaining the Universe to maintain this present status for ever in this form something like a Steady state model without any expansion. This we will see in Part2: Energy – Mass - Energy Cycle. After converting energy into mass “how various elements are formed and where they are formed?” will be next logical question. Dynamic Universe Model says that these various particles change into higher massive particles or may get bombarded into stars or planets and various elements are formed. Here we bifurcate the formation of elements into 6 processes. They are for Elementary particles and elements generated in frequency changing process, By Cosmic rays, By Small stars, By Large Stars, By Super Novae and Man made elements By Neutron Stars. This we will discuss in Part3: Nucleosynthesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[438] viXra:1807.0469 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-29 00:16:33

Schödinger’s Cat and the Red Herring

Authors: Georgina Woodward
Comments: Pages.

Exploring why the Schödinger’s cat thought experiment is not a suitable model/analogy of quantum physics. Measurables such as orientation of rotation, velocity, energy, momentum are relational. What the state or value is found to be depends upon the relation with the observed or measured entity by which a singular outcome is obtained. (or at the macroscopic scale, when vision or hearing is involved the relation to the potential sensory stimuli, signals received and processed into what is seen.) Whereas an intrinsic state of being is not relational but independent. Decayed and non decayed a particle are different from each other because the decayed particle has lost something and is therefore not an identical system to the un-decayed. It might be regarded as a different object because that change has happened.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[437] viXra:1807.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 02:02:49

The Bohr and Einstein Debate-Copenhagen Interpretation Challenged

Authors: Rochelle Forrester
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Bohr Einstein debate on the meaning of quantum physics involved Einstein inventing a series of thought experiments to challenge the Copenhagen Interpretation of quantum physics. Einstein disliked many aspects of the Copenhagen Interpretation especially its idea of an observer dependent universe. Bohr was able to answer all Einstein’s objections to the Copenhagen Interpretation and so is usually considered as winning the debate. However the debate has continued into the present time as many scientists have been unable to accept the idea of an observer dependent universe and many alternatives to the Copenhagen Interpretation have been proposed. However none of the alternatives has won general acceptance because all have problems that make them implausible or impossible.
Category: Quantum Physics

[436] viXra:1807.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 02:29:16

Biofield Energy Enriched Vitamin D3: A New Horizons for Development of Bone Health Using MG-63 Cells

Authors: Maire Anne Mayne, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The current study investigates the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health parameters in vitro using MG-63 cells such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization. The test items (TI) i.e. vitamin D3 and DMEM medium were divided into two parts. The test samples received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Maire Anne Mayne and samples were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Cell viability using MTT assay showed that cell viability was more than 78% with safe and nontoxic profile on MG-63 cell line. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 141.9% and 25% at 50 and 100 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, 144.6% (100 µg/mL) and 120.6% (1 µg/mL) increase in ALP activity in BT-DMEM+UT-TI and BT-DMEM+BT-TI group, respectively as compared with the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 58.7% and 72.6% at 1 and 10 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 39.7% and 101.6% at 1 and 10 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased collagen level by 117.5%, 163.5%, and 169.4% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. The percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 110.2%, 116.8%, and 81% at 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, respectively in UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 148.8%, 180.1%, and 129.4% at 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 142%, 181.1%, and 113% at 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. The experimental data suggested that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role in the promotion and maintenance of strong and healthy bones, which improve quality of life. Biofield Energy Treatment might be vital in maintaining the various clinical safety and quality of life by assisting them in maintaining optimal vitamin D levels. It regulates the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in wide range of bone disorders along with wide range of adverse health conditions, comprising cancer and certain autoimmune diseases.
Category: Biochemistry

[435] viXra:1807.0466 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 03:49:36

Inverse Quantum Method

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed an algorithm that could provide meaningful answers to condensed matter physicists in their searches for novel and emergent properties in materials. [32] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen have, for the first time, succeeded in producing, controlling and understanding complex quantum states based on two electron spins connected to a superconductor. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[434] viXra:1807.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 04:06:03

Making Sense of C-nu-B Anisotropies, Predictions from Antimatter Black Hole Physics

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

some final predictions from antimatter black-hole physics that relate to the CMB and C-nu-B, cosmic neutrino background
Category: Astrophysics

[433] viXra:1807.0464 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 04:23:29

Chip for Optical Artificial Neural Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Researchers at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have made a silicon chip that distributes optical signals precisely across a miniature brain-like grid, showcasing a potential new design for neural networks. [29] Researchers have shown that it is possible to train artificial neural networks directly on an optical chip. [28] Scientists from Russia, Estonia and the United Kingdom have created a new method for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of organic molecules. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[432] viXra:1807.0463 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 06:25:03

Curve Subdivision in SE(2)

Authors: Jan Hakenberg
Comments: 6 Pages.

We demonstrate that curve subdivision in the special Euclidean group SE(2) allows the design of planar curves with favorable curvature. We state the non-linear formula to position a point along a geodesic in SE(2). Curve subdivision in the Lie group consists of trigonometric functions. When projected to the plane, the refinement method reproduces circles and straight lines. The limit curves are designed by intuitive placement of control points in SE(2).
Category: Geometry

[431] viXra:1807.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 06:44:35

Flexible X-ray Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The detectors created by ATI researchers are able to achieve high sensitivity levels that strongly compete with current technologies, while still operating at low voltages, as well as over the whole X-ray energy range spectrum. [17] There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[430] viXra:1807.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 08:22:42

Comment on “Long-Lasting Field-Free Alignment of Large Molecules Inside Helium Nanodroplets”

Authors: V.A. Kuz`menko
Comments: 3 Pages.

A physical explanation for the effect of suppression of ionization of molecules upon overlapping of a long low-intensity alignment pulse and a strong short probe pulse is proposed.
Category: Quantum Physics

[429] viXra:1807.0460 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 08:44:42

Strong Coupling Spin Trio

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[428] viXra:1807.0459 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 09:40:18

Automated Skin Lesion Classification Using Ensemble of Deep Neural Networks in ISIC 2018: Skin Lesion Analysis Towards Melanoma Detection Challenge

Authors: Md Ashraful Alam Milton
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, we studied extensively on different deep learning based methods to detect melanoma and skin lesion cancers. Melanoma, a form of malignant skin cancer is very threatening to health. Proper diagnosis of melanoma at an earlier stage is crucial for the success rate of complete cure. Dermoscopic images with Benign and malignant forms of skin cancer can be analyzed by computer vision system to streamline the process of skin cancer detection. In this study, we experimented with various neural networks which employ recent deep learning based models like PNASNet-5-Large, InceptionResNetV2, SENet154, InceptionV4. Dermoscopic images are properly processed and augmented before feeding them into the network. We tested our methods on International Skin Imaging Collaboration (ISIC) 2018 challenge dataset. Our system has achieved best validation score of 0.76 for PNASNet-5-Large model. Further improvement and optimization of the proposed methods with a bigger training dataset and carefully chosen hyper-parameter could improve the performances. The code available for download at https://github.com/miltonbd/ISIC_2018_classification.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[427] viXra:1807.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 09:59:56

Pseudo-Acceleration of Nasa Space Vehicles: Adequate Interpretation "PIONEER EFFECT"

Authors: Tcherepanov O.A.
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is possible that the so-called "anomaly of the Pioneers" is actually caused by the "blue shift", that is, gradually as the approach to the ground transmitter changes in the frequency of the returned signals of the radar tracking of space vehicles, the cause of which may be the weakly refracting properties of the near-solar space. Considering the near space as an optical medium that is inhomogeneous in the direction "from" the Sun or "to" the Sun, we supplement the calculation using the Doppler formula by the Mikhelson rule.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[426] viXra:1807.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 09:54:59

Spin Control Information Processing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

They do this by using "excitons," electrically neutral quasiparticles that exist in insulators, semiconductors and in some liquids. [31] Researchers at ETH Zurich have now developed a method that makes it possible to couple such a spin qubit strongly to microwave photons. [30] Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[425] viXra:1807.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 11:01:42

Electron-Ion Collider

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[424] viXra:1807.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 11:38:30

Solid-Liquid Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers have developed the first materials that can permanently change from solid to liquid, or vice versa, when exposed to light at room temperature, and remain in the new phase even after the light is removed. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18]
Category: Condensed Matter

[423] viXra:1807.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 14:44:54

Time Arrow Spinors for the Modified Cosmological Model

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker
Comments: 24 Pages. 15 figures, 2 tables

We construct time arrow spinor states and define for them a Stern--Gerlach analogue Hamiltonian. The dispersion relations of the allowed modes are derived in a few special cases. We examine experimental data regarding negative frequency resonant radiation and show that the energy shift of the negative frequency mode is on the characteristic scale of the energies of the new Hamiltonian. We describe the similitude of the modified cosmological model (MCM) and the Stern--Gerlach apparatus, and we also show how the Pauli matrices are well-suited to applications in MCM cosmology. Complex and quaternion phase are combined in the wavefunction to generate new multiplectic structures. The principles described in this paper are oriented toward a time circuit application so we briefly describe an electrical circuit whose constructive elements elucidate the requirements needed for a working time circuit. The algebraic graph representation of electrical nodes with different electric potentials is replaced with time nodes that have different times in the time circuit graph.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[422] viXra:1807.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 17:18:23

Certificate of Authenticity and Technetium Extraction Procedure

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

14 year nuclear experiment and technetium extraction procedure
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[421] viXra:1807.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 23:41:32

Implication Combinations Derived from (P>q)>r

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

12 tautologous equations are named the general forms of (p>q)>r by implication on Meth8/VŁ4. (They are not listed here because the abstract block mungs line spacing.)
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[420] viXra:1807.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:34:49

Explanation of Double-Slit Experiment

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space, the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces has been developed. These forces act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). The nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated electron. So, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical signicance of magnetic quantities and the so called strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic dipole moment are interpreted. Additionally, due to in-phase motion of grouping units, a parallel common course of their electrons and a superposition picture of their motion waves are caused as in the double-slit experiment is displayed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[419] viXra:1807.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:30:47

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 39 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (Earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (r=406000 km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 1.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 2.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 3.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 4.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) 5.Note Please/ Solar Planets Diameters Total= 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter (i.e. Jupiter diameter = 8 solar planets diameters total) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's think more deeply, The moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise The Earth and Moon will be separated from each other.. that means -The moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, -We know Earth moves daily = 2.58 mkm -Also the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm Is There any relationship between the three value 2.58 mkm… ? The answer is "No, this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses yearly 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think more deeply Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (235 Synodic Months) = 20 x 346.6 days (20 nodal years) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time. Why? (by the way how The moon orbit regresses alone with the moon? does it occur with any other planet? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) Also I found some interesting relationship Earth Circumference = inner planets diameters total i.e. diameters of (Mercury + Venus + The moon + Earth + Mars) = Earth Circumference but 2 Neptune Circumference = Jupiter diameter + Saturn diameter + Uranus diameter (error 1%) Also I found Earth Mass = Mercury Mass + Venus Mass+ Moon Mass + Mars Mass (error 1%) Neptune Mass= inner Planets masses total + Uranus mass + Pluto Mass (3.3%) Is there any geometrical reason behind all these relationships? "Simply these are only Pure coincidences" (No.6)
Category: Astrophysics

[418] viXra:1807.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:59:19

Gravitational Wave Disappear Clouds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Yuter and colleagues suggested that if gravity waves are the true cause of the cloud dissipation, they are most likely to be triggered by the interaction between offshore winds flowing perpendicular to the African coastline with the more stable marine boundary layer in the atmosphere. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[417] viXra:1807.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 04:21:03

Commentary on Shafiq Khan’s Paper: “Experimental & Theoretical Evidences of Fallacy of Space-Time Concept and Actual State of Existence of the Physical Universe”

Authors: Lann N. Ramez
Comments: 4 pages

In his referenced paper (Khan 2012), Khan concluded that Einstein’s basic equation obtained in his paper (Einstein 1905) to derive the Special Relativity equations is based on trickery. This paper reveals that Khan conclusion is based on misconceptions and wrong interpretation of the Einstein’s derivation method.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[416] viXra:1807.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 04:27:58

Regulation of Bone Health Parameters After Treatment with Biofield Energy Healing Based Vitamin D3 on Human Osteoblast Cell Line (MG-63)

Authors: Victoria Lee Vannes, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

Bone disorders dramatically affecting the functional status of many individuals, which are suffering from bone diseases such as fractures, significant pain and height loss, disability to stand up, and walk. Vitamin D play an important role to improve the patients' quality of life with respect to bone disorders. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential of The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing on vitamin D3 and DMEM as test item (TI) on bone cell differentiation using human osteoblast cell line (MG-63, Osteosarcoma). Bone health biomarkers such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization were evaluated. The test items were treated with The Trivedi Effect® by Victoria Lee Vannes and divided as Biofield Energy Treated (BT) and untreated (UT) test items. Cell viability using MTT data showed that the test items were found to be safe. ALP level was significantly increased by 114.3%, 304.8%, and 314.3% at 0.1 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared to the untreated group. Collagen content was significantly increased by 82.5%, 138.4%, and 100.8% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, while 120.6% and 64.6% increased collagen at 0.1 and 1 µg/mL in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group and 261.9%, 179.8%, and 116.0% increased collagen in BT-DMEM+BT-TI group at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Moreover, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 261.2% and 239.9% at 1 µg/mL UT-DMEM+BT-TI and BT-DMEM+UT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated group. However, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 324.5% at 50 µg/mL. Thus, Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role to control the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in many bone disorders. Moreover, the bone health parameters such as collagen, calcium and ALP were significantly improved and can be used as supplement to improve bone health. Based on the outstanding results, it is assumed that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 could be a powerful alternative dietary sources and supplements to fight against various bone related diseases including low bone density and osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease of bone, rickets, osteomalacia, bone and/or joint pain, increased frequency of fractures, deformed bones, osteoma, chondrodystrophia fetalis, hormonal imbalance, stress, aging, bone loss and fractures.
Category: Biochemistry

[415] viXra:1807.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 04:28:32

Assessment of Bone Health After Treatment with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Vitamin D3 in Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (MG-63)

Authors: Carola Marina Sand, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Osteoporosis is associated with increased mortality and significant economic and health burden now-a-days. The study was aimed to evaluate the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health. The test items, were divided into two parts. One part of each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Carola Marina Sand and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Various parameters were performed for the assessment of bone health such as ALP, collagen, and bone mineralization in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The cell viability (MTT) data showed that the test samples were found as safe in the tested concentrations. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 420.64%, 311.08%, and 532.17% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 1µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Further, the ALP level was significantly elevated by 213.69%, 135.46%, and 42.76% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 10µg/mL compared to the untreated. Collagen was significantly increased by 228.22%, 185.40%, and 256.69% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 0.1µg/mL compared to the untreated. Further, the collagen level was significantly increased by 88.61% and 130.65% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 1µg/mL compared to the untreated. Besides, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 118.35%, 266.94%, and 118.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 50µg/mL compared to the untreated. The percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 88.29%, 288.75%, and 86.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 100µg/mL compared to the untreated. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was tremendously improved the bone health parameters and it could be a powerful alternative nutraceutical supplement to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and fight against various bone-related disorders including osteoporosis, low bone density, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease, rickets, osteomalacia, deformed bones, chondrodystrophia fetalis, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and prevention, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[414] viXra:1807.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 07:22:20

Optical Skyrmions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Technion-Israel institute of Technology researchers have succeeded in generating minute "nano-hedgehogs of light" called optical skyrmions, which could make possible revolutionary advances in information processing, transfer and storage. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[413] viXra:1807.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 07:51:49

Ion Acceleration Cancer Treatment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

This research is of great importance in medicine, particularly for proton beam therapy, a modern cancer treatment. The paper was published in Scientific Reports. [33] Scientists in the UK have shown for the first time that focused ultrasound from outside the body can improve the delivery of cancer drugs to tumors in humans. [32] The discovery could help us better understand aging and eventually could lead to new treatments for cancer. [31] A research team at the University of Delaware, led by Emily Day, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering, is laying the groundwork for a method to inhibit cancer-promoting genes in cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact. [30] Researchers have moved closer to the real-time verification of hadron therapy, demonstrating the in vivo accuracy of simulations that predict particle range in the patient. [29] A biomimetic nanosystem can deliver therapeutic proteins to selectively target cancerous tumors, according to a team of Penn State researchers. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[412] viXra:1807.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 08:20:14

Machine Learning Goes Quantum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Researchers have mathematically proven that a powerful classical machine learning algorithm should work on quantum computers. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have used deep learning to decipher which ribonucleic acids have the potential to encode proteins. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[411] viXra:1807.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 09:17:12

X-ray Around Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In an international collaboration between Japan and Sweden, scientists clarified how gravity affects the shape of matter near the black hole in binary system Cygnus X-1. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12]
Category: Astrophysics

[410] viXra:1807.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 10:42:14

Shortest Refutation of Prenex Normal Form

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

The implication rule for removing quantifiers from the antecedent of (∃xϕ)→ψ as equivalent to ∀x(ϕ→ψ), and the implication rule for removing quantifiers from the consequent of ϕ→(∃xψ) as equivalent to ∃x(ϕ→ψ), are not tautologous and hence refute the prenex normal form.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[409] viXra:1807.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 13:26:18

A General Model of Artificial General Intelligence

Authors: Zengkun Li
Comments: 5 Pages. Author: Zengkun Li Email: ucman@126.com

This paper presents a general model of AGI, the model indicates how knowledge is represented and learned, how the knowledge is used to accomplish tasks such as inference, memory recalling and so on, and how the advanced intelligence phenomenons such as self conscious, language and emotions emerge.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[408] viXra:1807.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 07:42:39

Inconsistences in the Big Bang Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[407] viXra:1807.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 08:33:21

Preference for Dual Herbig Haro Black Hole Consumption by the Central MW Black Hole, Leaving Plasma Jets Behind.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 25 Pages.

Recent observations by the new MeerKat telescope system show unprecedented details of Herbig Haro jet alike objects around the central black hole of our Milky Way. According to the Quantum FFF Model, Herbig Haro jets are connected between the central baby star and both Stellar Anchor Black Holes ( SABHs) , which are responsible for the spacetime polarization forming a kind of vacuum/ ether pressure cooker, for fast star formation in between the two SABHs. It is well known, that all black holes are the same as electric charged dark matter, able to attract each other up to a certain distance and forming a plasma bar in between, which evaluate later into dual plasma jets, keeping the two black holes at a certain mass related distance. However only black holes of the same gravitational potential ( nuclear quantum knot size) are able to perform such a process, leading to so called Herbig Haro systems. If different sized black holes approach each other, it is assumed that the smallest black hole is able to split the larger one into two equal sized quantum knots, which will form a stable Herbig Haro system with star or even failed star formation in between. Also well known is, that the smallest black holes in galaxies seem to have a preference for group around the central galaxy position, which mostly is equipped with a central black hole. The central black hole is supposed to be the gate to the end of the galaxy and even the universe itself into a big crunch black hole as a start for a new cyclic multiverse.. As a consequence, the central black hole seem to feed mostly on the smaller dual Herbig Haro black holes, which is probably the origin of the numerous remaining former plasma jets which are found in the MeerKat ( precursor releases) observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[406] viXra:1807.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 08:44:18

Quantum Hologram of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Physicists have theoretically shown that, by applying a magnetic field to a small, irregularly shaped graphene flake, the flake becomes a quantum hologram of a black hole. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[405] viXra:1807.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 09:46:47

Two Particles Coupled with Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

New research, led by the University of St Andrews and the College of Optical Sciences, University of Arizona, has led to the ability to trap two minuscule spinning particles, which offers fascinating insights into the world around us and could help create future precise sensors for measurement. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[404] viXra:1807.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 10:54:26

Undetectable Quarks and Gluons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[403] viXra:1807.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 11:45:34

What is Charge, from What Does it Arise And, if Discrete, Why?

Authors: Lubomir Vlcek
Comments: 4 Pages. The article is ready to be published

A spherical electron cocoon or an electron cloud is occasion why electron have negative charge. Proton is compact mass not making cocoon, cloud. Proton has a positive charge.
Category: Classical Physics

[402] viXra:1807.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 13:13:54

Cobalt vs Tantalum Bombs Used in Armageddon

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a humorous yet serious brief essay about which kinds of bombs to use in Armageddon
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[401] viXra:1807.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 18:48:36

Trivial Proofs

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

For all p, p+p=p (1.1). #p>((p+p)=p) ; TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTT (1.2). For one p, p+p=p (2.1). %p>((p+p)=p) ; TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTT (2.2). Axiom of associativity (3.1). ((p+q)+r)=(p+(q+r)) ; TTTT TTTT TTTT TTTT (3.2).
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[400] viXra:1807.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 01:18:40

Time In Projectile Motion

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the projectile motion under vertical gravity, the horizontal speed remains constant while the vertical speed increases. The elapsed time to travel over a fixed length in the horizontal direction remains constant regardless of the vertical speed. Such elapsed time is independent of any reference frame in vertical motion. Therefore, the elapsed time is independent of the reference frame. Consequently, time is independent of the reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[399] viXra:1807.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 02:01:52

An In vitro Experiment on Bone Growth and Differentiation in Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (MG-63): Impact of Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3

Authors: Haddon Norman Salt, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The study was aimed to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health parameters such as ALP, collagen, and bone mineralization in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The test items (TI), were divided into two parts. One part of each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Haddon Norman Salt and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). The cell viability by MTT assay data showed that the test samples were found as safe in the tested concentrations. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 73.24% and 85.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-TI group. Further, ALP level was significantly elevated by 76.71% in the BT-DMEM + UT-TI group at 0.1 µg/mL compared to the untreated. Collagen was significantly increased by 77%, 113.53%, and 98.00% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 50 µg/mL compared to the untreated. Further, the collagen level was significantly increased by 128.05% and 132.10% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 100 µg/mL; while increased by 76.31% in the BT-DMEM + UT-TI at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated. Besides, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 82.43%, 158.97%, and 52.95% at 0.1 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively compared to the untreated. The percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 118.41%, 197.42%, and 116.94% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 1 µg/mL compared to the untreated. Further, bone mineralization was significantly increased by 202.34%, 200%, and 235.64% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI, respectively at 10 µg/mL than untreated. Altogether, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was significantly improved the bone health parameters and it could be an excellent alternative nutraceutical supplement for vitamin D3 deficiency and fight against various bone-related disorders including osteoporosis, low bone density, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease, rickets, osteomalacia, deformed bones, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and prevention, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[398] viXra:1807.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 02:02:37

In vitro Study on Human Bone Osteosarcoma Cells (MG-63): Role of Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3

Authors: Gary Richard Gerber, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The study was aimed to evaluate the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health. The test items, were divided into two parts. One part of each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Gary Richard Gerber and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). ALP, collagen, and bone mineralization activities were performed to assess bone health in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The cell viability assay (MTT) data showed that the test samples were found as safe in all the tested concentrations. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 74.54% and 98.26% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item and BT-DMEM + UT-Test item groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Further, the ALP level was significantly elevated by 111.17% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test item group at 100 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Collagen was significantly increased by 147.46%, 59.67%, and 35.36% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item group at 1, 10, and 50 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. Moreover, the level of collagen was significantly increased by 89.88%, 86.42%, and 82.08% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Further, the collagen level was significantly increased by 365.76%, 80.10%, and 76.09% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test item group at 0.1, 10, and 50 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Besides, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 59.30%, 30.69%, and 177.7% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 29.44%, and 45.51% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 100 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was remarkably improved the bone health parameters and help to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and fight against various bone related problems including low bone density, osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease of bone, rickets, osteomalacia, bone and joint pain, bone fractures, deformed bones, osteoma, chondrodystrophia fetalis, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and prevention, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[397] viXra:1807.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 02:18:31

Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3: Therapeutic Implication on Bone Health Using Osteoblasts Cells

Authors: Mark E. Stutheit, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

Calcium and vitamin D are the main constituents of bone health, while insufficient level leads to various diseases such as osteoporosis causing significant morbidity and mortality. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on various bone health parameters in MG-63 cells such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization. Both the test items (TI) i.e. vitamin D3 and DMEM medium were divided into two parts. Both the sample received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Mark E Stutheit and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Cell viability using MTT assay showed that cell viability was more than 85% with safe and nontoxic profile on MG-63 cell line. The level of ALP was significantly increased by 126.1% (at 50 µg/mL), 128.2% (at 50 µg/mL), and 173.7% (at 100 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Collagen level was significantly increased by 104.3% (at 10 µg/mL), 104.3% (at 50 µg/mL), and 97.4% (at 50 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. In addition, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 82.4%, 118.4%, and 202.4% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 158.8%, 197.4%, and 200% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 52.9%, 131.6%, and 235.7% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Overall, the experimental data suggested that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role in the promotion and maintenance of strong and healthy bones, which improve quality of life. Biofield Energy Treatment might be vital in maintaining the various clinical safety and quality of life by assisting them in maintaining optimal vitamin D levels. It regulates the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in wide range of bone disorders along with wide range of adverse health conditions, comprising cancer and certain autoimmune diseases.
Category: Biochemistry

[396] viXra:1807.0424 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 02:19:24

The Influence of Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3 on Bone Health and Its Health Consequences in MG-63 Cell-Line

Authors: Elizabeth Patric, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The aim of this study was to assess the effect of Consciousness Energy Healing-based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health parameters such as alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen, and bone mineralization in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The test items (vitamin D3 and DMEM), were divided into two parts. One part of each sample was received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Elizabeth Patric and those samples were denoted as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were referred as the untreated test items (UT). The MTT cell viability assay revealed that the test samples were found as safe in the tested concentrations. The experimental results showed that the level of ALP was remarkably increased by 88.62% and 70.48% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test item (UT-TI) and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-TI group. Moreover, the collagen level was significantly increased by 252.59%, 50.55%, and 94.99% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-TI group. Further, the collagen level was significantly increased by 120.90% and 72.66% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI and BT-DMEM + UT-TI groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL, while 34.99% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI at 100 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Apart from this, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly enhanced by 127.13%, 225.12%, and 106.28% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 0.1 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Moreover, the percentage of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 52.86%, 67.00%, and 23.62% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI, BT-DMEM + UT-TI, and BT-DMEM + BT-TI groups, respectively at 1 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Additionally, the percentage of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 46.57% and 51.36% in the UT-DMEM + BT-TI and BT-DMEM + UT-TI groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was significantly improved the bone health parameters and it could be an alternative approach for nutraceutical supplement to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and able to fight against various bone-related disorders including rickets, low bone density, osteomalacia, bone and joint pain, bone fractures, osteoporosis, osteoma, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease, deformed bones, chondrodystrophia fetalis, stress management and prevention, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[395] viXra:1807.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-02 01:06:24

Estimation of Redshift Effect of Neutrino Photon Interaction and Discussion on the New Neutrino Detection Device

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 13 Pages. 2 figures; Include Chinese version

This paper assumes that the red shift of the galaxies' spectrum is due to the interaction of photons with neutrinos in the universe space. Using the available data, a rough estimate of the amount of redshift that this effect can produce is obtained, yielding an order of magnitude for the neutrino photon interaction to produce a redshift effect. On this basis, this paper designs two devices that can be used to detect the number of neutrinos through this effect.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[394] viXra:1807.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-26 04:20:07

Is Charge Another Form of Energy?

Authors: Moshe Segal
Comments: 15 Pages.

The kinetic energy of a moving mass is attributed to the mass increase because of its velocity. Thus, mass is recognized as a special form of energy. In contast to mass, charge is believed to be a constant entity, not affected by its velocity. From the above, two questions might be asked: 1. Why charge remains a distinct entity while mass was discovered to be a special sort of enery. 2. If mass increase by velocity is recognized to be the cause of the kinetic enrgy embeded in a moving mass, what is the cause for the generation of a magnetic field while the charge is moving? This article deals with these questions by executing the following "thinking exercise": It assumes that charge is also another form of energy, as mass turned to be. This assumption makes Energy as the only distinct entity, a simpler and cleaner view of nature. Then, it uses that assumption as follows: It adds the following two assumptions: 1. The charge magnitude value is not a constant entity and it is affected by the charge velocity. 2. The increase of the charge magnitude because of its velocity is the cause for the generation of the magnetic field of a moving charge. Then, by analyzing the existing experimental results related to charges and the fields they create from a new point of view, and applying these assumptions, the article tries to evaluate if these assumptions lead to new insights. The result is the following four conclusions: 1. Charge magnitude increase because of its velocity is described by the following formula: 1/2))2/c21v –/((1 0q = q - 2 - - 2 - This is very similar to the equation: 1/2))2c/2v -((1 /0m = m Which describes the increase in mass when the mass is moving. 2. The magnetic field generated by a moving point charge is actually two moving field components. One of these moving field components is a moving electric field component. Another moving field component is perpendicular to this moving electric field and it can be seen as the actual magnetic field created. These two moving fields resemble and might be related to the electromagnetic emission from moving charges. 3. Since charge comes in two types, a positive charge and a negative charge, then the energy embeded in charge also comes in two energy types. The article assigns these energy types to one set of Energy Pairs. 4. A magnetic field energy conservation paradox is resolved using the above concept of Energy Pairs. This is done by assuming that Energies belonging to Energy Pairs, cancel each other if they coexist in the same space volume, such that only the net energy intensity of the energy type in the Energy pair that had initially more intensity, remains in the space volume where the two Energy Pairs coexist. Thus, energy conservation exists only when the total amount of energy in a specific volume in space contains only the net amount of one member of the energies which belong to an Energy Pair. Thus, by assuming that charge is a special form of energy, and analyzing the existing data and knowledge according to this assumption, it seems that new insights can be found, and also an explanation can be supplied to a magnetic field energy conservation paradox.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[393] viXra:1807.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 13:46:11

The Moon Orbit Geometrical Structure

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

The first question in this research was why we see the sun disc = the moon disc? i.e. why (the Sun diameter/ the moon diameter) = (earth orbital distance/ Earth Moon distance)? The answer was "That's only Pure Coincidence" (No.1) Then I found another question… The Earth-Moon Orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) = 2.58 mkm = Earth daily motion… why? "That's also Pure Coincidence" (No.2) Then I found the moon orbit geometrical relationships which are: 6.Earth Moon Distance at Perigee point =363000 km = Solar Outer Planets Diameters Total (error 1%) 7.Earth Moon Distance at Apogee point =406000 km = Solar Planets Diameters Total 8.The Distance between Perigee and Apogee = 40000km = Inner Solar Planets Diameters Total = Earth Circumference. 9.Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance at total solar eclipse radius (377000km) Why the previous relationships are found? "Surely these are Pure Coincidence" (No.3) Let's then with more depth, the moon has to move daily a distance = Earth daily motion, otherwise they will be separated from each other.. that means the moon should move daily =2.58 mkm, but we know that the moon orbit circumference at apogee radius (406000km) also 2.58mkm ..why? "We all know this is Pure Coincidence" (No.4) Then Metonic Cycle question is produced Why the moon orbit regresses daily 19 degrees? Why the moon rotates Metonic Cycle which Earth doesn't? let's think with some deep vision Metonic Cycle period = 6939.75 days 6939.75 days = 19 x 365.25 days (19 sidereal years) = 235 x 29.53 days (Synodic Month) = 20 x 346.6 days (nodal year) The previous data tells us that, the Earth motion is in harmony with Moon and Moon orbit motions, that's why the three motions finish their cycles in the same time \ Why? "Just Pure Coincidence" (No.5) I found we need to find some logical and physical explanation behind all these data, I can't accept any of these as Pure coincidences…
Category: Astrophysics

[392] viXra:1807.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-28 20:36:49

Refutation of the Proscriptive Principle (Conceptivistic Logic) and Containment Logic

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

Three equations seminal to the proscriptive principle (conceptivistic logic) and containment logic are not tautologous, hence refuting the systems.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[391] viXra:1807.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 18:54:44

Spacetime Structures of Electromagnetic and Matter Waves

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this work we discuss the possibility to construct spacetime structures for electromagnetic and matter waves in which the universal speed in relativity plays a decisive role. Based on our recent works on physical interactions that are associated with the geometric and topological structures of the spatiotemporal manifold, we suggest that when the spatiotemporal manifold decomposes n-cells at each point on the manifold then it can be regarded as a fiber bundle where the base space is the spatiotemporal manifold and the fiber is the n-cells. We will discuss the case when the n-cells are n-spheres therefore the total spatiotemporal continuum will be regarded as an n-sphere bundle, in particular when n equals 6. We will show that the universal speed is the speed at which there is a conversion between the temporal and spatial submanifolds of the spatiotemporal manifold. Since in both Maxwell and Dirac fields there is a conversion between the temporal and spatial forms of matter and since temporal matter is assumed to be associated with the temporal submanifold of the spatiotemporal manifold and spatial matter with the spatial submanifold, therefore in order to describe the conversion of matter we need to formulate the corresponding conversion between the spatial and temporal submanifolds. As a result, the 6-sphere fibers form the required medium for the electromagnetic and matter waves. From the description of waves in terms of spacetime structures it is reasonable to state that both matter and electromagnetic waves are oscillations of the intrinsic geometric structures of the total spatiotemporal manifold.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[390] viXra:1807.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-18 12:32:44

Visualizing the Escape Paths of Quaternion Fractals

Authors: Shawn Halayka
Comments: 8 Pages.

The escape paths of the points in some quaternion fractal sets are visualized using OpenGL. C++ source code is provided.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[389] viXra:1807.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 22:55:24

A Dual Identity Based Symbolic Understanding of the Gödel’s Incompleteness Theorems, P-NP Problem, Zeno’s Paradox and Continuum Hypothesis

Authors: Arun Uday
Comments: 29 Pages.

A semantic analysis of formal systems is undertaken, wherein the duality of their symbolic definition based on the “State of Doing” and “State of Being” is brought out. We demonstrate that when these states are defined in a way that opposes each other, it leads to contradictions. This results in the incompleteness of formal systems as captured in the Gödel’s theorems. We then proceed to resolve the P-NP problem, which we show to be a manifestation of Gödel’s theorem itself. We then discuss the Zeno’s paradox and relate it to the same aforementioned duality, but as pertaining to discrete and continuous spaces. We prove an important theorem regarding representations of irrational numbers in continuous space. We extend the result to touch upon the Continuum Hypothesis and present a new symbolic conceptualization of space, which can address both discrete and continuous requirements. We term this new mathematical framework as “hybrid space”.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[388] viXra:1807.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-25 03:36:07

Purcell Effect for Quantum Technologies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Sheffield in the UK have built a nanoscale chip that can emit rapid pulses of single, mostly indistinguishable photons. [34] Now a University of Rochester research team has devised a much simpler way to measure beams of light— even powerful, superfast pulsed laser beams that require very complicated devices to characterize their properties. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[387] viXra:1807.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 11:15:19

Significant Generalization of the Convergence Proof for the Direct Transcription Method for Constrained Optimal Control Problems

Authors: Martin Peter Neuenhofen
Comments: 13 Pages. Proof of convergence for a direct transcription method for OCP

In the arXiv paper [arXiv:1712.07761] from December 2017 we presented a convergent direct transcription method for optimal control problems. In the present paper we present a significantly generalized convergence theory in succinct form. Therein, we replace strong assumptions that we had formerly made on local uniqueness of the solution, and on differentiability of a particular functional. These assumptions are removed now.
Category: General Mathematics

[386] viXra:1807.0414 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-31 12:17:13

Modal Logic Model Checker Challenge, Unanswered

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com .

We offer to use the Meth8/VŁ4 modal logic model checker to evaluate difficult or unsolved logic problems because we are simply running out of artifacts to reduce. Since 2015, we evaluated 287 artifacts in 1479 assertions, to confirm 325 as tautology (22%) and 1154 as not (78%). See: ersatz-systems.com/RA.Meth8.refut.valid.abstract.pdf The checker is available with a wrapper for unique CPU-installation and meter for 10,000 accesses per renewable license. Asymmetric key encryption is not used, so the checker is fully exportable outside USA. Academic interest expressed in 2017-18 was by: an Oxford professor wanting it free for his students so he could use it; an unsupervised post-doc reviewer for a Polish logic magazine, so as to share; and a supervised Disqus troll seeking proofs for her classwork. POC: Colin James III, Colorado Springs, info@cec-services dot com, USA 719.210.9534.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[385] viXra:1807.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 13:10:53

Biconch Chain: A New Distributed Web Protocol Based on an Innovative Proof of Reputation (PoR) Consensus Algorithm and Eco System

Authors: Caesar Chad, Neo Liu, Leon Lau, Joseph Sadove
Comments: 34 Pages.

BITCONCH chain proposed an innovative POR (Proof Of Reputation) reputation consensus algorithm, which solved the pain point that the blockchain is difficult to maintain both high throughput and decentralization. Based on social graphs, BITCONCH Chain mathematically models social, time, and contribution activities to build a decentralized reputation system. Each user has the opportunity to establish a high reputation value. The higher the user's reputation, the lower the transaction cost (or even free). The more opportunities that are selected as trust nodes to participate in the consensus, the greater the benefits. High-reputation users are defined as “mutual trust nodes”, and small micro-transactions will start “payment channels” for high-speed offline transactions. The reputation system and system incentive system will effectively promote the continued enthusiasm of business developers and ordinary users, and contribute to the construction of the business ecosystem. Business developers with traffic are more likely to get high reputation values, and the chances of being elected to a trusted full node are higher. Ordinary users can increase reputation by actively engaging in social interactions and actively using business applications in the ecosystem, increasing the chances of being selected as trusted light nodes. The Bitconch chain uses a DAG directed acyclic graph data structure to maintain the system's positive scalability. Support smartphone light node client to resist the decentralization of the system and maintain dispersion. Zero-knowledge verification, latticed data storage, quantum-level encryption algorithms, and improved BVM virtual machines make Bitconch chain more reliable and provide a friendly DApp and sidechain development environment to meet certain applications. Technical requirements for large file storage, low transaction costs, user information protection, sidechain and smart contract iterations, and bug fixes. BITCONCH chain is a decentralized distributed network with no block and no chain, which solves two difficulties in the application of blockchain: scalability and decentralization. Bitconch chain, which can be applied to the commercial application needs of users above 10 million, is the most feasible blockchain ecosystem for high-frequency small micro-transactions and social applications.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[384] viXra:1807.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 13:58:21

84 Minutes Are Required for Mercury Day

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 29 Pages.

Mercury Day needs 84 = 5040 seconds minutes to be 176 days This Data analysis supports my claim that "The Matter and Distance are created together by the Same Energy" i.e. The Matter is Energy The Distance is Energy The Space (distance) is a complementary to the Matter, Means the matter can't be created without Space Imagine a classroom The classroom is NOT a space will be filled with desks.. It's mistaken Each desk is brought inside the classroom, brought with it a part of the classroom floor Now, the classroom floor is created with the desks and NOT without.. That's the concept I want to suggest The matter and distance are complementary to each other … no one of both can found alone This idea can easily be concluded from Matter Theory of Creation Where the Theory supposes that the Matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes We can see that the matter is created as a rate to its complementary distance.. This meaning we concluded easily from the Equation Planet orbital distance = Planet diameter * 1092 Note Please: 84 minutes = 5040 seconds but (71)2 = 5041
Category: Astrophysics

[383] viXra:1807.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 19:51:43

Black Holes Withot Paradoxes

Authors: Dariusz Dudało
Comments: 2 Pages.

Uwzględnienie dylatacji czasu przy analizowaniu Czarnych Dziur.Time dilation with black holes.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[382] viXra:1807.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 22:31:40

Refutation of Stit Logic (Sees to it That)

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

From four papers in the relevant literature for 2017-2018, 13 equations are not tautologous. For example, an equation claimed for necessitation as p>[]p is TNTN TNTN TNTN TNTN (not all T proof values). Hence Stit logic is refuted
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[381] viXra:1807.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 22:36:03

Star System Polymorphism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All star systems are polymorphic/polymorphous. This means they contain stars in various stages to their own metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[380] viXra:1807.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 02:58:03

Future Rewritable Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada have created the most dense, solid-state memory in history that could soon exceed the capabilities of current hard drives by 1,000 times. [23] The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[379] viXra:1807.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 03:24:27

Tomorrow Quantum Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, in partnership with CNRS, France, have discovered a new material in which an element, ytterbium, can store and protect the fragile quantum information even while operating at high frequencies. [24] Scientists at the University of Alberta in Edmonton, Canada have created the most dense, solid-state memory in history that could soon exceed the capabilities of current hard drives by 1,000 times. [23] The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14]
Category: Quantum Physics

[378] viXra:1807.0406 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 04:27:14

Black Holes and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Leiden physicists have now found a surprising connection with auxiliary black holes. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Astrophysics

[377] viXra:1807.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 05:20:59

Quantum Random Number Generators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

Researchers have shown that a chip-based device measuring a millimeter square could be used to generate quantum-based random numbers at gigabit per second speeds. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[376] viXra:1807.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 05:36:59

Regulation of Bone Health Parameters in MG-63 Cell Line After Treatment with Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3

Authors: Matthew Charles Hornung, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present experiment aimed to explore the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on various bone health parameters such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization. The test items (TI) i.e. vitamin D3 and DMEM medium were divided into two parts. The test items received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Matthew Charles Hornung and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of both the sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Cell viability using MTT assay showed that cell viability in tested samples was more than 88% on MG-63 cell line. ALP level was significantly increased by 273.3% (at 0.1 µg/mL), 694.1% (at 1 µg/mL), and 180% (at 0.1 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Collagen level was significantly increased by 105.8% (at 1 µg/mL), 164.6% (at 0.1 µg/mL), and 193.8% (at 0.1 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Bone mineralization percentage was significantly increased by 238.1%, 92.7%, and 43.1% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 297.6%, 86.2%, and 66.3% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 281%, 113%, and 47% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Overall, the experimental data suggested that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role in the promotion and maintenance of strong and healthy bones, which improve quality of life. Biofield Energy Treatment might also regulates the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in wide range of bone disorders along with wide range of adverse health conditions, comprising cancer and certain autoimmune diseases.
Category: Biochemistry

[375] viXra:1807.0403 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 05:37:53

The Effect of Vitamin D3 on Bone Mineralization: Influence of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Alan Joseph Balmer, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The main objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health. The test items (viz. vitamin D3 and DMEM), were divided into two parts. One part of each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Alan Joseph Balmer and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). ALP, collagen, and bone mineralization activities were performed to assess bone health in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The test samples (BT) were found as safe in the tested concentrations by MTT assay. ALP was significantly increased by 317.97%, 245.94%, and 247.97% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 10 µg/mL, while increased by 252.87% and 244.05% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test item at 0.1 and 1 µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Further, the ALP level was significantly elevated by 149.41% and 175.17% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 100 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Collagen was significantly increased by 607.3%, 346.41%, and 197.61% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 0.1 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Further, the collagen level was significantly increased by 31.98%, 54.87%, and 67.1% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 100 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Additionally, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 71.41%, 199.92%, and 32.60% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 0.1 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 28.29% and 25.59% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item and BT-DMEM + UT-Test item group at 50 µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was significantly improved the bone health parameters and it could be a powerful alternative nutraceutical supplement to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and fight against various bone related problems including rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, low bone density, bone, stress management and prevention, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[374] viXra:1807.0402 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-30 15:24:49

Mass

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 4 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

The target of this document is the explanation of the essentials of gravity and its characteristic, the mass of discrete objects.
Category: Quantum Physics

[373] viXra:1807.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 07:11:20

Lemurian Yoga Practice for the Prevention, Control and Healing of Physical Complaints and Mental Disorders

Authors: Acharya Sennimalai kalimuthu
Comments: 17 Pages. na

According to Hatha yoga, yoga is uniting the body and the soul. But according to Lemurian Yoga, yoga is meant the unification of body, mind and soul also with the unification of cosmic energy with the bio energy. The Lemurian Yoga is still a hidden treasure and the author through this journal attempts to disseminate and unlock the beauties of this classical yoga.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[372] viXra:1807.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 07:31:41

Nano-Resonator Nonlinear Response

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

An international research team has found a way to make light frequency conversion at the nanoscale 100 times more efficient. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[371] viXra:1807.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 08:41:02

Cosine Fixed Point Constant and Related Sequences

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 6 Pages.

This note presents some sequences related with the cosine fixed point constant.
Category: General Mathematics

[370] viXra:1807.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 08:38:20

Maxwell's Demon Give Up Information

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

"We've experimentally confirmed the connection between information in the classical case and the quantum case," Murch said, "and we're seeing this new effect of information loss." [19] It's well-known that when a quantum system is continuously measured, it freezes, i.e., it stops changing, which is due to a phenomenon called the quantum Zeno effect. [18] Physicists have extended one of the most prominent fluctuation theorems of classical stochastic thermodynamics, the Jarzynski equality, to quantum field theory. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14] Researchers blur the line between classical and quantum physics by connecting chaos and entanglement. [13] Yale University scientists have reached a milestone in their efforts to extend the durability and dependability of quantum information. [12] Using lasers to make data storage faster than ever. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[369] viXra:1807.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 08:45:37

Game of Integrals

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents some trigonometric integrals.
Category: Number Theory

[368] viXra:1807.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 08:49:06

An Interesting Integral

Authors: Edgar Valdebenito
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note presents a definite integral related with the Euler-Mascheroni constant.
Category: Number Theory

[367] viXra:1807.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 10:21:54

Neutrons Look for Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

These experiments provide limits for possible new particles or fundamental forces, which are a hundred thousand times more restrictive than previous estimations. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[366] viXra:1807.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 11:42:45

Quantum Computing Chemical Bonds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

An international group of researchers has achieved the world's first multi-qubit demonstration of a quantum chemistry calculation performed on a system of trapped ions, one of the leading hardware platforms in the race to develop a universal quantum computer. [36] Researchers have shown that a chip-based device measuring a millimeter square could be used to generate quantum-based random numbers at gigabit per second speeds. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[365] viXra:1807.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 11:54:04

Refutation of Levi-Identity and Agm Postulates

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The Levi-identity as rendered is not tautologous, as a basis for the subsequent AGM expressions. Four of the eight AGM equations are not tautologous, hence refuting them as a postulate system for fictional logic.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[364] viXra:1807.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-24 12:16:10

Eternal Sun

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper seeks to explain three solar puzzles - namely - (1) Solar Neutrino Problem, (2) Coronal Temperature Problem, and (3) Ion and electron teperature discrepancy. It considers a hypertoroidal cosmological model, in which space time have the toplogy $S^3 \times S^1$ - which have also been explored by Segal and Guillemin. The retarded fluxes, emanating from the sun, interact with the advanced fluxe returning to their origin - provide solution.
Category: Astrophysics

[363] viXra:1807.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 07:21:06

Success with Complex Quantum States

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute at the University of Copenhagen have, for the first time, succeeded in producing, controlling and understanding complex quantum states based on two electron spins connected to a superconductor. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: Quantum Physics

[362] viXra:1807.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 07:39:44

Noises of Majorana Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Majorana fermions are particles that are their own antiparticles. In condensed matter physics, zero-energy Majorana fermions obey non-abelian statistics, and can be used in fault-tolerant topological quantum computation. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Quantum Physics

[361] viXra:1807.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 08:11:35

Interplay Between Quantum Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Now, Delft University of Technology have created a microchip on which two wires were placed in close proximity in order to measure the Casimir forces that act upon them when they become superconducting. [32] For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[360] viXra:1807.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 08:55:51

Левитация в эфире

Authors: Gennadiy Braznik
Comments: 128 Pages.

Современная научная парадигма рассматривает окружающее нас бытие в двух формах материи – вещества и поля. Вещество в различных термодинамических состояниях состоит из частиц, а поле, заполняющее остальное пространство, является физическим объектом, сущность которого определяется набором динамических уравнений математической физики релятивизма. Отрицание материальности или вещественности эфирной среды пространства Вселенной ведет ортодоксальную парадигму к мистицизму и не позволяет ей определить основные физические законы явления левитации, несмотря на то, что этим известным классическим законам уже более пяти тысяч лет…
Category: Classical Physics

[359] viXra:1807.0386 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 11:37:36

On the Origin of the Laws of Physics from the Properties of Algorithms

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 20 Pages.

I propose a method to derive the familiar laws of physics from algorithmic information theory (AIT). Specifically, I introduce the notion of a proven computing reserve and I use it to connect AIT to physics.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[358] viXra:1807.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 09:48:34

Deep Learning Cracks RNA Code

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Researchers at Oregon State University have used deep learning to decipher which ribonucleic acids have the potential to encode proteins. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[357] viXra:1807.0384 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 16:31:37

The n X n X n Dots Problem: An Improved “Outside the Box” Upper Bound

Authors: Marco Ripà, Valerio Bencini
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper we describe two new patterns, in order to improve the upper bound for the Ripà’s n X n X n points problem, saving a few lines for many values of n. The new upper bound, for any n≥6, becomes h_u(n)=int((3/2*n^2)+int(n/4)-int((n-1)/4)+int((n+1)/4)-int((n+2)/4)+n-2, where int(x)≔floor(x).
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[356] viXra:1807.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 05:18:55

Atom Cooling Recycling Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

A new theoretical analysis shows that laser photons used for cooling atoms have a unique thermal distribution that could be used to study many-body physics. [40] Researchers have now shown that all these lasers can be replaced by a single device called a microcomb. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30]
Category: Quantum Physics

[355] viXra:1807.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 07:14:08

Excited-State Dynamics in Perovskite

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Elucidating electron-phonon coupling in hybrid organic-inorganic perovskites will help to understand the high photovoltaic efficiency. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[354] viXra:1807.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 08:05:13

Robot Chemist Discoveries

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A new type of artificial-intelligence-driven chemistry could revolutionise the way molecules are discovered, scientists claim. [24] Tired of writing your own boring code for new software? Finally, there's an AI that can do it for you. [23] Welcome to Move Mirror, where you move in front of your webcam. [22] Understanding how a robot will react under different conditions is essential to guaranteeing its safe operation. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm—called MPLasso—that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[353] viXra:1807.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 08:28:58

Refutation of Connexive Logic Based on Wansing's Nightmare

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

Connexive logic turns on Wansing's nightmare of ∼(A→B)↔(A→∼B), or the falsity-weakend ∼(A→B)↔(∼A→B), both of which are not tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[352] viXra:1807.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 08:52:02

Physical Reality and Einstein's "Principles of Relativity".

Authors: W.Berckmans
Comments: 12 Pages.

There seems to be a fundamental conflict between a PhR model, proposing a cosmos on a double layered grid and Einstein's Special Relativity Theory".
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[351] viXra:1807.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 10:10:29

Naturally Occurring Haber Process During Stellar Metamorphosis, or How to Find Water Worlds in Exoplanet Data

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams

Ammonia is found in late stage stars such as Neptune and Uranus. It is also present in intermediate aged stars such as Jupiter and Saturn. Given the sheer amount of hydrogen and nitrogen available to chemically combine into ammonia, it is clear that production of ammonia is a natural process in stellar evolution/metamorphosis, and we can mimic this with the Haber Process. A naturally occurring Haber process runs counter to the establishment's false worldview that stars can not cool down enough to form huge amounts of organic and non-organic molecules. We know it happens because we have direct and indirect observational evidence of it happening.
Category: Astrophysics

[350] viXra:1807.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 11:04:52

Will Newton's Second Law Apply to This Situation ?

Authors: Yahya Awad Sharif Mohammed
Comments: 3 Pages. Author's Email: yahya-sharif@hotmail.com

The article aims to show that Newton’s second law as well as Newton’s third law do not apply to a specific situation on physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[349] viXra:1807.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 12:14:10

Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Przestrzeń Einsteina ### Black Hole Universe and Einstein Space

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 3 Pages. In Polish.

Równania pola modelujące czarną dziurę z maksymalną otoczką antygrawitacyjną oraz Nasz Wszechświat można sprowadzić do postaci opisującej tzw. przestrzeń Einsteina. ### Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[348] viXra:1807.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 12:17:46

Black Hole Universe and Einstein Space

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 3 Pages.

Field equations modeling a black hole with maximal anti-gravity halo and Our Universe can be reduced to the form describing the so-called. Einstein space.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[347] viXra:1807.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 12:50:11

A Note on Diophantine Equation

Authors: Abhijit Bhattacharjee
Comments: 4 Pages.

Finiteness of a nonlinear diphantine equation is proved.
Category: Number Theory

[346] viXra:1807.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 17:06:11

Refutation of Aristotle's and Boethius' Theses

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to this author's email address: info@ersatz-systems dot com

Aristotle's Theses and Boethius' Theses are below. ~(~A> A)=(A=A) ; TNCF TNCF TNCF TNCF (AT) . ~( A>~A)=(A=A) ; FCNT FCNT FCNT FCNT (AT)'. (A> B)>~(A>~B) ; FCNT FCNT FCNT FCNT (BT) . (A>~B)>~(A> B) ; FCNT FCNT FCNT FCNT (BT)'. Eqs. AT, AT', BT, and BT' are not tautologous, hence refuting those theses of Aristotle and Boethius. Because ~AT = AT' = BT = BT', what follows is that using conditionals to justify connexive logic makes Wansing's nightmare worse.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[345] viXra:1807.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 04:27:19

Schwinger Sources: Visualization and Explanation

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 43 Pages.

In E8-Cl(16) Physics, elementary particles are not point particles in or with smooth manifold structures but are finite Schwinger Source regions with size scale from Planck 10^(-33) cm to Source Region Boundaries at scale 10^(-24) cm. At scales larger than 10^(-24) cm spacetime and other relevant structures can be usefully and accurately considered to be smooth manifolds, thus permitting use of Armand Wyler’s methods of calculating force strengths, particle masses, etc. At Schwinger Source scales Planck 10^(-33) cm to scale 10^(-24) cm the internal structure of Schwinger Sources is QuasiCrystal Lattice derived from E8 Lattices, permitting Indra’s Net BlockChain Physics of Schwinger Source Indra Jewels.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[344] viXra:1807.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 00:21:57

Does Envy Induce Bone Loss Like Depression and Stress?

Authors: William W. Sabol
Comments: 5 Pages.

While significant elevation of the glucocorticoid cortisol has been linked to bone loss in depression and stress and it can be elevated by negative emotions, short term elevations as may occur in episodic envy are unlikely to measurably impact bone density. The difficulty in securing an adequate research sample of subjects demonstrating chronic, debilitating envy makes research in this regard challenging, but available evidence points to intriguing clues about its potential effects on human health.
Category: Mind Science

[343] viXra:1807.0370 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-03 22:34:28

FEYNMAN’S Advanced Waves Unify the Scalar Higgs Boson with the Supposedly Unrelated Non-Scalar Graviton

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 15 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v4

Recently added: "Main two clarifications to my submission" - There are two points which may need to be clarified - First, in relation to E=0 (second last paragraph in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY) Second, in relation to quantum spin/vector/tensor/scalar (last and third last paragraphs in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a by-product of the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[342] viXra:1807.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 04:22:41

Unconventional Photon Blockade

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Scientists need individual photons for quantum cryptography and quantum computers. Leiden physicists have now experimentally demonstrated a new production method. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[341] viXra:1807.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 05:05:54

Ultrasound Improve Delivery of Cancer Drugs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Scientists in the UK have shown for the first time that focused ultrasound from outside the body can improve the delivery of cancer drugs to tumors in humans. [32] The discovery could help us better understand aging and eventually could lead to new treatments for cancer. [31] A research team at the University of Delaware, led by Emily Day, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering, is laying the groundwork for a method to inhibit cancer-promoting genes in cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact. [30] Researchers have moved closer to the real-time verification of hadron therapy, demonstrating the in vivo accuracy of simulations that predict particle range in the patient. [29] A biomimetic nanosystem can deliver therapeutic proteins to selectively target cancerous tumors, according to a team of Penn State researchers. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[340] viXra:1807.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 05:53:55

Implication of Biofield Energy Healing Based Vitamin D3 on Osteoblastic Differentiation

Authors: Su-Mei Chen Liu, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

Bone is one of the dynamic organ of the endoskeleton, which play a vital role in maintain the structural integrity, blood production, coagulation, mineral reservoirs, and body immunity. The present study investigates the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health parameters in MG-63 cell line. Vitamin D3 and DMEM medium as test items (TI), were divided into two parts, and each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Su-Mei Chen Liu and labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Bone health parameters such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization as bone biomarkers were studied. The cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 84% in test items groups were found to be safe. ALP level was significantly increased by 217% (100 µg/mL), 272.8% (10 µg/mL), and 233.9% (100 µg/mL) in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively. Collagen content was significantly increased by 121.6%, 134.3%, and 86% in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively at 100 µg/mL as compared with the untreated group. Additionally, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 213.5% (at 10 µg/mL), 109.5% (at 100 µg/mL), and 283.7% (at 100 µg/mL) in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared with the untreated group. In conclusion, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role to improve the bone mineralization and calcium absorption. The bone health parameters such as collagen, calcium and ALP were significantly improved and can be used as supplement to improve bone health. Further, it is assumed that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 could be a powerful alternative dietary sources and supplements to fight against various bone related diseases including low bone density and osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, rickets, deformed bones, osteomalacia, bone and/or joint pain, increased frequency of fractures, osteoma, hormonal imbalance, stress, aging, bone loss, and fractures.
Category: Biochemistry

[339] viXra:1807.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 05:54:41

Effects of Vitamin D3 on the Proliferation and Mineralization of Human Osteoblast-Like Cells: Implications of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Thomas Charles Slade, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

Silently progressing metabolic bone disorders are widely increased that affects the quality of life as one of the key health issues today. The aim of the study is to evaluate the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health parameters. Vitamin D3 and DMEM medium as test items (TI), were divided into two parts. Each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Thomas Charles Slade and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization as bone health biomarkers were studied. The cell viability (˃84%) using MTT assay showed that the test items were found to be safe. ALP level was significantly increased by 218.6% (100 µg/mL), 263.9% (10 µg/mL), and 135.7% (100 µg/mL) in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively. Collagen content was significantly increased by 147.6%, 153.1%, and 240.8% at 10, 50, and 100 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 150.8% and 212.9% at 50 and 100 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+BT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. Moreover, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 104.6% and 185.9% in UT-DMEM+BT-TI and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL, while 119%, 42.6%, and 102.3% at 0.1, 1, and 10 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role to control the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in many bone disorders. Moreover, the bone health parameters such as collagen, calcium and ALP were significantly improved and can be used as supplement to improve bone health. Based on the outstanding results, it is assumed that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 could be a powerful alternative dietary sources and supplements to fight against various bone related diseases including low bone density and osteoporosis, Paget’s disease of bone, rickets, deformed bones, osteomalacia, bone and/or joint pain, increased frequency of fractures, osteoma, hormonal imbalance, stress, aging, bone loss and fractures.
Category: Biochemistry

[338] viXra:1807.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 09:51:40

Refutation of the Improved Adams Hypothesis of Conditional Logic Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The seven equations as rendered are not tautologous. This means the probability axioms of Popper and McGee and the improved hypothesis of Adams are refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[337] viXra:1807.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 16:06:06

A Theory for How Gravity Causes Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Steven M. Scully
Comments: Pages. 6

Electromagnetic fields are considered to be the result of the fundamental force of electromagnetism. Using classical mechanics, a description for how gravity could theoretically cause electromagnetic fields is presented. Due to the capability of particles to physically travel through systems which they orbit, the existence of gravitational orbital patterns in the shape of a Figure-8 is proposed. As a result, it is proposed that gravity produces electromagnetic fields by the flow of particles in a Figure-8 orbital. Thereby, according to the theory, gravity is demonstrably the cause of electromagnetism.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[336] viXra:1807.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 16:37:07

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy

Authors: Steven M. Scully
Comments: 30 Pages.

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy states that the universe consists only of infinitely divisible mass, infinite volume, and gravity. This is realized due to a model which explains the cosmic microwave background, the redshift in the light spectrum of all distant galaxies as well as supercluster observations using gravitational redshift and gravitational lensing alone. Evidence is shown that gravity is the only fundamental law of the universe, and that electromagnetism, weak interaction, and strong interaction are the results of gravity, and therefore the Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy can be realized.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[335] viXra:1807.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 18:39:57

Fundamental Particle Pulsation Principle-Theoretical Physics Hypothesis

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 16 Pages.

Relativism and quantum mechanics are a basis of present-day physics. This hypothesis returns quantum mechanics to real physics from physics of a probability and I tried fusion of relativism and quantum mechanics. By quantum mechanics a fundamental particle is a particle and is a wave at the same time and probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics was born. This hypothesis denies the same time. That isn't simultaneous. A fundamental particle is repeating a change in a particle and a wave at superspeed. I am thinking this is the variable from which hid.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[334] viXra:1807.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 19:51:00

On Pre-Nα-Open Sets in bi-Topological Spaces

Authors: Riad K Al-Hamido, Taleb gareba
Comments: 13 Pages.

This Paper is to introduce and define a new class of open set in bitopological space called pre-Nα-open as generalized of pre-α-open in topological space , and we study their basic properties
Category: Topology

[333] viXra:1807.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 20:53:05

Additional Exemplification of December 27, 2017 Vixra Submission Http://vixra.org/pdf/1712.0489v2.pdf Entitled “Refutation of SRT Time Dilation”

Authors: John Lawrence Duval
Comments: 2 Pages.

What we have done in this work is remove the misdirection Relativity Theory employs.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[332] viXra:1807.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 23:55:29

Refutation of Conditional Events in Quantum Logic Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The following conjectures are refuted: Definition of simultaneous verifiability; Definition of simultaneous falsifiability; Corollary on simultaneous verifiability and falsifiability; and Theorem on uniqueness of relative negation. The concluding conjecture to map superposition, while tautologous, as (((A∩B)∪(C∩D))|(B∪D))⊃((A|B)∪(C|D)) is replaced with this non-tautologous equation: (((A∩B)∪(C∩D))|(B∩D))⊃((A|B)∩(C|D)).
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[331] viXra:1807.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 00:40:10

The Fundamental Science Which Lost … Its Own Fundament!

Authors: George Kirakosyan
Comments: 7 Pages. Keywords: FQXi contest, Physics methodology, Philosophy of Physics

We are talking here on the huge tragic misconception in theoretical physics - that can hardly be remedied in the near future.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[330] viXra:1807.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 01:51:35

Machine Learning Image-Match Your Pose

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Welcome to Move Mirror, where you move in front of your webcam. [22] Understanding how a robot will react under different conditions is essential to guaranteeing its safe operation. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm—called MPLasso—that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[329] viXra:1807.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-22 02:32:06

How AI Program Software

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Tired of writing your own boring code for new software? Finally, there's an AI that can do it for you. [23] Welcome to Move Mirror, where you move in front of your webcam. [22] Understanding how a robot will react under different conditions is essential to guaranteeing its safe operation. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm—called MPLasso—that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[328] viXra:1807.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 22:35:41

A Model of Dark Matter and Dark Energy Based on Relativizing Newton's Physics

Authors: Ramzi Suleiman
Comments: 30 Pages. a preprint of a paper accepted for publication

The nature and properties of dark matter and dark energy in the universe are among the outstanding open issues of modern cosmology. Despite extensive theoretical and empirical efforts, the question "what is dark matter made of?" has not been answered satisfactorily. Candidates proposed to identify particle dark matter span over ninety orders of magnitude in mass, from ultra-light bosons, to massive black holes. Dark energy is a greater enigma. It is believed to be some kind of negative vacuum energy, responsible for driving galaxies apart in accelerated motion. In this article we take a relativistic approach in theorizing about dark matter and dark energy. Our approach is based on our recently proposed Information Relativity theory. Rather than theorizing about the identities of particle dark matter candidates, we investigate the relativistic effects on large scale celestial structures at their recession from an observer on Earth. We analyze a simplified model of the universe, in which, large scale celestial bodies, like galaxies and galaxy clusters, are non-charged compact bodies that recede rectilinearly along the line-of-sight of an observer on Earth. We neglect contributions to dark matter caused by the rotation of celestial structures (e.g., the rotation of galaxies) and of their constituents (e.g., rotations of stars inside their galaxies). We define the mass of dark matter as the complimentary portion of the derived relativistic mass, such that at any given recession velocity the sum of the two is equal to the Newtonian mass. The emerging picture from our analysis could be summarized as follows: 1. At any given redshift, the dark matter of a receding body exists in duality to its observable matter, such that the sum of their masses is equal to the body's mass at rest. 2. The dynamical interaction between the dark and the observed matter is determined by the body's recession velocity (or redshift). 3. The observable matter mass density decreases with its recession velocity, with matter transforming to dark matter. 4. For redshifts z < 0.5, the universe is dominated by matter, while for redshifts z > 0.5 the universe is dominated by dark matter. 5. Consistent with observational data, at redshift z = 0.5, the densities of matter and dark matter in the universe are predicted to be equal. 5. At redshift equaling the Golden Ratio (z ≈ 1.618), baryonic matter undergoes a quantum phase transition. The universe at higher redshifts is comprised of a dominant dark matter alongside with quantum matter. 6. Contrary to the current conjecture that dark energy is a negative vacuum energy that might interact with dark matter, comparisons of our theoretical results with observational results of ΛCDM cosmologies, and with observations of the relative densities of matter and dark energy at redshift z ≈ 0.55, allow us to conclude that dark energy is the energy carried by dark matter. 7. Application of the model to the case of rotating bodies, which will be discussed in detail in a subsequent paper, raises the intriguing possibility that the gravitational force between two bodies of mass is mediated by the entanglement of their dark matter components.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[327] viXra:1807.0352 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-25 07:15:13

The Generalized Seiberg-Witten Equations, Compacity

Authors: Antoine Balan
Comments: 3 pages, written in english

We define a generalization of the Seiberg-Witten equations for two spinors and connections linked by functions. We show compacity of the so defined moduli spaces.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[326] viXra:1807.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 04:26:05

Analysis of the Around-the-World Atomic Clocks Experiment

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 3 Pages.

The description of the experiment, published in 1972 in Science by J.C. Hafele and R.E. Keating, shows in the first part, called: Predicted Relativistic Time Gains, the theoretical background for the calculated time gains. In the second part: Observed Relativistic Time Gains, the results of the measurements are shown. This analysis shows several theoretical errors and a tendentious presentation of the measurements, so clear that the reader cannot avoid a feeling of being deceived in order to get convinced of the correctness of the Special Theory of Relativity.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[325] viXra:1807.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 05:13:40

Quantum Dot and Entangled Photons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Quantum dots that emit entangled photon pairs on demand could be used in quantum communication networks. [29] Researchers successfully integrated the systems—donor atoms and quantum dots. [28] A team of researchers including U of A engineering and physics faculty has developed a new method of detecting single photons, or light particles, using quantum dots. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Quantum Physics

[324] viXra:1807.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 05:44:05

Electron Microscope Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Electron microscopy has allowed scientists to see individual atoms, but even at that resolution not everything is clear. [41] A half-century ago, the theorist Walter Henneberger wondered if it were possible to use a laser field to free an electron from its atom without removing it from the nucleus. [40] A new study by researchers at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) may explain this disparity. In the work, the OIST researchers measured electrical current across a two-dimensional plane. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31]
Category: Quantum Physics

[323] viXra:1807.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 07:18:34

Linearity Between Excited Electron Energy Vs. Lan Applied to na 3s→ns and Cs 6s→ns (Spanish Version)

Authors: Javier Silvestre
Comments: 18 Pages.

Spanish version. Linearity between excited electron energy vs. LAN. This article includes: A) Summary of Introduction and First Part ([10,12] and [18]) of Second Block [10,20]. B) Theory application to several cases and more specifically to Na 3s→ns and Cs 6s→ns. C) Modification and optimization in P62 and relativistic effect.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[322] viXra:1807.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 07:26:12

Single-Atom Magnets Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The team showed that the single-atom magnets can endure relatively high temperatures and strong external magnetic fields. The work could lead to the development of extremely high-density data storage devices. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[321] viXra:1807.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 07:52:43

Stop Hacking by Supercomputers

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

IT experts at Monash University have devised the world's leading post-quantum secure privacy-preserving algorithm – so powerful it can thwart attacks from supercomputers of the future. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[320] viXra:1807.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 08:30:51

X-ray about Ice Cream Microstructure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

There's nothing quite like an ice cream on a hot day, and eating it before it melts too much is part of the fun. [16] Studying the fleeting actions of electrons in organic materials will now be much easier, thanks to a new method for generating fast X-rays. [15] In a laboratory at the University of Rochester, researchers are using lasers to change the surface of metals in incredible ways, such as making them super water-repellent without the use of special coatings, paints, or solvents. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[319] viXra:1807.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 09:49:18

Optical Artificial Neural Network

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 48 Pages.

Researchers have shown that it is possible to train artificial neural networks directly on an optical chip. [28] Scientists from Russia, Estonia and the United Kingdom have created a new method for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of organic molecules. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[318] viXra:1807.0343 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-30 20:17:00

Massive Sterile (Ghost) Neutrino Equation, MSN

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is postulated that the massive sterile (ghost) neutrino, symbol MSN, has a mass of 6.64743835x10^-33 kg. Utilizing the standard model equation of the electron rest mass divided by the inverse fine structure constant, within the 2014 NIST CODATA uncertainty limits.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[317] viXra:1807.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 13:38:40

Space-time Contraction Fields Offer an Alternative to Dark Matter

Authors: John S. Huenefeld
Comments: 20 Pages. A simple elegant theory of the cosmos - easy to understand.

An inward dynamic, within a gravitational field of General Relativity, provides the basis to propose a space-time contraction field around matter. This can only be achieved by making a fundamental shift in thinking from Einstein’s conception of GR. This shift, if fully embraced, will change the paradigm of understanding for both space-time and matter, with implications ranging from quark behavior to the expanding cosmos. Adding mass is not the only way to influence orbital velocities. A field of contracting space-time surrounding a massive object will also increase orbital velocities above that of Newtonian gravity alone. When applied to a model galaxy, a contraction field yields a flat rotation curve consistent with observations. The contraction field will also create gravitational lensing and hold galactic clusters together, explaining all observations attributed to dark matter. Cosmologically, space-time contraction fields surrounding galaxies embedded within intergalactic regions of expanding space-time can lead to an observed acceleration of universal expansion. Over time, a greater proportion of the universe becomes occupied by expanding space-time. In the early universe, contraction fields acting within vast clouds of hydrogen gas , can explain the rapid formation of super-massive black holes, quasars, and large early stars. The theoretical contraction field arises from consideration of a special class of inertial reference frames in freefall around a gravitating body. This class of inertial reference frame, falling from an infinite distance, reveals not only the metric of the GR field, but also a dynamic process where space-time is continuously contracted around matter in a very specific way.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[316] viXra:1807.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 14:33:49

Adapting Newton's Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's theory of gravitation states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe, but that is not correct. Newton's theory of gravitation also states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. That is mathematically seen correct, but gravity is not the reason why most celestial objects stay in their orbit.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[315] viXra:1807.0340 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-11 04:47:29

Entanglement Condition for W Type Multimode States and a Scheme for Experimental Realization

Authors: M. Karthick Selvan, Prasanta K. Panigrahi
Comments: 8 Pages.

We derive a class of inequality relations, using both the sum uncertainty relations of su(2) algebra operators and the Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation of partially transposed su(1, 1) algebra operators, to detect the three-mode entanglement of non-Gaussian states of electromagnetic field. These operators are quadratic in mode creation and annihilation operators. The inseparability condition obtained using su(2) algebra operators is shown to guarantee the violation of stronger separability condition provided by Schrodinger-Robertson uncertainty relation of partially transposed su(1, 1) algebra operators. The obtained inseparability condition is also shown to be a necessary condition for W type entangled states and it is used to derive the general form for a family of such inseparability conditions. An experimental scheme is proposed to test the violation of separability condition. The results derived for three-mode systems are generalized to multimode systems.
Category: Quantum Physics

[314] viXra:1807.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 00:12:48

THE Weak-link in Quantum Communications

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a brief argument about the impossibility of noiseless quantum communication networks
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[313] viXra:1807.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 02:37:32

Sound Waves in Quantum Liquids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Ordinary sound waves—small oscillations of density—can propagate through all fluids, causing the molecules in the fluid to compress at regular intervals. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Condensed Matter

[312] viXra:1807.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 02:56:19

Neutron Cluster Explain The Distribution of Dark Matter

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Atom passed by photon sphere can be lose all electrons and then its nucleus disintegrate into neutron cluster. It explains the distribution of dark matter and why positron exist in that area.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[311] viXra:1807.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 03:10:09

Physics Treasure in a Wallpaper Pattern

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

An international team of scientists has discovered a new, exotic form of insulating material with a metallic surface that could enable more efficient electronics or even quantum computing. [34] For the first time, a group of researchers from Universidad Complutense de Madrid, IBM, ETH Zurich, MIT and Harvard University have observed topological phases of matter of quantum states under the action of temperature or certain types of experimental imperfections. [33] With their insensitivity to decoherence, Majorana particles could become stable building blocks of quantum computers. [32] A team of researchers at the University of Maryland has found a new way to route photons at the micrometer scale without scattering by building a topological quantum optics interface. [31] Researchers at the University of Bristol's Quantum Engineering Technology Labs have demonstrated a new type of silicon chip that can help building and testing quantum computers and could find their way into your mobile phone to secure information. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28] A fundamental barrier to scaling quantum computing machines is "qubit interference." In new research published in Science Advances, engineers and physicists from Rigetti Computing describe a breakthrough that can expand the size of practical quantum processors by reducing interference. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[310] viXra:1807.0335 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-03 08:24:10

Reply to Mohammad Shafiq Khan’s Paper “On the Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies by Albert Einstein is Based on Trickeries (Open Letter to Professors, Teachers, Researchers and Students of Physics)”

Authors: Lann N. Ramez
Comments: 3 pages

This reply to Khan’s referenced paper (Khan 2012) shows that Khan performed invalid operations on a wrongly assumed equation to obtain Einstein’s basic partial differential equation that Einstein derived in in his paper (Einstein 1905) to develop the Special Relativity equations. Khan concluded that the latter Einstein’s equation must be an “equation of trickery”, without realizing that performing invalid operations on a wrong equation to force it to lead to a desired equation doesn’t necessarily falsify the forced equation.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[309] viXra:1807.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 03:25:22

The Chronology Protection Conjecture and the Formation of the Kerr Black Hole Through Gravitational Collapse

Authors: Moninder Singh Modgil
Comments: 6 Pages.

Exterior of the Kerr black hole is considered as the likely spacetime geometry around a black hole formed by gravitational collapse. However the Kerr black hole has chronology violating Closed Time-like Curves (CTCs), near the ring singularity in interior. Hawking has considered formation of CTCs using a scalar field and shown that back reaction of nature - divergence of energy-momentum tensor - would prevent formation of CTCs. The question being raised here is whether the physics behind Hawking's concept of "chronology protection", will actually prevent formation of the Kerr black hole - through gravitational collapse. On the other hand, if the Kerr black hole indeed gets formed by gravitational collapse, then one has a counter example to Chronology Protection Conjecture. Chronology protection thus imposes the constraint that formation of a rotating black hole through gravitational collapse should be such that the interior metric of the black hole does not match that of the Kerr black hole, or any other black hole with CTCs. It is possible that the quantum gravity effects rule out formation of CTCs during gravitational collapse - as they are expected to remove singularities. There may however be classical solutions to the problem. Angular momentum orginating from the rotation and the formation of CTCs are intimately related - through the off diagonal term $g_{t \phi}$ i.e., the coefficient of the $dtd\phi$ term (corresponding to the temporal coordinate $t$ and the longitudinal angular coordinate $\phi$) - of the metric tensor. A possible solution is that during the gravitational collapse, all the angular momentum of the star, is radiated away by gravitational waves - leaving behind as residual, the Schwarzschild black hole.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[308] viXra:1807.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 04:01:30

Relaxor Ferroelectrics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

National Laboratory are starting to unravel this mystery. [28] NIMS and Tohoku University have jointly observed an anisotropic magneto-Peltier effect—a thermoelectric conversion phenomenon in which simple redirection of a charge current in a magnetic material induces heating and cooling. [27] Recently, researchers from the China University of Mining and Technology have theoretically exposed the fundamental aspects of this thermal transport along double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) molecules. [26] This "robot," made of a single strand of DNA, can autonomously "walk" around a surface, pick up certain molecules and drop them off in designated locations. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[307] viXra:1807.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 05:58:48

Prospects for Digital Audio Broadcasting in South Africa

Authors: Bronwyn E Howell, Petrus H Potgieter
Comments: 6 Pages.

The authors submitted a comment to the Independent Communications Authority of South Africa (ICASA) in response to the call for comment in the Discussion Document on Digital Sound Broadcasting (DSB) that appeared in South Africa’s Government Gazette No. 41534 of 29 March 2018. Consequently, the second author made an oral submission at the public hearings on this issue at the ICASA premises in Sandton on 13 July 2018. In this document, we elaborate on the thinking in our submission in response to a request in this regard from Advocate Dimakatso Qocha, the Councillor who chaired the hearing. We still intend address ourselves only to Question 1 of the Discussion Document. Is there a need for the introduction of DSB technologies in South Africa? We are convinced that there is no compelling argument for the introduction of the technology in the way apparently requested by many in the industry. We do not however oppose the liberalisation of signal distribution or a technology (and content) neutral approach to spectrum management and tradeable broadcasting and spectrum rights. If these were introduced, broadcasters would be able to decide on a purely commercial basis when and if to introduce digital broadcasts and new entry to the market would be possible through the purchase of appropriate rights.
Category: Economics and Finance

[306] viXra:1807.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 06:22:23

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Pluto was "The Mercury Moon" I claim the following: 1-Pluto was – The Mercury Moon- 2-Pluto had to immigrate from his original point to his new point at orbital distance =5870 mkm because of Mars immigration 3-Mars original orbital distance = 84 mkm and he immigrated from this point to his current point at orbital distance = 227.9 mkm 4-Mercury day was 176 days and decreased by 84 minutes = 5040 seconds because of Mars Immigration 5-The solar planets, found before Mars Immigration were: Pluto – Mercury- Mars – Earth- Jupiter – Uranus – Neptune (the order is incorrect) 6-The solar planets, created after Mars Immigration were: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon – the Sun "Pluto was The Mercury Moon" is a claim aims to supports the relationship between planet diameter and his orbital distance which supports the concept that "the Matter and distance are created together from the same Energy"
Category: Astrophysics

[305] viXra:1807.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 06:43:49

Quantum Computing Reversing Cause

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Watch a movie backwards and you'll likely get confused—but a quantum computer wouldn't. [38] Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[304] viXra:1807.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 08:04:47

Cosmic Ray Electron Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[303] viXra:1807.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 09:19:07

Gravitational Lensing Study

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Dark matter halos are theoretical bodies inside which galaxies are suspended; the halo's mass dominates the total mass. [26] An international team of researchers extended their results from a previous study to directly measure the cosmic-ray all-electron (electron + positron) spectrum in an energy range from 11 GeV to 4.8 TeV with the Calorimetric Electron Telescope (CALET). [25] Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[302] viXra:1807.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 10:11:34

Phonon Laser Operating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The basic quanta of light (photon) and sound (phonon) are bosonic particles that largely obey similar rules and are in general very good analogs of one another. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[301] viXra:1807.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 10:34:27

Unusual Sound Waves in Quantum Liquid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Now physicists have theoretically shown that in one-dimensional quantum fluids not one, but two types of sound waves can propagate. [15] The basic quanta of light (photon) and sound (phonon) are bosonic particles that largely obey similar rules and are in general very good analogs of one another. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[300] viXra:1807.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 11:11:09

Spinning Object Help Quantum Mechanics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Researchers have created the fastest man-made rotor in the world, which they believe will help them study quantum mechanics. [15] The basic quanta of light (photon) and sound (phonon) are bosonic particles that largely obey similar rules and are in general very good analogs of one another. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Physics

[299] viXra:1807.0324 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-28 16:23:07

Lyapunov-Type Inequality for the Hadamard Fractional Boundary Value Problem on a General Interval [a;b], (1≤a<b)

Authors: Zaid Laadjal
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this paper, we studied an open problem, where using two different methods, we obtained several results for a Lyapunov-type and Hartman-Wintner-type inequalities for a Hadamard fractional differential equation on a general interval [a;b],(1≤a<b) with the boundary value conditions.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[298] viXra:1807.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 12:30:51

A Niels Bohr Approach to a Pre-Quantum Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 12 Pages.

As a first step towards a theory of quantum gravity, a Niels Bohr pre-quantum mechanics theory of quantum gravity is proposed. It predicts the existence of gravitons with an energy of 3.47×〖10〗^11 GeV, close to the rarely observed particles coming from a region of the Ursa Major constellation, with the largest energy of 3.2×〖10〗^11 GeV, well above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit, suggesting that these particles are high-energy gravitons. It was noted that the proposed provisionary theory can explain Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation as a result of a mathematical theorem by Bruns, where the nonlinearity of the equations of motion, such as Newton’s and Einstein’s equations, leads to divergent dense manifold for infinitely closed initial conditions as their solutions. In addition, the theory can also explain the gravitational origin of the quantum potential in the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. It explains the ratio of dark energy to dark matter, approximately 3:1, as the Madelung constant of a gravitationally interacting fluid made up of positive and negative mass pole-dipole particles filling the vacuum of space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[297] viXra:1807.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 05:20:05

The Dawn of Global Spirituality

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 27 Pages.

Once upon a time, the entire world spoke one language, had a common global spirituality. Then, languages diverged, religions grew, and spirituality, even though the same old wine, was now in different bottles with different labels. Today, the world is being globalized again. It is time for that common global spirituality to dawn again. That is the need of the hour. That is the mission elaborated here.
Category: Religion and Spiritualism

[296] viXra:1807.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 06:11:38

Super-Cool Kit for Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A huge U.K.-built titanium chamber designed to keep its contents at a cool-100C and weighing as much as an SUV has been shipped to the United States, where it will soon become part of a next-generation dark matter detector to hunt for the long-theorised elusive dark matter particle called a WIMP (Weakly Interacting Massive Particle). [32] An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[295] viXra:1807.0320 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-18 07:31:17

On Certain Theories of Physics Considered Important

Authors: José Francisco García Juliá
Comments: 13 Pages.

In a previous paper, I gave my opinion on some significant questions of physics. This note is to reinforce that opinion.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[294] viXra:1807.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 08:12:33

Biological Intelligent Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Scientists from the University of Freiburg have developed materials systems that are composed of biological components and polymer materials and are capable of perceiving and processing information. [28] Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18]
Category: Physics of Biology

[293] viXra:1807.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 09:03:17

Structural Damage Information Decision Based on Z-numbers

Authors: Yangxue Li; Yong Deng
Comments: 10 Pages.

Structural health monitoring (SHM) has grate economic value and research value because of the application of finite element model technology, structural damage identification theory, intelligent sensing system, signal processing technology and as so on. A typical SHM system involved three major subsystems: a sensor subsystem, a data processing subsystem and a health evaluation subsystem. It is significance of sensor data fusion for the data processing subsystem. In this paper, considering the fuzziness and reliability of the data, the method based on Z-numbers is proposed in the damage information fusion for decision level, which is a softer method and avoids the severe effect of a small data on the fusion result. The result given by the simulation example of space structure shows the effectiveness of this method.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[292] viXra:1807.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 09:22:31

AI Protect Water Supplies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Progress on new artificial intelligence (AI) technology could make monitoring at water treatment plants cheaper and easier and help safeguard public health. [25] And if that isn't surprising enough, try this one: in many cases, doctors have no idea what side effects might arise from adding another drug to a patient's personal pharmacy. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[291] viXra:1807.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 01:15:48

Looking to the Bohr’s Atomic Model

Authors: Arjun Dahal
Comments: 8 Pages.

Bohr in 1913 introduced new atomic model based on quantum theory that explained the limitations of the previously existing Rutherford’s atomic model. Through this article we have tried to provide an outlook to the Bohr’s model and studies how it helped to describe the atomic structure of an atom.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[290] viXra:1807.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 03:10:22

The Size of the Universe and the Speed of the Gravitons

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 178 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The size of the Universe and the speed of the Gravitons “The diameter of the universe D: D = 2 × 13.8 × v where v is the Gravitons speed” Adrian Ferent “The diameter of the universe D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years, much bigger than 93 billion light-years how you learned from your professors, from your books” Adrian Ferent “The universe is a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years” Adrian Ferent The age of the universe is estimated to be 13.8 billion years. We know that parts of the universe are too far away for the light emitted since the Big Bang to have had enough time to reach Earth and so lie outside the observable universe. The expansion rate of the universe is accelerating due to dark energy. What is dark energy? “Dark Energy is Gravitons” Adrian Ferent What you learned from your professors about the size of the universe: The universe doesn’t expand at a particular speed, it expands at a speed per distance. Light and objects within spacetime cannot travel faster than the speed of light, this limitation does not restrict the metric itself. A metric defines the concept of distance, by stating in mathematical terms how distances between two nearby points in space are measured, in terms of the coordinate system. Diameter of the observable universe is 93 Gly From Earth to the edge of the observable universe the comoving distance is about 46.5 billion light-years. Anyway nothing in the universe can travel faster than light. In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Gravitons travel faster than light. “I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent “During the Big Bang first emerged the gravitational force with the speed of the gravitons: v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m / s” Adrian Ferent Gravitons speed is v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s, how I explained in my Gravitation theory close to the speed of light squared. “The diameter of the universe D: D = 2 × 13.8 × v where v is the Gravitons speed” Adrian Ferent This means: D = 2 × 13.8 × 1.001762 × 10^17 D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years “The diameter of the universe D = 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years, much bigger than 93 billion light-years how you learned from your professors, from your books” Adrian Ferent The size of the universe: “The universe is a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years” Adrian Ferent “Einstein, Hilbert General Relativity theory, String theory, LQG, all Quantum gravity theories are incorrect because are limited to the speed of light” Adrian Ferent 89. I am the first who calculated the size of the universe, a sphere with a diameter of 9.2 × 10^9 billion light-years
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[289] viXra:1807.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 03:20:27

Quark String of Elementary Particle

Authors: T.Spiegelman
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper suggests quark combination of elementary particle based on AdS/CFT correspondence. Through this, we can define quark conservation law and majonara particle. Tension of closed string which diverge to infinity confine quarks as in color confinement of strong interaction.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[288] viXra:1807.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 04:25:14

About Time and "Cockroaches" \\\\\\ О времени и «тараканах»

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 15 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> About Time and "Cockroaches" July 19, 2018

The present article poses and solves the question: "How at the level of elementary particles, on the Planck scale of being discrete and continuous in relation to real natural time and real movement are correlated between themselves?" ------------------- В настоящей статье ставится и решается вопрос: «Как на уровне элементарных частиц, на планковском масштабе бытия дискретное и непрерывное в отношении к реальному природному времени и реальному движению соотносятся между собой?»
Category: Classical Physics

[287] viXra:1807.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 04:52:28

Charge Density Waves and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

For a long time, physicists have tried to understand the relationship between a periodic pattern of conduction electrons called a charge density wave (CDW), and another quantum order, superconductivity, or zero electrical resistance, in the same material. [31] A potential new state of matter is being reported in the journal Nature, with research showing that among superconducting materials in high magnetic fields, the phenomenon of electronic symmetry breaking is common. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Quantum Physics

[286] viXra:1807.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 04:53:25

Another Reactionary Philosophy \\\\\\ Ещё одна реакционная философия

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 14 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Another Reactionary Philosophy July 17, 2018

In our present reality, in the conditions of bourgeois "democracy, freedom," and bourgeois permissiveness, like mushrooms after the rain, reactionary philosophies one after another are born. This article is devoted to exposing one such philosophy, idealistic in orientation, bourgeois in its basis. +++++++++++++++++++ В нашей сегодняшней реальности, в условиях буржуазной «демократии, свободы» и буржуазной вседозволенности, как грибы после дождя, рождаются одна за другой реакционные философии. Настоящая статья посвящена разоблачению одной такой философии идеалистической по направленности, буржуазной в своей основе.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[285] viXra:1807.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 04:57:17

Observe Quantum Spin Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Engineering have demonstrated a new method which could be used to bring quantum computing closer to reality. [15] Take a bounce: A microscopic trampoline could help engineers to overcome a major hurdle for quantum computers, researchers from CU Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report in a new study. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[284] viXra:1807.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 06:48:38

Hack-Proof Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[283] viXra:1807.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 07:18:42

Heat the Atomic Lattice of Magnet

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Magnets have fascinated humans for several thousand years and enabled the age of digital data storage. [27] In a breakthrough discovery, University of Wollongong (UOW) researchers have created a "heartbeat" effect in liquid metal, causing the metal to pulse rhythmically in a manner similar to a beating heart. [26] Collective spin oscillations have been spotted for the first time in an ultracold atomic gas. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[282] viXra:1807.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 08:07:38

Semantic Concept Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 56 Pages.

The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[281] viXra:1807.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 08:27:40

New Generation of Artificial Neural Networks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Scientists from Russia, Estonia and the United Kingdom have created a new method for predicting the bioconcentration factor (BCF) of organic molecules. [27] Predictions for an AI-dominated future are increasingly common, but Antoine Blondeau has experience in reading, and arguably manipulating, the runes—he helped develop technology that evolved into predictive texting and Apple's Siri. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19] Google's computer programs are gaining a better understanding of the world, and now it wants them to handle more of the decision-making for the billions of people who use its services. [18] Microsoft on Wednesday unveiled new tools intended to democratize artificial intelligence by enabling machine smarts to be built into software from smartphone games to factory floors. [17]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[280] viXra:1807.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 12:11:05

Optical Computing Milestone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[279] viXra:1807.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 12:59:01

Cryptanalysis of “Cloud Centric Authentication for Wearable Healthcare Monitoring System”

Authors: Chandra Sekhar Vorugunti
Comments: 6 Pages.

The privacy and security issues of information message dissemination have been well researched in typical wearable sensores. However, cloud computing paradigm is merely utilized for secure information message dissemination over wearable sensors. Sharing encrypted data with different users via public cloud storage is an important functionality. Therefore, many researchers proposed new cloud based user authentication scheme for secure authentication of medical data. Newly A.K.Das et al proposed a new user authentication scheme in which a legal user registered at the BRC will be able to mutually authenticate with an accessible wearable sensor node with the help of the CoTC. Though A.K.Das et al scheme counterattacks key cryptographic attacks, on subsequent in-depth analysis, we validate that their scheme has security downsides such as failure to counterattack ‘privileged insider attack’, which int
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[278] viXra:1807.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 13:57:41

Saturn Data Proves Mars Immigration

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 4 Pages.

Abstract Saturn Data proves that, Saturn is created after Mars Immigration Saturn Data Analysis provides us the following conclusions: -The Planets were found before Mars Immigration: Mercury – Pluto – Mars – Earth – Jupiter- Uranus – Neptune (7 planets) -The Planets were found after Mars Immigration: Venus – Saturn – The Earth Moon - (and the sun) Please Note: I claimed Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Please review "Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)" http://vixra.org/abs/1807.0268
Category: Astrophysics

[277] viXra:1807.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 15:04:21

Refutation of the Postulate of Contradiction Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The conjecture that a postulate of contradiction for superposition implies contradiction to map quantum logic is refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[276] viXra:1807.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 16:41:14

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2

Authors: John Roach
Comments: Pages.

Neo-Heraclides Model, Part 2 Dedicated to the memory of Dr. Russell Arndts. "The Truth Will Win Out"
Category: Astrophysics

[275] viXra:1807.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 17:10:18

Study of Transformations

Authors: Yeray Cachón Santana
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper covers a first approach study of the angles and modulo of vectors in spaces of Hilbert considering a riemannian metric where, instead of taking the usual scalar product on space of Hilbert, this will be extended by the tensor of the geometry g. As far as I know, there is no a study covering space of Hilbert with riemannian metric. It will be shown how to get the angle and modulo on Hilbert spaces with a tensor metric, as well as vector product, symmetry and rotations. A section of variationals shows a system of differential equations for a riemennian metric.
Category: Geometry

[274] viXra:1807.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 17:36:01

The Cosmic Thread

Authors: Seamus McCelt
Comments: 2 Pages.

Think of a tennis net - if you pulled on opposite diagonal corners of the net: the threads would fold-up into a thick section. That is what is happening with a cosmic thread.
If a section of space compresses and flattens in 2 directions it will become a thread or string-like object approximately the thickness of a proton.
Category: Astrophysics

[273] viXra:1807.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 00:57:44

Refutation that Classical Logic is a Completion of Quantum Logic Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 3 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The distributivity of classical conjunction and disjunction does not fail. The conclusion to translate quantum negation as not necessity is not tautologous. This refutes quantum logic as a fragment of classical logic (or vice versa, as others write).
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[272] viXra:1807.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 03:30:35

Artificial Intelligence and Its Security Concerns

Authors: Shyamanth Kashyap, Prajwal J M, Pavan Nargund
Comments: 13 Pages.

This paper dwells on the negative effects of Artificial Intelligence and Machine Learning, and its underlying threat to humanity. This study stems from the experiences of different people working in the aforementioned field. This paper also proposes a framework to regulate and govern the projects in this field to reduce its threat or any future repercussions.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[271] viXra:1807.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 04:15:41

Nextgen Capital Market Development

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this project is to implement the numerical-quantum monetary system to reduce and restructure sovereign debts, secure capital values and mitigate investment risks by applying new scientific methods, and models to advance the development of capital markets and world economies. This paper demonstrates new monetary principles by elaborating new trends in capital economics with integrated mathematics and physics, enabling to devise disruptive inter-monetary mechanisms and implement the NextGen financial instruments described below
Category: Economics and Finance

[270] viXra:1807.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-18 04:25:15

Quantum Computing Behave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 58 Pages.

Calculations of a quantum system's behavior can spiral out of control when they involve more than a handful of particles. [37] Researchers from the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill have reached a new milestone on the way to optical computing, or the use of light instead of electricity for computing. [36] The key technical novelty of this work is the creation of semantic embeddings out of structured event data. [35] The researchers have focussed on a complex quantum property known as entanglement, which is a vital ingredient in the quest to protect sensitive data. [34] Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27]
Category: Quantum Physics

[269] viXra:1807.0290 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-18 10:57:21

The Gravity Primer

Authors: Hans Detlef Hüttenbach
Comments: 5 Pages. misspellings corrected

It was shown in [1] that gravitational interaction can be expressed as an algebraic quadratic invariant form of energies. This allows the decomposition of the entire gravitational system into the sum of squares of energies of its composing particles. Still then, we ran into serious problems, when it came to figure out the Hamiltonian and calculate the total energy of the system from that. (Equivalently put, the algebraic invariant above is not a Hamiltonian one.) The problem is: What goes wrong? This is what this article is about, and the answer is very simple.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[268] viXra:1807.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 20:35:54

Reconciliation Between Relativistic Ether and Lorentz's Ether

Authors: Piscedda Giampaolo
Comments: 1 Page.

When we discuss the ether, we must specify what type of ether we are referring to: Dirac's ether, Einstein's ether, Lorentz's ether, Weyl's ether, etc. Among the physicists the word ether became gradually unusual over time. It has been replaced by the empty term, but the meaning has not changed. Currently, we have return to the use of the wird ether. The use of the term: stationary ether, new ether, relativistic ether, has already becomes normal during son international conferences. See the book of LUDWIK KOSTRO title: EINSTEIN AND THE ETHER. In this article we combine reconciles the Lorentz's ether with the relativistic ether of Einstein
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[267] viXra:1807.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 21:41:03

Refutation of Quantum Logic as Tautologous Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 5 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

We evaluate quantum logic as described from two sources with different readership levels. We find quantum logic is not tautologous.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[266] viXra:1807.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 02:44:00

Quantum Trampoline

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Take a bounce: A microscopic trampoline could help engineers to overcome a major hurdle for quantum computers, researchers from CU Boulder and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) report in a new study. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. [13] To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[265] viXra:1807.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 03:49:01

Antimatter Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Mysterious radiation emitted from distant corners of the galaxy could finally be explained with efforts to recreate a unique state of matter that blinked into existence in the first moments after the Big Bang. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[264] viXra:1807.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-17 04:39:44

Time Crystals Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Dreamt up by the physics Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek in 2012, the notion of " time crystals " is now moving from theory to experiment – and could also lead to applications such as a new kind of atomic clock. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[263] viXra:1807.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 09:12:09

Single-Atom Manipulation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Dr. Susi concludes, "Your computer or cellphone will not have atomic memories anytime soon, but graphene impurity atoms do seem to have potential as bits near the limits of what is physically possible." [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Quantum Physics

[262] viXra:1807.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 09:39:24

Proof of the Fourth Landau's Problem

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is the third result of applying Formula of Disjoint Sets of Odd Numbers
Category: Number Theory

[261] viXra:1807.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 12:00:32

The Z(4430) Tetraquark Acts Like a Heavy Majorana Neutrino Having No Electric Charge

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 3 Pages.

Abstract: A chargeless Z(4430) tetraquark acts physically like a ~ 270X heavier neutrino
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[260] viXra:1807.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-17 12:28:28

„Neutrinos, Luxons, Preons, Quantons, Strangelets and Twistors Like a Dark Matter and Dark Energy, Feat. Mr. NEUTRINO“

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 26 Pages.

This article is focused on the most non–clarified situation of Particle Physics, like for example Neutrinos, Quantons, Preons, Luxons and subatomic and atomic scales microphenomenons Twistors and Strangelets. The main part of this article is dedicated to dark matter and energy and flashback significance of Mr. Neutrino, respectively the outstanding atomic scientist Bruno Pontecorvo and his contribution to High Energy Particle Physics and Nuclear Physics, by his discoveries in scientific field, so called NEUTRINO OSCILLATIONS and other quantum phenomenas. Although this article says about, for example – mixing angles θ [théta] of neutrinos, their “VIRTUAL TRANSMUTATION”, DIRAC AND MAJORANA NEUTRINOS. The most interesting part of the text is focused on infraparticles – goldstinos and preons–models of lepton, quarks and gauge bosons as composite objects. Not in the ending part of this text is described, also, so called – The Suzuki Model (Lagrangian Based Suzuki’s Ideas). Included is also new concept of wave particle duality – wavicle and quanticle (including wave + particle). The text involved the briefly biography of Mr. Neutrino respectively nuclear scientist Bruno Pontecorvo.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[259] viXra:1807.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 14:41:01

Refutation of the Definition of Mutual Information Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The mutual information between two random variables is defined and tested to represent the amount of information learned about the variable from knowing another variable. Since the definition is symmetric, the conjecture also represents the amount of information learned about another variable from the variable. The conjecture is found not tautologous and hence refuted.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[258] viXra:1807.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 15:01:34

Refutation of Whewell's Axiom of Causality Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

"Everything that becomes or changes must do so owing to some cause; for nothing can come to be without a cause." — Plato in Timaeus William Whewell [1794-1866] refined this as the concept of causality to depend on three axioms: nothing takes place without a cause; the magnitude of an effect is proportional to the magnitude of its cause; and to every action there is an equal and opposed reaction. The second axiom is tautologous, but the others are not, hence refuting the conjecture. From a metaphysical view, the axiom of causality is a bar to miracle because first cause is always assumed. This is overcome with rewriting the conjecture as "The necessity of effect implies the possibility of cause or no cause".
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[257] viXra:1807.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 01:08:43

One Way Speed Of Light Based on Fizeau's Experiment

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based on Fizeau's experiment, the single cogwheel is replaced with two rotating disks to measure the one-way speed of light. A single slit is cut out in the radial direction on each disk for the light to pass through the disk. With both disks rotating at the same angular speed, the light can pass through both disks only if the second slit is in a different radial direction from the first slit. The light takes time to travel from the first disk to the second disk. With both slits rotating into the straight path of light, the one-way speed of light can be calculated from the distance between two disks, angular speed of the disks and the angular difference between two slits.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[256] viXra:1807.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 01:15:10

The Corrections of Pressure And Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 9 Pages.

Traditional explanation for the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas to produce the pressure against gravity. This theory predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ although the Fermi electron gas is calculated at the temperature T of absolute zero. In this research, first considering the electron-electron interaction in the high-density Fermi electron gas at T=0 K, this interaction causes the pressure 2/137 time less than the original value. However, the pressure of the Fermi electron gas should have something to do with temperature at 10^7 K. Then we estimate the temperature effect using statistical mechanics and find the total pressure depends on temperature weakly at the given particle number N and volume V. According to this, the relationship between radius and mass of the white dwarf star is obtained and it mainly depends on temperature, electron mass, and proton mass. An unknown parameter δ=34.75 is calculated by using an example of a white dwarf star with the mass of our sun and the radius of Earth. This relationship is useful for estimating the inner temperature of a white dwarf star. The lowest limit of M/R^3 depends on neutron mass, electron mass, and temperature.
Category: Astrophysics

[255] viXra:1807.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 08:41:43

Highly Pure Polarization Components

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

The novel on-chip light splitter marks a major breakthrough in improving high-performance data transmission systems, as well as applications in quantum computing. [23] Dr. Susi concludes, "Your computer or cellphone will not have atomic memories anytime soon, but graphene impurity atoms do seem to have potential as bits near the limits of what is physically possible." [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas.
Category: Quantum Physics

[254] viXra:1807.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 08:50:26

Neutron Spin Structure, Yang-Mills Theory, and the Mass Gap

Authors: Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages. submitted to the 23rd International Spin Symposium in Ferrara, Italy (September 2018)

An analysis of proton structure and spin based upon an electromagnetic model of geometric wavefunction interactions was presented to Spin 2016. A key point of that analysis was the supposition that only observed components of the eight-component Pauli wavefunction (electric charge, magnetic flux quantum, and magnetic moment) comprise the stable proton wavefunction. The dark components (magnetic charge, electric flux quantum, electric moment) cannot couple to the photon due to topological symmetry breaking of pseudoscalar magnetic charge. Their impedance mismatch to the vacuum wavefunction and the resulting differential phase shift is the causal agent of decoherence, rendering wavefunctions containing dark components unstable. An unstable neutron wavefunction might then be extracted from the S-matrix by swapping one or more dark components for visible. Several possibilities exist. This Spin 2018 abstract submission proposes to explore those possibilities, in hope of extending the Spin 2016 analysis to the neutron geometric wavefunction, thereby improving understanding of the anomalous moment and illuminating the foundation of this Yang-Mills isospin pair.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[253] viXra:1807.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 09:11:04

Hybrid Energy Harvesting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

A new hybrid energy-harvesting device may one day replace the need for batteries in certain low-power electronics devices. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient.
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[252] viXra:1807.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 10:32:16

Ribosome Genes Prevent Aging

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Researchers from Stanford University and the VA Palo Alto Health Care System (VAPAHCS) have identified a protein that guards cells against senescence—aging-related problems—by protecting a particularly vulnerable set of genes. [23] A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13]
Category: Physics of Biology

[251] viXra:1807.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 11:06:00

Faster Photons Total Data Security

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[250] viXra:1807.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 11:19:08

Algorithm to Improve Information Security

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

Cryptography is a science of data encryption providing its confidentiality and integrity. [33] Researchers at the University of Sheffield have solved a key puzzle in quantum physics that could help to make data transfer totally secure. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24]
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[249] viXra:1807.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 13:13:38

Mars Immigration Proves (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

The solar planets order tells us clearly that there's a relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance… this conclusion we get easily from the following planets order: Mercury – Venus – Earth.. The previous planets order tells us a clear rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Something was happened with Mars After Mars this rule is reversed as we see in the following planets: Jupiter – Saturn - Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The rule became "Planet Greater Diameter has A Shorter Orbital Distance" (Please Note/ Uranus greater in diameter and less in Mass from Neptune that tells us the planets order depends on their diameters and NOT on their Masses) What happened with Mars? Mars immigration from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm Let's return Mars to his original point at orbital distance = 84 mkm What the solar planets order will be: Mercury – Mars - Venus – Earth.. This follows completely the rule "Planet Greater Diameter has A Greater Orbital Distance" Based on this description there are 2 planets at least immigrated from their original points: 1-Mars immigrated from his original point in 84 mkm to his new point in 227.9 mkm 2-Pluto who belonged before to the solar inner planets (my hypothesis) and had to move to the End of the solar group because the rule became reversed… \ This paper tries to prove these facts To do that we have to prove the following: 1-Mars moved from his original point (Mars is exceptional Planet) 2-Pluto belonged before to the solar inner planets.. This paper contains 2 points 3- Mars Original orbital distance was 84 mkm 4- An Alternative Solar Group Description
Category: Astrophysics

[248] viXra:1807.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-16 15:06:38

The Role of Light in Observation: Why is the Speed of Light Invariant?

Authors: Xiaogang Ruan
Comments: 15 Pages.

In 1905, based on the Michelson-Morley experiment, Einstein proposed the hypothesis of invariance of light speed (ILS). He then theoretically deduced the Lorentz transformation from ILS, established the theory of special relativity (SR), and revealed the relativistic phenomena of matter motion. Up till today, however, we still don’t exactly know what role light plays in Einstein’s theory, or why the speed of light is invariant; moreover, we still don’t exactly understand relativistic phenomena. Based on the locality of physical world, this paper establishes the principle of observational locality (POL), proposes the hypothesis of observational limit (HOL), and tries to accertain the role of light in observation and the root and essence of ILS. According to POL and HOL, the Michelson-Morley experiment does not really mean ILS, but does demonstrate to us a significant phenomenon in physical observation: the speeds that observational media transmit the spacetime information about observed objects possess observational invariance. In Michelson-Morley experiment, light acts as both the observed object and the observational medium, and therefore, its speed is observationally invariant. Perhaps, this paper could provide new knowledge on light speed and new understanding on relativistic phenomena including ILS. Perhaps, in the future, the observational locality of light would be broken through with technological progress so that we could observe a more real objective world.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[247] viXra:1807.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 05:44:43

Fermat’s Theorem: А+В-С is not a Natural Number

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 2 Pages.

The study of digits of numbers related to the Fermat's equation shows Fermat's equality is impossible, for n>2.
Category: Number Theory

[246] viXra:1807.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 05:47:47

Теорема Ферма: А+В-С не является натуральным числом

Authors: Victor Sorokine
Comments: 1 Page. Russian version

Изучение цифр чисел, зависящих от уравнения Теоремы Ферма, показывает, что уравнение невозможно для n>2. The study of digits of numbers related to the Fermat's equation shows Fermat's equality is impossible, for n>2.
Category: Number Theory

[245] viXra:1807.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 06:37:28

Negative Mass as a Cause of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 10 Pages.

Simulations using Visual Basic code are carried out on motions, along a one dimensional line, of a population of 100 positive and negative masses under their own gravitational forces. The negative masses were seen to repel one another along the line and uniformly occupy the line. The positive masses were initially located as two static clumps and they remained as two clumps without greatly expanding the sizes of the clumps. The clumps separated further apart, in time, accelerating away from each other. Some of the negative masses clustered near the two positive mass clumps, in a similar way to how dark matter clusters near galaxies. The negative masses act to constrain a positive mass clump by surrounding it and repelling the masses back towards the centre of the clump. So negative mass operates by repulsion to obtain a similar effect that dark matter is supposed to obtain by attraction. Replenishment of negative masses as they fill the space along the line is unnecessary as the results show continuous acceleration.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[244] viXra:1807.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 06:45:04

Hydrogen Dissociation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

The measurement delivers an order of magnitude improvement over the previous best and is a significant deviation from the most recent theoretical calculations. Resolving this discrepancy could lead to improvements in molecular quantum theory and could result in a better measured value for the proton radius. [34] Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[243] viXra:1807.0262 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-18 07:47:39

The Holomorphic Process: Understanding the Holographic Nature of Reality as a Metamorphic Process

Authors: Theodore J. St. John
Comments: 44 Pages. This is a condensed version of the 4-part series, "The Holomorphic Quantum Theory". I welcome feedback at stjohntheodore@gmail.com

The holographic principle, derived from black hole mathematics in cosmology, is gaining interest as a theory of reality, but it is missing the part that explains how the information gets from the surface of a black hole to every quantum particle in the universe. The purpose of this paper is to present a current research project that is attempting to answer that question. The approach presented here is to treat space and time as two equivalent yet perceptively different aspects of motion. This is an approach that reframes the problem by changing the fundamental interpretation of space and time, which have historically been treated as two fundamentally different entities, somehow mixed to form spacetime. This new approach allows the use of temporal frequency (the inverse of time), and spatial frequency (the inverse of space) to be superimposed on a space-time-motion diagram, which helps to visualize the relationship between the inverse (frequency or quantum) domain and linear (relativistic) domain. The result is a composite model that eliminates the need for a black-hole concept. Instead, it portrays the two aspects of motion as two coherent “rays” of energy projected outward into the linear space-time domain (future) from every point in the universe and immediately reflected (into the past within a Planck second) back to the quantum domain, which is phase-shifted due to the very same motion, forming a perceptible surface at the event reference. This approach does not theorize anything new in terms of unfathomable dimensions, undiscovered particles, extra-particulate forces, or the like. It only requires a different perspective of what we already know, one that does not require knowledge of any specialized mathematical language beyond undergraduate-level physics and engineering.
Category: Quantum Physics

[242] viXra:1807.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 14:03:42

Mars Immigration Proves

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

I claim that Mars immigrated from his original Point at orbital distance =84 mkm to dwell in his point at orbital distance 227.9 mkm.. And this immigration causes the following results: 1- A disturbance for the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship (which is proven clearly from the solar planets order) 2- Pluto Immigration, because Pluto had to move to the Solar group End where he before belonged to the inner planets. This study tries to prove these facts Also I provide in this Study my suggested description for the solar group.
Category: Astrophysics

[241] viXra:1807.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 17:10:54

Refutation of Measures for Resolution and Symmetry in Fuzzy Logic of Zadeh Z-Numbers Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The commonly accepted measures G3 (resolution) and G4 (symmetry) for the Zadeh (Z-numbers) fuzzy logic are not tautologous, and hence refuted.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[240] viXra:1807.0258 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-26 00:11:18

Fifa World Cup and Gini Coefficient

Authors: Anindya Kumar Biswas
Comments: 17 Pages. minor English correction

In this paper we have found empirical evidence of a rising trend of lower Gini coefficient deciding the higher probability of winning of a country in a match in the FIFA World Cup. We have also studied the role of HDI in different stages of the football cup.
Category: Economics and Finance

[239] viXra:1807.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-15 05:04:47

Generalized Ordered Propositions Fusion Based on Belief Entropy

Authors: Yangxue Li, Yong Deng
Comments: 16 Pages.

A set of ordered propositions describe the different intensities of a characteristic of an object, the intensities increase or decrease gradually. A basic support function is a set of truth-values of ordered propositions, it includes the determinate part and indeterminate part. The indeterminate part of a basic support function indicates uncertainty about all ordered propositions. In this paper, we propose generalized ordered propositions by extending the basic support function for power set of ordered propositions. We also present the entropy which is a measure of uncertainty of a basic support function based on belief entropy. The fusion method of generalized ordered proposition also be presented. The generalized ordered propositions will be degenerated as the classical ordered propositions in that when the truth- values of non-single subsets of ordered propositions are zero. Some numerical examples are used to illustrate the efficiency of generalized ordered propositions and their fusion.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[238] viXra:1807.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 06:32:07

Proof of the Legendre's Conjecture

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 2 Pages.

This is the second result of applying Formula of Disjoint Sets of Odd Numbers
Category: Number Theory

[237] viXra:1807.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 07:22:29

Reverse Relative

Authors: Saif Mohammed
Comments: 5 Pages. Thanks for reading

This hypothesis describes the state of particles after the speed of light and in quantum tunnels in space in equations. In terms of mass and time. The hypothesis explained the dark energy
Category: Quantum Physics

[236] viXra:1807.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 07:19:29

Optic Isolator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Researchers at the Technion-Israel Institute of Technology have constructed a first-of-its-kind optic isolator based on resonance of light waves on a rapidly rotating glass sphere. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[235] viXra:1807.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 08:04:57

Partition Into Triangles Revisited

Authors: Thinh D. Nguyen
Comments: 2 Pages.

We show that if one has ever loved reading Prasolov’s books, then one can move on reading our recent article [3] and several words following to deduce that partitioning a graph into triangles is not an easy problem.
Category: Topology

[234] viXra:1807.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 08:33:32

Machine Learning Extrapolation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Understanding how a robot will react under different conditions is essential to guaranteeing its safe operation. [21] Marculescu, along with ECE Ph.D. student Chieh Lo, has developed a machine learning algorithm—called MPLasso—that uses data to infer associations and interactions between microbes in the GI microbiome. [20] A team of researchers from the University of Muenster in Germany has now demonstrated that this combination is extremely well suited to planning chemical syntheses—so-called retrosyntheses—with unprecedented efficiency. [19] Two physicists at ETH Zurich and the Hebrew University of Jerusalem have developed a novel machine-learning algorithm that analyses large data sets describing a physical system and extract from them the essential information needed to understand the underlying physics. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[233] viXra:1807.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 09:29:40

Medical Therapeutic Proteins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[232] viXra:1807.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 10:39:56

Dark Matter Interact with Ordinary Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

An international team of scientists that includes University of California, Riverside, physicist Hai-Bo Yu has imposed conditions on how dark matter may interact with ordinary matter—constraints that can help identify the elusive dark matter particle and detect it on Earth. [31] A Multiverse—where our Universe is only one of many—might not be as inhospitable to life as previously thought, according to new research. [30] Astrophysicists from the University of Surrey and the University of Edinburgh have created a new method to measure the amount of dark matter at the centre of tiny "dwarf" galaxies. [29] A research team of multiple institutes, including the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan and University of Tokyo, released an unprecedentedly wide and sharp dark matter map based on the newly obtained imaging data by Hyper Suprime-Cam on the Subaru Telescope. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[231] viXra:1807.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 13:08:49

Gastric Cancer and Epstein-Barr Virus Infection. a Systematic Review of Ish Based Studies.

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 22 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by

Background: Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) has an important role in the oncogenesis of several malignant diseases. Reports demonstrated even the presence of Epstein-Barr virus in gastric carcinoma (GC). However, the pathogenic role of EBV in CG is uncertain. The present investigation was carried out to investigate a possible causal relationship between GC and EBV. Statistical Analysis: The method of the conditio sine qua non relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether gastric cancer is a necessary condition (a conditio sine qua non) of the presence of EBV in human gastric tissues. In other words, without GC no EBV positivity in human stomach. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between gastric cancer and EBV. Significance was indicated by a p-value (two sided) of less than 0.05. Results: In toto 26 ISH based studies with a sample size of N = 11860 were re-analyzed. All the studies analyzed support the null-hypothesis without GC no EBV positivity in human gastric tissues. In other words, gastric cancer itself is a conditio sine qua on of EBV positivity in human gastric cancer while the cause effect relationship between gastric cancer and EBV was highly significant. Conclusions: Epstein-Barr virus in neither a cause or the cause of human gastric cancer. Keywords: Gastric cancer, Epstein-Barr virus, cause effect relationship, causality
Category: Statistics

[230] viXra:1807.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 13:08:35

Muon Magnetic Anomaly

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

National Laboratory and their collaborators have just released the most precise prediction of how subatomic particles called muons—heavy cousins of electrons— "wobble" off their path in a powerful magnetic field. [14] Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[229] viXra:1807.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 17:22:36

Letter to the Committee “The Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics”

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 13 Pages. Robert Yusupov <©> Letter to Yuri Milner June 4, 2018

Found on Wikipedia site https://breakthroughprize.org. There was an explanation posted: “The Breakthrough Prize in Fundamental Physics was founded in 2012 by Yuri Milner to recognize those individuals who have made profound contributions to human knowledge. It is open to all physicists — theoretical, mathematical, experimental — working on the deepest mysteries of the Universe”. My "Theory of Nature" revealed many secrets of the Universe, the foundations of nature. Within the framework of the "Theory of Nature" several dozen fundamental problems of physics and cosmology have been solved. "Theory of Nature" is presented in several of my articles (http://vixra.org/author/robert_yusupov). I wrote a letter to this committee (office@breakthroughprize.org) addressed to Mr. Milner with the request to consider one such article of mine.
Category: Classical Physics

[228] viXra:1807.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 02:17:01

Frequency Control of Atom Qubits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Australian scientists have achieved a new milestone in their approach to creating a quantum computer chip in silicon, demonstrating the ability to tune the control frequency of a qubit by engineering its atomic configuration. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12]
Category: Quantum Physics

[227] viXra:1807.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 03:06:32

Measuring Fuzziness of Z-numbers and Its Application in Sensor Data Fusion

Authors: Yangxue Li; Yong Deng
Comments: 22 Pages.

Real-world information is often characterized by fuzziness due to the uncertainty. Z- numbers is an ordered pair of fuzzy numbers and is widely used as a flexible and efficient model to deal with the fuzziness information. This paper extends the fuzziness measure to continuous fuzzy number. Then, a new fuzziness measure of discrete Z-numbers and continuous Z-numbers is proposed: simple addition of fuzziness measures of two fuzzy numbers of a Z-number. It can be used to obtain a fused Z-number with the best in- formation quality in sensor fusion applications based on Z-numbers. Some numerical examples and the application in sensor fusion are illustrated to show the efficiency of the proposed fuzziness measure of Z-numbers.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[226] viXra:1807.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 04:07:09

Proteins Unpack DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new method allows researchers to systematically identify specialized proteins that unpack DNA inside the nucleus of a cell, making the usually dense DNA more accessible for gene expression and other functions. [22] Bacterial systems are some of the simplest and most effective platforms for the expression of recombinant proteins. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[225] viXra:1807.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 05:32:22

Liquid Metal Heartbeat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

In a breakthrough discovery, University of Wollongong (UOW) researchers have created a "heartbeat" effect in liquid metal, causing the metal to pulse rhythmically in a manner similar to a beating heart. [26] Collective spin oscillations have been spotted for the first time in an ultracold atomic gas. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[224] viXra:1807.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 06:26:19

Future Economics

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 5 Pages.

The purpose of this project is to promote the advance of the numerical-quantum economy and its progression to reduce sovereign debt, secure prosperity and mitigate the investment risks by applying new scientific methods, theories and models to analyze the current and future development of capital markets and world economies. This paper demonstrates new monetary principles, thus signifying new trends in capital economics with integrated mathematics and physics, enabling to predict the future economics based on new mechanisms described below.
Category: Economics and Finance

[223] viXra:1807.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 07:28:47

Ultrashort Electron Flashes on Nucleus

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[222] viXra:1807.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 08:50:24

Some Finite Series and Their Application

Authors: Saikat sarkar
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is only for maths students
Category: Algebra

[221] viXra:1807.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 09:02:10

Using Textual Summaries to Describe a Set of Products

Authors: Kittipitch Kuptavanich
Comments: 8 Pages.

When customers are faced with the task of making a purchase in an unfamiliar product domain, it might be useful to provide them with an overview of the product set to help them understand what they can expect. In this paper we present and evaluate a method to summarise sets of products in natural language, focusing on the price range, common product features across the set, and product features that impact on price. In our study, participants reported that they found our summaries useful, but we found no evidence that the summaries influenced the selections made by participants.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[220] viXra:1807.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 09:10:20

New Nuclear Phase Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[219] viXra:1807.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 10:10:05

A Theory of Special Relativity Based on Four-Displacement of Particles Instead of Minkowski Four-Position

Authors: Albert Zur Ph.D
Comments: 17 Pages.

All Lorentz four-vectors of Special Relativity (SR) are derived from a basic Lorentz four-position in a Minkowski space. This article explores use of a Lorentz four-displacement, describing translatory motion of particles in a 4-dimensional space irrespective of position, as a basic four-vector. Derivations based on this assumption have striking outcomes and impact: All four-vectors of SR associated with frame invariants are intact and valid. All postulates and predictions of SR are intact and valid, with two exceptions - Length contraction in the boost direction and relativity of simultaneity are both obviated. Notably, these two aspects of SR have never been definitively proven in experiments and can therefore be challenged. We propose an adapted SR theory, based on four-displacement of particles, predicting the following revolutionary and far-reaching consequences: 1. 4D-space is absolute and Euclidean relative to which all particles, mass and massless, are never at rest and perform an equal distance of translatory displacement at a universal displacement rate equivalent to the speed of light. Inertial frames of 3D-space+time remain relative. 2. What appear as Lorentz four-vectors in a Minkowski metric of a relative spacetime are actually Lorentz four-vectors in an absolute Euclidian 4D-space. 3. Special Relativity actually emerges from describing properties of particles in 4 momentum-space, irrespective of position and localization in space. In this form, SR achieves inherent compatibility with Quantum theories, reflecting the particle-wave duality of particle fields. 4. Time is a property of mass particles associated with their displacement in 4D-space, as opposed to a Minkowski-space property. 5. Frames of 3D-space+time represent mixed domain coordinates: 3 spatial coordinates of position-space and a temporal coordinate of momentum-space, unlike the position-space status of 4 spacetime coordinates in conventional SR.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[218] viXra:1807.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 10:12:34

Rare Isotope Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Researchers from Michigan State University and the RIKEN Nishina Center in Japan discovered eight new rare isotopes of the elements phosphorus, sulfur, chlorine, argon, potassium, scandium and, most importantly, calcium. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[217] viXra:1807.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 10:19:42

Comprehensive Presentation and Analysis of All Flat Earth Evidence and Proof

Authors: Grothos Malachias
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this study I will attempt to provide all evidence and proofs related to our true realm the magnificent Flat Earth.
Category: Geophysics

[216] viXra:1807.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-14 06:23:07

Making Sense of Bivector Addition

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 18 Pages.

As a demonstration of the coherence of Geometric Algebra's (GA's) geometric and algebraic concepts of bivectors, we add three geometric bivectors according to the procedure described by Hestenes and Macdonald, then use bivector identities to determine, from the result, two bivectors whose outer product is equal to the initial sum. In this way, we show that the procedure that GA's inventors dened for adding geometric bivectors is precisely that which is needed to give results that coincide with those obtained by calculating outer products of vectors that are expressed in terms of a 3D basis. We explain that that accomplishment is no coincidence: it is a consequence of the attributes that GA's designers assigned (or didn't) to bivectors.
Category: Geometry

[215] viXra:1807.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 19:46:47

The Isotropic Constant Depends Only on the Dimension of the Domain

Authors: Johan Aspegren
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this preprint we will prove that the isotropic constant depends only on the dimension of the domain. Thus we prove a result that implies the sharp isotropic constant conjecture.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[214] viXra:1807.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 20:05:00

Van Leunen's Symmetry Flavor of Fermions and Weak Modular Lattice Logic not Confirmed Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The symmetry flavor of fermions as borrowed by van Leunen are not tautologous. The theory of weak modular lattice logic is not tautologous. That logic is the core of van Leunen's Hilbert book model, rendering it also as not tautologous.
Category: Quantum Physics

[213] viXra:1807.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 23:29:05

If at Least One Question Implies Any Answer, Then Any Question Implies at Least One Answer. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

Is it true that any question implies at least one answer? No. Is it true that at least one question implies any answer? No. Is it true that if at least one question implies any answer, then any question implies at least one answer? Yes.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[212] viXra:1807.0230 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-18 04:47:06

Information and Effect

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge
Comments: 14 Pages.

The introduction and application of the concept of immanence as physical quantity allows a broader understanding of effect. Mathematical formulations present the complementary co-factors information and immanence as the cause and result respectively of the thermodynamic effect. Thus, the concept of immanence helps to clear up the relation between the concepts of information and reality and leads to the derivative of the principle of immanence development which might be applied to problems in astrophysics, e.g. in the discussion on the information paradox (i.e. the question of information loss regarding black holes).
Category: Thermodynamics and Energy

[211] viXra:1807.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-13 02:46:26

Quantum Electro Dynamics: a Fully Fuzzy Fantasy

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 2 Pages.

Quantum Electro Dynamics (QED) is one of the products of physics since Einstein. This article argues why it is what the title shows.
Category: Quantum Physics

[210] viXra:1807.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 05:35:49

News Limit Formulas for Exponential of the Digamma Function, K-Power and Exponential Function

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 6 Pages.

We derive some identities for limit of the exponential for digamma function, k-power and exponential function, involving gamma functions and Pochhammer symbols.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[209] viXra:1807.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 05:38:23

News Limit Formulas for the Exponential of Pi 8, Involving Pochhammer Symbols and Secant Function

Authors: Edigles Guedes
Comments: 4 Pages.

I derive some news identities for limit of the exponential of Pi/8, involving Pochhammer symbols and secant function.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[208] viXra:1807.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 06:20:20

Human Spectral X-ray Scanner

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

The first human has been scanned with a revolutionary 3D colour medical scanner developed by father and son scientists in New Zealand. [22] A new experimental method permits the X-ray analysis of amyloids, a class of large, filamentous biomolecules which are an important hallmark of diseases such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's. [12] Thumb through any old science textbook, and you'll likely find RNA described as little more than a means to an end, a kind of molecular scratch paper used to construct the proteins encoded in DNA. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Physics of Biology

[207] viXra:1807.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 08:14:20

Top Quarks Spin Together

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

By measuring the angles between the top and antitop decay particles, the ATLAS experiment at CERN has not only measured this degree of correlation, but found it to be higher than what is predicted by calculations based on the Standard Model. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[206] viXra:1807.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 08:38:39

A Fast Algorithm for the Demosaicing Problem Concerning the Bayer Pattern

Authors: Antonio Boccuto, Ivan Gerace, Valentina Giorgetti, Matteo Rinaldi
Comments: 18 Pages.

In this paper we deal with the demosaicing problem when the Bayer pattern is used. We propose a fast heuristic algorithm, consisting of three parts. In the first one, we initialize the green channel by means of an edge-directed and weighted average technique. In the second part, the red and blue channels are updated, thanks to an equality constraint on the second derivatives. The third part consists of a constant-hue-based interpolation. We show experimentally how the proposed algorithm gives in mean better reconstructions than more computationally expensive algorithms.
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[205] viXra:1807.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 09:09:19

Artificial Atom Acoustic Resonator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers from Russia and Britain have demonstrated an artificial quantum system in which a quantum bit interacts with an acoustic resonator in the quantum regime. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[204] viXra:1807.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 11:46:03

Quantum Secret Sharing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

What is exciting about quantum secrets is that they make it possible to share a secret among a number of participants. [40] Cyberattacks may become impossible with the creation of the first practical quantum random number generator. [39] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: Quantum Physics

[203] viXra:1807.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 14:26:31

Solar Planet Motion

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Theory of Matter Creation supposes that, the matter is bright fringes and the distance is dark fringes.. i.e. The planet is bright fringes and his orbital distance is dark fringes both of them are created from the same light coherence that explains the planet diameter and his orbital distance relationship… Please review Solar Group Geometrical Structure http://vixra.org/abs/1805.0081 This study tries to answer the question "How does the planet move?" let's summarize the answer in following: -The planet is created and connected with a light beam.. -So this light beam moves firstly -Then the Planet moves following this light beam with different rate of time (the planet original motion) -This motion (action) has a reaction (another motion) which =99% of the original one i.e. -The planet motion contains 3 motions together (the light beam motion- the planet original motion and the planet reacted motion which =99% of the original one) (hypothesis) -Do these 3 motions of the solar planet interpret the planet 3 cycles (Planet rotation cycle – Planet day – Planet orbital period)? This paper discusses this idea trying to prove it…
Category: Astrophysics

[202] viXra:1807.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 19:55:55

Two Different Types of Magnetic Field

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 5 Pages.

Such luminaries as Richard P. Feynman and Albert Einstein have noted an asymmetry in application of Maxwell's Equations. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) posits the components of the universe are hods and plenum. An experiment to test Ampere's law and the STOE was performed. The data shows the STOE model is very close to the actual measurements and rejects the classical Biot-Savart Law. The results of the experiments suggest a distinction between magnetic fields caused by hods and magnetic fields caused by plenum resolves the asymmetry.
Category: Classical Physics

[201] viXra:1807.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 20:37:00

Stages of Iron Absorption and Deposition in a Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Stars deposit iron in three basic levels. First they form the core in a very pure form alloyed with nickel. Secondly once that inner core is formed, material then deposits that is chemically combined with the iron forming molecules. Third, anymore deposited iron lands on the surface as meteorites. This shows how different the star was throughout its metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[200] viXra:1807.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 06:28:08

Negative Energy Enthalpic em Gravity “WARP” Drive

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[199] viXra:1807.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 01:47:56

Biofield Energy Treated Vitamin D3: Direct Effect on Bone Health Using Human Osteoblast-Like Cells

Authors: Sheila Maureen Benson, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 8 Pages.

Vitamin D and calcium are one of the important constituents of good bone health. Bone disorders might be to the hormonal factors and lack of proper nutrition that leads to gradual bone loss. The current study aimed to explore the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on various bone health parameters. Vitamin D3 and DMEM medium as test items (TI), were divided into two parts. Each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Sheila Maureen Benson and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Bone health biomarkers such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization were measured. MTT data showed that cell viability was more than 70% and all the test items were found to be safe at the tested concentrations. ALP level was significantly increased by 135.9% and 134.5% at 1 and 50 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, while 84.4%, 93.8%, and 50.0% at 1, 50, and 100 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed increased ALP by 50.2% and 104.7% at 10 and 50 µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Collagen content was significantly increased by 463.6%, 387.9%, and 239.4% in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI group, respectively at 0.1 µg/mL as compared with the untreated group. Moreover, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased by 131.7% and 81.7% at 1 and 10µg/mL, respectively in UT-DMEM+BT-TI group, while 83.1% and 53.6% at 10 and 50µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM+UT-TI group as compared with the untreated group. In addition, BT-DMEM+BT-TI group showed a significant increased bone mineralization by 152.3% and 108.3% at 50 and 100µg/mL, respectively as compared with the untreated group. Overall, the experimental data suggested that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role in the promotion and maintenance of strong and healthy bones, which improve quality of life. Biofield Energy Treatment might also regulates the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in wide range of bone disorders along with wide range of adverse health conditions, comprising cancer and certain autoimmune diseases.
Category: Biochemistry

[198] viXra:1807.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 01:48:57

Influenced of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on Vitamin D3 for the Assessment of Bone Health Parameters in MG-63 cells

Authors: Dianne Heather Vincent, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The objective of this experiment was to find out the potential of Consciousness Energy Healing based vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health parameters. The test items (viz. vitamin D3 and DMEM), were divided into two parts. One part of each test item was received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Dianne Heather Vincent and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Alkaline phosphatase (ALP), collagen, and bone mineralization activities were performed to assess bone activity in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The test samples were found as safe in the tested concentrations by MTT assay. ALP was significantly increased by 82.87%, 30.90%, and 58.53% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 50 µg/mL than the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Other parameter like collagen was significantly increased by 11.41% and 34.65% in the in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test item group at 1 and 10 µg/mL, respectively as compared to the untreated group. Besides, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 148.81% and 251.39% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Further, percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 112.36%, 124.88%, and 124.69% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Moreover, at 100 µg/mL the percent of bone mineralization was remarkably increased by 85.97%, 102.63%, and 45.61% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively with respect to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was significantly improved the bone health parameters and it could be a powerful alternative nutraceutical supplement to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and fight against various bone related problems including rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease, bone and joint pain, low bone density, bone fractures, osteoma, chondrodystrophia fetalis, stress management and prevention, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[197] viXra:1807.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 01:49:43

Impact of Biofield Energy Healing Treated Vitamin D3 on Human Osteoblast Cell Line (MG-63) for Bone Health

Authors: William Dean Plikerd, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

Bone disorders are largely associated with increased morbidity, mortality, and substantial economic and health costs. Vitamin D play an important role for calcium absorption and bone mineralization, which can improve the patients' quality of life. The current study aimed to evaluate the potential of The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing on vitamin D3 and DMEM as test item (TI) on bone cell differentiation using human osteoblast cell line (MG-63, Osteosarcoma). Bone health biomarkers such as alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP) activity, collagen levels and bone mineralization were evaluated. The test items were treated with The Trivedi Effect® by William Dean Plikerd and divided as Biofield Energy Treated (BT) and untreated (UT) test items. Cell viability using MTT data showed that the test items were found to be safe. ALP level was significantly increased by 346.4% (at 50 µg/mL), 375.3% (at 100 µg/mL), and 343.2% (at 100 µg/mL) in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively as compared to the untreated group. Collagen content was significantly increased by 336.2% and 237.2% in the UT-DMEM+BT-TI at 10 and 50 µg/mL, respectively while 399.3% (10 µg/mL) and 200% (0.1 µg/mL) increased collagen in the BT-DMEM+UT-TI and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups, respectively. Moreover, the percent of bone mineralization was significantly increased in UT-DMEM+BT-TI, BT-DMEM+UT-TI, and BT-DMEM+BT-TI groups by 416.9% (10 µg/mL), 460.7% (0.1 µg/mL), and 441.7% (10 µg/mL) respectively as compared with the untreated test item and DMEM group. Thus, Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM would play an important role to control the osteoblast function, improves bone mineralization, and calcium absorption in many bone disorders. Moreover, the bone health parameters such as collagen, calcium and ALP were significantly improved and can be used as supplement to improve bone health. Based on the outstanding results, it is assumed that the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 could be a powerful alternative dietary sources and supplements to fight against various bone related diseases including low bone density and osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease of bone, rickets, osteomalacia, bone and/or joint pain, increased frequency of fractures, deformed bones, osteoma, chondrodystrophia fetalis, hormonal imbalance, stress, aging, bone loss and fractures.
Category: Biochemistry

[196] viXra:1807.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 01:50:29

Role of Vitamin D3 on Alkaline Phosphatase, Collagen, and Bone Mineralization: Impact of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Bonnie Patrice Hegarty-Diaz, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Sambhu Charan Mondal, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 9 Pages.

The objective of this study was to assess the potential of Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 and DMEM medium on bone health. The test items, were divided into two parts. One part of each sample received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Bonnie Patrice Hegarty-Diaz and those samples were labeled as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) samples, while the other parts of each sample were denoted as the untreated test items (UT). Various parameters were performed to evaluate bone strength and integrity such as ALP, collagen, and bone mineralization in human bone osteosarcoma cells (MG-63). The test samples were found as safe in the tested concentrations by MTT assay. ALP was significantly increased by 50.77% and 50.27% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Further, the ALP level was significantly elevated by 137.29% and 88.08% and 107.93% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Further, the collagen level was significantly increased by 66.15%, 88.18%, and 55.87% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item, respectively at 0.1 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Collagen was significantly increased by 39.44%, 39.44%, and 49.66% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 50 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Additionally, the percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 13.51% and 47.21% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item and BT-DMEM + UT-Test item groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The percent of bone mineralization was distinctly increased by 11.51%, 109.53%, and 83.73% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test item, BT-DMEM + UT-Test item, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test item groups, respectively at 100 µg/mL, compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test item group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated vitamin D3 was significantly improved the bone health parameters and it could be a powerful alternative nutraceutical supplement to combat vitamin D3 deficiency and fight against various bone related problems including rickets, osteomalacia, osteoporosis, osteogenesis imperfecta, Paget’s disease of bone, bone and joint pain, low bone density, bone fractures, deformed bones, osteoma, chondrodystrophia fetalis, stress management and prevention, autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[195] viXra:1807.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 05:15:40

Simpler Interferometer for Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

Now a University of Rochester research team has devised a much simpler way to measure beams of light— even powerful, superfast pulsed laser beams that require very complicated devices to characterize their properties. [33] The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Quantum Physics

[194] viXra:1807.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 13:20:32

Superconducting Spintronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

The emerging field of spintronics leverages electron spin and magnetization. [17] The first known superconductor in which spin-3/2 quasiparticles form Cooper pairs has been created by physicists in the US and New Zealand. [16] Now a team of researchers from the University of Maryland (UMD) Department of Physics together with collaborators has seen exotic superconductivity that relies on highly unusual electron interactions. [15] A group of researchers from institutions in Korea and the United States has determined how to employ a type of electron microscopy to cause regions within an iron-based superconductor to flip between superconducting and non-superconducting states. [14] In new research, scientists at the University of Minnesota used a first-of-its-kind device to demonstrate a way to control the direction of the photocurrent without deploying an electric voltage. [13] Brown University researchers have demonstrated for the first time a method of substantially changing the spatial coherence of light. [12] Researchers at the University of Central Florida have generated what is being deemed the fastest light pulse ever developed. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[193] viXra:1807.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 13:30:35

Mercury Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

Solar Data Analysis tells us that…… Mercury has 2 velocities 1st Velocity = 47.4 km/sec which is registered in NASA Planetary Fact Sheet 2nd Velocity= 47.8 km/sec which is necessary velocity to cover Mercury Orbital Circumference 57.9 mkm x 2π= 364 mkm in Mercury Orbital Period 88 days The difference between both velocities = 1% Why are there 2 velocities for the same Planet? And how that can be possible? This question is similar to the old question concerning Newton 3rd Law "why for Each Action there's reaction equal in value and opposite in direction? In brief… why the forces are created in double?
Category: Astrophysics

[192] viXra:1807.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 22:39:52

Sunset of Physics \\\\\\ Закат физики

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 19 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Sunset of Physics July 11, 2018

In present article, in the light of the greatest, ingenious, truly revolutionary achievements and discoveries in physics and cosmology made by the author of the Theory of Nature the question of future existence and the future fate of physics as a science is put in its entirety. ++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье в свете величайших, гениальных, поистине революционных достижений и открытий в физике и космологии, сделанных автором «Теории Природы», ставится во всей свой полноте вопрос о дальнейшем существовании и о дальнейшей судьбе физики, как науки.
Category: Classical Physics

[191] viXra:1807.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 23:29:39

Anti-Neutron Stars Within the Milky Way

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a very brief article about them
Category: Astrophysics

[190] viXra:1807.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 04:24:09

Brain-Inspired Computer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A computer built to mimic the brain's neural networks produces similar results to that of the best brain-simulation supercomputer software currently used for neural-signaling research, finds a new study published in the open-access journal Frontiers in Neuroscience. [21] The possibility of cognitive nuclear-spin processing came to Fisher in part through studies performed in the 1980s that reported a remarkable lithium isotope dependence on the behavior of mother rats. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience Society (CNS), cognitive neuroscientists increasingly are using those emerging artificial networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14] Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve as they encounter more data, making them a versatile technology for understanding large sets of photos such as those accessible from Google Images. Elizabeth Holm, professor of materials science and engineering at Carnegie Mellon University, is leveraging this technology to better understand the enormous number of research images accumulated in the field of materials science. [13]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[189] viXra:1807.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 04:55:19

Czarnodziurowy Wszechświat a Dwu-Potencjalność Pola Grawitacyjnego ### Black Hole Universe and Two-Potentiality of Gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 10 Pages. In Polish.

Przyjęcie hipotezy o dwu-potencjalności stacjonarnego pola grawitacyjnego umożliwiło znalezienie w ramach Ogólnej Teorii Względności rozwiązań równań pola i równań ruchu, które w granicznym przypadku prowadzą do zgodności z newtonowską teorią grawitacji zarówno wewnątrz jak i na zewnątrz źródłowej masy. ### The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[188] viXra:1807.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 05:00:44

Black Hole Universe and Two-potentiality of Gravity

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The acceptance of the hypothesis about two-potentiality of the stationary gravitational field made it possible to find solutions of field equations and equations of motion within the General Relativity, which in extreme case lead to compliance with the Newtonian theory of gravity both inside and outside of the mass source.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[187] viXra:1807.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 05:18:53

Quantum Dot for Parkinson Treatment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Nanotechnology may provide an effective treatment for Parkinson's disease, a team of researchers suggests. [27] Recent research from Kumamoto University in Japan has revealed that polyoxometalates (POMs), typically used for catalysis, electrochemistry, and photochemistry, may also be used in a technique for analyzing quantum dot (QD) photoluminescence (PL) emission mechanisms. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: Physics of Biology

[186] viXra:1807.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 08:08:26

Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Chemical Study on Sites of Action of Sanguinarine Using Vibrational Spectroscopy Based on Molecular Mechanics and Quantum Chemical Calculations

Authors: Ricardo Gobato, Alireza Heidari
Comments: 23 Pages. Malaysian Journal of Chemistry, 2018, Vol. 20(1), 1 – 23. Key words: Density functional theory; Hartree-Fock, Møller-Plesset; molecular geometry; quantum chemistry, PM3; sanguinarine. Received: March 2018; Accepted: April 2018.

Sanguinarine is an alkaloid studied in the treatment of cancer cell proliferation. Found in several plants with Argemone mexicana Linn, the plant is used in traditional medicine from several countries with Mexico and India in the natural treatment of wounds, conjunctivitis and as hallucinogen. Due to these studies of this alkaloid, a study was made on a molecular structure of the sanguinarine, through quantum chemistry, via computational methods such as molecular mechanics, PM3, Hartree-Fock, density functional theory and Møller-Plesset. The main site of molecular interaction was determined to be the hydrogen atoms. This has a strong antioxidant potential in its structure. It probably interacts with free radicals reducing their carcinogenic effect on cells. A study of the infrared spectrum complemented the paper.
Category: Condensed Matter

[185] viXra:1807.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 08:18:25

W and Z Bosons Emitted by Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

Two among the rarest processes probed so far at the Large Hadron Collider, the scattering between W and Z bosons emitted by quarks in proton-proton collisions, have been established by the ATLAS experiment at CERN. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[184] viXra:1807.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 09:00:11

Aurora Early Science Program

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The Aurora ESP, which commenced with 10 simulation-based projects in 2017, is designed to prepare key applications, libraries, and infrastructure for the architecture and scale of the exascale supercomputer. [25] A new artificial intelligence (AI) program developed by Stanford physicists accomplished the same feat in just a few hours. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[183] viXra:1807.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 09:25:26

18-Qubit Entanglement Record

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[182] viXra:1807.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 09:58:18

Packing Triangles is Harder Than Previously Thought

Authors: Thinh D. Nguyen
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this work, we will take one problem, namely Packing Triangles as an example of combinatorial optimization problems. We show that if one has ever loved reading Prasolov’s books, then one should not try to find efficient algorithm for various restricted cases of this problem.
Category: General Mathematics

[181] viXra:1807.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 10:08:44

Revolutionary Neutrino Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 72 Pages.

A revolutionary new kind of neutrino detector, designed in part by scientists from the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory, sits at the heart of the MicroBooNE experiment at DOE's Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab). [40] Researchers in Germany have started collecting data with a 60 million euro ($71 million) machine designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [39] By analyzing data collected over eight years ago, scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Argonne National Laboratory and Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory have made a potentially groundbreaking discovery. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[180] viXra:1807.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 10:57:35

On the Neutrino’s Model Based on Virtual Space-time and the New Neutrino Detecting Method

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 26 Pages. 5 figures. Include Chinese version

In this paper, I build a new neutrino model based on the hypothesis of existing of virtual space-time. I assume that a neutrino is a signal of special electromagnetic wave that across over the real and virtual space-time. I also analyze the interactions between neutrino and photon based on this new model. A new particles decay diagram was given for describing the interactions among neutrinos and parts of particles. I also assume a new neutrinos detecting method in this paper.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[179] viXra:1807.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 11:05:25

Analyzing the “Twin-Paradox”

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: 9 Pages.

Paul Langevin’s so-called “Twin Paradox,” based upon Albert Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity, seems to be by far the most argued topic in physics. Many hundreds of articles have been written about the “Twin Paradox,” but all they seem to accomplish is to make the subject even more confusing. This is an attempt to simplify the subject by identifying the causes of the confusion. And it proposes a relatively simple experiment to clarify how time dilation works.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[178] viXra:1807.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-31 11:04:18

Representation of Gravity Field Equation and Solutions, Hawking Radiation in Data General Relativity Theory

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 13 Pages.

In the general relativity theory, we find the representation of the gravity field equation and solutions.We treat the representation of Schwarzschild solution, Reissner-Nordstrom solution, Kerr-Newman solution, Robertson-Walker solution. Specially Robertson-Walker solution is an uniqueness.We found new General relativity(we can call it Data General Relativity Theory;DGRT).We treat the data of Hawking radiation by Data General relativity theory.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[177] viXra:1807.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 14:18:52

Solar Planet Diameter Creation Rule

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 34 Pages.

Abstract D =R *1092 Where D= Planet Orbital Distance R= Planet Diameter This equation can be concluded easily from Mercury Data Where Mercury Orbital distance 57.9 million km = Mercury Diameter 4879 km * 1092 The previous Equation works perfectly with Mercury, Earth and Saturn only But doesn’t work with the rest planets data… Why? Because Mars immigrated from his original point at 84 mkm to the sun and dwell in his current point in 227.9 mkm to the sun I claim Mars immigration causes the planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance This paper tries to prove that, Mars immigration causes the following results: 1-The planet diameter and orbital distance relationship disturbance 2-Metonic Cycle 3-A Cycle happened once each 2737 years
Category: Astrophysics

[176] viXra:1807.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 14:40:19

Dahl Winters: Pascals, Proton Electron Ratio & Bjerknes Force 2.0

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dahl Winters: Pascals, proton electron ratio & Bjerknes force 2.0
Category: Quantum Physics

[175] viXra:1807.0188 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-16 02:43:58

EUV Transmission Lens Design and Manufacturing Method

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 9 Pages. v2: Revised discussion of manufacturing method.

This paper outlines a design for an EUV transmission lens comprising blazed, phase-Fresnel structures approximated by a stepped profile. The structures can be formed on both sides of a thin silicon substrate, providing many more phase levels than would be possible with one-sided lenses. An e-beam fabrication technique with nanometer-scale patterning accuracy is outlined.
Category: Classical Physics

[174] viXra:1807.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 15:39:23

Dark Energy and its Problem

Authors: Saif Mohamed
Comments: 3 Pages. In Arabic

Dark energy is energy that fills the universe with a lot and is the reason for the expansion The Universe Accelerates Scientists believe that they have the energy or negative pressure they have Anti-gravity but scientists did not know its interpretation or what it is or who I came and my hypothesis solved this problem and explained it
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[173] viXra:1807.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 22:53:57

Meth8/VŁ4 Self-Proves in One Variable for Validity, Consistency, Completeness, and Soundness Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

We test Meth8/VŁ4 using itself in one variable for the four qualities of a perfect logic system as validity, consistency, completeness, and soundness. The equations are tautologous. This means Meth8/VŁ4 proves itself, and in one variable. Remark: This also serves as the contra-example to the incompleteness theorem of Gödel which states a logic system cannot prove itself (and certainly not in one variable).
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[172] viXra:1807.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 03:11:12

Electromagnetism and the Differential Density Field

Authors: Neal Tensor
Comments: 23 Pages.

In this document I explore a new fundamental theory of nature. In this document I describe nature in terms of the density field. The density field, in it's simplest form is a field for which every point has a density.But in my document I describe it as a differentiable field, which means that a density field with point mass is not a possibility. The quest now for me is to derive a set of equations for explaining how motion works in this field, doing so derives many of the laws of physics amongst other interesting results, such as density waves and the aether. My quest continues in a brief explanation of how electromagnetic fields interact with the density field.
Category: Classical Physics

[171] viXra:1807.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 05:34:43

AI Predict Drug Combinations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

And if that isn't surprising enough, try this one: in many cases, doctors have no idea what side effects might arise from adding another drug to a patient's personal pharmacy. [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15] Who is the better experimentalist, a human or a robot? When it comes to exploring synthetic and crystallization conditions for inorganic gigantic molecules, actively learning machines are clearly ahead, as demonstrated by British Scientists in an experiment with polyoxometalates published in the journal Angewandte Chemie. [14]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[170] viXra:1807.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 06:58:50

Proof of the Goldbach's Conjecture

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 4 Pages.

This is the first result of applying Formula of Disjoint Sets of Odd Numbers
Category: Number Theory

[169] viXra:1807.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-05 05:09:11

Time is not Relative

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 2 Pages.

A clock mechanism doesn't produce time, it produces seconds and a second doesn't say anything about what time is. We say that a clock tells us what time it is, but the seconds only represent a time period (an amount of time). So when you measure a difference in the rate of clocks then you cannot conclude that time itself dilates, you can only conclude that the seconds dilate. You can only conclude that the clock mechanism is able to produce a second more quickly or more slowly, and that results in second dilation. So you cannot conclude that gravity affects time and that means that spacetime doesn't exist, you can only conclude that gravity (or something else) affects the clock mechanism.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[168] viXra:1807.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 07:37:20

Higgs Boson Decaying to Bottom Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

ATLAS experiment reported a preliminary result establishing the observation of the Higgs boson decaying into pairs of b quarks, furthermore at a rate consistent with the Standard Model prediction. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[167] viXra:1807.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 08:01:59

Controlling Quantum Heat Engines

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers from Aalto University are designing nano-sized quantum heat engines to explore whether they may be able to outperform classical heat engines in terms of power and efficiency. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[166] viXra:1807.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 08:06:45

Disconnectedness Experiments Negating the Validity of the Standard Model

Authors: Bowen Liu
Comments: 12 Pages.

In the history of physics it has no precedent the disconnectedness experiment that verifies physical object being outside of our geometry. The purpose of this paper is to provide crucial experiments to show that absolute connectedness assumption the Standard Model relied on is invalid, and to negate the validity of the Standard Model. The disconnectedness experiment negates the nonempty intersection between current geometry and micro-geometry in the depth direction and transitional region between them, and shows that micro-geometry disconnects to current geometry in the depth direction, micro-geometry is the other geometry outside current geometry, and the relationship between the two geometries can only be non-one-one mapping instead of evolution. The logical procedure of negating the validity of SM is as follows. (1) To give the definition of spatial disconnectedness in the depth direction and to determine the elements of the nonempty intersection. (2) To reduce every quantum experiment to reprocess disconnectedness experiment to prove that there is no non-empty intersection between the two geometries, i.e., they are not connected. (3) The spatial connectedness, among all geometrical concepts, is one of the most primitive topological concepts; once the spatial connectedness is invalid, all physical theories based on the connectedness are invalid, and the geometric foundation of SM is invalid. We complete the proof of the invalidity of the Standard Model. Our proof shows that all kinds of micro-forms (including Higgs particles) are secondary existing form of matter in current geometry, but not primitive form. The Standard Model, as a theory of extrinsic particles, is not the ultimate model of the universe physicists have coveted, but is idealist theory based on distorted idealization.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[165] viXra:1807.0177 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 08:57:15

Unique Trap for Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

The micro-resonator is a two-mirror trap for the light, with the mirrors facing each other within several hundred nanometers. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Quantum Physics

[164] viXra:1807.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 09:43:58

Single-Atom Data Storage

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[163] viXra:1807.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-10 11:07:56

Dark Matter Effect on Early Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

New research lends further support to the idea that a detection of surprisingly strong absorption by primordial hydrogen gas, reported earlier this year, could be evidence of dark matter. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the " dark photon " and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] " We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit. " [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[162] viXra:1807.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 08:03:53

Second Skyrmion Phase

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Germany has found a second skyrmion phase in a sample of Cu2OSeO3. [32] Unique physical properties of these "magic knots" might help to satisfy demand for IT power and storage using a fraction of the energy. [31] A skyrmion is the magnetic version of a tornado which is obtained by replacing the air parcels that make up the tornado by magnetic spins, and by scaling the system down to the nanometre scale. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24]
Category: Condensed Matter

[161] viXra:1807.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 09:27:47

AI Editing Music in Videos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

That's the outcome of a new AI project out of MIT's Computer Science and Artificial Intelligence Laboratory (CSAIL): a deep-learning system that can look at a video of a musical performance, and isolate the sounds of specific instruments and make them louder or softer. [25] While it is undeniable that AI has opened up a wealth of promising opportunities, it has also led to the emergence of a mindset that can be best described as "AI solutionism". [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[160] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-26 22:20:47

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[159] viXra:1807.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 11:53:54

PDS 70 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. It is suggested to abandon the nebular hypothesis and all disk theories.

PDS 70 and its companion PDS 70b are claimed to be a new born star at ~10 million years old, with a companion new born planet. This is replaced with stellar metamorphosis and a diagram shows why. PDS 70 is a normal orange dwarf star that is slightly less massive than the Sun at about 130 million years old, and PDS 70b is a low mass brown dwarf about 330-350 million years old.
Category: Astrophysics

[158] viXra:1807.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 11:56:45

Facial Recognition Grows

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

The unique features of your face can allow you to unlock your new iPhone, access your bank account or even "smile to pay" for some goods and services. [26] If a picture paints a thousand words, facial recognition paints two: It's biased. [25] While it is undeniable that AI has opened up a wealth of promising opportunities, it has also led to the emergence of a mindset that can be best described as "AI solutionism". [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[157] viXra:1807.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 12:07:50

Dahl Winters Pascals, Proton Electron Ratio & Bjerknes Force

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 2 Pages.

Pascals, proton electron ratio & Parameters & Bjerknes force & Quantum Physics
Category: Quantum Physics

[156] viXra:1807.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-20 05:42:17

64 Shades of Space

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 5 Pages. The document is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Depending on its dimension, space that can be represented by number systems exists in many shades. The quaternionic number system provides 64 shades of space. Platforms that apply a private shape of space, float over a background platform. Modular systems of floating and combining platforms populate a universe that looks like the reality in which we live. The model offers an observer’s view and a creator’s view.
Category: Quantum Physics

[155] viXra:1807.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-12 22:38:12

Cl(16) Physics: E8 Lagrangian, Fr3(o) String Theory, and Cl(1,25) Aqft

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 154 Pages.

Our Universe originated with Finkelstein Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras from the Void ( First Grothendieck Universe ) to Cl(16) ( Second Grothendieck Universe) whose BiVectors and two quarter-Spinors ( ++ and -- ) give E8 Physics and whose TriVectors give Fr3(O) String Theory leading to a Cl(1,25) Algebraic Quantum Field Theory ( AQFT ) that generalizes Hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor Fock Space from 2-Periodic Complex Clifford Algebra to 8-Periodic Real Clifford Algebra to get the Third Grothendieck Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[154] viXra:1807.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 17:00:18

Pregeologic Time or Pregeology, a Bridge for Geology and Astronomy

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 illustrative graph

Earth predates its own prescribed geological record. The case is made that Earth was too hot and energetic in its past to have even formed crystalline structure such as rocks/minerals, much less allowed them to be in their molten state. This is not a fact that disregards the geological history, it just shows that the geological record can only draw conclusions from rocks and minerals, long after the majority of the primary processes that formed them have ceased. As well, it shows that the assumption of Earth having always been solid/liquid material is flawed, due to overwhelming observational evidence of stars in all stages of evolution. A simple graph is provided showing the issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[153] viXra:1807.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:24:51

Mathematical Nature of Reality, Plus Gravitation-Electromagnetism Unification, Derived from Revised Gravitational Tidal Forces and Mass-from-Gravity Concept

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 33 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6678350.v2

This article had its beginning with Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" Together with General Relativity's statement that gravity is not a pull but is a push caused by the curvature of space-time, a hypothesis for Earth's ocean tides was developed that does not solely depend on the Sun and Moon as Kepler and Newton believed. It also borrows from Galileo. The breakup of planets and asteroids by white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes is popularly ascribed by today's science to tidal forces (gravitation emanating from the stellar body and having a greater effect on the near side of a planet/asteroid than the farthest side). Remembering Einstein's 1919 paper, it was apparent that my revised idea of tidal forces improves on current accounts because it views matter and mass as unified with space-time whose curvature is gravitation. Unification is a necessity for modern science's developing view of one united and entangled universe – expressed in the Unified Field Theory, the Theory of Everything, String theory and Loop Quantum Gravity. The writing of this article was also assisted by visualizing the gravitational fields forming space-time being themselves formed by a multitude of weak and presently undetectable gravitational waves. The final part of this article concludes that the section BITS AND TOPOLOGY will lead to the conclusions in ETERNAL LIFE, WORLD PEACE AND PHYSICS' UNIFICATION. The final part also compares cosmology to biological enzymes and biology's substrate of reacting "chemicals" - using virtual particles, hidden variables, gravitation, electromagnetism, electronics’ binary digits, plus topology’s Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle. The product is mass - enzyme, substrate and product are all considered mathematical in nature. Also, gravitation and electromagnetism are united using logic and topology – showing there’s no need in this article for things like mathematical formalism, field equations or tensor calculus. Keywords - Gravitational Tidal Forces, Mass-from-Gravity, Breakup of Celestial Bodies, Earth's Ocean Tides, Universe's Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, Eternal Life, World Peace, Matter, Mass, Mathematical Reality, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Unification, Large-scale Extra Dimensions, Evolution, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Special Relativity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[152] viXra:1807.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:43:49

Shapiro Delay, A Frequency Dependent Transit Time Effect, Not A Space Time Effect

Authors: Ghanzanshahi, Shahin, Dowdye, Edward H.
Comments: 9 Pages. The Shapiro Delay has been very much misinterpreted as having something to do with Space Times or a Relativistic Effect. In fact, it is very much frequency dependent, which totally separates its effect from that of Relativity.

Irvin L. Shapiro first noticed in 1964 that the transit time required for a microwave signal to propagate through space, arrive at a satellite orbiting Venus or Mercury and then return back to the earth by the sun to be received at the observatory, had a measurable time delay that varied as a function of the impact parameter of the microwave beam relative to the sun. The delays were observed to be in the order of 100's of microseconds when the impact parameter of the microwave beam was at a minimum. These measurements permitted a precise determination of the electron density profile of the solar wind as a function of the radial distance r from the sun. The electron density profile of the solar wind is found to behave very nearly as an inverse square of the radial distance r from the sun. The solar wind is found to engulf the outmost planets of the solar system. The bulk of all the measurements were done using microwave frequencies from 500 MHz to 8.8MHz. Significant findings of this research reveal that, for all microwave signals propagating in the solar wind atmosphere of the solar system, the waves are subjected to a frequency dependent plasma index of refraction n that exceeds unity, i.e., n > 1.0. For optical, IR and UV wavelengths, the plasma index of refraction n is 1.0000000000 for these wavelengths which are virtually unaffected by the solar wind electron density. As a consequence of these findings, the Shapiro delay cannot be related to a space-time effect of General Relativity which is independent of frequency.
Category: Astrophysics

[151] viXra:1807.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 03:12:38

Delusion or Wickedness \\\\\ Заблуждение или лукавство?

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 14 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Delusion or Wickedness July 9, 2018

The other day on the physical forum on the Internet (Runet) on the site sciteclirary.ru in the section "Alternative Physics" I started the topic "Master class of Yusupov Robert" [1] (http://www.sciteclibrary.ru/cgi-bin/yabb2/YaBB.pl?num=1531012809), dedicated to solving the problem of searching for natural units of nature: length, mass and time. I posed the questions: "Do natural units of length, mass, and time exist in nature? If they exist, then how they are presented in NATURE? What are their real values in SI units?” +++++++++++++++++++++ Намедни на физическом форуме в сети рунет на сайте sciteclirary в разделе «Альтернативная физика» завёл я тему «Мастер-класс Юсупова Роберта» [1], посвящённую решению проблемы поиска натуральных единиц природы: длины, массы и времени. Я ставил вопрос: «Существуют ли в природе натуральные единицы длины, массы, времени. Если они существуют, тогда, каким образом они представлены в ПРИРОДЕ? Каковы их реальные значения в единицах СИ?»
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[150] viXra:1807.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 04:16:53

Matter Creation from Dynamical Dark Energy

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 7 pages

The ‘quantum/classical connection’, a set of equations found in an analysis of dynamical vacuum energy, maps: the age of the universe at the onset of inflation onto the GUT scale, the age at nucleosynthesis onto the mass scale of light nuclei, the age at the onset of recombination onto the mass of the electron and the age at the onset of the accelerating expansion of the universe onto a mass scale of 7 keV—the mass of a dark matter candidate. The analysis suggests that as the universe expands and the vacuum (dark) energy density reduces, a particle emerges from the vacuum when the Hubble radius surpasses the length scale that maps onto the mass of the particle. When the Hubble radius maps onto, in turn, the weak, QCD, electromagnetic and 7 keV scales, the value of the dark energy density takes specific values that have a binary basis.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[149] viXra:1807.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 06:06:18

Plasma Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 77 Pages.

Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[148] viXra:1807.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 06:47:49

Shortest Refutation of Gödel's Completeness Theorem Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

"By Gödel's completeness result, the formula (∀x.R(x,x))→(∀x∃y.R(x,y)) holds in all structures, and hence must have a natural deduction proof." We prove the formula is not tautologous, meaning it does not hold in all structures and serves as a contra-example. Hence Gödel's completeness theorem is refuted.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[147] viXra:1807.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 06:11:42

Atomic Movie of Melting Gold

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 61 Pages.

Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Condensed Matter

[146] viXra:1807.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 06:22:12

Molecular Movie of Chemical Reaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

A team of physicists from the University of Nebraska-Lincoln, Stanford University and Europe has captured the clearest glimpse yet of a photochemical reaction—the type of light-fueled molecular transformations responsible for photosynthesis, vision and the ozone layer. [39] Researchers at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have recorded the most detailed atomic movie of gold melting after being blasted by laser light. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29]
Category: Condensed Matter

[145] viXra:1807.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 06:59:39

Ultracold Atoms like Ferrofluid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Collective spin oscillations have been spotted for the first time in an ultracold atomic gas. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[144] viXra:1807.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 08:06:41

Stochastic Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 55 Pages.

Magnetic skyrmions are tiny defects in a magnetic field where the magnetic field is reversed. [33] Transistors are tiny switches that form the bedrock of modern computing; billions of them route electrical signals around inside a smartphone, for instance. Quantum computers will need analogous hardware to manipulate quantum information. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[143] viXra:1807.0152 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-10 05:00:42

The Zero Dimension

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 1 Page.

Everything in the universe has one, two or three dimensions, and the next dimension cannot exist in the previous dimension. So it's obvious that the fourth dimension (4-dimensional spacetime) or higher dimensions (string theory) cannot exist in our 3-dimensional universe, but there is another dimension that we cannot see. Logic dictates that there must be one more dimension, why?, because each dimension is based on the previous dimension(s).
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[142] viXra:1807.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 08:44:14

Illogic: a Feasible Method of Understanding Theory of Everything

Authors: Yang Chen
Comments: 24 Pages.

Theory of everything (TOE) is known as the ultimate theory of physics. However, there is no efficient method which can help understand the TOE. In this work, by introducing the concept of illogic, the TOE can be achieved beyond the scope of logic with an implied form. Firstly, concepts of step, chain and network are introduced. Logic, semi-logic and illogic are discussed with these concepts. The method of understanding illogic is listed as a process gradually changing from logic, semi-logic to illogic by building and updating the network. Secondly, the relation of illogic and the TOE is discussed in both an easy-understanding form and an improved version. Thus a feasible method to the TOE is framed up by combining the illogic and its relation to the TOE. After the general method is shown, examples of steps, chains and a network are discussed to offer detail instructions on how to build a network. As the network aims to help understand illogic, the intrinsic confliction between logical words which are used to write this work and the purpose of understanding illogic is inevitable. At last, logical conflictions in this paper are discussed to illustrate this effect and offer further information to help the reader understand this paper. Descriptions in different levels are included to reveal the way of organizing this paper as well as to further illustrate the basic requirement of understanding illogic.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[141] viXra:1807.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 09:01:58

Neutron-Rich Isotopes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

CERN's nuclear physics facility, ISOLDE, has minted a new coin in its impressive collection of isotopes. [27] In the case of several light nuclei, experimental confirmation of the individualism or family nature of nucleons will now be simpler, thanks to predictions presented by Polish physicists from Cracow and Kielce. [26] The identification of the magic number of six provides an avenue to investigate the origin of spin–orbit splittings in atomic nuclei. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[140] viXra:1807.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 09:39:12

Gauss's Law of Gracvity and Observational Evidence Reveal no Solar Lensing in Empty Vacuum Space

Authors: Edward H Dowdye
Comments: 10 Pages. Supporting references pertaining to the Author of this original work are found on the Website: http://www.extinctionshift.com

Findings show that the rays of star light are lensed primarily in the plasma rim of the sun and hardly in the vacuum space just slightly above the rim. Since the lower boundary of this vacuum space is only a fraction of a solar radius above the solar plasma rim, it is exposed to virtually the same gravitational field. The thin plasma atmosphere of the sun appears to represent an indirect interaction involving an interfering plasma medium between the gravitational field of the sun and the rays of star light. The very same light bending equation obtained by General Relativity was derived from classical assumptions of a minimum energy path of a light ray in the plasma rim, exposed to the gravitational gradient field of the sun. The resulting calculation was found to be independent of frequency. An intense search of the star filled skies reveals a clear lack of lensing among the countless numbers of stars, where there are many candidates for gravitational lensing according to the assumptions of General Relativity. Assuming the validity of the light bending rule of General Relativity, the sky should be filled with images of Einstein rings. Moreover, a lack of evidence for gravitational lensing is clearly revealed in the time resolved images of the rapidly moving stellar objects orbiting about Sagittarius A*. Subject headings: black hole – gravitational lensing – galaxy center – plasma atmosphere – Gauss’s law
Category: Astrophysics

[139] viXra:1807.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 11:02:18

Löschverschiebungsprinzip ( Extinction Shift Principle ) a Replacement for Relativity

Authors: Edward Henry Dowdye Jr. Ph.D.
Comments: 20 Pages. A German language version of Extinction Shift Principle publshed in Refereed Journals

The observational evidence in Astrophysics clearly shows that if the light bending rule of General Relativity were actually valid, then the following would be the consequences: The star-abundant skies would be filled with images of Einstein rings. At high impact parameters far above the plasma rim of the stars, the astrophysical observations of deep space would be totally denied to all modern Astronomy. Deep space images of the skies due to gravitational lensing effects, would be completely blurred to all modern astronomy. The sought after Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) or simply put, the modification of Newton's law and/or General Relativity, in the attempt to satisfactorily explain the prevailing observations pertaining to the subject matters of gravitational lensing and the so-called dark matter would be totally unnecessary. These findings are clearly supported by the observational evidence.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[138] viXra:1807.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 11:44:30

Improvement of the Accuracy of HCE8S Theory Thanks to the Z(4430) Tetraquark

Authors: George R. Briggs
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Due to a mistake on HCE8S flow diagram the accuracy of the neutron mass was less than it should have been. Correction of this error leads to both up neutron and down neutron quark mass changes for neutronic quarks.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[137] viXra:1807.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 22:06:48

The Significant Improvement of The Upper Mass Limit of The White Dwarf Star

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 14 Pages.

The explanation for the pressure against gravity in the white dwarf star is based on the ideally degenerate Fermi electron gas at the temperature of absolute zero. It predicts the upper mass limit of the white dwarf star is 1.44 Mʘ. However, more conditions have to be considered like temperature and charges. In this research, first we use the grand partition function in statistical mechanics to build the expressions of the electron gas pressure and the particle number depending on temperature. At 10^7 K, there is about 1.50x10^(-4) of total electrons exceeding the Fermi energy. Because some of this Fermi electron gas are the relativistic electrons, then we consider that some of them can escape the gravity resulting in a positively charged star. These rest positive charges produce the strong repulsive force and the pressure to against gravity. Furthermore, due to the quantum effect, some electrons can tunnel the potential barrier even their energy is less than the maximal potential. By theoretical analysis, it is possible to be a positively charged star with 2.708x10^20 C as long as the attraction force is strong enough. The increases pressure is almost the same as that of the Fermi electron gas.
Category: Astrophysics

[136] viXra:1807.0145 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-17 02:52:30

A Simple Derivation of Maxwell Boltzmann Statistics for Systems in a Heat Bath.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 5 Pages.

We derive these laws with a simplicity for high school students and cocky beach girls.
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[135] viXra:1807.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 03:23:38

Laser on Earth's Core

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Scientists have discovered fresh insights into the metallic core at the centre of our planet. [32] Solar energy is clean and abundant. But when the sun isn't shining, you must store the energy in batteries or through a process called photocatalysis—in which solar energy is used to make fuels. [31] An international team of scientists, including NUST MISIS's Professor Gotthard Seifert, has made an important step toward the control of excitonic effects in two-dimensional van der Waals heterostructures. [30] Carbon nanotubes – cylindrical formations of carbon atoms with incredible strength and electrical conductivity – hold great promise for creating new micron-scale low-power electronic devices. [29] An electrically conductive hydrogel that takes stretchability, self-healing and strain sensitivity to new limits has been developed at KAUST. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Condensed Matter

[134] viXra:1807.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 04:57:25

Talk about the Higgs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

It is six years ago that the discovery of the Higgs boson was announced, to great fanfare in the world's media, as a crowning success of CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[133] viXra:1807.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 07:34:51

Pulsing Mass (Once Again About the Matter and Mass) \\\\\ Пульсирующая масса (Ещё раз о материи и массе)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 22 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Pulsing mass 6 July, 2018

В современной физике считается, что масса элементарной частицы (ЭЧ) является неизменной постоянной величиной. Это связано с представлением об элементарной частице (ЭЧ), как статичной материальной тверди. В рамках научного исследования автора настоящей статьи удалось установить факт того, что материя является основой элементарной частицы (ЭЧ). А сама элементарная частица (ЭЧ) является пульсирующей в ритме природы материальной плотью. Пульсирующий характер элементарной частицы (ЭЧ) имеет своим следствием тот факт, что масса элементарной частицы (ЭЧ) также является изменяющейся пульсирующей в ритме природы физической величиной. ----------------------- In modern physics it is considered that the mass of an elementary particle (EP) is a constant. This is connected with the idea of an elementary particle (EP), as a static material solid. In the framework of a scientific study of the author of this article, it was possible to establish the fact that matter is the basis of an elementary particle (EP). And the elementary particle (EP) itself is pulsating in the rhythm of nature with material flesh. The pulsating character of an elementary particle (EP) has as its consequence the fact that the mass of an elementary particle (EP) is also a variable physical quantity pulsating in the rhythm of nature.
Category: Classical Physics

[132] viXra:1807.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 09:46:32

Entanglements in Ultra-Cold Atomic Clouds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[131] viXra:1807.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 10:08:02

Ultrafast Lasers and Ultracold Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

Scientists from Universität Hamburg have united the two research fields and succeeded in observing the emergence of ions in ultracold atoms. [26] Researchers at the Kirchhoff Institute for Physics of Heidelberg University recently succeeded in verifying so-called non-local quantum correlations between ultracold clouds of rubidium atoms. [25] Four decades after it was predicted, scientist create a skyrmion, and take one step towards efficient nuclear fusion. [24] While standard quantum hardware entangles particles in two states, the team has found a way to generate and entangle pairs of particles that each has 15 states. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19] A team of researchers with the University of California and SRI International has developed a new type of cooling device that is both portable and efficient. [18] Thermal conductivity is one of the most crucial physical properties of matter when it comes to understanding heat transport, hydrodynamic evolution and energy balance in systems ranging from astrophysical objects to fusion plasmas. [17] Researchers from the Theory Department of the MPSD have realized the control of thermal and electrical currents in nanoscale devices by means of quantum local observations. [16]
Category: Quantum Physics

[130] viXra:1807.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-06 14:16:31

AI with Artificial X-rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Artificial intelligence (AI) holds real potential for improving both the speed and accuracy of medical diagnostics. But before clinicians can harness the power of AI to identify conditions in images such as X-rays, they have to 'teach' the algorithms what to look for. [26] If a picture paints a thousand words, facial recognition paints two: It's biased. [25] While it is undeniable that AI has opened up a wealth of promising opportunities, it has also led to the emergence of a mindset that can be best described as "AI solutionism". [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[129] viXra:1807.0136 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-26 19:14:20

The Golden Ratio in the Modified Cosmological Model

Authors: Jonathan W. Tooker
Comments: 17 Pages. 15 figures

The golden ratio Phi is very important in the modified cosmological model (MCM). In previous work, we have inserted it artificially rather than showing where it comes from. Where the real numbers are extended to the complex numbers for routine physical applications, we extend the complex numbers to the hypercomplex numbers and show that Phi is inherent to the transfinite structure. We formalize the transfinite concept of continuation beyond infinity. We improve upon previous motivations for deriving general relativity and the fine structure constant in the MCM, and we propose an origin for the Yang-Mills mass gap.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[128] viXra:1807.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 01:53:55

Dynamic Equations for 2nd-Order Curves

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 4 Pages.

The motion of a point along an ellipse under the action of a generalized force is investigated. Result: differential equation of second-order curves with respect to the focus, differential equation of curves of the second order with respect to the center, general differential equation of second order curves. Several examples of the application of these equations are proposed.
Category: Functions and Analysis

[127] viXra:1807.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 02:22:40

Temporal Geometric Interactions

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 12 Pages.

In this work we extend our discussions on the possibility to classify geometric interactions to temporal manifolds according to the dimensions of decomposed submanifolds n-cells. A temporal manifold is a differentiable manifold which is accompanied a spatial manifold to form a spatiotemporal manifold which represents an elementary particle and can be assumed to have the mathematical structure of a CW complex. As in the case of spatial manifolds, a temporal differentiable manifold can also be assumed to decompose n-cells. The decomposed temporal n-cells will also be identified with force carriers for physical interactions. For the case of temporal differentiable manifolds of dimension three, there are also four different types of geometric interactions associated with 0-cells, 1-cells, 2-cells and 3-cells. We also discuss the possible dynamics from these geometric interactions in terms of Newtonian spatiotemporal mechanics. In particular we show that, unlike spatial manifolds in which the contact forces that are associated with the decomposition of 0-cells would render mass points to join to form elementary particles, the forces that are associated with the decomposition of temporal 0-cells are short-lived therefore temporal matter cannot form stable physical objects as in the case of mass points in spatial continuum. We also discuss in more details the case of geometric interactions that are associated with the decomposition of 3-cells from a spatiotemporal differentiable manifold and show that the physical interactions that are associated with the evolution of the geometric processes can be formulated in terms of general relativity.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[126] viXra:1807.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-07 02:51:08

Euclidean-Planck Metrics of Space, Particle Physics and Cosmology

Authors: Amrit Sorli1, Uros Dobnikar2, Santanu Kumar Patro3, Magi Mageshwaran4, Davide Fiscaletti
Comments: 8 Pages. This is already published in the journal of NeuroQuantology,

Recent research has introduced a novel model where a fundamental arena of the universe is infinite Euclidean space of Planck metrics, where time is merely mathematical parameter of universal changes. The history of the universe has merely a mathematical existence and is nonexistent in the physical sense. On the other hand, the future is not yet existent. The only existent physical reality is the universe, which exists in the timeless space of Euclidean-Planck metrics. This view is the basis of an “Energy-Mass-gravity” Model that unifies energy, mass, and gravity. Additionally, this model reveals some discrepancies in the Big Bang cosmology model that need to be examined in details in order to keep the Big Bang cosmology as the leading model of today’s physics
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[125] viXra:1807.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 05:42:03

AI Recognizes Molecular Handwriting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Researchers at Caltech have developed an artificial neural network made out of DNA that can solve a classic machine learning problem: correctly identifying handwritten numbers. [22] Researchers have devised a magnetic control system to make tiny DNA-based robots move on demand—and much faster than recently possible. [21] Humans have 46 chromosomes, and each one is capped at either end by repetitive sequences called telomeres. [20] Just like any long polymer chain, DNA tends to form knots. Using technology that allows them to stretch DNA molecules and image the behavior of these knots, MIT researchers have discovered, for the first time, the factors that determine whether a knot moves along the strand or "jams" in place. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[124] viXra:1807.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 07:07:06

The Upper Bound of Composition Series

Authors: Abhijit Bhattacharjee
Comments: 9 Pages. The paper was submitted to journal of combinatorial theory a, after referee 's review they told me to submit it algebra related journal.

The upper bound of composition series for finite group is obtained .
Category: Algebra

[123] viXra:1807.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 07:26:01

Fibre-Optic Transmission

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

Researchers from Chalmers University of Technology, Sweden, and Tallinn University of Technology, Estonia, have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25]
Category: Quantum Physics

[122] viXra:1807.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 08:07:17

Swimming Bacteria Reduce Viscosity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Swimming bacteria can reduce the viscosity of ordinary liquids like water and make them flow more easily, sometimes down to the point where the viscosity becomes zero: the flow is then frictionless. [38] A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Condensed Matter

[121] viXra:1807.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 09:49:30

Artificial Intelligence Run Funds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

A computer can trounce a human chess master and solve complex mathematical calculations in seconds. Can it do a better job investing your money than a flesh-and-blood portfolio manager? [29] A country that thinks its adversaries have or will get AI weapons will want to get them too. Wide use of AI-powered cyberattacks may still be some time away. [28] Following the old saying that "knowledge is power", companies are seeking to infer increasingly intimate properties about their customers as a way to gain an edge over their competitors. [27] Researchers from Human Longevity, Inc. (HLI) have published a study in which individual faces and other physical traits were predicted using whole genome sequencing data and machine learning. [26] Artificial intelligence can improve health care by analyzing data from apps, smartphones and wearable technology. [25] Now, researchers at Google's DeepMind have developed a simple algorithm to handle such reasoning—and it has already beaten humans at a complex image comprehension test. [24] A marimba-playing robot with four arms and eight sticks is writing and playing its own compositions in a lab at the Georgia Institute of Technology. The pieces are generated using artificial intelligence and deep learning. [23] Now, a team of researchers at MIT and elsewhere has developed a new approach to such computations, using light instead of electricity, which they say could vastly improve the speed and efficiency of certain deep learning computations. [22] Physicists have found that the structure of certain types of quantum learning algorithms is very similar to their classical counterparts—a finding that will help scientists further develop the quantum versions. [21] We should remain optimistic that quantum computing and AI will continue to improve our lives, but we also should continue to hold companies, organizations, and governments accountable for how our private data is used, as well as the technology's impact on the environment. [20] It's man vs machine this week as Google's artificial intelligence programme AlphaGo faces the world's top-ranked Go player in a contest expected to end in another victory for rapid advances in AI. [19]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[120] viXra:1807.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 13:23:15

Diamonds for Quantum Communication

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

Diamonds are prized for their purity, but their flaws might hold the key to a new type of highly secure communications. [29] have demonstrated a 4000 kilometre fibre-optical transmission link using ultra low-noise, phase-sensitive optical amplifiers. [28] Researchers at the University of York have shown that a new quantum-based procedure for distributing secure information along communication lines could be successful in preventing serious security breaches. [27] In the new study, Bomantara and Gong have developed a method for harnessing the unique properties of time crystals for quantum computing that is based on braiding. [26] An Aalto University study has provided new evidence that time crystals can physically exist – a claim currently under hot debate. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20]
Category: Quantum Physics

[119] viXra:1807.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 14:02:15

Semiconductor Quantum Transistor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Transistors are tiny switches that form the bedrock of modern computing; billions of them route electrical signals around inside a smartphone, for instance. Quantum computers will need analogous hardware to manipulate quantum information. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-photon devices will be a large step towards deterministic multi-mode entanglement generation as well as high-fidelity photonic quantum gates that are crucial for all-optical quantum information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22]
Category: Digital Signal Processing

[118] viXra:1807.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 14:59:41

Shellability is NP-complete

Authors: Thinh Nguyen
Comments: 19 Pages.

We prove that for every d≥2, deciding if a pure, d-dimensional, simplicial complex is shellable is NP-hard, hence NP-complete. This resolves a question raised, e.g., by Danaraj and Klee in 1978. Our reduction also yields that for every d≥2 and k≥0, deciding if a pure, d-dimensional, simplicial complex is k-decomposable is NP-hard. For d≥ 3, both problems remain NP-hard when restricted to contractible pure d-dimensional complexes. Another simple corollary of our result is that it is NP-hard to decide whether a given poset is CL- shellable.
Category: General Mathematics

[117] viXra:1807.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 18:09:36

Implementation of Regional-CNN and SSD Machine Learning Object Detection Architectures for the Real Time Analysis of Blood Borne Pathogens in Dark Field Microscopy

Authors: Daniel Fleury, Angelica Fleury
Comments: 10 Pages.

The emerging use of visualization techniques in pathology and microbiology has been accelerated by machine learning (ML) approaches towards image preprocessing, classification, and feature extraction in an increasingly complex series of datasets. Modern Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) architectures have developed into an umbrella of vast image reinforcement and recognition methods, including a combined classification-localization of single/multi-object featured images. As a subtype neural network, CNN creates a rapid order of complexity by initially detecting borderlines, edges, and colours in images for dataset construction, eventually capable in mapping intricate objects and conformities. This paper investigates the disparities between Tensorflow object detection APIs, exclusively, Single Shot Detector (SSD) Mobilenet V1 and the Faster RCNN Inception V2 model, to sample computational drawbacks in accuracy-precision vs. real time visualization capabilities. The situation of rapid ML medical image analysis is theoretically framed in regions with limited access to pathology and disease prevention departments (e.g. 3rd world and impoverished countries). Dark field microscopy datasets of an initial 62 XML-JPG annotated training files were processed under Malaria and Syphilis classes. Model trainings were halted as soon as loss values were regularized and converged.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[116] viXra:1807.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 18:28:16

Indian Sundarban Mangroves: a Potential Carbon Scrubbing System

Authors: Abhijit Mitra, Sufia Zaman, Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 23 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education (PJSE) – v.4, n.4, (7-29) June 17, 2018. ISSN: 2447-6153

The stored carbon in dominant mangrove species namely Avicennia alba, A. marina, A. officinalis, Sonneratia apetala and Excoecaria agallocha were monitored during December 2009 to March 2010 through seasons in ten selected stations (5 in the western and 5 in the central sectors) of Indian Sundarbans. The species-wise carbon stored in the Above Ground Biomass (in t/ha) followed almost a similar order in both the sectors throughout the study period. The soil and litter carbon were also simultaneously analysed. The annual litter fall in the western and central sectors has been extrapolated to 8.05 t ha-1 yr-1 and 5.22 t ha-1 yr-1 respectively. In the present study, the highest litter fall during September, 2009 may be related to heavy rainfall and wind action in the region that accelerates the litter fall in this unique mangrove system of the tropics. The organic carbon in the study area showed a distinct seasonal pattern with highest value in monsoon (September, 2009), followed by postmonsoon (December, 2009) and premonsoon (March, 2010). In the western sector, the mean values were 1.182%, 1.010% and 0.882% in the monsoon, postmonsoon and premonsoon respectively. In the central sector, the mean values were 0.936%, 0.820% and 0.650% in the monsoon, postmonsoon and premonsoon respectively. The surface soil pH in the study area showed a distinct seasonal pattern with highest value in premonsoon (March, 2010), followed by postmonsoon (December, 2009) and monsoon (September, 2009). In the western sector, the mean values were 7.24, 7.30 and 7.36 in the monsoon, postmonsoon and premonsoon respectively. In the central sector, the mean values were 7.32, 7.37 and 7.39 in the monsoon, postmonsoon and premonsoon respectively. The overall results confirm the potential of carbon scrubbing vegetation in Indian Sundarbans.
Category: Climate Research

[115] viXra:1807.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 18:33:57

Marsilea Quadrifolia: a Floral Species with Unique Medicinal Properties

Authors: Suresh Kumar Agarwal, Sitangshu Roy, Prosenjit Pramanick, Prosenjit Mitra, Ricardo Gobato, Abhijit Mitra
Comments: 6 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education (PJSE) – v. 4, n. 5, (15-20) July 1, 2018 ISSN: 2447-6153

Marsilea quadrifolia is a unique plant with high medicinal value. It is widely distributed in the state of West Bengal, which is a maritime state in the north-east part of Indian sub-continent. The present paper is a snapshot of the quantitative analysis of total carbohydrate, protein, fat, flavonoids, amino acids, saponins in the plant extract prepared by dissolving the powdered form of the plant in distilled water in the ratio of 1:10. Our analysis showed the highest value for total carbohydrate, followed by protein, amino acid, flavonoids, saponins and fat.
Category: Biochemistry

[114] viXra:1807.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 18:39:28

Putrescine, Cadaverine, Spermine and Spermidine – Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation (EPPSI) Nano Molecules.

Authors: Alireza Heidari, Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 14 Pages. Parana J. Sci. Educ., v.4, n.5, (1-14), July 1, 2018. ISSN 2447-6153

In the current study, we study Putrescine, Cadaverine, Spermine and Spermidine–Enhanced Precatalyst Preparation Stabilization and Initiation (EPPSI) Nano molecules incorporation into the Nano Polymeric Matrix (NPM) by immersion of the Nano Polymeric Modified Electrode (NPME) as molecular enzymes and drug targets for human cancer cells, tissues and tumors treatment under synchrotron and synchrocyclotron radiations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[113] viXra:1807.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-09 20:29:47

Cellular Automaton Graphics(2)

Authors: Morio Kikuchi
Comments: 51 Pages.

Developping a regular polyhedron on a plane, setting discrete coordinates on the development and applying a boundary condition of regular polyhedron to it, we realize a symmetrical graphics.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[112] viXra:1807.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 06:04:53

How Computers See Faces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Computers started to be able to recognize human faces in images decades ago, but now artificial intelligence systems are rivaling people's ability to classify objects in photos and videos. [26] If a picture paints a thousand words, facial recognition paints two: It's biased. [25] While it is undeniable that AI has opened up a wealth of promising opportunities, it has also led to the emergence of a mindset that can be best described as "AI solutionism". [24] Intel's Gadi Singer believes his most important challenge is his latest: using artificial intelligence (AI) to reshape scientific exploration. [23] Artificial intelligence is astonishing in its potential. It will be more transformative than the PC and the Internet. Already it is poised to solve some of our biggest challenges. [22] In the search for extraterrestrial intelligence (SETI), we've often looked for signs of intelligence, technology and communication that are similar to our own. [21] Call it an aMAZE -ing development: A U.K.-based team of researchers has developed an artificial intelligence program that can learn to take shortcuts through a labyrinth to reach its goal. In the process, the program developed structures akin to those in the human brain. [20] And as will be presented today at the 25th annual meeting of the Cognitive Neuroscience networks to enhance their understanding of one of the most elusive intelligence systems, the human brain. [19] U.S. Army Research Laboratory scientists have discovered a way to leverage emerging brain-like computer architectures for an age-old number-theoretic problem known as integer factorization. [18] have come up with a novel machine learning method that enables scientists to derive insights from systems of previously intractable complexity in record time. [17] Quantum computers can be made to utilize effects such as quantum coherence and entanglement to accelerate machine learning. [16] Neural networks learn how to carry out certain tasks by analyzing large amounts of data displayed to them. [15]
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[111] viXra:1807.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 08:20:49

How Plants Grow in Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 52 Pages.

Earth's gravity is still formidable at that altitude so it's not quite right to call the environment "zero gravity." The plants will be in a continuous state of freefall, an environment that scientists call "microgravity." [31] Using mass spectrometry data from NASA's Cassini spacecraft, scientists found that large, carbon-rich organic molecules are ejected from cracks in the icy surface of Saturn's moon Enceladus. [30] Absorption of light energy by large molecules is what drives nature: photosynthesis, vision, the synthesis of vitamin D and many other critical processes use light energy to perform their functions. [29] A University of Central Florida team has designed a nanostructured optical sensor that for the first time can efficiently detect molecular chirality—a property of molecular spatial twist that defines its biochemical properties. [28] UCLA scientists and engineers have developed a new process for assembling semiconductor devices. [27] A new experiment that tests the limit of how large an object can be before it ceases to behave quantum mechanically has been proposed by physicists in the UK and India. [26] Phonons are discrete units of vibrational energy predicted by quantum mechanics that correspond to collective oscillations of atoms inside a molecule or a crystal. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21]
Category: Physics of Biology

[110] viXra:1807.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-08 02:27:39

Proof of the Second Landau's Problem

Authors: Andrey B. Skrypnik
Comments: 4 Pages.

Destroyed another fortress of unproven tasks
Category: Number Theory

[109] viXra:1807.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-28 23:38:41

Dark Energy and Dark Matter

Authors: Friedhelm Jöge
Comments: 6 Pages.

The rudiments of a theory of dark energy. The theoretical result is confronted with the numerical value calculated from the available data. Excellent matching of numerical values resulting in three independent paths makes the approach plausible. The work at hand is analogous to Kepler's laws of planetary orbits. Only Isaac Newton put Kepler's laws on a theoretical basis, which is provided here by Thomas Görnitz [1]. The empirical Balmer formula was also theoretically justified by Niels Bohr.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[108] viXra:1807.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 09:45:17

Interval Complex Neutrosophic Graph of Type 1

Authors: Said Broumi, Assia Bakali, Mohamed Talea, Florentin Smarandache, V. Venkateswara Rao
Comments: 20 Pages. Neutrosophic Operational Research Volume III

The neutrosophic set theory, proposed by smarandache, can be used as a general mathematical tool for dealing with indeterminate and inconsistent information. By applying the concept of neutrosophic sets on graph theory, several studies of neutrosophic models have been presented in the literature. In this paper, the concept of complex neutrosophic graph of type 1 is extended to interval complex neutrosophic graph of type 1(ICNG1). We have proposed a representation of ICNG1 by adjacency matrix and studied some properties related to this new structure. The concept of ICNG1 generalized the concept of generalized fuzzy graphs of type 1 (GFG1), generalized single valued neutrosophic graphs of type 1 (GSVNG1) generalized interval valued neutrosophic graphs of type 1 (GIVNG1) and complex neutrosophic graph type 1(CNG1).
Category: Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[107] viXra:1807.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 09:57:45

Magnetized Plasma Turbulence

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Like other magnetic confinement devices, turbulence appears in the heated plasma that causes heat and particles to wander across these surfaces and ultimately come into contact with the first wall surrounding the plasma. [31] The new approach, known as a plasma q-plate, will revolutionize sources for generating optical vortices. The work will impact a broad range of applications. [30] A new material created by Oregon State University researchers is a key step toward the next generation of supercomputers. [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27] At Carnegie Mellon University, Materials Science and Engineering Professor Mike McHenry and his research group are developing metal amorphous nanocomposite materials (MANC), or magnetic materials whose nanocrystals have been grown out of an amorphous matrix to create a two phase magnetic material that exploits both the attractive magnetic inductions of the nanocrystals and the large electrical resistance of a metallic glass. [26] The search and manipulation of novel properties emerging from the quantum nature of matter could lead to next-generation electronics and quantum computers. [25] A research team from Lab) has found the first evidence that a shaking motion in the structure of an atomically thin (2-D) material possesses a naturally occurring circular rotation. [24] Topological effects, such as those found in crystals whose surfaces conduct electricity while their bulk does not, have been an exciting topic of physics research in recent years and were the subject of the 2016 Nobel Prize in physics. [23]
Category: Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[106] viXra:1807.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 11:31:11

View Proteins Inside Human Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Warwick have created a new way to view proteins that are inside human cells. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[105] viXra:1807.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 11:37:27

Hints (Russian Version)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 60 Pages. in Russian

Interpretation of some myths from the physical point of view.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[104] viXra:1807.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 11:51:09

Physicist

Authors: J.A.J. van Leunen
Comments: 2 Pages. This is part of the Hilbert Book Model Project

Current physics contains many inconsistencies that can be solved.
Category: Quantum Physics

[103] viXra:1807.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 12:07:43

An Operational Formulation of Generally Covariant Quantum Theory.

Authors: Johan Noldus
Comments: 4 Pages.

I present an operational equivalent formulation by means of bi-fields of my generally covariant quantum theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[102] viXra:1807.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 14:46:47

Gauge Coordinates and Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Karl De Paepe
Comments: 3 Pages

We show there is a gauge and coordinate choice such that the electromagnetic field is zero.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[101] viXra:1807.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 14:58:35

Explaining Duality, the "Only Mystery" of Quantum Mechanics, Without Complementarity or "Which Way" (Welcher-Weg)

Authors: Sarma N. Gullapalli
Comments: Pages.

Wave-particle duality has been extensively debated from the earliest days of quantum mechanics, for example the historic discussions between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr [1], to the present. Richard Feynman [2] called it the “only mystery” in quantum mechanics, long after Neils Bohr had offered his widely accepted explanation based on complementarity involving the observation also. Following John A. Wheeler’s ingenious delayed choice thought experiment [3] to test observer involvement in interference, it was implemented, with and without entanglement by experimenters, eg [4], [5] and [6] who confirmed observation involvement as predicted by Niels Bohr, but they also revealed the phenomenon of retro-causality which begs proper explanation. The criterion of “which way” (welcher-weg) that captures the observation involvement is currently widely used in all single photon interference systems. In this paper a break-through Axiom is presented and justified which (a) Explains duality in interference, with particle always remaining particle and wave always remaining wave throughout, without wave-particle complementarity or “which way” (welcher-weg) observation that is the currently accepted mystifying view (b) Shows the equivalence: Coherence and alignment ≡ Interference ≡ No “which way” observation; No coherence or alignment ≡ No interference ≡ “which way” observation (c) Explains Wheeler’s delayed choice thought experiment (d) Explains results of experimental implementations of Wheeler’s thought experiment which show retro-causality with and without entanglement (e) Explains non-local action at a distance, and (f) Rephrases Albert Einstein’s unanswered question “Is quantum mechanics complete?” at a more fundamental level than just duality and non-locality. The new explanation given does not require that the particle (photon) somehow “know” about the test setup or “which way” observation or change its behavior from particle to wave and vice versa as required by currently accepted explanation based on Niels Bohr’s complementarity principle and observation involvement. No new assumptions are made, only a new complete interpretation of probability which is already a fundamental assumption of quantum mechanics. The proposed Axiom not only explains duality without complementarity or “which way”, it does so with substantial objective clarity that removes unwarranted mysticism that goes beyond physical objectivity. It avoids metaphysical subjectivity that seems to surround certain current perceptions of quantum mechanics. New terms “partial causality” and “total causality” are suggested to properly understand “retro-causality” and “quantum erasure”. Key words: Quantum Mechanics, New Axiom of quantum mechanics, Duality, Interference, Complementarity, Observer, Which-way, Entanglement, Locality, Partial Causality, Total Causality, Retro-Causality, Quantum Erasure.
Category: Quantum Physics

[100] viXra:1807.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 15:48:20

A New Approach to Human Powered Flight and Beyond

Authors: Steven Suan Zhu
Comments: 42 Pages. Draft finalized in December 30th 2013 but never published, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30180.07043

A New Approach to Human Powered Flight and Beyond
Category: Classical Physics

[99] viXra:1807.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 20:01:32

Physical Constants as Properties of the van der Waals Torque of the Quantum Field

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 11 Pages.

One of the most important outstanding questions in physics is, what are the physical causes that lead to the magnitudes of each of the physical constants? This paper explores the hypothesis that the magnitude of each physical constant is de-termined by the van der Waals torque of the quantum field of standard model quan-tum field theory. The quantum field is known to produce van der Waals forces as they are necessary to explain the experimentally proven existence of the Casimir effect. There is little research, however, into the effects of the van der Waals torque that necessarily exists in a sea of dipoles that undergo van der Waals force interactions. The van der Waals torque of space resists all linear and rotating charge motion, and as such, it determines the polarizability and magnetizability of space and the related physical constants. Give that most of the physical constants are derivable from other physical constants, it is easy to show that the magnitudes of all the electromagnetic constants are a direct physical result of the van der Waals torque of space. Of particular importance, electric charge and the fine structure constant are derivable from the polarizability of space. Since the fine structure constant and, consequently, mass can be shown to be electromagnetic, there is also a brief discussion about the necessity that gravity is electromagnetic as well, possibly in a manner analogous to a theory by Wilson and Dicke.
Category: Quantum Physics

[98] viXra:1807.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 20:04:34

Fine Structure Constant as the Polarization of the Quantum Field by a Unit Charge

Authors: Ray Fleming
Comments: 4 Pages.

Since it was first discovered, physicists have attempted to find the fundamental physical cause of the fine structure constant. The fine structure constant appears in many different physics relationships and can be expressed in terms of a number of combinations of different physical constants. This leads to some debate over what is the most fundamental representation of the constant. In this paper it is first shown that the unit charge can be viewed as the polarizability of space over a surface area surrounding a unit charge. The polarizability of space is in turn determined by the van der Waals torque of the quantum field. That torque regulates the rate of rotation of the quantum dipoles of standard model quantum field theory as each quantum dipole is polarized. Then, based on the well-known relationship between the charge squared and the fine structure constant, it can be readily shown that the fine structure constant is the total volumetric polarization of the quantum field due to a single unit charge. This shows that the fine structure constant can be fundamentally derived as an effect due to fundamental electrodynamics of the quantum field.
Category: Classical Physics

[97] viXra:1807.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 00:10:02

Refutation of Generalized Hardy's Paradox Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 2 Pages. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

The generalized Hardy's paradox is refuted. In addition, Hardy's inequality and Wigner's argument of joint probabilities are refuted, and as a claimed connection. The basis of the entire claim is "If the events A2<B1, B1<A1, and A1<B2 never happen, then naturally the event A2<B2 must never happen." This is not tautologous, with result values of contingency (falsity). This is a gross example of mathematical logic exposing the mistaken assumptions of quantum field theory.
Category: Quantum Physics

[96] viXra:1807.0100 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-14 00:12:41

Which Rows in Pascal’s Triangle Sum to Perfect Numbers?

Authors: Robert Spoljaric
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this note we show which rows in Pascal’s Triangle sum to Perfect Numbers. We end this note with an algorithm allowing us to trivially calculate all the proper divisors for any Perfect Number greater than 6.
Category: Number Theory

[95] viXra:1807.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-05 04:35:17

The Infinite Sum Series

Authors: Mihir Kumar Jha
Comments: 2 Pages.

The motive of this paper is to put forward a new approach to find the value of infinite sum series, given by S = (1+2+3+4+5+6-----) and to show that, the series converges at the value equal to zero.
Category: Number Theory

[94] viXra:1807.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 06:11:19

Erd ̋os-Szekeres is NP-Hard in 3 Dimensions and What Now?

Authors: Thinh Nguyen
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Erd ̋os-Szekeres theorem states that, for every $k$, there is a number $n_k$ such that every set of $n_k$ points in general position in the plane contains a subset of $k$ points in convex position. If we ask the same question for subsets whose convex hull does not contain any other point from the set, this is not true: as shown by Horton, there are sets of arbitrary size that do not contain an empty 7-gon. These questions have also been studied extensively from a computational point of view, and polynomial time algorithms for finding the largest (empty) convex set have been given for the planar case. In higher dimension, it is not known how to compute such a set efficiently. In this paper, we show that already in 3 dimensions no polynomial time algorithm exists for determining the largest (empty) convex set (unless $P$=$NP$), by proving that the corresponding decision problem is $NP$-hard. This answers a question by Dobkin, Edelsbrunner and Overmars from 1990. As a corollary, we derive a similar result for the closely related problem of testing weak $ε$-nets in $R^3$ . Answering a question by Chazelle et al. from 1995, our reduction shows that the problem is $co-NP$-hard. Finally, we make several suggestions for further research on the subject.
Category: General Mathematics

[93] viXra:1807.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 06:41:57

Astronomical Evidence for Antimatter Black Holes

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 2 Pages.

a fascinating development surrounding PABHs, primordial antimatter black holes
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[92] viXra:1807.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 07:16:14

Quantum Sensing Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An international team of physicists at ETH Zurich, Aalto University, the Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology, and the Landau Institute for Theoretical Physics in Moscow has demonstrated that algorithms and hardware developed originally in the context of quantum computation can be harnessed for quantum-enhanced sensing of magnetic fields. [20] Scientists at Forschungszentrum Jülich have now discovered another class of particle-like magnetic object that could take the development of data storage devices a significant step forward. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11]
Category: Quantum Physics

[91] viXra:1807.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 07:52:05

The Daon Theory: the Electron

Authors: J.E.S. Gustafsson
Comments: 40 Pages.

The Daon theory is a new general theory of physics, it is a completely new way to approach physics and includes, in principle, all phenomena of nature. The theory is presented in a series of closely related papers treating Electromagnetism, Atomic physics, Particle physics, Gravitation and Cosmology. They should be red in this order for a complete understanding. The numerical value of the main natural constants and parameters are calculated, while the explanation for the various natural phenomena are simple and logical. All the results from this theory agree, as far as we know, with experimental data. The Daon theory makes it possible to give simple explanations to all electromagnetic phenomena. We analyse the electric field, magnetism and explains the electron's associated wave. We find at the same time the dielectric constant, the permeability constant, the Planck's constant and the fine structure constant. It follows an analysis of an electron under acceleration giving the explanations to the phenomenon of the Electro-Magnetic wave. We there after examine the modification of an electron's characteristics at high velocity.
Category: Classical Physics

[90] viXra:1807.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 08:04:18

Top-Secret: Emergent Big Bang-Universe.

Authors: Dan Visser
Comments: 25 Pages.

The Big Bang is not a stand-alone beginning of the universe that came to life with the beginning of time. Originally, or so to say more fundamental, the Big Bang-universe is emergent. The existence of the Big Bang-universe is due to a ‘Rotating Torus Hologram-Universe’ (RTHU). We actually live in a RTHU. What we observe as a stand-alone Big Bang is by residue the CMB, but in fact it is an information-field of the RTHU. This is the main result of my theoretical research wherein the cognition of the origin of the universe is extended to refined time and a subdivision of the quantum-unit. I call this new perception Double Torus Theory (DTT). More theoretical evidence shows the cause why matter is dominant over anti-matter, why virtual particles go in and out of vacuum, but most of all that the total CMB rotates with 29 km/h.
Category: Mathematical Physics

[89] viXra:1807.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 10:08:53

Space, Time, Movement (In Russian)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 244 Pages. in Russian

The properties of space-time relations at three levels of matter organization are analyzing: micro-, macro- and mega-; the possibility of combining their coordinate characteristics on the basis of a single ordering factor in distinguishing dynamic and evolutionary times. The thesis about the secondary nature of space-time relations and anout their conceptual origin as parameters of averaging procedures in macro observation of microprocesses is formulated. The book is the result of physical and philosophical understanding of the problem of space-time relations - a topic that is currently very relevant.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[88] viXra:1807.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 10:11:20

Twin Paradox (In Russian)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 73 Pages. in Russian

It is shown that the "Twin paradox" is a consequence of the conceptual symmetry of relativity. The twin paradox is not successfully resolved in a continuous coordinate time, nor a STR, nor in GTR due to the symmetry of twin-brothers reference frames. Resolution of the paradox is seen by the author in the distinction between dynamic and evolutionary times. However, the twin paradox is successfully resolved within the discrete time, that is, when the metric measurement scale used for continuous coordinate time is changed to the ordinal one for the discrete time. This can be achieved by changing the metric scale of measurement used for continuous coordinate time, to sequence one, as for discrete own time; that is the paradox disappears when we consider continuous coordinate time in the affine scale representation, in other words, by refusal from metric measurability. The development of the concept of time in this direction greatly enhances the Leibniz aspect of relativity versus Newtonian - substantiality.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[87] viXra:1807.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 11:10:16

Triple Conformal Geometric Algebra for Cubic Plane Curves (long CGI2017/ENGAGE2017 paper in SI of MMA)

Authors: Robert B. Easter, Eckhard Hitzer
Comments: 20 pages. Revision, 3 July 2018, with corrections and improvements to the published version, 18 Sep 2017 DOI:10.1002/mma.4597, in MMA 41(11)4088-4105, 30 July 2018, Special Issue: ENGAGE. 9 tables, 4 figures, 28 references.

The Triple Conformal Geometric Algebra (TCGA) for the Euclidean R^2-plane extends CGA as the product of three orthogonal CGAs, and thereby the representation of geometric entities to general cubic plane curves and certain cyclidic (or roulette) quartic, quintic, and sextic plane curves. The plane curve entities are 3-vectors that linearize the representation of non-linear curves, and the entities are inner product null spaces (IPNS) with respect to all points on the represented curves. Each IPNS entity also has a dual geometric outer product null space (OPNS) form. Orthogonal or conformal (angle-preserving) operations (as versors) are valid on all TCGA entities for inversions in circles, reflections in lines, and, by compositions thereof, isotropic dilations from a given center point, translations, and rotations around arbitrary points in the plane. A further dimensional extension of TCGA, also provides a method for anisotropic dilations. Intersections of any TCGA entity with a point, point pair, line or circle are possible. TCGA defines commutator-based differential operators in the coordinate directions that can be combined to yield a general n-directional derivative.
Category: Algebra

[86] viXra:1807.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 11:17:42

Enhancing Website Navigation by User Experience Design Strategies

Authors: Pedram Ahmadi
Comments: 121 Pages.

Today Designing efficient interfaces plays an important role in world wide web. People are highly attracted to websites that gives them more useful information at lowest time intervals. Websites always have a lack of enough strategies to keep users involved and satisfied. Now user experience design comes up to mind to solve these difficulties with new ideas and practices. The UX Design uses usability and accessibility methods to improve the interaction between users and websites. This thesis focuses on web navigation types to make them more appropriate in the way of providing useful contents.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[85] viXra:1807.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 12:40:26

Quantum Heat Engine Shortcuts

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

The shortcuts are " a kind of quantum lubricant, " says Serra, of the Federal University of ABC in Santo André, Brazil. Similar to the way that oil can decrease friction in a standard engine, these shortcuts eliminate the friction that is present on quantum scales. [28] Physicists have demonstrated that energy quantization can improve the efficiency of a single-atom heat engine to exceed the performance of its classical counterpart. [27] A solid can serve as a medium for heat and sound wave interactions just like a fluid does for thermoacoustic engines and refrigerators-resulting in leak-free machines that can stay operating longer. [26] Like watchmakers choosing superior materials to build a fine timepiece, physicists at the Centre for Quantum Technologies (CQT) at the National University of Singapore have singled out an atom that could allow them to build better atomic clocks. [25] Yale physicists have uncovered hints of a time crystal—a form of matter that "ticks" when exposed to an electromagnetic pulse—in the last place they expected: a crystal you might find in a child's toy. [24] The research shows that concentrated electrolytes in solution affect hydrogen bonding, ion interactions, and coordination geometries in currently unpredictable ways. [23] An exotic state of matter that is dazzling scientists with its electrical properties, can also exhibit unusual optical properties, as shown in a theoretical study by researchers at A*STAR. [22] The breakthrough was made in the lab of Andrea Alù, director of the ASRC's Photonics Initiative. Alù and his colleagues from The City College of New York, University of Texas at Austin and Tel Aviv University were inspired by the seminal work of three British researchers who won the 2016 Noble Prize in Physics for their work, which teased out that particular properties of matter (such as electrical conductivity) can be preserved in certain materials despite continuous changes in the matter's form or shape. [21] Researchers at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have developed a new technology for switching heat flows 'on' or 'off'. [20] Thermoelectric materials can use thermal differences to generate electricity. Now there is an inexpensive and environmentally friendly way of producing them with the simplest tools: a pencil, photocopy paper, and conductive paint. [19]
Category: Quantum Physics

[84] viXra:1807.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 16:00:14

The Mesogranulation Convective Power Spectrum

Authors: Laurence J. November
Comments: 17 Pages.

Some authors have pointed out that the observed spectrum of long-lived solar horizontal velocity shows only a single peak at wavelength ≃35 Mm, ‘supergranulation’. However the corresponding verticalvelocity spectrum looks very different with power shifted to higher wavenumber in a broad divided peak representing a range of plume sizes or half wavelengths from 4–12 Mm, i.e. ‘mesogranulation’. Vertical-velocity spectra derived from the Hathaway et al. (2000) SOHO-MDI 62 day full-disk Dopplervelocity spectrum and based upon the Koutchmy (1994) granulation intensity spectrum show expected Kolmogorov-inertial and eddy-noise power-law wavenumber subranges, giving evidence for energy injection into the vertical flow around three coherent length scales &1.01, 5.4, and 10.5 Mm, i.e. granulation, and ‘mesogranular’ and ‘supergranular’ subsurface counterparts. The three energy-injection scales correspond reasonably to interior-model convective mixing lengths for H I, He I, and He II 50% ionization depths, respectively. The two larger scales are nearly one-to-two also suggestive of a possible resonant overtone structure. The horizontal supergranulation flow seems evident as a distinct scale of eddy noise without energy injection around wavelength 45.3 Mm, consistent with the first subharmonic of the supergranular subsurface counterpart.
Category: Astrophysics

[83] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-03 05:25:31

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every differentiable symmetry of action, there exists a corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. If we consider charge as a conserved quantity, it means existence of symmetry, and we can consider one more axis. In this paper, we consider an extension to five dimensions by using results of the ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with an alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged five-dimensional metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge, and angular momentum exactly.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[82] viXra:1807.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:33:34

Leadership and Decision Making in Crisis in the Global Era: How Leadership Nowadays Can Encourage the Development of Business?

Authors: Evangelia Fragouli
Comments: 21 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Leadership and decision making processes shape, influence and develop companies to gain competitive advantage, be profitable, promote sustainability and ultimately develop business. In the wake of globalisation, business are more susceptible to financial, legal, political, environmental, social and economic crises due to external and internal forces within and outside companies. The main objective of the research paper was to critically analyse the statement ‘Leadership & decision making in crisis in the global era: how leadership nowadays can encourage the development of business?’. An overview of leadership and decision making models applied in organizations are presented outlining challenges and issues that hinder business development. The study explores on the issues that might cause crisis in organizations and make leaders' decision making process more difficult. Moreover, it elaborates on the actions and the skills that a leader nowadays must acquire with the ultimate purpose to avoid future mistakes and develop organisations. A qualitative research methodology is applied based on critical literature review. The study concludes that the crises facing business discredit the current leadership practice, however they also provide a platform to formulate new paradigms to develop business. Keywords: Crisis, Leadership, Decision Making, Business JEL Classification: M0
Category: Economics and Finance

[81] viXra:1807.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:36:09

On Complex Dynamics of Regional Interaction

Authors: Georges Sarafopoulos
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper we consider the interaction between regions during the implementation of a reform on regional development through a discrete – time duopoly game with heterogeneous players. The existence and stability of equilibria of this system are studied. We show that a parameter of the system may change the stability of equilibrium and cause a structure to behave chaotically. For the low values of this parameter the game has a stable Nash equilibrium. Increasing these values, the Nash equilibrium becomes unstable, through period-doubling bifurcation. The complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by computing numerically Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Keywords: Regional Development, Institutional Reforms of Local Governments, Game Theory, Nash Equilibrium, Discrete Dynamical System; Chaotic Behavior. JEL Classification: C61, C72, R11
Category: Economics and Finance

[80] viXra:1807.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:38:08

Job Burnout and Motivation Among of Greek Bank Employees

Authors: Konstantinos Varsanis, Panagiotis Serdaris
Comments: 19 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The present investigation aims to study the feelings of job satisfaction experienced by bank employees in Greece. In addition, it is studied how much the above feelings are affected by several demographic factors, like gender, age, educational level, years of experience in the specific institution, total years of experience and position held in the specific institution. The method which was preferred in the frame of the study was the quantitative research method. The tool which was used for the measurement of job satisfaction was the Employee Satisfaction Inventory, ESI, created by Koustelios, 1991. It included 24 questions, which measure six dimensions of job satisfaction: 1. Working conditions (5 items), 2. Earnings (4 items), 3. Promotions (3 items), 4. Nature of work (4 items), 5. Immediate superior (4 items) and 6. The institution as a whole (4 items) (total Chronbach’s α = 0.75). The responses were given in a five-level Likert scale: 1 = I strongly disagree, 5 = I strongly agree. The sample of the present study consisted of 230 employees of Greek banks and credit institutions. The results of the study showed that the feelings of job satisfaction experienced by Greek bank employees occur in quite high levels. Furthermore, it was found that job satisfaction is affected by several demographic characteristics, like age, gender, educational level and position held by the employee. However, further investigation should be carried out in the Greek population, so that the phenomenon of job satisfaction is well studied and promoted. Keywords: motivation, burnout, bank employees, Greece JEL Classification: J 21, J 24, J28, M 12, M54
Category: Economics and Finance

[79] viXra:1807.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:39:52

Managing Crisis or Crisis in Crisis Management? the Influence of Crisis on Greek and Foreign Companies that Operate in Greece

Authors: Evangelia Fragouli, Maria Kolonia
Comments: 41 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The austerity packages that have been implemented in Greece since 2010 have been a factor causing political and social turbulence in the country. The present study investigates the influence of crisis on companies that operate in Greece and examines how this has been managed till now. An empirical study to a sample of employees working in Greek and foreign companies that operate in Greece demonstrates the preparedness or lack of preparedness of these companies and the implementation of possible crisis management plans and policies during the Greek economic crisis. The findings indicate that most of the Greek companies were not prepared and do not manage the crisis successfully. Foreign companies have managed the stressful situation more successfully. The paper suggests that crisis management requires strategic actions to be taken towards a desirable resolution to the problem. Managers have to develop organizational systems and be able to detect early warning signals and enable them to be better prepared for crisis events. This study has also shown that a crisis in managing crisis situation is possible to happen, when companies and corporate management teams do not develop crisis management plans on time. Keywords: crisis, management, leadership, business, influence, planning JEL Classification: M0
Category: Economics and Finance

[78] viXra:1807.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:41:59

On the Evolution of Institutional Reforms in a Region: a Bounded Rational Approach

Authors: Georges Sarafopoulos
Comments: 9 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The paper considers the evolution of institutional reforms in a region during the implementation of a reform, on regional development. In previous work (Sarafopoulos and Ioannidis, 2014) we examined the evolution of the reforms on a region through a difference equation and we demonstrated that the slope of the tax function may change the stability of equilibrium and cause a structure to behave chaotically. In this article we show that by introducing a new parameter we can control the previous instability. For values of the slope which in the previous case created instability resulting a stable equilibrium. But also we prove that the new parameter generates instability and chaos. For some values of this parameter there is a locally stable equilibrium which is the value that maximizes the profit function of the local government. Increasing these values, the equilibrium becomes unstable, through period-doubling bifurcation. The complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by computing numerically Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions. Keywords:Regional Development, Institutional Reforms of Local Governments, Difference Equation, Equilibrium, Stability, Chaotic Behavior. JEL Classification: C61, C62, D42
Category: Economics and Finance

[77] viXra:1807.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:44:33

Museum Atmospherics: a Marketing and an Interpretive Tool

Authors: Kali Tzortzi
Comments: 11 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

In the competitive leisure marketplace, in which museums play a key role, architecture can add value to their experience and contribute to their ‘differential advantage’. Increasingly museum buildings are being addressed in the marketing literature not only as influencing the positive image of visitors and their intention to revisit, but also as affecting their experience of the museum display. This paper aims to further this idea and explore how the building’s physical and spatial form can add new dimensions to the meaning-making of the museum. Literature from different fields is brought together in the first part of the paper and the key concepts of museum atmospherics and the related model of servicescape are discussed as the theoretical background for this exploration. The paper takes as case studies two European museums which present aspects of the city’s history and share in common the character of their buildings as landmarks, their innovative spatial design, and the sensory qualities of their architecture. It shows how in both cases the museum’s powerful narrative is not in the discursive dimension of the experience of the exhibits, but in the holistic experience of the spatial setting, which visitors are invited to explore, with affective as well as cognitive outcomes. Through the analysis, the paper brings to the surface common paired themes between consumption and museum settings, such as atmosphere and tangible product, spatial layout and functioning, physical environment and distinctiveness, rational and embodied. Keywords: museum architecture; marketing; atmospherics; servicescape; spatial layout JEL Classification: M39
Category: Economics and Finance

[76] viXra:1807.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:45:53

Study on Expressway Marketization in China

Authors: Hongqian Feng, Xiaojun Guo
Comments: 9 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Expressway is the national traffic artery and one of the monopoly basic industries, promoted the development of the economy. Expressway operation is in the initial stage, the country has long been dominated by the operation and management, has been followed by the pace of the times and slowly changing.With the development and accomplishment of Market Economy, many new forms continue to emerge: Expressway and Bridge toll, Sino foreign joint ventures, paid transfer, joint ventures, BOT model etc. But the operation of the expressway is still state-owned in China. Government-oriented operating mode have its advantages, but more disadvantages as well such as high operation cost, low efficiency, rent-seeking and expansion issues also can not be ignored. Therefore, through the analysis of expressway history and its present situation, comparing the advantages and disadvantages between the state-owned expressway operating mode and that of the marketization, we conclude that expressway in China is facing operation mechanism reform and its marketization is imperative. Keywords: Expressway, Marketization, Operation mode JEL Classification: R40, R49
Category: Economics and Finance

[75] viXra:1807.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:47:22

Male-Female Wage Differentials: Discrimination or Quality Differentials?

Authors: Dimitrios A. Giannias
Comments: 11 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This paper presents a quality theory for labor that is offered for obtaining estimates of the demand for labor quality and testing whether there is feminist wage discrimination and whether labor quality depends on sex. The approach is instructive for understanding the workings of a hedonic labor market framework, offers closed form solutions, and allows the introduction of nonlinearities in the analysis. Keywords: hedonic pricing, quality differentials, product quality, labor quality, equilibrium model JEL Classification: J2, J3, D11
Category: Economics and Finance

[74] viXra:1807.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:48:59

A Perspective on the Anti-Corruption Accumulated Fund System: an Example of Jiangmen City in China

Authors: Nuan Lu, Wanxian Li
Comments: 11 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This paper attempts to analyze the questions about the AAFS (anti-corruption accumulated fund system) of Jiangmen and corresponding constructive solutions. Especially, it investigates the content of the AAFS of Jiangmen City. The main finding is that there are four questions about the AAFS of Jiangmen city, such us fairness, impartiality, rationality and effectiveness. The paper suggests that in China, to develop the AAFS, the government should guide the public to face the AAFS squarely, enhance public participation and perfect relevant supporting systems. Keywords: anti-corruption accumulated fund system, Jiangmen city, anti-corruption JEL Classification: H4
Category: Economics and Finance

[73] viXra:1807.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:51:07

Monitoring Balanced Development: the Case of Post-Socialist Countries

Authors: Dimitrios Giannias, George Giannias
Comments: 33 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This paper presents an index based methodology which is offered for analysing interregional differences, identifying suitable combination of policies, investigating ex-post whether there is progress towards convergence and balanced development, and suggesting possible changes in the allocation of funds by international organisations. The objective is to operationalize aspects of development and to show how these can be integrated into practical decision-making and analysis. As an illustration, the methodology is applied the case of the post-socialist countries of the Former Soviet Union (FSU). Keywords: balanced development, post-socialist countries JEL Classification: O10, O20, O40, O50, D10
Category: Economics and Finance

[72] viXra:1807.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:52:47

Study on the Supervision Mechanism of Public Policy Implementation in China

Authors: Wang Xin, Li Wanxian
Comments: 7 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The analysis of public policy is a dynamic process, which includes public policy constituting, implementing and so on. Before the mid 1970s, the majority of experts and scholars were more concerned about the public policy formulation, but in practice, people gradually found the effect of public policy implementation. The latest study on public policy implementation turns to the supervision mechanism in order to strengthen the healthy, high efficient public policy implementation and combating corruption. Therefore, by reviewing the past literature on the supervision mechanism of public policy implementation and analyzing the dilemmas that China is facing, conclusions and countermeasures are discussed. Keywords: Public policy implementation; supervision mechanism; Policy analysis. JEL Classification: H00
Category: Economics and Finance

[71] viXra:1807.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:55:07

Implementation of Public Policy on the Di@vgeia (Clarity) Program in Greece: a Pure Bottom up Organizational and Procedural Model

Authors: Vasiliki Ntalakou
Comments: 15 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Greek Public Policy on the di@vgeia (Clarity) program is based on Law 3861/2010 which was issued in June 2010. Although the agenda setting and formulation stages of this specific public policy were not affected by the economic crisis policy discourse, through its implementation stage it is perceived as a core initiative for fighting corruption and enhancing transparency on public spending and public administration activity in general. Di@vgeia initiative is conceived as a unique case of implementation success in Greece. This paper attempts to analyze the core characteristics of the program that form the bottom-up approach in the implementation stage. Especially, it investigates the implementation of the program which was based on a project management model consisting of a network of action and result - oriented management teams, one in each public agency (Project Task Forces). At the same time, the legislation provides that the core responsibility for uploading every act on the internet relies on the person or administrative body who is responsible for issuing it. This means that any administrative official on whatever level of administrative structure (e.g. ministry, local authority, legal entity etc) that has the authority to issue an act, is also responsible for assessing, based on a series of criteria, whether the document should be uploaded or not. Once the document is uploaded on the internet, every citizen can have a clear picture and opinion on the administrative action of the specific body or person. The main finding is that the bottom–up approach on implementing this specific public policy results in a maximum accountability of administrative officials on the quality of the documents, their formal characteristics and the administrative processes followed. The paper suggests that this model is also performed in other similar public policy initiatives relating to great horizontal public administration involvement. Keywords: Public policy cycle; Public policy implementation; Policy change; Bottom up approach; Di@vgeia (clarity) project;Street level bureaucrats JEL Classification: H11, KO, L880
Category: Economics and Finance

[70] viXra:1807.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:56:48

Environmentally Optimal Local Water Markets

Authors: Dimitrios A. Giannias
Comments: 27 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

A model is presented that incorporates water quantity and quality aspects and a market based system is developed to characterize optimum water allocations between two regions or countries or among users within a region. A methodology is developed to compute the market water quantity and quality price that would prevail in a local market and the methodology is illustrated using the water allocation problem between Greece and Bulgaria concerning Nestos river. Keywords: optimal allocation, water market, water quality JEL Classification: Q58, D1, D2
Category: Economics and Finance

[69] viXra:1807.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 23:58:34

A Survey on the PUBLIC’S Smoking and Smoking Control in Handan City, China

Authors: Yang Mengjie, Wanxian Li
Comments: 9 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Smoke control is a worldwide trend and smoking prohibition in public places has aroused widespread attention, but China is the country with biggest tobacco production and consumption. Therefore smoke control in China is more difficult than any other country in the world. With the method of observing smoking in bus stop, express railway, some hospitals and restaurants, this paper analyses the reasons of smoking, and puts forward the corresponding countermeasures and suggestions for promoting and protecting the public health. Keywords: Public places; Smoking; smoke control, Smoking prohibition; Measures; Public health JEL Classification: H00
Category: Economics and Finance

[68] viXra:1807.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 00:01:22

Literature Review on Urban Integration of the Rural Workers in China

Authors: Yawei Song, Wanxian Li
Comments: 9 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Social integration refers to the individual integrated into a social group, and complied with the social groups and social rules and eventually reduced the possibility of alienation. The new generation of rural migrant workers in China is generally born after 1980s, their age above 16, the young labor force whose household registration belonged to rural areas while working in the urban districts. Compared with the traditional rural migrant workers, the new generation has both subjective and objective advantages and are more easier to integrate into the city, With the continuous progress of urbanization in China, the problems of rural migrant workers has become the focus of attention. Summaries and comments are given toward the past research, and some creative ideas are also discussed. Keywords:urbanization, migrant, rural-worker, labor, integrate, city JEL Classification: L
Category: Economics and Finance

[67] viXra:1807.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 00:03:03

Regional Analysis of Standards of Living and Inequalities in Greece and the Allocation of eu Funding

Authors: George Giannias
Comments: 38 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Regional indices get special attention because of their all inclusive nature which focuses on variables that are able to describe a region and indicate the level of its development. An analysis of consumer’s decision making indicates that the weights used for the regional variables considered and included in the index should not vary across regions. Given this, a regional index is computed for the 10 major regions of Greece assuming that all variables incorporated in it are equally weighted. The values of all variables considered are scaled from 0 - 100, so that the index is independent of units of measurement. According to the adapted regional index, the Athens Region is on the top of the ranking followed by Crete, Macedonia, Thessalia, Aegean Islands, Thrace, Peloponnisos, Sterea Ellada and Evia, Ionian Islands, and Epirus. A comparison of the regional indices with the per capita European Union funding indicates that the allocation of funds supports the integration process within Greece. Finally, an analysis of the actual versus the planned spending of the European Union funding indicates the low project management capabilities of the local (regional) administration in all cases. Keywords: standards of living, inequalities, European Union funding JEL Classification: R50
Category: Economics and Finance

[66] viXra:1807.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 00:05:28

The Aftermath of the “SICKLE-to-TIE” Process in Greece: What do Merchandise Export Trends Suggest?

Authors: Dimitrios KARKANIS
Comments: 49 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The weak industrialization process of the Greek economy was reflected through the rapid transition from the formerly dominant agricultural production (the “sickle”) to the expansion of the service sector (the “tie”), mainly in terms of sectoral labor distribution during the last decades. This paper highlights the individual components of the recent upward trend regarding the Greek merchandise exports, through a stepwise decomposition of the total merchandise export value to those regarding the main exported products. This in turn leads to the identification of recent export growth prospects for more sophisticated manufactured products, related to the country’s weak industrial base. Keywords: Greece, Merchandise exports, Manufacturing trade, Agri-food exports, Global economic crisis JEL Classification: F10, F44, Q17
Category: Economics and Finance

[65] viXra:1807.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 00:08:04

A Time Series Analysis of the Nexus Between Macroeconomic Fundamentals and Stock Prices in Nigeria

Authors: Amassoma Ditimi, Bolarinwa Ifeoluwa
Comments: 35 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Since macroeconomic fundamentals have been found to play a vital role for changes in the economy of a country. Consequently, the onus is on the appropriate regulatory authorities to take measures in making amendments in these policies to put the economy on the right development track. The aim of this study is to use time series analysis to empirically showcase the nexus between macroeconomic fundamentals and stock prices in Nigeria. The method used for this study was the Co-integration test and the EGARCH technique to estimate the possible influence of the selected macroeconomic fundamentals on stock prices. Volatility was captured by using quarterly data and estimated using GARCH (1,1) respectively. The study found there is a positive relationship between macroeconomic factors and stock prices in Nigeria. Therefore, the study recommends that the Federal authority should put in place policy measures that will enable the exchange rate to be relatively stabilized. This is because empirical evidence from studies has shown that exchange rate affects stock market prices. In addition, the government authority should ensure an enabling environment that would build the mindset of institutional investors in the Nigerian stock market due to the existence of information asymmetry problems among potential investors. Key words: Time series Model, Stock Market, EGARCH, Macroeconomic Policy, Nigeria, Financial Market, E-views, Macroeconomic impact JEL Classification: C11, C87, E61, F62, O55, G12
Category: Economics and Finance

[64] viXra:1807.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 00:10:18

The Volatility of Market Risk in Vietnam Listed Consumer Good Company Groups During and After the Financial Crisis 2007-2009

Authors: Dinh TRAN NGOC HUY
Comments: 32 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This study estimates market risk of total 228 listed companies in Viet Nam consumer good industry during the financial crisis period 2007-2009. Firstly, we found out in the research sample that there are 86% of firms, of total listed firms, with beta values lower than (<) 1, meaning with lower risk, and the systemic risk is acceptable. Secondly, there are 14% among total 228 listed firms, whose beta values higher than (>) 1, meaning having stock returns fluctuating more than the market benchmark. Thirdly, among three (3) groups, the systemic risk in the material and consumer good industry is the smallest, shown by estimated values of equity and asset beta mean, and asset beta variance in the wholesale and retail industry is the smallest. Finally, this paper generates some analytical outcomes that enable companies and government to have more evidence in establishing their policies in investments and in governance Keywords: equity beta, financial structure, financial crisis, risk, asset beta, consumer good industry JEL Classification: G010, G100, G390
Category: Economics and Finance

[63] viXra:1807.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 01:00:18

Rydberg Energy Pascals

Authors: David E. Fuller
Comments: 2 Pages.

Fluid Solution based on Rydberg Energy & Pressure Energy/Volume = Pressure 6.6770876e-11/G = 1.00045064 ((((4pi) / 3) * (8.21756238e+85 pascals)) / ((c^7) / (hbar * (G^2)))) / 2 = 3.71463095e-28 kg/m^3 = Friedmann Density (6.67708761e-11 pascals/(2*3.71463095e-28 kg/m^3))^0.5 = c KronosPrime@outlook.com http://vixra.org/author/david_e_fuller
Category: Quantum Physics

[62] viXra:1807.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 04:46:50

Pump Up Quantum Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Quantum Physics

[61] viXra:1807.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 05:45:39

The Principle of Discreteness of Time \\\\\ Принцип дискретности времени

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 12 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> The Principle of Discreteness of Time July 4, 2018

In this article, the author gives his understanding of the device of the time of nature on the Planck scale of being. Nature brilliantly united in herself three of its main essences discrete matter, continuous movement and continuous time. The quantum of matter, the quantum of time, and the quantum of action are the three main components of nature at the micro level. The main problem that is solved within the framework of this article can be formulated as follows: "On the permissible intervals of time in nature". ++++++++++++++++++++++++ В настоящей статье автор приводит своё понимание устройства времени природы на планковском масштабе бытия. Природа блестяще соединила в себе три свои главные сущности дискретную материю, непрерывное движение и непрерывное время. Квант материи, квант времени, и квант действия вот три главные составляющие природы на микроуровне. Основная проблема, которая решается в рамках настоящей статьи может быть сформулирована так «О допустимых интервалах времени в природе».
Category: Classical Physics

[60] viXra:1807.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-04 05:46:34

Faster Big-Data Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A research team at Korea's Daegu Gyeongbuk Institute of Science and Technology (DGIST) succeeded in analyzing big data up to 1,000 times faster than existing technology by using GPU-based 'GMiner' technology. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15] The researchers engineered diamond strings that can be tuned to quiet a qubit's environment and improve memory from tens to several hundred nanoseconds, enough time to do many operations on a quantum chip. [14] Intel has announced the design and fabrication of a 49-qubit superconducting quantum-processor chip at the Consumer Electronics Show in Las Vegas. To improve our understanding of the so-called quantum properties of materials, scientists at the TU Delft investigated thin slices of SrIrO3, a material that belongs to the family of complex oxides. [12] New research carried out by CQT researchers suggest that standard protocols that measure the dimensions of quantum systems may return incorrect numbers. [11] Is entanglement really necessary for describing the physical world, or is it possible to have some post-quantum theory without entanglement? [10] A trio of scientists who defied Einstein by proving the nonlocal nature of quantum entanglement will be honoured with the John Stewart Bell Prize from the University of Toronto (U of T). [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Artificial Intelligence

[59] viXra:1807.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 06:26:33

Matter and Antimatter Light Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

It is one of the greatest mysteries in the universe: Why is there so much more matter than antimatter? [39] From the data collected by the LHCb detector at the Large Hadron Collider, it appears that the particles known as charm mesons and their antimatter counterparts are not produced in perfectly equal proportions. [38] The OPERA experiment, located at the Gran Sasso Laboratory of the Italian National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN), was designed to conclusively prove that muon-neutrinos can convert to tau-neutrinos, through a process called neutrino oscillation, whose discovery was awarded the 2015 Nobel Physics Prize. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino—the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[58] viXra:1807.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 08:33:38

Quantum Decipher Electron Spectrometer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

Using photoelectron spectrometers, solid-state physicists and material developers can discover more about such electron-based processes. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[57] viXra:1807.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 08:36:51

Theory of Relativity (In Russian)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 340 Pages. In Russian

Special theory of relativity (without the second postulate). The possibility of constructing a STR without the second postulate is considered. The necessity of abandoning the metric factorization of the properties of space-time relations in favor of affine relations is discussed. And from the analysis of the "Twin paradox" it is proposed to distinguish between dynamic and evolutionary ordering time factors. General theory of relativity (principles). Discusses the principles of GTR as a generalization of STR, and the principles of Relativistic Theory of Gravity (RTG) as a theory of filling GTR of metric specifics.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[56] viXra:1807.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 08:47:53

Quantum Mechanics (Principles)

Authors: V.A.Kasimov
Comments: 136 Pages. in Russian

The aim of this work is to present the basic principles of non-relativistic quantum mechanics, the principles that make up its indestructible structure, to place emphasis, of course, of the author, and with intonations relating to the space-time relations in physics.
Category: Quantum Physics

[55] viXra:1807.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 09:09:05

Heavier Elements Made in the Cosmos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Nuclear binding energies of several rare-earth isotopes have been measured for the first time. [9] Analyses of the gravitational waves from the neutron star merger observed by LIGO and Virgo improve models describing the dense nuclear matter inside a neutron star. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[54] viXra:1807.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 10:20:03

Quantum Revolutionise Cybersecurity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Cyberattacks may become impossible with the creation of the first practical quantum random number generator. [39] A team led by Austrian experimental physicist Rainer Blatt has succeeded in characterizing the quantum entanglement of two spatially separated atoms by observing their light emission. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Quantum Physics

[53] viXra:1807.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 12:10:52

Healthy Red Blood Cells

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 60 Pages.

An interdisciplinary, international team of researchers including Northwestern Engineering professor Petia Vlahovska has discovered that healthy red blood cells assemble into a two-dimensional crystal pattern whereas pathological red blood cells succumb to disorder. [32] The discovery could help us better understand aging and eventually could lead to new treatments for cancer. [31] A research team at the University of Delaware, led by Emily Day, an assistant professor of biomedical engineering, is laying the groundwork for a method to inhibit cancer-promoting genes in cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact. [30] Researchers have moved closer to the real-time verification of hadron therapy, demonstrating the in vivo accuracy of simulations that predict particle range in the patient. [29] A biomimetic nanosystem can deliver therapeutic proteins to selectively target cancerous tumors, according to a team of Penn State researchers. [28] Sunlight is essential for all life, and living organisms have evolved to sense and respond to light. [27] Using X-ray laser technology, a team led by researchers of the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI has recorded one of the fastest processes in biology. [26] A Virginia Commonwealth University researcher has developed a procedure for identifying the source of cells present in a forensic biological sample that could change how cell types are identified in samples across numerous industries. [25] In work at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and the University of Maryland in College Park, researchers have devised and demonstrated a new way to measure free energy. [24] A novel technique developed by researchers at the ARC Centre of Excellence for Nanoscale BioPhotonics (CNBP) will help shine new light on biological questions by improving the quality and quantity of information that can be extracted in fluorescence microscopy. [23]
Category: Physics of Biology

[52] viXra:1807.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 12:18:14

Inverted Sum of the 7-Golden Pattern

Authors: Zeolla Gabriel Martín
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper develops the divisibility of the so-called Simple Primes numbers (1 to 9), this paper is the continuation of the Golden Pattern. In this summary I will show that the inverted sum ordered by columns maintains amazing equivalences and proportions
Category: Number Theory

[51] viXra:1807.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 15:52:01

Special Relativity in Complex Space-Time. Part 3. Description of Complex Space-Time Phenomena in the Real Coordinate System of the Observer.

Authors: Jozef Radomanski
Comments: 26 Pages.

The current article is a next stage of construction of the alternative Special Relativity. The problems of Special Theory of Relativity (STR) arise from their colliding assumptions. The correct postulates of STR do not match the seemingly obvious assumption that space-time is real. In our articles, we try to prove the hypothesis that space-time has a complex structure, and the real one is only locally in a system related to an observer. The misleading impression that space-time is real results from the fact that the information carrier is energy that is always real. This article shows how the complex space-time phenomena can be seen by the observer in his real coordinate system. The concept of realisation of the complex orthogonal paravector, which represents a compound boost, to the form of the real velocity paravector has been introduced on the basis of energy equivalence . The realisation of coordinates of the state paravectors of any object is interpreted as a choice of real coordinates in the observer's frame, which in classical mechanics corresponds to the choice of the object's axis of motion with which the coordinates of the motion of another object are distributed. Mathematical properties of realisation are studied and an attempt to apply it to describe the physical object states.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[50] viXra:1807.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 16:18:53

Sum of the First N Factorial Numbers

Authors: Alfredo Olmos hHernández
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article, we proceed to study and apply the properties of the Gamma function to obtain a formula that allows us to calculate the sum of the first n factorial numbers.
Category: Number Theory

[49] viXra:1807.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 20:34:31

Refutation of Vongehr's Paradigm Shift Rendering QM "Natural" Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

"Totality encompasses the total of all ossibilities. Something impossible is, for example, the square of a real number being negative. The impossible is always unobservable, but the observable/unobservable distinction should differ somehow from the ossible/impossible one, in order to be significant language. Thus, we separate “possible” from “observable”: Some unobservable is possible" The argument above is refuted as not tautologous.
Category: Quantum Physics

[48] viXra:1807.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 23:08:38

Definition of Nothing in Mathematical Logic Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. Copyright © 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. Note that comments on Disqus are not forwarded or read, so respond to author's email address: info@cec-services dot com.

Nothing is defined as "not necessarily a thing". This leads to how to collect not everything as nothing in multiple variables into a larger nothing variable, implying a set of nothing as a null set. We write this as nothing in p and nothing in q and nothing in r are all greater than nothing in s: ((~#p&~#q)&~#r)>~#s TTTT TTTT CTTT TTTT. As rendered, this is not tautologous, although nearly so with one deviant C contingency (falsity) value. Hence a collection of nothing does not imply anything outside itself. By extension, the null set is not logically feasible and cannot exist: a collection must contain something even though it is nothing.
Category: Set Theory and Logic

[47] viXra:1807.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-02 23:53:20

Gravitational Effect on the Final Stellar to Planetary Mass Ratio

Authors: Steven Suan Zhu
Comments: 35 Pages. This is the 2nd version originally published on Feb 26th, 2018 on Researchgate, DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.32829.77288

The discovery of exoplanets and possible future detection of exomoons led to the question if any relationship holds between the mass of its host star and mass of its planets. That is, if the mass of planets is constrained by the final mass of the hosting star. If relationship such as this exists, then several key questions can be answered. First of all, based on the mass of the star, what is the upper limit mass budget available for the creation of terrestrial planets. Secondly, if we know the mass budget availability, then what is the upper limit of the mass budget for the water in the system. Thirdly, finding the probability of the formation of exomoons with sizes comparable to earth around Jovian planets. Fourthly, explaining the rare occurrence of Jupiter sized planets around red dwarf systems.
Category: Astrophysics

[46] viXra:1807.0048 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 02:58:32

First Tables of the Inverter, Oct. 1988

Authors: Simon Plouffe
Comments: 48 Pages.

These are scans of my pages of the inverter in 1988, they were done on a Mac 512 with diskettes and paper (about 1 foot thick). The main catalog was on Hypercard. The format at the time was 41 digits in scientific notation and some acronyms for constants ND = golden ratio sqr = sqrt EG = exp(gamma) s = sin c = cos
Category: Number Theory

[45] viXra:1807.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 03:33:21

DNA Repair Protein

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology.
Category: Physics of Biology

[44] viXra:1807.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 04:19:51

Genome Editing Control

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

A biological switch that reliably turns protein expression on at will has been invented by University of Bath and Cardiff University scientists. [21] Now, in a new paper published in Nature Structural & Molecular Biology, Mayo researchers have determined how one DNA repair protein gets to the site of DNA damage. [20] A microscopic thread of DNA evidence in a public genealogy database led California authorities to declare this spring they had caught the Golden State Killer, the rapist and murderer who had eluded authorities for decades. [19] Researchers at Delft University of Technology, in collaboration with colleagues at the Autonomous University of Madrid, have created an artificial DNA blueprint for the replication of DNA in a cell-like structure. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11]
Category: Physics of Biology

[43] viXra:1807.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-03 04:55:52

Quantum Gas Phases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Physicists at ETH Zurich have developed an experimental platform for studying the complex phases of a quantum gas characterized by two order parameters. [14] Now, a team at JQI led by postdoctoral researcher Seiji Sugawa and JQI Fellow Ian Spielman have succeeded in emulating a Yang monopole with an ultracold gas of rubidium atoms. [13] Scientists at Amherst College (USA) and Aalto University (Finland) have made the first experimental observations of the dynamics of isolated monopoles in quantum matter. [12] Building on his own previous research, Amherst College professor David S. Hall '91 and a team of international collaborators have experimentally identified a pointlike monopole in a quantum field for the first time. The discovery, announced this week, gives scientists further insight into the elusive monopole magnet, an elementary particle that researchers believe exists but have not yet seen in nature. [11] For the first time, physicists have achieved interference between two separate atoms: when sent towards the opposite sides of a semi-transparent mirror, the two atoms always emerge together. This type of experiment, which was carried out with photons around thirty years ago, had so far been impossible to perform with matter, due to the extreme difficulty of creating and manipulating pairs of indistinguishable atoms. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Physics

[42] viXra:1807.0044 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 05:33:58

Quantum Entanglement on Demand

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Researchers at QuTech in Delft have succeeded in generating quantum entanglement between two quantum chips faster than the entanglement is lost. Entanglement - once referred to by Einstein as "spooky action" - forms the link that will provide a future quantum internet its power and fundamental security. Via a novel smart entanglement protocol and careful protection of the entanglement, the scientists led by Prof. Ronald Hanson are the first in the world to deliver such a quantum link ‘on demand’. This opens the door to connect multiple quantum nodes and create the very first quantum network in the world. They publish their results on 14 June in Nature.
Category: Quantum Physics

[41] viXra:1807.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 07:05:12

Bacteria Surviving Antibiotics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

For bacteria facing a dose of antibiotics, timing might be the key to evading destruction. In a series of experiments, Princeton researchers found that cells that repaired DNA damaged by antibiotics before resuming growth had a much better chance of surviving treatment. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10] Nearly 75 years ago, Nobel Prize-winning physicist Erwin Schrödinger wondered if the mysterious world of quantum mechanics played a role in biology. A recent finding by Northwestern University's Prem Kumar adds further evidence that the answer might be yes. [9]
Category: Physics of Biology

[40] viXra:1807.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 07:34:17

THz Spectroscopy Water's Anomalies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[39] viXra:1807.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 08:14:58

The Universe and Large Numbers :Arithmetics of Physical Constants

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 8 Pages.

It’s about the large numbers associated to the field of cosmology and the field of physical constants under an arithmetical point of view . In this paper we have performed an equation that gives an account of some of the previously mentioned concepts . The summarized equation reads : (30[(A-B)+ C])/C=1/α . Inside this equation there are implicitly : the number of photons in the observable universe , the current energy associated to the cosmic microwave backgroud , a parameter that defines a space’s expansion factor , gravitational potential energy of the matter , the number of atoms in the obsevable universe and the energy associated to the electrons of the observable universe . Finally , the arithmetic combination among such topics give a surprising result : the inverse of fine structure constant .
Category: Classical Physics

[38] viXra:1807.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 08:31:24

Experimental Test of the Free Will Theorem (Russian Version)

Authors: Bi-Heng Liu, Xiao-Min Hu, Jiang-Shan Chen, Yun-Feng Huang, Yong-Jian Han
Comments: 12 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from https://arxiv.org/pdf/1603.08254v1.pdf

Here we present an experiment which, firstly, demonstrates single-particle contextuality on the particles in one laboratory. Then, since our particles have been previously entangled with other particles in a distant laboratory, we can also reveal the EPR correlations between both laboratories. Interestingly, even though the correlations in the first laboratory can be explained by LHV theories, and the EPR correlations between the two laboratories can be explained by LHV theories, we show that there is no LHV theory explaining both of them. Our experiment is a test of the free will theorem since it implements the conditions under which axiom (i) applies, then checks axioms (ii) and (iii), and finally reveals an extreme violation of the predictions of theories in which elementary particles have no free will.
Category: Quantum Physics

[37] viXra:1807.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 08:34:57

The Free Will Theorem (Russian Version)

Authors: John Conway, Simon Kochen
Comments: 21 Pages. Russian translation by V.A. Kasimov from https://arxiv.org/pdf/quant-ph/0604079v1.pdf

On the basis of three physical axioms, we prove that if the choice of a particular type of spin 1 experiment is not a function of the information accessible to the experimenters, then its outcome is equally not a function of the information accessible to the particles. We show that this result is robust, and deduce that neither hidden variable theories nor mechanisms of the GRW type for wave function collapse can be made relativistic. We also establish the consistency of our axioms and discuss the philosophical implications.
Category: Quantum Physics

[36] viXra:1807.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 08:55:57

Antena Libro

Authors: Carlos Alejandro Chiappioni
Comments: 4 Pages. English: The expenditure of money to build the antenna is minimal.

English : It is an antenna project based on new physics. The design was not decided freely. It has resulted from the conditions that, according to that new physics, optimize the transfer of energy from matter (antenna) to radiation. It has been the simplest way to meet the optimization requirements deduced from that physics. --------- Español : Es un proyecto de antena basado en física nueva. El diseño no fue decidido libremente. Ha resultado de las condiciones que, según esa física nueva, optimizan la transferencia de energía desde la materia (antena) hacia la radiación. Ha sido la manera más sencilla de cumplir los reuisitos de optimización deducidos de esa física.
Category: General Science and Philosophy

[35] viXra:1807.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 09:01:58

Precision Antibiotics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Scientists are searching for ways to develop antibiotics that can accurately target infectious bacteria. Increased specificity could help to combat antibiotic resistance and also spare "good" bacteria from being attacked by broad-spectrum antibiotics. [20] For bacteria facing a dose of antibiotics, timing might be the key to evading destruction. In a series of experiments, Princeton researchers found that cells that repaired DNA damaged by antibiotics before resuming growth had a much better chance of surviving treatment. [19] It's called gene editing, and University of Alberta researchers have just published a game-changing study that promises to bring the technology much closer to therapeutic reality. [18] An LMU team now reveals the inner workings of a molecular motor made of proteins which packs and unpacks DNA. [17] Chemist Ivan Huc finds the inspiration for his work in the molecular principles that underlie biological systems. [16] What makes particles self-assemble into complex biological structures? [15] Scientists from Moscow State University (MSU) working with an international team of researchers have identified the structure of one of the key regions of telomerase—a so-called "cellular immortality" ribonucleoprotein. [14] Researchers from Tokyo Metropolitan University used a light-sensitive iridium-palladium catalyst to make "sequential" polymers, using visible light to change how building blocks are combined into polymer chains. [13] Researchers have fused living and non-living cells for the first time in a way that allows them to work together, paving the way for new applications. [12] UZH researchers have discovered a previously unknown way in which proteins interact with one another and cells organize themselves. [11] Dr Martin Sweatman from the University of Edinburgh's School of Engineering has discovered a simple physical principle that might explain how life started on Earth. [10]
Category: Physics of Biology

[34] viXra:1807.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 09:04:41

Sunburn and Malignant Melanoma

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 25 Pages. pp. 25. Copyright © 2018 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. Published by

Background: Unfortunately, despite recent scientific advances the cause of malignant melanoma is not identified. The incidence of malignant melanoma increases and malignant melanoma continues to represent a significant individual and public health challenge. Objectives: In this systematic review studies were re-analyzed so that some new inferences can be drawn. Statistical Analysis: The method of the conditio per quam relationship was used to proof the hypothesis whether the presence of human papillomavirus guarantees the presence of malignant melanoma. In other words, if human papillomavirus is present, then malignant melanoma is present too. The mathematical formula of the causal relationship k was used to proof the hypothesis, whether there is a cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus and malignant melanoma. Significance was indicated by a p-value of less than 0.05. Results: The studies analyzed support the null-hypothesis that the presence of human papillomavirus guarantees the presence of malignant melanoma. In other words, human papillomavirus is a conditio per quam of malignant melanoma while the cause effect relationship between human papillomavirus and malignant melanoma was highly significant. Conclusions: Human papillomavirus is a sufficient condition of malignant melanoma. Human papillomavirus is a cause of malignant melanoma. Keywords: Human papillomavirus, malignant melanoma, cause effect relationship, causality
Category: Statistics

[33] viXra:1807.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 10:22:43

Water Molecules Bridges

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A team at TU Wien now has the proof behind the speculations that water molecules can form complex bridge-like structures when they accumulate on mineral surfaces. [37] Liquid water sustains life on earth, but its physical properties remain mysterious among scientific researchers. [36] Researchers from the University of Houston and the California Institute of Technology have reported an inexpensive hybrid catalyst capable of splitting water to produce hydrogen, suitable for large-scale commercialization. [35] Scientists at the University of Alberta have applied a machine learning technique using artificial intelligence to perfect and automate atomic-scale manufacturing, something which has never been done before. [34] Chemist Dr. Lars Borchardt and his team at TU Dresden recently achieved a huge breakthrough in the synthesis of nanographenes. [33] Using graphene as a light-sensitive material for light detectors offers significant improvements with respect to materials being used nowadays. [32] The precision of measuring nanoscopic structures could be substantially improved, thanks to research involving the University of Warwick and QuantIC researchers at the University of Glasgow and Heriot Watt University into optical sensing. [31] Researchers at AMOLF and the University of Texas have circumvented this problem with a vibrating glass ring that interacts with light. They thus created a microscale circulator that directionally routes light on an optical chip without using magnets. [30] Researchers have discovered three distinct variants of magnetic domain walls in the helimagnet iron germanium (FeGe). [29] Magnetic materials that form helical structures—coiled shapes comparable to a spiral staircase or the double helix strands of a DNA molecule—occasionally exhibit exotic behavior that could improve information processing in hard drives and other digital devices. [28] In a new study, researchers have designed "invisible" magnetic sensors—sensors that are magnetically invisible so that they can still detect but do not distort the surrounding magnetic fields. [27]
Category: Condensed Matter

[32] viXra:1807.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-23 05:57:29

A Covariant Formulation of the Ashtekar-Kodama Quantum Gravity and Its Solutions

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 91 Pages.

This article consists of two parts. In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints. In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity. We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn ( E-tensor, inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (A-tensor, gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) . For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon. At the horizon, the E-tensor couples to the A-tensor in the 24 Hamiltonian equations and the singularity is removed, there is instead a peak in the metric . In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for the A-tensor and the E-tensor we get a gravitational wave equation, which yields appropriate solutions only for quadrupole waves: as required by GR, the tetrad is exponentially damped , only the A-tensor carries the energy. The validity of the Einstein power formula for gravitational waves is shown for a binary black hole (binary gravitational rotator). From the horizon condition we derive the limit scale (Schwarzschild radius) of the gravitational quantum region: rgr=30μm , which emerges as the limit scale in the objective wave collapse theory of Gherardi-Rimini-Weber. We present the energy-momentum tensor, which is in agreement with the corresponding GR-expression for small wave amplitudes and is consistent with the Einstein power formula. In the quantum region r<= rgr , the Ashtekar-Kodama gravitation the theory becomes a gauge theory with the extended SU(2) (four generators) as gauge group and a corresponding covariant derivative. In the quantum region we derive the lagrangian, which is dimensionally renormalizable, the normalized one-graviton wave function, the graviton propagator, and demonstrate the calculation of cross-section from Feynman diagrams at the example of the graviton-electron scattering.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[31] viXra:1807.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 15:05:43

The SuperConducting Ether

Authors: Larry Allen West
Comments: 12 Pages. tnx

The SuperConducting Ether (SCE) reinterprets Dirac’s negative energy sea of electrons as a filled Fermi sea (FFS) of both spin-up and spin-down electron neutrinos with collective modes on the Fermi surface (FS), BCS condensation, and particles with mass and charge created when excited across the BCS energy gap. Newtonian gravitation derives from zero sound phonons with propagation velocity, s=c/√3, and with a Doppler force effect. Electric and magnetic fields are collective modes of dipolar quasi-particles and holes. The fine structure constant is interpreted to be a Thomas-Fermi many body screening effect. Special relativity is a byproduct of interactions occurring on the Fermi surface (FS) with c = vF. Quantum single pair decays cause photon propagation losses that result in a distance-dependent red shift superseding the geocentric Doppler red shift. The Fermi surface has a finite temperature that results in Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB) and Gravitational Wave Background (GWB) with black body like spectra. Particles are categorized as composites of their final stable decay products resulting in a self-consistent buildup of particle number consistent with the two-neutrino FFS. Quarks are nonexistent. Neutrino mass is disregarded. Matter and antimatter are balanced. The SCE is therefore a steady state universe. Black holes are problematic. The quantum nature and limitations of classical field theory are made evident. SI units are used for explicit expression of free space constitutive parameters. SCE is a physical realization of the Plank units.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[30] viXra:1807.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-02 07:45:23

The Unreasonable Expectation of Mathematics

Authors: August Lau
Comments: 6 Pages.

Mathematics has been highly effective in its application of formalism to the real world. It spans from physical science to data science. Mathematical algorithm affects our everyday life. Mathematization (converting data to equations or mathematical forms) has been very successful. It has led to comments like “the unreasonable effectiveness of mathematics,” but we might have “unreasonable expectation of mathematics.”
Category: General Mathematics

[29] viXra:1807.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 21:29:24

Fibonacci Oscillators and (P, q)-Deformed Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages.

The two-parameter quantum calculus used in the construction of Fibonacci oscillators is briefly reviewed before presenting the $ (p, q)$-deformed Lorentz transformations which leave invariant the Minkowski spacetime interval $ t^2 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2$. Such transformations require the introduction of three different types of exponential functions leading to the $(p, q)$-analogs of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions. The composition law of two successive Lorentz boosts (rotations) is $no$ longer additive $ \xi_3 \not= \xi_1 + \xi_2$ ( $ \theta_3 \not= \theta_1 + \theta_2$). We finalize with a discussion on quantum groups, noncommutative spacetimes, $\kappa$-deformed Poincare algebra and quasi-crystals.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] viXra:1807.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-21 16:45:37

Musics and Science

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 57 Pages. Bull Acad Int Concorde n°2, Aug 2018, Français, Russian, English

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] viXra:1807.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 23:09:59

Anticipatory Shock in the Global Economy

Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey
Comments: 1 Page.

Either way, an anticipatory shock.
Category: Economics and Finance

[26] viXra:1807.0027 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 15:31:13

Time and Reference Frame

Authors: Eric Su
Comments: 2 Pages.

Time in a reference frame can be represented by a rotating ring with constant angular velocity. The rotational motion of this ring is not affected by any acceleration parallel to its axis of rotation. The rotation period remains constant as the ring accelerates along the axis of rotation. The rotation period in the rest frame of the ring is always constant. Therefore, the rotation period is independent of reference frame. The rotation period represents the elapsed time in a reference frame. As a result, the elapsed time is also independent of reference frame. Consequently, time is independent of reference frame.
Category: Relativity and Cosmology

[25] viXra:1807.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-09 13:48:59

A Heuristic Algorithm for the Solution of SAT in Polynomial Time

Authors: Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi
Comments: 40 Pages. A primeira versão deste artigo foi meu trabalho de Métodos em Pesquisa Operacional (PM015), IMECC-UNICAMP.

Usando um novo conceito de linguagem variável, já provei anteriormente que P≠NP, mas tal prova não utilizou nenhum dos problemas clássicos conhecidos como NP-completos, a exemplo de SAT (satisfatibilidade, satisfiability), caixeiro-viajante (travelling-salesman), soma de subconjuntos (subset-sum), da mochila (knapsack), programação linear inteira (integer linear programming), etc. Tal prova não implica que sendo P≠NP então devemos ter NP-completo ∉P, ou seja, os mencionados famosos problemas difíceis podem ainda ser resolvidos em tempo polinomial, sem precisar encerrar a pesquisa nesta direção. Tal como ocorre com o método simplex, que pode resolver em tempo polinomial a grande maioria dos problemas de programação linear, também é possível resolver SAT em tempo polinomial na maioria das vezes, que é o que eu mostro neste trabalho.
Category: Data Structures and Algorithms

[24] viXra:1807.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 01:40:34

In the Search for the Minimal Time Interval of Nature\ \\\\ В поиске минимального интервала времени природы

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 10 Pages. In Russian (please learn Russian) Robert Yusupov <©> Minimal Time Interval of Nature 1 July, 2018

В настоящей статье представлены авторские рассуждения и мысленные эксперименты, которые приводят нас к пониманию существования в природе минимального количества материи и минимального интервала времени. ++++++++++++++++++ In this article, we present author's reasoning and thought experiments that lead us to an understanding of the existence in nature of a minimal amount of matter and a minimal time interval.
Category: History and Philosophy of Physics

[23] viXra:1807.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 02:36:35

Personnel Work Time Management in Organization

Authors: Galina GAGARINSKAIA, Irina KUZNETCOVA, Aleksandr GAGARINSKII
Comments: 11 Pages. published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

The authors uncover socio-economic aspects of working time management, analyze social working conditions of employees in the organization, and also show socio-economic indicators and analyze the factors affecting the work time efficiency in the organization. The article provides a methodology for planning the number of employees by category depending on the time spent to manufacture the products. Presented are the results of surveying 84% of the total number of personnel in organizations (by the quota sample: status, age, sex), and the work time balance for an employee is created. Planned and actual number of the main staff categories in the organization is given.
Category: Economics and Finance

[22] viXra:1807.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 02:41:03

Selecting Various Industrial Competitors Affect the Risk Level of Viet Nam Stock Investment Industry

Authors: Dinh TRAN NGOC HUY
Comments: 23 Pages. Published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

Under a one factor model, this paperwork estimates the impacts of the size of firms’ competitors in the stock investment industry on the market risk level, measured by equity and asset beta, of 6 listed companies in this category. This study identified that the risk dispersion level in this sample study could be minimized in case the competitor size kept as current approximate size (measured by equity beta var of 0,034). Beside, the empirical research findings show us that equity beta min value decreases from 0,247 to 0,244 when the size of competitor doubles. Last but not least, most of beta values are acceptable. Ultimately, this paper illustrates calculated results that might give proper recommendations to relevant governments and institutions in re-evaluating their policies during and after the financial crisis 2007-2011.
Category: Economics and Finance

[21] viXra:1807.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 02:43:37

The Study of Consumer Preferences of Young Tourists

Authors: Leyla Hajiyeva
Comments: 17 Pages. Published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

For Azerbaijan which has taken a course on the development of the non-oil sector, tourism is the most preferable and promising sector of the economy. The favorable geographical location between Europe and Asia and the availability of necessary natural conditions contribute to the development of various types of tourism. Оne of them is youth tourism, the study of features of which is devoted to this article. А study of the needs and preferences of young tourists is aimed at identifying the main factors affecting their decision to travel. Studуing the peculiarities of the behavior of young people, tourist enterprises can develop the most appropriate marketing strategy for them.
Category: Economics and Finance

[20] viXra:1807.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 02:46:30

An Investigation of Financing Mechanisms of Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Projects in Jordan: a Review Pape

Authors: Ayman Abdalmajeed Ahmad Al-smadi
Comments: 23 Pages. Published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

The development of renewable energy and energy efficiency is crucial to Jordan’s current and future prosperity and there are substantial opportunities to pursue green growth. Despite the progress which has been made in this regard, there are some financial barriers that face this sector. These barriers concern the lack of familiarity of renewable energy and energy efficiency technologies and practices within banks. The government of Jordan is aware of these financial difficulties and that is why a fund of renewable energy and energy efficiency has been created to provide technical assistance to energy developers and financial institutions in addition to adopting a specific loan guarantee program to tackle the perceived risks that may face the financial institutions and to encourage these institutions to extend more credit facilities to this vital sector.
Category: Economics and Finance

[19] viXra:1807.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:10:04

The Value of Strategic Commitment in Mixed Duopoly Games with a Foreign Labor-Managed Firm

Authors: Kazuhiro OHNISHI
Comments: 17 Pages. Published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

This paper investigates an economy consisting of a state-owned firm and a foreign labor-managed firm. First, the paper considers a Cournot game where only the state-owned firm is allowed to offer lifetime employment as a strategic commitment, and demonstrates that there is a stable equilibrium which is profitable only for the state-owned firm. Next, the paper examines a Cournot game where only the foreign labor-managed firm can offer lifetime employment as a strategic commitment, and shows that there are two stable equilibria. The purpose of this study is to show the value of lifetime employment as a strategic commitment.
Category: Economics and Finance

[18] viXra:1807.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:12:21

Geopolitical Conditions in the Formation of Economic and Social Development in the Balkans

Authors: Miltiades KIPAS
Comments: 21 Pages. Published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

This paper aims at demonstrating the importance of infrastructures and geopolitical factors for the development of Balkan economies. The transition from the economy of central planning, as developed in the countries of Eastern Europe, to market economy essentially resulted in the replacement of economic and social structures dominant in these countries in the period 1945-1989. This transition was noticeably different from one country to another, despite the existence of some common features; such differences being determined by the particular character of these countries; their traditions; their infrastructures or their geopolitical position. Respective infrastructures also had to readjust to the new features of market economy, as, after all, it was the necessity of competitiveness itself that led these countries to develop infrastructures. In this framework, the development of infrastructures in the Balkans was an important feature in the period of their transition to market economy. Infrastructures are fundamental for the economic development of the Balkans; however, geopolitical factors also contributed to the development and growth of Balkan economies in direct relevance with the attitudes of potential investors in the respective markets.
Category: Economics and Finance

[17] viXra:1807.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:15:12

Trends and Calendar Effects in MALAYSIA’S Stock Market

Authors: Ayman Abdalmajeed Ahmad Al-smadi, Mahmoud Khalid Almsafir, Nur Hanis Hazwani Binti Husni
Comments: 17 Pages. Published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

Investing can help a person's wealth to generate more, and investing in stock is proven as one of the most profitable forms of available investment. The benefits gained in stock broking are immediate Buy/Sell which investor can sell part of their investment any time and at low transaction cost. However, investing in stock will require investor to observe the market, as market can be a volatile place and investor need to acquire knowledge of what they actually are doing. This study will discuss the price trends over the year, and how it will get affected by the seasonality in Malaysia, which also known as the calendar effects. The factor to be investigated in this study is the price on holiday’s season, the January effect or any other monthly seasonality. The daily price of KPJ Healthcare Berhad for the year 2011 is the sample was chosen in this study. Further this study, data used is derived from the weak-form efficient markets hypothesis, which is the price history and case study. Regression method is used in this study in order to help achieving the findings. This should be a continuous study, and adding on more other factors, such as wars and economic crises, and traders, investors and other speculators.
Category: Economics and Finance

[16] viXra:1807.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:17:08

A Review of Vietnam Tourism Development Policy

Authors: Nguyen Hoang Hien
Comments: 15 Pages. Published in The UNIVERSITY WITHOUT BORDERS Journal of ECONOMICS & BUSINESS; https://universitywithoutborders.wordpress.com

Tourism is one of the largest and the fastest growing economic sectors in the world. In many developing countries, tourism is considered a strategic economic sector, as this is one of the important sources of foreign exchange. Tourism creates business, trade and investment opportunities for the economy and protects the heritage and cultural values of the nation. Moreover, the tourism industry is labor intensive, tourism development can create jobs in society. And finally, tourism is a smoke-free industry, so it’s development does not affect the environment and it is likely to stimulate economic growth. In Vietnam, the tourism industry has exploded since the early 2000s, with the rapid growth of both international and domestic tourists. The Vietnamese government regards tourism as a spearhead economic sector, and the development of tourism can promote economic development. Therefore, Vietnam has had many policies for tourism development in the past two decades. This paper looks at the development of Vietnam's tourism sector in the period 2000-2016, analyzes Vietnam's policies for tourism, compares them with policies of other regional countries such as Thailand and Malaysia in order to find the solutions for Vietnam tourism development.
Category: Economics and Finance

[15] viXra:1807.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:27:40

Complexity in a Monopoly Market with Non Linear Demand and Cost Functions

Authors: Georges Sarafopoulos
Comments: 11 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

In this paper the equilibrium state of a bounded rational monopolist model is studied. It is assumed that the entire demand and cost functions are nonlinear. The equilibrium of the model is equal to the level of price that maximizes profits, as can be seen in the classical microeconomic theory. However, complex dynamics can arise and the stability of equilibrium state is discussed. The complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by computing numerically Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions.
Category: Economics and Finance

[14] viXra:1807.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:30:35

Is Hedge Funds Declared Strategy Compatible with What Actually Data Say?

Authors: Theodosios PALASKAS, Chrysostomos STOFOROS
Comments: 25 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Constructing a diversified hedge funds portfolio is very much associated with the degree of complementarity/substitutability of alternative fund strategies/styles, which are self declared by fund managers. To this extend, an obvious and important question related to the safe pick by investors of a specific fund strategy is: ‘if and to what extend the fund managers declared strategy and its investment style are compatible with what actually their performance states?’. If yes, then the investors’ decision making is well informed, otherwise they run to risk of constructing a homogeneous rather than heterogeneous portfolio of funds. The purpose of this paper is, by utilizing clustering techniques -k-means and two-step -, to identify the compatibility between managers self-declaration of fund strategy/style and what the data actually reveal. The framework used is based on data driven classification, covering 2,853 hedge funds of all strategies and styles for the period 2000-2009 with monthly returns, standard deviations, skewness, kurtosis and % of positive months as inputs. The results suggest that both, k-means and two-step clustering, produce similar outcomes and that all funds strategies and styles are classified in eight clusters. Moreover, the results indicate that, other than convertible arbitrage, emerging markets and event driven fund strategies, which are mainly classified in one cluster, none of the other hedge fund strategies appear as a homogeneous category. The latter suggests that investors should be very careful when building up their portfolio of hedge funds because the self-declaration of fund managers’ strategy could be misleading.
Category: Economics and Finance

[13] viXra:1807.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:34:03

Job Satisfaction and Demofraphic Characteristics of Greek Bank Employees

Authors: Dimitrios Belias, Athanasios Koustelios, Maria Koutiva, Labros Sdrolias, Nikolaos Kakkos, Konstantinos Varsanis
Comments: 27 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The present investigation aims to study the feelings of job satisfaction experienced by bank employees in Greece. In addition, it is studied how much the above feelings are affected by several demographic factors, like gender, age, educational level, years of experience in the specific institution, total years of experience and position held in the specific institution. The method which was preferred in the frame of the study was the quantitative research method. The tool which was used for the measurement of job satisfaction was the Employee Satisfaction Inventory, ESI, created by Koustelios, 1991. It included 24 questions, which measure six dimensions of job satisfaction: 1. Working conditions (5 items), 2. Earnings (4 items), 3. Promotions (3 items), 4. Nature of work (4 items), 5. Immediate superior (4 items) and 6. The institution as a whole (4 items) (total Chronbach’s α = 0.75). The responses were given in a five-level Likert scale: 1 = I strongly disagree, 5 = I strongly agree. The sample of the present study consisted of 230 employees of Greek banks and credit institutions. The results of the study showed that the feelings of job satisfaction experienced by Greek bank employees occur in quite high levels. Furthermore, it was found that job satisfaction is affected by several demographic characteristics, like age, gender, educational level and position held by the employee. However, further investigation should be carried out in the Greek population, so that the phenomenon of job satisfaction is well studied and promoted.
Category: Economics and Finance

[12] viXra:1807.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:36:43

Inventory Holding and International Mixed Duopoly

Authors: Kazuhiro Ohnishi
Comments: 19 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This paper considers a two-period international mixed duopoly model in which a domestic state-owned welfare-maximizing public firm and a foreign profit-maximizing private firm are allowed to hold inventories as a strategic device. In the first period, each firm simultaneously and independently chooses how much it sells in the current market and the level of inventory it holds for the second-period market. By holding inventory, a firm can change the competitive environment in the second period. The paper demonstrates that inventories are used by the domestic state-owned public firm to achieve a collusive outcome.
Category: Economics and Finance

[11] viXra:1807.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:39:52

Tourist Destination Marketing and Measurement of Tourist Satisfaction: the Case of Santorini Island

Authors: Theodossiou George, Thanou Eleni, Kallivokas Dimitrios
Comments: 19 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The present paper is the first of a series of research papers that aims to investigate the structure and quality of the "Greek touristic product" in the context of a global competitive industry, identifying strengths and weaknesses and proposing appropriate marketing responses. The paper focuses on Santorini island, 16th tourist destination in Europe, examining the degree of satisfaction of the island's visitors. The research is based on primary data, collected through a questionnaire addressed to departing tourists who had spent at least 5 days on the island and had stayed in a tourist accommodation unit. The sample was compiled with the multistage random sampling method. A number of hypotheses were tested in order to investigate differentiations in tourist satisfaction responses among country of origin, income, age, individual or agency travel and type of accommodation used. Our findings indicate an overall high level of satisfaction in most areas. The highest ratings were associated with private sector offerings (hotels, restaurants, friendliness/attitude of the local residents) against lower ratings received on public infrastructure items. Lastly, the responses were analyzed with the SPSS statistical package, using mainly the t-tests to discover statistically significant variations in the responses of different sub-groups of our sample. The main difference was found among those that stayed in hotel rooms vs. staying in rented rooms/ apartments, with the former belonging to higher income groups and expressing higher satisfaction both for their accommodation as with other aspects of the tourist product. The conclusion is that Santorini's tourist product is best suited to those with higher holiday budget, and marketing efforts as well as improvement of the tourist experience offering must continue to focus on this segment in order to maximize both tourist satisfaction and the sector's income.
Category: Economics and Finance

[10] viXra:1807.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:46:49

Institutional Reforms in a Region: on the Complexity of Their Evolution

Authors: Georges Sarafopoulos, Panagiotis G. Ioannidis
Comments: 11 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The paper considers the evolution of institutional reforms in a region during the implementation of a reform, on regional development. For this purpose we use a difference equation. The existence and stability of equilibria are studied. We show that the slope of the tax function may change the stability of equilibrium and cause a structure to behave chaotically. For some values of this parameter there is a locally stable equilibrium which is the value that maximizes the profit function of the local government. Decreasing these values, the equilibrium becomes unstable, through period-doubling bifurcation. The complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by computing numerically Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions.
Category: Economics and Finance

[9] viXra:1807.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:48:29

The Hellenic Internal Security System in Combating Organized Crime. the Case of the Hellenic Coast Guard

Authors: Tryfon KORONTZIS
Comments: 27 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Organized crime has a global character and is one of the most serious threats in the modern societies for decades. This phenomenon because of the characteristics that govern modern societies and economies, namely globalization, transnational flows, reduction of distances due to the technology evolution has taken international dimensions. These evolutions help the development of international profitable illegal activities. Organized Criminal Groups (OCG) are operating simultaneously in more than one countries internationalizing with that way crime, making difficult and painful its effective and comprehensive combat. Besides the international character of modern organized crime, an additional problem is the modernization of mode and methods of action that are used by criminal groups.
Category: Economics and Finance

[8] viXra:1807.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:51:12

Risk Level of Viet Nam Real Estate Industry Under Financial Leverage During and After the Global Crisis 2007-2009

Authors: Dinh Tran Ngoc Huy
Comments: 33 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

After the financial crisis 2007-2009, this paper evaluates the impacts of external financing on market risk for the listed firms in the Viet nam real estate industry. First, by using quantitative and analytical methods to estimate asset and equity beta of total 45 listed companies in Viet Nam real estate industry with a proper traditional model, we found out that the beta values, in general, for many institutions are acceptable. Second, under 3 different scenarios of changing leverage (in 2011 financial reports, 30% up and 20% down), we recognized that the risk level, measured by equity and asset beta mean, decreases (0,348) when leverage increases to 30% and it increases (0,385) if leverage decreases down to 20%. Third, by changing leverage in 3 scenarios, we recognized the dispersion of risk level, measured by equity beta var, increases if the leverage increases to 30%. And the asset beta var value is quite small, showing leverage efficiency. Finally, this paper provides some outcomes that could provide companies and government more evidence in establishing their policies in governance.
Category: Social Science

[7] viXra:1807.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:52:52

Reputation Risk Management (RRM) in the Petroleum Industry: the Role of Corporate Social Responsibility

Authors: Evangelia FRAGOULI
Comments: 21 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The petroleum industry is institutionally complex and its operations are integrated across the entire supply chain. In case of accidents, there are always major economic losses and serious environmental consequences which can damage the reputation of the companies. This makes reputation risk management very important. As a policy strategy, CSR plays significant role in shaping the perceptions of stakeholders about the activities of companies, hence has the potential of protecting companies against reputational risks. This study aims to critically examine the role CSR plays in Reputation Risk Management in the petroleum industry. It investigates and critically analyses Reputation Risk Management policies and the influence CSR initiatives have on stakeholders. After a general background introduction to the petroleum industry, it discusses the nature of reputation and reputation risk management, highlighting the existence of policy issues and the approach adopted in managing reputation risk in the petroleum industry. Reputation is driven by regulatory compliance, strong financial performance, employees and customer satisfaction, good corporate governance and leadership. The study shows that CSR as a policy strategy plays a significant role in RRM. In this regard, the study concludes that CSR initiatives can positively influence the desire to manage the reputation of companies in the petroleum industry. The study recommends CSR as a holistic approach capable of building an everlasting reputation for companies within and outside the petroleum industry.
Category: Economics and Finance

[6] viXra:1807.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 03:56:16

Financial Banking Supervision: a View of an Updated Secondary Research the Greek Reality

Authors: Anastasia Kopaneli
Comments: 18 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

Financial Banking Supervision is widely recognized as an extremely necessary process throughout the years in the last decades. To begin with, it refers to a Preventive Control and to Supervision as well, with a central aim of «preventing» the Financial Banking Sector – in fact and more specifically, Financial Banking Supervision is related to a chain of rules set, mainly by, the Bank of International Settlements (BCBS-BASEL, BIS) in collaboration with the Central Bank in each country-member so that a Monetary and Financial Stability is achieved nationally and globally too (BCBS October 2013, Jorion 2002, Singleton 2011). This article presents the fundamentals of Financial Banking Supervision together with the updated statistical data taken from valid and reliable sources and organizations. In line with the above, the objectives are specific: •To make the reader concentrate on the fundamentals of Financial Banking Supervision. •To make the reader see the relation between the classic literature of Finance and Banking Supervision and the Updated Statistical Data. •To make the reader see the Greek reality. So, it is clear, that the results are based upon comparisons between theory and practice in a continuous way. Thus, the Methodological Conceptual Framework is based upon classic literature of Finance and Banking while updated statistical data is used as well (as Financial Banking Supervision is in a continuous advancement taking into serious consideration all the issues of the National and the Global Economy, especially in nowadays). The used data concerns the Global and the Greek Reality (http://www.bankofgreece.gr) as shown in Figures 1,2,3,4 and in Table 1.
Category: Economics and Finance

[5] viXra:1807.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 04:05:15

Health Care Services in Public Hospitals in Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace-Greece

Authors: Giannoula FLOROU, Vasileios AGGELIDIS, Christos BATZIOS, Anastasios KARASAVVOGLOU, Ioannis PETASAKIS, Persefoni POLYCHRONIDOU
Comments: 25 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

The economic crisis which has plagued the economies of Southern Europe the last five years, and its unforeseen adverse effects on socio-economic indicators of our country, still constitute an evolving and up to date phenomenon, enhancing a range of other issues, including that of providing health care services to the citizens. In this context, this paper focuses on the investigation of the basic features of hospitalization in patients who received health care services in hospitals in the Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, during the period 2005-2011. The analysis was based on data drawn from the official statements of the public hospitals of “Kavala”, “Drama”, “Komotini”, “Xanthi”, “Alexandroupolis” and “Didimotichon”, and refer to key variables, such as the “number of inpatient”, the “sex of patients”, the “clinic/department of hospitalization”, the “duration of hospitalization”, the “insurance organization”, the “the rate of plenitude of clinic”, etc. From the statistical analysis and the evaluation of data the current situation is outlined, with regard to the health care services provided by the central health care units in the Region of Eastern Macedonia and Thrace, over time and cross section, and useful results emerge which can also serve as the basis for more rational planning and decision making.
Category: Economics and Finance

[4] viXra:1807.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 04:06:36

The Museum Visitor as Consumer

Authors: Kali Tzortzi
Comments: 21 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This paper takes as its starting point the idea that in museums the consumers are the visitors, and that, with the growing prevalence of the marketing approach and greater competition for audience, it is increasingly significant for museums to understand visitors’ reactions to the exhibitions they offer. There has been a long debate as to how to organize exhibitions, but there is no standard method for assessing their effectiveness, though a variety of evaluative techniques have been applied, from interviews and questionnaires through to observation of behaviour. Here we argue that important keys to visitors’ reactions are reflected in observable and quantifiable aspects of their behaviours, including the precise ways in which they move through the exhibition spaces and view exhibits. The key innovation of the research lies in relating these quantifiable patterns to museum intent, meaning how architects and curators seek to shape visitor experience and understanding through spatial design and display narrative. In this paper, we take four case studies of museums with different exhibition concepts and layouts, and show that empirical evidence of different patterns of movement and viewing can lead to deeper understanding of visitors’ responses, and allow more informed choices in designing consumer-centred museums.
Category: Economics and Finance

[3] viXra:1807.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 04:08:34

Partial Privatization in International Mixed Duopoly with Price Competition

Authors: Kazuhiro Ohnishi
Comments: 21 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This paper examines privatization policy in a price-setting mixed duopoly where a domestic public firm competes against a foreign private firm. The domestic government chooses the degree of privatization to maximize domestic welfare. The paper considers two games: Bertrand-Nash competition and Stackelberg competition with the domestic firm being the leader. The paper shows that neither full nor partial privatization is optimal in the two international mixed duopoly games with price competition.
Category: Economics and Finance

[2] viXra:1807.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 04:11:11

Structure and Agency in Entrepreneurial Intention in the Midst of Crisis: Understanding the Profiles of Aspiring Greek Small Entrepreneurs in the Agro-Food Sector

Authors: Philippos PAPADOPOULOS, Christos BAKOUROS, Anisa BELLOU
Comments: 23 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

This paper investigates the usefulness of Margaret Archer’ model in explaining entrepreneurial intention in the Greek agro-food sector. The empirical study was prompted by the salience of both entrepreneurship and the specific sector in current public discourse. The findings of the study suggest that the typology can be used to gain insights into significant aspects of the topic and highlights the need to avoid linear causal schemata and adopt a more holistic approach in researching entrepreneurial intention. Further more, the limitations of a quantitative methodology were revealed, and the consequent need to rely on in-depth qualitative interviews in order to gain a “think picture” of entrepreneurial conduct.
Category: Economics and Finance

[1] viXra:1807.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 04:13:28

Interaction of Local Governments: a Dynamic Approach with Homogeneous Players

Authors: Georges Sarafopoulos
Comments: 11 Pages. Published in The Hellenic Open Business Administration Journal; https://hobajournal.wordpress.com/

In this paper we point to the difficulty of applying concepts of microeconomic theory (competition between products and firms) at the political level (competition between regions). To emphasize this difficulty we present a model of competition between two local governments in order to show complexity and non-predictability. We consider the interaction between local governments during the implementation of a reform on regional development through a discrete – time duopoly game where the players have homogeneous expectations. The existence and stability of equilibria of this system are studied. We show that a parameter of the system may change the stability of equilibrium and cause a structure to behave chaotically. For the low values of this parameter the game has a stable Nash equilibrium. Increasing these values, the Nash equilibrium becomes unstable, through period-doubling bifurcation. The complex dynamics, bifurcations and chaos are displayed by computing numerically Lyapunov numbers and sensitive dependence on initial conditions.
Category: Economics and Finance