Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[2121] viXra:1907.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-21 02:02:56

Extremophiles: a Special or General Case in the Search for Extra-Terrestrial Life?

Authors: Ian von Hegner
Comments: 12 Pages.

Since time immemorial, life has been viewed as being fragile, yet over the past few decades it has been found that many extreme environments are inhabited by organisms known as extremophiles. Knowledge of their emergence, adaptability, and limitations seems to provide a guideline for the search of extra-terrestrial life, since some extremophiles presumably can survive in extreme environments such as Mars, Europa, and Enceladus. Due to physico-chemical constraints, the first life necessarily came into existence at the lower limit of life’s conceivable complexity. Thus, the first life could not have been an extremophile, furthermore, since biological evolution occurs over time, then the dual knowledge regarding what specific extremophiles are capable of, and to the analogue environment on extreme worlds, will not be sufficient as a search criterion. This is because, even though an extremophile can live in an extreme environment here-and-now, its ancestor however could not live in that very same environment in the past, which means that no contemporary extremophiles exist in that environment. Furthermore, extremophiles are in many ways still special life in comparison to general life. A theoretical framework should be able to predict whether extremophiles can be considered a special or general case in the galaxy. Thus, a question is raised: does Earth’s continuous inhabitability represent an extreme or average value for planets? Thus, dependent on whether it is difficult or easy for worlds to maintain this inhabitability, the search for extra-terrestrial life with a focus on extremophiles will either represent a search after dying worlds, or a search after special life on living worlds, where one focus too narrowly on extreme values.
Category: Astrophysics

[2120] viXra:1907.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 11:08:36

The Allais Effect – Coincidence Between Newtonian and Lesagian Gravity?

Authors: Raymond H Gallucci
Comments: 6 Pages.

This paper reviews the alleged Allais Effect, i.e., anomalous behavior of pendulums or gravimeters sometimes observed during a total solar eclipse. With the Moon in a direct line between the Earth and Sun, the potential for an additional gravitational perturbation is examined as a possible contributor to the effect. Both a classical Newtonian “attractive” gravitational approach and one based on a “pushing” gravitational concept first introduced around Newton’s time by Fatio and LeSage are examined. Results indicate that both yield surprisingly equivalent results – a possible explanation, or part of one; or merely a coincidence?
Category: Astrophysics

[2119] viXra:1907.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 20:14:16

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 Km? (Part No.3)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

This Paper discusses and proves the following hypothesis: Light Is An Essential Player In The Matter Creation Process
Category: Astrophysics

[2118] viXra:1907.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-20 04:00:40

Resolving the Discrepancy Between Direct and Inverse Cosmic Distance Ladder Through a New Cosmological Model

Authors: Vincenzo Peluso
Comments: 32 Pages.

A new cosmological model is presented, which derives from a new physics within a theory of everything. It introduces, beyond radiation and baryonic matter, a unique and new ingredient, which is the substance of the universe, and which can be assimilated to the cold dark matter of the standard cosmology. The new model, although profoundly different from the ΛCDM model, exhibits the same metric and an almost identical distance scale. So it shares the same chronology and the same theory of nucleosynthesis, but solves the problem of the horizon, the fatness of space and the homogeneity of the distribution of matter in a natural way, without having to resort to an additional theory like that of inflation and without dark energy. Eventually it resolves the tension between the direct and the inverse cosmic distance ladder.
Category: Astrophysics

[2117] viXra:1907.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 08:20:15

Largest Dark Matter Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Most of the remaining components needed to fully assemble an underground dark matter-search experiment called LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) arrived at the project's South Dakota home during a rush of deliveries in June. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2116] viXra:1907.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 09:22:34

X-Ray Telescope Study Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

A long-awaited German-Russian telescope to survey the X-ray sky in unprecedented detail was successfully launched from Kazakhstan's Baikonur Cosmodrome on 13 July. [28] Most of the remaining components needed to fully assemble an underground dark matter-search experiment called LUX-ZEPLIN (LZ) arrived at the project's South Dakota home during a rush of deliveries in June. [27] Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2115] viXra:1907.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 16:32:52

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km (Part 2)? (Revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 24 Pages.

This Paper discusses the following hypothesis: ("2A" are needed for "1B") The Previous Rule Controls The Solar Planets Basic Data Hypothesis Explanation It tells – all basic solar planets data are created based on the previous rule – we need 2 Equal Values to interact with 1 different Value… Example (No. 1) Solar Planets Diameters Total = 2 Jupiter Diameters + 1 Saturn Diameter How To Understand The Previous Idea: Solar Group Is One Trajectory of Energy – Each Planet Is A Point On It a.The Planet Matter (Mass) is Created of Energy (E=mc2 supports that) b.The Planet Orbital Distance (Space) is Created of Energy (Hypothesis) Solar Group can be similar to one machine each plant is a gear in it (or one body and each planet is a member of this same body) The Solar Group is Created from only One Energy The Solar Planets and their orbital distances are created depending on Each Other The basic solar planets data are created based on this rule ("2A" for "1B")
Category: Astrophysics

[2114] viXra:1907.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 02:38:19

Miniature Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

A team of physicists and astronomers from Northwestern University is poised to lead gravitational-wave astronomy into its next evolution. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories — located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US – double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2113] viXra:1907.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 03:03:03

Mystery of Universe Expansion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 62 Pages.

Astronomers have made a new measurement of how fast the universe is expanding, using an entirely different kind of star than previous endeavors. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27] Our first glimpses into the physics that exist near the center of a black hole are being made possible using "loop quantum gravity"-a theory that uses quantum mechanics to extend gravitational physics beyond Einstein's theory of general relativity. [26] In the shadowy regions of black holes two fundamental theories describing our world collide. Can these problems be resolved and do black holes really exist? First, we may have to see one and scientists are trying to do just this. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2112] viXra:1907.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 06:07:57

Dark Energy

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma
Comments: 15 Pages.

In This Manuscript We Described The Dramatic And Strange Behavior Of Particle And Matter Comes Under Dark Energy The Strange Behavior Is Holding Properties To Interchange Their Conditions, And Varies Qualities Of Interchange Of Particle And Matter And Interchange With Mathematical Quantities, Then We Discussed That At Least 10Th Order Dark Energy Is Required To Free And Stable Existence in Universe Then We Shows The Higher Order Dark Energy Of 11th Order , Then There is Description of Cosmic Rays Shower of E10+2.n And E11+2.n Orders At Two Ground Bases (i) 1.38*(10)^(-24) And (ii) 3.3300504*(10)^(-61) ,Then Their Is Discussion About Contraction And Expansion Of Normal Matter Field By The Dark Energy At 14th And 15th Level. Then We Used The Kirchhoff’s Radiation Law To Unite With The Universe Dark Energy And Dark Energy Generator’s Absorption And Emitting Property, Then The Stable State Of Systems For Uniting With The Universal Dark Energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[2111] viXra:1907.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 06:04:19

The Conscious Readiness Potential Ratio Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a SuSy multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum. However, Libet did not Notice because he (or his sucessors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII !
Category: Astrophysics

[2110] viXra:1907.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 10:04:55

Astronomers Are Trying to Find When and Where They Went Wrong Concerning Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages. 5 screen shots of wikipedia statistics

Using basic Wikipedia page view statistics, it is apparent astronomers are trying to figure out where they went wrong. As well, it is apparent that 2017 was the year for maximum acceptance of the nebular hypothesis, it is now on a downward slide. This is due to it not being a useful hypothesis in explaining any current observation by Kepler, TESS or any space/ground based exoplanet (evolving star) hunter. The replacement theory, stellar metamorphosis, is used to explain to the astronomers why they have gone so wrong for so long.
Category: Astrophysics

[2109] viXra:1907.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-13 16:42:16

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Simon Marius Rule of Brown Dwarf Companions

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustration of Simon Marius

Every brown dwarf discovered to date has at least 4 large companions orbiting it as can be inferred from circumstantial and direct evidence afforded by the General Theory. These companions can be old moons, dead moons, ones with life like Earth, or less evolved than Earth. This rule is to give insight to how populated our galaxy is, and where attention should be given for astronomical observations.
Category: Astrophysics

[2108] viXra:1907.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-11 12:35:02

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km (Part 2)? (Light Velocity Effect On The Matter Creation)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

Jupiter Diameter Analysis supports the following hypothesis: The Sun Rays are produced by Planets Motions Energies Total i.e. The Solar Planets Motions Mechanical Waves Are Transferred Into Light Waves From Which The Sun Rays Are Produced. Conclusion The Sun Rays Aren't Produced By Any Nuclear Interactions
Category: Astrophysics

[2107] viXra:1907.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 01:41:39

Merging Laboratory Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

For the first time, a high-performance computer will make it possible to simulate gravitational waves, magnetic fields and neutrino physics of neutron stars simultaneously. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[2106] viXra:1907.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 08:14:36

Light-Sensing Distant Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Researchers at the UCLA Samueli School of Engineering have developed an ultra-sensitive light-detecting system that could enable astronomers to view galaxies, stars and planetary systems in superb detail. [25] On October 16, 2017, an international group of astronomers and physicists excitedly reported the first simultaneous detection of light and gravitational waves from the same source—a merger of two neutron stars. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[2105] viXra:1907.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 20:38:14

Stellar Metamorphosis: How Massive is GJ 3470 b's Atmosphere?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Using the dead star mass limit of ~2.59 Earth masses, the total mass of GJ 3470's atmosphere should be >~11.14 Earth masses. This means the total mass of the atmosphere is probably >~81% of the total mass of the star. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2104] viXra:1907.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 10:49:10

Why Jupiter Diameter =142984 km? (Observation vs Data Analysis-II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

Paper Main Conclusion There's One Equation Only Controls All Solar Planets Data This paper discusses the following hypothesis: 1-There's A Relationship Between Jupiter & Saturn Diameters. 2-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship effects On The Solar Planets Diameters Creation. 3-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship effects On Earth Moon Orbit Creation. 4-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship is effected by Mercury Motion 5-Jupiter & Saturn Diameters Relationship shows and proves the Solar Group Main Energy Direction.
Category: Astrophysics

[2103] viXra:1907.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-06 14:24:57

Stellar Metamorphosis: Proxima Centauri, Luyten's Star, Trappist-1 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 7 Pages. diagram and handwritten calculations provided

Total axial angular momentum can be higher for an older star even though it is less massive, as this relays the fact that it sits on a higher transformation curve. A diagram is presented with calculations that give possible locations for Proxima Centauri, Luyten's Star and Trappist-1 on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[2102] viXra:1907.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-04 17:26:13

Observation vs Data Analysis As Astrophysics Research Method (I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

We have 2 basic arguments: 1st Argument -Planet Data Analysis Should Be Considered The Astrophysics Research Basic Method. -The Observational Results Without Data Analysis Deceives The Researcher And Causes Imaginary Concepts Creation 2nd Argument 1-The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same building- i.e. Each Planet is created to be a complementary to the other planets and No solar planet is created or move independently 2-Also, The solar group can be similar to one trajectory of Energy and each planet is a point on it. 3-Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) 4-Also, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move.
Category: Astrophysics

[2101] viXra:1907.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-03 08:42:22

Artificial Gravity Breaks Free

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Artificial Gravity Breaks Free "The point of our work is to try to get more people to think that maybe artificial gravity isn't so crazy," she said. "Maybe it has a place outside of science fiction." [21] Scientists at the University of Glasgow and collaborators have now developed a multimaterial coating design for the mirrors used in gravitational wave detectors. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories-located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US-double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2100] viXra:1907.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-03 09:32:35

Black Hole on Galaxy's Star Turn

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

The role of an excited black hole in the death of an exotic 'jellyfish' galaxy will be presented today (3 July) by Callum Bellhouse of the University of Birmingham at the RAS National Astronomy Meeting in Lancaster. [28] Previous attempts to measure the mass of the NGC 4395 black hole yielded results ranging from 1000-400,000 solar masses. [27] US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[2099] viXra:1907.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-03 02:09:27

Tracking Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Among the potential candidates that come into question are weakly interacting massive particles or WIMPs. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2098] viXra:1907.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-01 20:46:47

Stellar Metamorphosis: Titanium

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Titanium is discussed and connected from young to old stars. Titanium's role in stellar evolution is still not completely worked out, but it is essential to create a foundational understanding of the element for future generations.
Category: Astrophysics

[2097] viXra:1907.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 03:14:34

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory Applied to Stellar Gravitation, and the Mass-Luminosity Relation (MLR)

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory is applied to model gravitational effects of an individual star or a binary-star system, including that of the sun which is the only star of our solar system. The basic UEG theory was originally developed to model elementary particles, as a substitute for the standard model of particle physics. The UEG theory is extended in this paper (a) to model the gravitational force due to light radiation from an individual star, which determines its energy output due to nuclear fusion in the star, as well as (b) to model the gravitational force between two nearby stars, which determines the orbital dynamics in a binary-star system. The mass-luminosity relation (MLR) derived separately from each of the above two models are compared and studied together with the MLR currently available from measured orbital data for binary stars, as well as from an existing energy-source model for stellar nuclear fusion (Eddington's model). The current MLR data uses conventional Newtonian gravity, where the gravitational force is produced only due to the gravitational mass of the star, which is assumed to be equal to the inertial mass as per the principle of equivalence. This Newtonian gravitational model is modified by including the new UEG effect due to the light radiation of a star, in order to establish the actual MLR which can be significantly different from the currently available MLR. The new UEG theory is applied to an individual isolated star (for modeling the force for stellar nuclear fusion), which is spherically symmetric about its own center, in a fundamentally different manner from its application to a binary-star system (for modeling orbital motion of a binary-star), which is not a spherically-symmetric structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[2096] viXra:1907.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 03:19:44

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory Applied to Spiral Galaxies

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 10 Pages.

The unified electro-gravity (UEG) theory, which has been successfully used for modeling elementary particles, as well as single and binary stars, is extended in this paper to model gravitation in spiral galaxies. A new UEG model would explain the ``flat rotation curves'' commonly observed in the spiral galaxies. The UEG theory is developed in a fundamentally different manner for a spiral galaxy, as compared to prior applications of the UEG theory to the elementary particle and single stars. This is because the spiral galaxy, unlike the elementary particles or single stars, is not spherically symmetric. The UEG constant $\gamma$, required in the new model to support the galaxies' flat rotation speeds, is estimated using measured data from a galaxy survey, as well as for a selected galaxy for illustration. The estimates are compared with the $\gamma$ derived from a UEG model of elementary particles. The UEG model for the galaxy is shown to explain the empirical Tuly-Fisher Relationship (TFR), is consistent with the Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND), and is also independently supported by measured trends of galaxy thickness with surface brightness and rotation speed.
Category: Astrophysics

[2095] viXra:1907.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 03:28:19

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory Applied to Cosmology

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory is extended for the unique conditions of cosmology, which may support a possible reversal of the current expansionary phase of the universe, explain the current accelerated expansion of the universe without need for any dark energy, and also explain the signatures of the baryon acoustic oscillation (BAO) in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) and in the correlation function of galaxy distribution, without any dark matter. UEG effects due to the the CMB radiation in the recent universe, and in the ionized environment before recombination, as well as those due to anticipated star lights in the future universe, are modeled with suitable cosmological assumptions. This may provide a new theoretical paradigm, which can potentially answer some of the most fundamental questions in cosmology today.
Category: Astrophysics

[2094] viXra:1906.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-30 15:06:11

Stellar Metamorphosis: Maximum Mass of a Dead Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 graph with explanations

The purpose of this paper is to re-interpret stellar evolution from physical observations in accordance with the General Theory. The most massive dead star that has been observed to date is Venus, therefore, Venus's mass is currently the maximum mass for any observable, and confirmed dead star. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2093] viXra:1906.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 10:06:13

Gerges Equations For Solar Group Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

During 2013-2019 – I have studied the solar group geometry and discovered the following 5 Equations: 1-Planet Gravity Equation(Point 2-1) 2-Planet Orbital Distance Equation (Point 2-2) 3-Planet Diameter Equation(Point 2-3) 4-The Sun Rays Production Equation (Point 2-4) 5-Venus Diameter Equation (Point 2-5) 6-An Argument against The Big Bang Theory (Point 2-6)
Category: Astrophysics

[2092] viXra:1906.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-29 15:53:51

Newton's Gravity Depending on the Topology of Space.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 31 Pages.

Taking into account the fact that gravity is a curvature of 3D space, it can be represented as a conic section. And this leads to the formulation of the law of I. Newton’s law in a general form, depending on the topology of space, which makes it possible to theoretically derive the speeds of the stars in galaxies. The theoretical derivation of the Hubble–Lemaître law is also given, and the relativistic form of the law of I. Newton is derived (in a generalized form).
Category: Astrophysics

[2091] viXra:1906.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-28 21:06:26

Direction Of Energy Through The Solar Group

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 13 Pages.

-The Solar Group Main Energy is sent from Jupiter to Pluto – This energy sending is continued for 2 sequence solar days -Neptune used Jupiter Sent Energy consuming 16% of this total energy and the rest of Energy Neptune reflected it toward the inner planets into 2 Energy Trajectories. o 1st Trajectory is sent to Earth (will be discussed Point No.4) o 2nd Trajectory is sent to Mercury -The 1st Trajectory of Energy is reached to Earth (with 86400mkm) – Where Earth reflected this energy into 2 new parts o Part 1 the energy is sent from Earth to Venus o Part 2 the energy is sent from Earth to (Jupiter & Uranus) -The total energy (90000mkm) proves that all energy gathered together on one point only and no contradiction is found… This explanation shows that the energy passes in cycle through the solar group The previous idea supports my claim: -The Solar Group is One Trajectory Of Energy and each planet is appoint on this same energy trajectory….. or -The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same geometrical structure (building)- i.e. Each planet data is created to be suitable for the required task of this planet in the whole building …..and -No solar planet can be found or move independently a.Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) b.Or, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move.
Category: Astrophysics

[2090] viXra:1906.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 21:11:36

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Axial Angular Momentum During Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. some hand written calculations included

A new branch to the general theory is described. The star's total axial angular momentum decreases as it evolves. Angular momentum is mathematically described as L = I*W. L is angular momentum, I is the moment of inertia, W is the angular velocity. As well, for future reference the moment of inertia factor will change for the Sun as it is a homogeneous body. Its moment of inertia factor is probably very close to .4, not .070 as purported by the dogma. The math is shown for I= 2/5Mr^2, and W = 2Pi rad/86,400 seconds, for the Earth. Plus a few additional notes are added to compare Mars to Venus to Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[2089] viXra:1906.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-27 07:17:35

Noise-Reducing Gravitational Wave Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists at the University of Glasgow and collaborators have now developed a multimaterial coating design for the mirrors used in gravitational wave detectors. [20] The improvement will see the twin observatories-located near Hanford, Washington and Livingston, Louisiana in the US-double their sensitivity to gravitational waves. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2088] viXra:1906.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 12:22:08

Earth Velocity Proves "The Unit Definition Is Relative"

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

This Paper tries To Prove The Following Hypothesis: Paper Hypothesis -The Solar Group is Created from One Energy. -This One Energy passes through the solar group – to create the planet diameter (matter) and orbital distance (Space)- So the Matter and Space are created from the same Energy to be complementary to each other -Because The Same Energy passes through the solar group – one thread- the similar values are seen in different units – and so – the different units are found for the same values because the energy is changed from one form to another –relative to the observer… so the energy is the same but the form is changed and that caused to change the used unit The Hypothesis Explanation -Imagine a light beam comes from the sun – it lights our room – and then – this same light beam moves inside a solar cell and produces some electric current – so where's the light beam? It lights the room AND produces the electric current…. The same energy (number) does 2 jobs – and be seen in 2 different units. (Note Please – the light beam energy –which lights our room – equal the energy which produces the eclectic current – 2 Equal Values but 2 different units)
Category: Astrophysics

[2087] viXra:1906.0444 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-23 15:57:47

Stellar Metamorphosis: Differential Rotation in Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Differential rotation is when a portion of a star rotates faster than another. With young stars like the Sun, this is more pronounced, with the equatorial angular velocity being higher than the polar angular velocity. The angular velocity remains differential between the poles and equator when the star is young, and then equalizes as the star evolves. This means the oldest stars will not have differential rotation (as well as no global magnetic activity), and the youngest will have the most pronounced. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2086] viXra:1906.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 20:33:18

The Unit Definition Is Relative

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

This Paper provides a new claim as following: 1- The Unit Definition Is Relative that means Value as – one kilometer - one hour - one degree or one liter…etc- all such values and units are defined based on the observer position and situation That means What we see as a time value can work in another place as a distance value And What we see as a degree value can work in another place as a distance value 2- The Energy Different Types Depend On This Same Concept. Why Energy has different types? The energy gives energy whatever its form (oil- wood- electricity – magnetism – nuclear….etc) The result of all these forms are similar approximately – so why there are different types for the energy? Because of the observer position and situation This paper tries to discuss and prove this fact
Category: Astrophysics

[2085] viXra:1906.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 21:05:35

Uranus Is Perpendicular on Earth Moon Orbit

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 22 Pages.

1-Uranus Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit 2-The Sun Also Is Perpendicular On Earth Moon Orbit (The Sun And Uranus Are On The Same Horizontal Level) 3-The Rest Planets Are Found On Stair Steps Relative To Each Other – (Graduated Horizontal Levels). 4-The Solar Planets revolve around the perpendicular line from the Sun to Earth. 5-The Solar Planets doesn't revolve around the sun herself.
Category: Astrophysics

[2084] viXra:1906.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-14 21:06:48

Stellar Metamorphosis: The Phases of Sillimanite, Andalusite and Kyanite in Uranus's Atmosphere, and Thoughts on Ocean World Stage Beginnings

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

The phases of sillimanite, andalusite and kyanite are placed in reference to the deep atmosphere of Uranus. This is to show that Uranus has the temperatures and pressures that can form rocks and minerals exactly like the Earth. As well some thoughts as to how we can pin point the exact moment in time the Earth moved into its own ocean world stages of evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[2083] viXra:1906.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-13 07:25:23

Primordial Relic Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Previous attempts to measure the mass of the NGC 4395 black hole yielded results ranging from 1000-400,000 solar masses. [27] US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2082] viXra:1906.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 16:29:50

The Solar Group Is One Body

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Solar Group Is One Body The Claim Explanation & Features 1-The Solar Group is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building ….Or 2-The Solar group is One Trajectory of Energy And Each Planet Is A Point On This Same Energy Trajectory…. Or 3-The Solar Group Is One Machine And Each Planet Is A Gear In It… Or 4-The Solar Group Is A Great River And Each Planet Is A Canal of this same river 5-The solar group has One Great Job which is divided into integrated tasks for each planet has one task which should be integrated and cooperated with other planets tasks to perform the General One Great Job…. i.e. 6-Each Planet Data (Diameter- Mass- Orbital Distance -…. etc) is created to be suitable for this planet required task in the whole building and No Solar Planet Single Data Can Be Created Independently That leads to this paper main hypothesis, let's refer to it in following… A Hypothesis:- "The Solar Planet Data Is Created Based On Geometrical And Physical Reasons" The previous hypothesis provides us 3 results: 1-The Solar Group Is One Building 2-The Solar Planets Motions Harmony Is Found Based On The Planet Construction & Formulation (Planet Data) And Not By The Gravity Forces 3-Any Planet Data Can Be Deduced From The Other Planets Data Analysis
Category: Astrophysics

[2081] viXra:1906.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 19:57:13

Planet Data Geometrical Significance

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

Planet Data Geometrical Significance This paper tries to answer a simple question Why Saturn diameter =120536 km?... of course not only Saturn…! Why Jupiter diameter = 142984 km?.... or Why Earth circumference = 40080 km? ………. Why the moon circumference = 10921 km? Why Earth axial tilt =23.4 degrees? Why Venus Orbital inclination =3.4 degrees? Shortly How The Planet Data Is Created? I would to answer the questions just directly… but because the questions are still unclear? We need to see deeply as possible what does such question mean? Let's try with the first 2 questions together … Why Saturn Diameter = 120536 km? and Why Jupiter Diameter = 142984km? For answer we need to provide the Data in groups then we'll discuss it Data (1st Group) 1-Jupiter Diameter = 2 Jupiter Circumferences – 2 Saturn Circumference. 2-Jupiter Diameter = 8 Solar Planets Diameters Total 3-Saturn Diameter + 2 Jupiter Diameters = the solar planets diameters total 4-Saturn Diameter + 2 Jupiter Diameters = Earth Moon Distance (Apogee Radius) 5-Saturn Circumference = Earth Moon Distance (Total Solar Eclipse Radius). Data (2nd Group) (A) Saturn Diameter = Venus Diameter x π2 (Error 0.8%) (Venus Circumference)2= Saturn Orbital Distance (Error 1%) But we know that Saturn Orbital Distance = 1433.5million km= Saturn Uranus Distance = Mars Orbital Circumference = Pluto Eccentricity Distance = (Neptune Orbital Distance/π) = Mercury Jupiter distance x 2 (B) Mercury Day = 176 solar days (minus 5040 seconds) During 5040 seconds -Mercury moves a distance = 2 x Saturn Diameter -Mars moves a distance = Saturn Diameter -Saturn moves a distance = Neptune Diameter -Pluto moves a distance = Pluto diameter x π2 Note Please -2 Saturn diameter x 5040 = 1205 mkm (Mars Saturn Distance) -Data (3rd Group) -Jupiter Diameter x 5040 = 720.7 mkm (Mercury Jupiter Distance) -Jupiter Diameter = 1 million km / 7 (Note Please: Mercury Orbital Inclination = 7 degrees but Mercury orbital circumference =360 mkm = 360 degrees i.e. 1million km = 1 degree) -The Sin Diameter = Jupiter Diameter x π2 (Error 1.3%) Let's add the required Data for question no.3 (Why Earth Circumference = 40080 km) Data (4th Group) If Earth diameter = 12756 km, is considered to be = 1 So the following is correct Earth Circumference = Π Solar Inner Planets diameter total = Π Moon motion free space (from perigee to apogee) =Π (the free space without the moon diameter) Moon Perigee orbit radius = 9 Π Solar outer planets diameters total = 9 Π Moon orbit apogee radius =10 Π All solar planets diameters total =10 Π 2 Jupiter diameter + Saturn diameter =10 Π Saturn Circumference = 9.5Π = Moon orbit radius at total solar eclipse Jupiter Circumference =11 Π The Sun diameter =11 Π2 Let's Start our discussion immediately Discussion The previous Data is just example of many similar Data- Simply- Earth Circumference = 40080 km – but 40080 km is NOT mere number – There are many relationships and geometrical interactions are created based on this same number 40080 km (Earth Circumference)….. WHY? Let's ask the simpler question… How Earth Circumference is Created? No one knows! Let's make this discussion is so short as possible….. We have 2 visions in fighting The current theory tells us that the Planet is created independently in its Data – that means Earth Circumference is created without any effect from any planet Diameter on Earth Diameter Creation Process… i.e. this vision tells us that Solar Planet Behavior Is Individually I provide another vision The solar group is one building- The solar planets are components in this same building (members of the same body) i.e. Solar Planets Behavior Are Integrating And Cooperating Behavior It's The machine behavior- or the body behavior (all planets cooperate and integrate to do this same behavior) That's why There's One Equation Only controls all solar planets data This paper tries to prove basically this hypothesis So the paper contains the following -The Hypothesis Proves(Point No. 3) -How to analyze the planet Data (Point No. 4) -The Theoretical basics behind solar planets data Equation (Point No. 5)
Category: Astrophysics

[2080] viXra:1906.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 11:17:14

Dark Matter is Lighter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2079] viXra:1906.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 01:51:13

Detect new Candidate for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Two theoretical physicists at the University of California, Davis have a new candidate for dark matter, and a possible way to detect it. [22] Dark matter could be much "lighter," or lower in mass and slighter in energy, than previously thought. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2078] viXra:1906.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-09 20:19:42

Stellar Metamorphosis: The New Gyrochronology

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 6 Pages.

Gyrochronology can be used to measure the age of a low mass, or highly evolved star. Depending on how fast the star is spinning, we can also determine how fast it lost its mass from earlier stages of evolution, which in turn tells us if it was orbiting very close to another host. This is all in accordance with the general theory, meaning the oldest, most highly evolved and/or dead stars will barely spin at all. Examples are provided with hand written notes.
Category: Astrophysics

[2077] viXra:1906.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 01:39:10

100th Anniversary of General Relativity

Authors: Christina Munns
Comments: 2 Pages. Record of blog post

On this historic day of the commemoration of the 100th anniversary of the confirmation of Albert Einstein’s general theory of relativity with the solar eclipse of May 29th, 1919, I feel it is important to share my thoughts on this controversial topic, despite seemingly jumping in the proverbial deep end of classical physics! The trick in this theory is separating fact from fiction. I propose that gravity cannot distort space (& definitely not time!) as Einstein proposed since I concur with Gauss’ Law of Gravity (mathematician), who states that not only is gravity irrotational but it is also is a conservative force. Yes, indeed general relativity is obviously correct in many respects, but the vexed question of exactly WHAT Einstein’s field equations relate to in real life terms still remains a subject of debate.
Category: Astrophysics

[2076] viXra:1906.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 20:49:14

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Shrapnel Exclusion Zones on the WT Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Exclusion zones are outlined and explanation is provided as to why this is important to the development of 21st century astrophysics. The zones are in line with the general theory and can be used in a dynamic fashion. These basic astrophysical facts are up for revision and refinement. In short, ring material from Saturn could be pieces of the Earth's ancient oceans.
Category: Astrophysics

[2075] viXra:1906.0065 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 03:31:45

Simulation of Black Hole Mystery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

An international team has constructed the most detailed, highest resolution simulation of a black hole to date. [22] Physicists in Israel have shown that radiation from an analogue black hole has a thermal spectrum. This allows them to assign the "black hole" a temperature, providing indirect experimental evidence for the existence of Hawking radiation. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2074] viXra:1906.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 06:30:17

Super Quasars

Authors: Владимир Пастушенко
Comments: 41 Pages.

Super quasars
Category: Astrophysics

[2073] viXra:1906.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 09:18:42

On the Origins and Histories of the Martian Moons

Authors: Alex Soumbatov-Gur
Comments: 42 Pages.

The moons are confirmed to be ejected parts of Mars’ crust. After explosive throwing out as cone-like rocks they plastically evolved with density decays and materials transformations. Their expansion evolutions were accompanied by global ruptures and small scale rock ejections with concurrent crater formations. The scenario reconciles orbital and physical parameters of the moons. It coherently explains dozens of their properties including spectra, appearances, size differences, crater locations, fracture symmetries, orbits, evolution trends, geologic activity, Phobos’ grooves, mechanism of their origin, etc. The ejective approach is also discussed in the context of observational data on near-Earth asteroids, main belt asteroids Steins, Vesta, and Mars. The approach incorporates known fission mechanism of formation of miniature asteroids, logically accounts for its outliers, and naturally explains formations of small celestial bodies of various sizes.
Category: Astrophysics

[2072] viXra:1906.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-02 14:21:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: A Pongola-like Glaciation on Uranus

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 diagrams

If Uranus is on a similar transformation curve as Earth was, then it is just beginning its own Pongola glaciation. Diagrams and explanation are provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[2071] viXra:1906.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 18:49:00

Special Theory Of Relativity (Questions For Discussion)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper provides many difficult questions concerning Special Theory of Relativity To explain that the theory needs extension. In fact – the theory is so hard to be understood – and I try to prove that this theory is a correct theory but it's just a part of a general one which is NOT GR ! Let's define the discussion content in following Discussion Content 1-Special Theory of Relativity Hypothesis 2-The Relativistic Effects (Length Contraction As Example) 3-Matter Creation (Preferred Reference of Frame) 4-The Relative Concept 5-A New Relativistic Feature (My Conclusion)
Category: Astrophysics

[2070] viXra:1905.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 22:37:49

Using Stellar Metamorphosis to Avoid Astronomical Pigeonholing

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

As exoplanet data is collected, astronomers need to use a theory that can guard them against the pitfalls of pigeonholing the discoveries.
Category: Astrophysics

[2069] viXra:1905.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 12:38:19

Thermal Spectrum of Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists in Israel have shown that radiation from an analogue black hole has a thermal spectrum. This allows them to assign the "black hole" a temperature, providing indirect experimental evidence for the existence of Hawking radiation. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think "the Big Bang", except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2068] viXra:1905.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 09:19:07

Cosmic-Ray Proton Spectrum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

Recent advances in the observation of high-energy radiations, including X-rays and gamma-rays, have unveiled many high-energy aspects of the universe. [46] Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: Astrophysics

[2067] viXra:1905.0525 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 15:08:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbonaceous Meteorite Fingerprints Using D/H Ratios

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the General Theory stars can impact other older stars to create interstellar shrapnel. The shrapnel can have its formation age determined by measuring its D/H ratio.
Category: Astrophysics

[2066] viXra:1905.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 16:47:51

Mars Orbital Distance Is Changed Through History

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 14 Pages.

I- The Paper Claim: -The Solar Planets Order was (Pluto – Mercury – Mars ……..etc) But -Mars Ancient Orbital Distance was 84 millions km, found after Mercury Immediately…. -Pluto was before Mercury in order and nearer to the sun (or may Pluto was the Mercury Moon) -This order I suggest based on the rule "Greater Diameter Needs Greater Orbital Distance". (This Rule Is Discussed In This Paper Introduction) Then -Mars immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance = 227.9 mkm. -Mars Immigration was process has a great effect on the solar group especially on Pluto (the smallest planet). And As a result of it, Pluto also immigrated and dwelt in its new point with orbital distance =5870 mkm -The Planet diameter and orbital distance rule is (A Greater Diameter needs A Greater Orbital Distance) is disturbed by Mars and Pluto Immigration. -Mars is Exceptional Planet in different arguments because of its immigration.. I- The Claim Explanation: How to prove this fact? -The Solar Group is One Body (Building) – If this is a fact- So, Each Planet Data is created based on the other planets data –i.e. if Mars changed his orbital distance through the solar group history – This Change should be Registered in the solar planets data- i.e. -Mars Immigration Argument Is Another Proof For The Claim ….… "The Solar Group Is One Body and Each Planet is A Member Of It", Or "The Solar Group Is One Building And Each Planet Is A Part Of This Same Building"…
Category: Astrophysics

[2065] viXra:1905.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-26 19:25:21

Stellar Metamorphosis: Transformation Curves on the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski, Barrington James Taylor
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". Some aspects to transformation curves are explained on the Wolynski-Taylor diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[2064] viXra:1905.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 19:53:17

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using the Deuterium to Hydrogen Ratio to Determine the Ages of Hydrous Rocks and Hydrocarbons

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis the D/H ratio can be used to determine the formation ages of rocks, minerals and hydrocarbons that contain hydrogen. Explanation is provided of how this can be done and why it is important.
Category: Astrophysics

[2063] viXra:1905.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:16:01

Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 5 Pages.

Research Main Conclusion: The Human Mind Realization Process Uses The Light Velocity This conclusion is produced by the Following Questions Analysis: Special Theory Of Relativity Tells Us "If a particle moves by high velocity (Approximately) relative to an observer – the observer will see relativistic effects effected on this particle – (The relativistic effects are Length Contraction - Time Dilation - Mass Increase) The Questions 1-Are These Relativistic Effects Occurred For The Particle Nature Or For Our Vision Only? (to see something wrong as in the mirage) 2-If these effects are occurred for the Particle Nature – Why the Particle Nature Changes As Result Of The Light Velocity Motion? 3-Is The Particle Nature A Real Nature Or Found Because Of The Observer Effect On This Particle? This Paper discusses these questions and The Conclusion Proves which are: 1-The Relativistic Effects Analysis 2-A Quantized Experiment 3-The Solar Planet Moves According To A Physical Law (and Not in Chaos) 4-The Moon Angular Diameter 5-The Human Body Contains Electromagnetic Waves This paper contains 2 points only – Point No.2 (Research Methodology) and Point No. 3 (Research Conclusion Proves) Gerges Francis Tawdrous +201022532292
Category: Astrophysics

[2062] viXra:1905.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 20:21:49

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory5

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

1.all the masses in the universe volume 2.the volume of space all the masses in the universe take 3.the actual volume the masses take from space playing with those 3 would who use what is time and distance and velocity if the volume of masses and the actual volume of space all the masses take are constant we could say that they both behave with each other against the volume of space all the masses in the universe take so the actual volume of space all the masses take is time velocity is the volume of masses and the distance is the volume of space all the masses in the universe take
Category: Astrophysics

[2061] viXra:1905.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 20:55:41

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Saturn and Jupiter to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. Includes EA (Earth Age) in case total Earth age changes

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as 4.5 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Saturn and Jupiter are.
Category: Astrophysics

[2060] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 11:04:06

The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 4 pages, giving a possible solution to the Great Filter and the Fermi Paradox.

This paper tries to give answers to the questions “What is the Great Filter?” and “When will it arrive?”. Through the answers that we obtain to those questions, it is possible to reckon an objectival explanation to the famous Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The goal of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[2059] viXra:1905.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 19:57:50

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Neptune and Uranus to Determine their Ages

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the general theory stars evolve into what are called "planets/exoplanets". We can figure out how old they are by measuring their atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratios against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Neptune and Uranus are. It was previously predicted that Neptune and Uranus are 2 and 2.1 billion years old respectively via the General Theory, by using a simple graph.
Category: Astrophysics

[2058] viXra:1905.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 09:43:07

Black Holes Axion as Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

One possibility is that it's an exotic hypothetical kind of particle known as an axion, and a team of astronomers are using none other than black holes to try to get a glimpse into this strange new cosmic critter. [28] Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[2057] viXra:1905.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 15:25:09

Electric Fields on the Moon

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 16 Pages.

With the primitive-virtual negative (PVN) charge of the Moon, which generates the inherent electric field of the moon, lunar electrical environment can be understood naturally why the electric charge accumulations should be on the surface and above the moon in the circumstance of space plasma, such as solar wind plasma, UV radiation, etc. Especially, the lunar dust levitation and the horizontal transport on the dayside surface of the moon are discussed, which are crucial elements to understand the glowing effect above the horizon and the streamers at the terminator of the moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[2056] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 08:11:18

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics

[2055] viXra:1905.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 08:31:16

The Results of the Study Planck Point

Authors: Sergey Belykh
Comments: 7 Pages. Подход к исследованию дан в книге "Планковская физика", ISBN 5-85106-028-5

The approach to the laws of Nature in the language of geometry gave access to a point with Planck parameters, which is the intersection of two lines - the line of quanta of the electromagnetic field and the line of black holes. At the same time, the parameters of the Planck point are the limiting constants of the properties of the center of the core of the Universe. The numerical agreement of the constants allowed us to further make their symbolic agreement using two dimensional units - the Planck radius and the Planck time.
Category: Astrophysics

[2054] viXra:1905.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 09:29:31

Imaging a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

US computer scientist Katie Bouman, who became a global sensation over her role in generating the world's first image of a black hole, has described the painstaking process as akin to listening to a piano with broken keys. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2053] viXra:1905.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-18 10:04:52

Stellar Metamorphosis: Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In stellar metamorphosis dead stars are made of rocks, minerals and metal. Though, just because a star is dead does not mean it is the same age as other dead stars. A good analogy would be a fossilized brontosaurus skull is vastly older than a fossilized mammoth skull, which in turn is magnitudes older than the people that were buried due to dying of the black plague from 1346-1353. There are different levels of being dead for a star, recently dead, mature, ancient and archaic. A simple graph is used to explain the levels of "dead".
Category: Astrophysics

[2052] viXra:1905.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 16:00:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Venus's Age with D/H Ratios Factored as Opposed to Earth and Other Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. Dedicated to James Hutton, the Geologist.

It has been recently researched that Venus's D/H ratio is on the order of 100-150 times higher than the Earth. As a general rule of thumb, as the D/H ratio increases, the object increases in age. The youngest stars have D/H ratios of lower than 1* 10-5 (1D/100,000H), the ocean world/Earth aged stars 1* 10-4 to 1.6 *10-4 (1D/10,000H to 1H/6,250H respectively), and the old/dead stars and stellar remains 1* 10-3, (1D/1000H). Venus's is 1.6 * 10-2 to 2.5 * 10-2, (1D/62.5H) to 1D/40H). What this tells us is that Venus, according to the general theory is at least 100 to 156 times older than the Earth, because its deuterium ratios are 100 to 156 times higher. This is subject to change as more information is gathered, but places Venus in the class of extraordinarily old objects, which has never been done before.
Category: Astrophysics

[2051] viXra:1905.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-15 08:05:38

Stellar Metamorphosis: Flipping the pH Scale to Apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

The pH scale just needs to be spun 180 degrees to apply to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The star when it is in younger gas giant stages will have a much more basic atmosphere. As the gas giant evolves and loses its atmosphere, it will become more acidic. So what this means is that to start life, you start with a more basic atmosphere, to sustain life it needs to be more towards a pH of 7. The oceans on Earth have a pH of about 8.2, so we're still good. They were much more basic though earlier in Earth's evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[2050] viXra:1905.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 02:08:57

Exploring Extra Dimensions by the Help of Dnas of the Egg Cell and the Earth

Authors: Alireza Sepehri
Comments: 9 pages, 6 figures

In this research, we introduce two natural telescope for detecting events of extra dimensions. First, we will show that missing genes which are needed for keepping the animals alive, could be existed in extra dimensions. These genes could act like the receiver or sender of radio waves and transmit information from extra dimensions into our universe. These genes could lead to some changes in radiated waves of egg cells and missing some electrons. Thus, by considering evolutions of egg cells, we can obtain some information about biological events interior of extra dimensions. For example, if we put a fertilized egg and a non-fertilized egg interior of an inductor and produce a magnetic field, we can observe that non-fertilized egg obtains some properties of fertilized egg. It seems that sperms are teleported via extra dimensions into non-fertilized eggs. However, this system can only send us a report of biological events and for considering cosmological events, we need to a bigger object. We show that earth has a system similar to the DNAs in egg cell however with the cosmological size and can communicate with objects in extra dimensions. This DNA-like shell is located interior of the earth's core and leads to the emergence of high temperature. Exchanging information between the earth's DNA like shell and objects in extra dimensions leads to the production of some extra matters around the core, unstability interior of the earth's layers and the emergence of some earthquakes. Also, DNA-like object interior of the core has a direct effect on the water, ions and charged particles around the earth. In fact, this object induced some properties into water in clouds via extra dimensions and for this reason, water of rain is very different from normal water. For example, water of rain can communicate with DNA of plants very better of other waters.
Category: Astrophysics

[2049] viXra:1905.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-14 09:13:05

ATLAS Constraints Supersymmetric Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Both results place strong constraints on important supersymmetric scenarios, which will guide future ATLAS searches. Further, they provide an example how novel reconstruction techniques can help improve the sensitivity of new physics searches at the LHC. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[2048] viXra:1905.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 06:51:24

Supermassive Black Holes Hunt

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

It is believed that the formation and growth of most galaxies across the history of the universe has been fueled by supermassive black holes growing together with their host galaxy as they collect matter to attain millions of solar masses. [27] Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters-it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[2047] viXra:1905.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 09:06:47

Dark Matter Direct Detection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

In a recent study, a team of researchers has presented new direct-detection constraints on eV-to-GeV dark matter interacting with electrons, using a new prototype detector developed as part of the Sub-Electron-Noise Skipper-CCD Experimental Instrument (SENSEI) project. [29] As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22]
Category: Astrophysics

[2046] viXra:1905.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 10:20:09

Space Telescope Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers at Radboud University in the Netherlands have recently shared their plans to work with the European Space Agency (ESA) and others to get a better look at black holes by placing two to three satellites in a circular orbit around Earth. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25]
Category: Astrophysics

[2045] viXra:1905.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-12 13:35:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Aluminum

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain aluminum and it is a main building block of the crusts of highly evolved stars like the Earth. A conceptual bridge is built using aluminum as an important element in the evolution of a star, into its life hosting stages and beyond. Water, hydroxides, iron, hydrogen are all included in this bridge paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[2044] viXra:1905.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 11:10:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Carbon

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

All stars contain carbon and it is the main building block for all life in the universe. In the general theory, the carbon of a star combines with hydrogen, oxygen and nitrogen (as well as many others) in various combinations during its evolution, forming all biological molecules. This of course takes billions of years (alongside the evolution of life itself, which happens later on) and the carbon molecules increase in complexity as the stars' interiors evolve. For this paper some new ideas that have never been considered before are presented using the general theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[2043] viXra:1905.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 08:38:27

Calculating Black Hole Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Sean McWilliams, an assistant professor at West Virginia University, has developed a mathematical method for calculating black hole properties from gravitational wave data. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2042] viXra:1905.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 12:36:53

Map the Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

The earliest known light in our universe, known as the cosmic microwave background, was emitted about 380,000 years after the Big Bang. [26] Technology originally developed for CERN's Large Hadron Collider and then flown in space by ESA is now being used to analyse historic artworks, helping to detect forgeries. [25] Entangled photons generated by a spaceborne quantum source could enable hack-proof key exchange for ultra high security applications. [24] These qubits are based on silicon carbide in which molybdenum impurities create color centers. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[2041] viXra:1905.0144 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 19:01:29

Stellar Metamorphosis: Mass-Age Relation for Solar Mass, Orange, Yellow and Red Dwarf Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two hand drawn graphs show two transformation curves for young stars between 1 and .5 solar mass, and .5 to .1 solar mass. It conforms to the general theory, and brings a new perspective of stars. They can have their ages roughly determined by their masses. This is in direct opposition to the establishment's version of stellar evolution. To them stars do not evolve down transformation curves, but stay put. They were born with the same mass they die with. The observations of stars in all mass ranges contradicts the establishment's claim. In fact, the stars lose mass as they evolve, therefore their masses (when they are young) can be used to determine how old they are.
Category: Astrophysics

[2040] viXra:1905.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 21:06:53

Openly Addressing American Scientist Magazine, "Why Does Nature Form Exoplanets Easily", by Kevin Heng

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper serves as an open address to American Scientist Magazine's article written by Kevin Heng, "Why Does Nature Form Exoplanets Easily." https://www.americanscientist.org/article/why-does-nature-form-exoplanets-easily
Category: Astrophysics

[2039] viXra:1905.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 11:28:39

Stellar Metamorphosis: Interpreting Why the Deuterium/Hydrogen Ratios are Different on Different Celestial Bodies

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 2 diagrams, one from ESA

For this paper a simple graph is provided by the ESA (European Space Agency) of the deuterium/hydrogen ratios of different celestial bodies in our solar system. To interpret the graph in a meaningful fashion, all that is needed is that the graph needs to be spun 90 degrees clockwise and then compared to the Wolynski-Taylor Diagram. The sizes/masses of the objects are not representative, only the ages/ratios of D/H are compared. In essence, as the objects age and evolve/disintegrate, the D/H ratio of the material rises. This means the most pristine D/H ratio that is representative of any star or stellar remains is contained in the youngest of stars, to the very left hand side of the diagram.
Category: Astrophysics

[2038] viXra:1905.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-05 22:51:41

The Explanation of The Moving Bright Areas In The First M87 Black Hole Images

Authors: Ting-Hang Pei
Comments: 3 Pages.

After reading the papers about the first M87 event horizon telescope results, we find the moving bright areas in the observation images from Apr. 5 to Apr. 11 and the conclusion about that the south is brighter than the north is incorrect. We propose an explanation to initially explain the movement of the bright areas as the animation reveals.
Category: Astrophysics

[2037] viXra:1905.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 18:00:59

Stellar Metamorphosis: Correction of Radiometric Dating Assumptions of Solar System Formation, Addressing Radio-geocentrism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper a few assumptions are corrected in light of the general theory concerning radiometric dating methods. Those assumptions include the idea of Earth being the same age as all solar system bodies, and the assumption that meteoroids that land on Earth (meteorites) are leftover remains of the solar systems formation. These changing assumptions should naturally leave reinterpreted data available to give a more accurate tale of what the bodies in our solar system are actually up to. A new term called, "radio-geocentrism" is put forth, to classify all the assumptions into one main issue.
Category: Astrophysics

[2036] viXra:1905.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 13:21:25

Black Hole Neutron Star Merger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Gravitational waves from the merger of a black hole and a neutron star may have been detected for the first time. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[2035] viXra:1905.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 20:53:26

Stellar Metamorphosis: White Dwarfs are not Dead Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper a simple graph is shown that places white dwarfs at the beginning of stellar evolution. This means that any and all stellar evolution models dreamed up in the 1930's forward to before 2011 are wrong. This has a serious implication for understanding what causes fusion, and how heavy elements can be made. As well, it places stellar birthing as reliant on processes not involving purely gravity alone, but processes that somehow rip the electrons off atoms, so that they can sit close to one another.
Category: Astrophysics

[2034] viXra:1904.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 07:37:47

Dark Matter Exist

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

As fascinating as it is mysterious, dark matter is one of the greatest enigmas of astrophysics and cosmology. [28] An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: Astrophysics

[2033] viXra:1904.0583 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 18:41:21

The Solar Group Geometry Analysis (Questions & Answers) (Part I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

This Paper claims the following: -The Solar group current Description and theory are incorrect and insufficient -The Solar group current Description and theory contradicts the solar planet data geometrical analysis. In this paper we discuss 6 questions with their answers which can show and prove the solar group current theory and description weakness and insufficiently… The Questions Are In Following: 1-How The Planet Diameter Is Created? 2-How The Planet Orbital Distance Is Defined? By Gravity Force …is it True? 3-What's The Most Near Distribution For The Solar Planets Order? 4-Why Earth moves Daily A Distance = The Moon Orbit Circumference? 5-Why The Light Velocity Is The Universe Highest Velocity? 6-Can The Planet Mass be created independently from the other planets masses?
Category: Astrophysics

[2032] viXra:1904.0576 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 12:01:35

Spinning Black Hole Sprays Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Astronomers have discovered rapidly swinging jets coming from a black hole almost 8000 light-years from Earth. [10] That’s what some physicists have argued for years: That black holes are the ultimate vaults, entities that suck in information and then evaporate without leaving behind any clues as to what they once contained. But new research shows that this perspective may not be correct. [9] Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[2031] viXra:1904.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 13:45:45

Bond Lengths in Helium Hydrides as Sums of the Relevant Radii of He and H

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 3 pages, one Table 1.

The latest astrophysical discovery for the first time of HeH+ inspired the author to look into its bond length. Using the previously calculated values of the various radii of He and H, it is shown here that the reported inter-nuclear distance in HeH+ is the sum of the radii of He- and the section of the Bohr radius pertaining to the proton. Interpreted here also is the inter-nuclear distance of the He..H bond in He..H..He+, as the sum of the covalent radius of He and the Bohr radius of H. Both cases support the rule of additivity of radii of adjacent atoms and or ions in bond lengths established by the author over the years.
Category: Astrophysics

[2030] viXra:1904.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 08:24:21

Do Superconducting Gravimeters React to Gravitational Waves?

Authors: Herbert Weidner
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the spectrum of data from superconducting gravimeters, a spectral line at 240.1 μHz shows an unexpected frequency modulation, which may be an indication of an extraterrestial origin of the oscillation. Perhaps, the earth responds to GW of the galaxy nucleus of NGC 1530.
Category: Astrophysics

[2029] viXra:1904.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 14:59:34

Stellar Metamorphosis: Oxygen

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

For this paper the term primordial oxygen is used to signify oxygen that has been present for almost the entirety of the star's evolution. The case stands, the oxygen found on the Earth is leftover oxygen from the Earth's much hotter, younger states of evolution. The vast majority of the oxygen on the Earth did not come from the Sun. It was always on the Earth as it evolved, long before the Sun even existed. All the elements are important for planetary evolution, and oxygen is a major one.
Category: Astrophysics

[2028] viXra:1904.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 08:39:55

My Interferometer to Detect the Earth Orbital Linear Speed Around the Sun

Authors: Louiz Akram
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is my interferometer to detect the earth orbital linear speed around the sun
Category: Astrophysics

[2027] viXra:1904.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-21 19:52:03

Stellar Metamorphosis: Reinterpreting Why Volatile Compounds are Mostly Missing From the Inner Planets

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is claimed by researchers that when the solar nebula formed, it drove out large amounts of volatile compounds from the inner planets. Some corrections are made with direct quotes in light of the general theory. Quotes are taken from John M. Wallace, Peter V. Hobbs, in Atmospheric Science (Second Edition), 2006, 2.5.1 Formation and Evolution of the Earth System.
Category: Astrophysics

[2026] viXra:1904.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 05:23:52

Proof that the Ether Exists and that the Speed of Light is Anisotropic

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 5 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson Morley interferometer experiment in 1887 has been widely regarded as proof that the aether does not exist, and that Relativity’s assertion that the speed of light is isotropic is all reference frames is the correct model. However, a number of experiments have detected anisotropy in the speed of light by exploiting the effect known as Fresnel Dragging to reveal the different travel times by light in each direction of a round trip.
Category: Astrophysics

[2025] viXra:1904.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-20 19:04:15

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory0

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

masses move in space because they need to cover a volume of half the universe and they expand in the universe because there is more volume out there and the mass cannot help but discover more because of its inertia so it spins and then expands in the universe
Category: Astrophysics

[2024] viXra:1904.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 10:27:58

Why Earth moves Daily A Distance = The Moon Orbit Circumference?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 19 Pages.

I have tried frequently to solve this question why Earth daily motion distance = the moon orbit circumference …..let's try here one more time… -Earth and Moon move by equal velocities - Otherwise they should be separated from Each other- if the situation is such so the moon should be seen as a bright stationary point in the Earth Sky …and No changes the moon will show …. But this is Unreal….why? let's try to analyze the actual data…. -We have 2 equal distances – Earth Daily Motion Distance (d) and the moon Orbit Circumference (C ) now d = C …Note Please d is almost a straight line trajectory but C is a curved one (Circumference)… ! How that can be occurred..? -It's Einstein experiment… he had left the rock to be dropped from the moving train – and he had seen the rock falling trajectory as a straight line but this same trajectory is seen by People standing on the train platform as a curved trajectory…. We have a similar case here… we see the Earth Motion Distance as a straight line Trajectory but the moon Circumference as a curved one… What conclusion we may reach here? -We move with Earth by the same velocity (So Earth is Static for Us) but there's some difference in velocities between Earth and moon motions which causes the straight trajectory to be seen as a curved one..…easy idea but unacceptable! Why? Because …… if there's a difference in Earth and Moon velocities that will cause the separation between each other…! they aren't separated ..so No difference in Velocity …and No straight trajectory will be seen as a curved one There's one solution for this dilemma…. -Earth and Moon Velocities difference is found in some stage in their motions course and this difference will cause the straight line trajectory to be a curved one and then this difference is compensated later to enable the moon to reach to the Earth and prevent their separation… How this idea can work really? let's see that as deeply as possible… -I have suggested that there are relativistic effects in the solar group – where the length contraction phenomenon causes the rate 1.0725…. Let's tell the story in following… -Earth Daily motion = 2.58 mkm …. Moon Should move by this distance also -Moon Daily motion = 2.58 mkm but because there are relativistic effects between The Earth and Moon so … 2.58 mkm = 1.0725 x 2.41 mkm -That means ..The Moon Daily motion in fact 2.41 mkm … now there's a difference in velocities between Earth and Moon Motions which causes the straight line trajectory to be seen as a curved one… -The required distance 0.17 mkm is provided by Mars Effect On The Moon Motion Trajectory- which enable the Moon to reach to Earth Again and prevent their separation… -Mars Effect on the Moon Motion explain the Harmony between Mars and the Moon Data which we have noticed before. But -The relativistic effects cause geometrical effects and rules to control the solar group motions…. That means.. -The geometrical rules to which I have referred in the abstract in addition to many other geometrical rules all of them are found for geometrical necessity created by the relativistic effects… which causes a great extension for Special Theory of Relativity and provide many new fields for astrophysics research..
Category: Astrophysics

[2023] viXra:1904.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 12:23:48

Stoe Explains ``planet 9''

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 2 Pages.

Planet 9 is a hypothetical mass in the Kuiper Belt that causes the trans--Neptunian bodies to have unexplained orbits. The Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) suggests the rotation curve anomalies of spiral galaxies, the Pioneer Anomaly, and the hypothetical Planet 9 phenomena are linked by a common cause, another application of the STOE Universal Equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[2022] viXra:1904.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 13:33:08

Inelastic Boosted Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

A team of researchers in the Republic of Korea, the U.S., Brazil, Indonesia and the U.K. have recently carried out a direct search for inelastic boosted dark matter (IBDM) using a terrestrial detector. [33]
Category: Astrophysics

[2021] viXra:1904.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 07:43:28

Supercooled Water Search Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

After watching YouTube videos of people supercooling water in a bottle and then triggering it to freeze by banging it, something about this concept solidified for Matthew M. Szydagis, an assistant professor of physics at the University at Albany, State University at New York, especially when he saw it again during the Disney movie "Frozen." [32] Researchers from the National University of science and technology MISIS (NUST MISIS, Moscow, Russia) and the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN, Naples, Italy) have developed a simple and cost-effective technology that allows increasing the speed of automated microscopes (AM) by 10 to 100 times. [31]
Category: Astrophysics

[2020] viXra:1904.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 08:51:57

Gravitational Waves with Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Researchers hoping to better interpret data from the detection of gravitational waves generated by the collision of binary black holes are turning to the public for help. [26] Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2019] viXra:1904.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-15 11:07:43

Slow Travel Through Wormholes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

A Harvard physicist has shown that wormholes can exist: tunnels in curved space-time, connecting two distant places, through which travel is possible. [22] A RUDN employee and Brazilian colleagues have called into question the concept of using stable wormholes as portals to different points of space-time. [21] CfA astronomer David James was a member of a large international team systematically searching for new gravitationally lensed quasars. [20] For the first time astronomers have detected gravitational waves from a merged, hyper-massive neutron star. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2018] viXra:1904.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-12 15:31:54

There's A Light Beam Travels With 1.16 mkm per sec (My Claim)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Main Claim There's A Light Beam Travels With 1.16 mkm/ sec – In The Solar Group- But We Can't Observe It. This paper provides and discusses many clear arguments which prove this fact. Also The paper explains why we can't observe or realize this higher velocity (1.16mkm/sec) which supports the Special Theory of Relativity Basic Hypothesis that the highest velocity (in our universe) is 0.3mkm/second.
Category: Astrophysics

[2017] viXra:1904.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 07:57:23

Microscope Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

Researchers from the National University of science and technology MISIS (NUST MISIS, Moscow, Russia) and the National Institute for Nuclear Physics (INFN, Naples, Italy) have developed a simple and cost-effective technology that allows increasing the speed of automated microscopes (AM) by 10 to 100 times. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30] In a recent study, the CMS collaboration describes how it has sifted through data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to try and spot dark quarks. [29] Physicists in Italy are about to start up a new experiment designed to hunt for hypothetical particles such as the "dark photon" and carriers of a possible fifth force of nature. [28] A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[2016] viXra:1904.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 10:33:32

Saturn Effect On The Solar Group Geometry

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 10 Pages.

Saturn Effect On The Solar Group Geometry Saturn shows Clearly The Solar Group Geometrical Structure. The Basic Hypothesis: The Solar Group Is One Trajectory Of Energy And Each Planet Is A Point On This Same Trajectory… i.e. The Solar Planets (matter is energy because E=mc2) and their orbital distances (Space is Energy – hypothesis)both are created from the same energy which makes The solar group as one body and each planet is a member of this same body. Or The solar group can be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the solar group is created depending on the cooperation and integration between the solar planets. Saturn Effect Saturn tells how the solar group is created based on the previous vision i.e. Saturn tells us which planet is created first and which second and what geometrical rule control this creation process. Shortly The solar group is one family, all planets are relatives to each other – but Saturn tells us who's brother to whom and who's uncle, who's parent and who's nephew Saturn Data tells this fact clearly as the sun …Saturn Is The Solar Group Secret
Category: Astrophysics

[2015] viXra:1904.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-10 11:12:16

First Photo of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Astronomers on Wednesday unveiled the first photo of a black hole, one of the star-devouring monsters scattered throughout the Universe and obscured by impenetrable shields of gravity. [25] Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2014] viXra:1904.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 06:50:09

Picturing a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Paul McNamara, an astrophysicist at the European Space Agency and project scientist for the LISA mission that will track massive black hole mergers from space, helped AFP put what he called an "outstanding technical achievement" into context. [24] We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2013] viXra:1904.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 17:19:04

Stellar Metamorphosis: An Alternative to the Giant-Impact Hypothesis for Moon Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages.

An ad hoc proposition was made by scientists to form the Moon. In it, they state that the Earth was hit by an incredibly massive object, which then the moon formed out of as a giant blob of shrapnel. They hypothesized that in order to create the Moon, another object called Theia was needed which is of course an object that has never been observed, as well as a process that has never been observed. Alternatively, if stellar metamorphosis is used, the Moon can be explained as well as Venus's lack of one, in accordance to the observations found in the age of exoplanets.
Category: Astrophysics

[2012] viXra:1904.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 08:26:32

Как можно рассчитать ускоренное расширение Вселенной?

Authors: Елкин Игорь Владимирович
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Пространство квантуется. Хаббловское расширение делает все эти кванты-области не инерциальными. Это приводит к разным предельным скоростям в этих областях. Из-за этого возникает некая дополнительная сила.
Category: Astrophysics

[2011] viXra:1904.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 17:18:49

Stellar Metamorphosis: Some Thoughts on White Dwarf Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

I agree with Daniel Archer that pinching and magnetic constriction of interstellar material are what birth stars from the interstellar medium. This being said, gravitation, at first, has little effect during the very beginnings of a star's birthing process as gas in outer space would expand, not contract with gravity alone forming a star. Some ideas and reasoning is included in this paper about the nature of white dwarfs.
Category: Astrophysics

[2010] viXra:1904.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-07 09:03:13

Unexpected Rain on Sun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Computer simulations predicted the coronal rain could be found there. Observations of the solar wind, the gas escaping from the Sun and out into space, hinted that the rain might be happening. [20] The sun's magnetic field is ten times stronger than previously believed, new research from Queen's University Belfast and Aberystwyth University has revealed. [19] University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[2009] viXra:1904.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 11:52:36

Stellar Metamorphosis: Where are the Stars Earth Orbited in the Past?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Earth did not always orbit the Sun, because the Sun is at least 100 times younger than the Earth. So the question arises, where are all the stars Earth used to orbit if the Sun was not always in the picture? The reader will realize in this paper the Sun is a foster host, as were many others. As well, we are dealing with a solar system that has a deep, deep history, and a certain strangeness that is now addressed with clarity.
Category: Astrophysics

[2008] viXra:1904.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 20:31:07

Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 9 Pages.

Time And Distance Equivalence (Proves) Time And Distance Values Can Be Equivalent In Higher Velocity i.e. Time & Distance Values Equivalence Is Occurred As A Relativistic Effect. Briefly …. When a particle moves with high velocity (near to light velocity), So this particle may suffer from the following effects: 1-Mass Increasing 2-Length Contraction 3-Time Dilation 4-Time & Distance Values Equivalence Point No. 4 is my conclusion I have reach through The Solar Planets Data Analysis - This paper tries to prove this fact that (Time and Distance Values can be equivalent – In Higher Velocity)
Category: Astrophysics

[2007] viXra:1904.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-05 17:52:35

Why Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance?

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

Best regards When I have discovered that.. Saturn Orbital Distance = Saturn Uranus Distance I have asked Why? But the usual answer was …… It's Pure coincidence….! Later I have discovered more equalities….As the following: 1.Saturn Orbital Distance = Mars Orbital Circumference = Pluto Eccentricity distance = Saturn Uranus Distance = 1433.5 million km 2.Mercury Saturn Distance = Neptune Pluto Distance = 1375 million km 3.Saturn Pluto Distance = Mercury Neptune Distance = 4436.5 million km Then I have asked again… why These Distances Are Equal? Is there a geometrical reason behind?…but the usual answer always be …. " Pure Coincidences" The question wasn't so simple and the answer was mentioned…. I ask clearly… are the solar planets members in the same body? or parts in the same building?- shortly are the solar group as the human hand and the fingers are similar to the planets? means the planets are created and moving depending on each other because all of them consist one machine –one body –one building – one geometrical structure – means the planets aren't separated from each other– but connected with each other. (that means the space between the planets is a method to connect each planet with others and not to separate each planet from the others)…. This is my question aim! And the current theory understood that clearly… And told also a clear answer … that Any solar planet is separated from the others - each planet is found and move independently.. So the two visions are clear before our eyes ……And the fighting is clear also…. The Solar Group Classical Vision: tells us that… the planet is created independently and move by gravity with the sun without effect of the other solar planets…. My Suggested Vision Is: The Solar Group is one body – one machine – one building – one geometrical structure – No Planet can be found or move independently from the other planets …. Even the sun herself can't be found without the solar planets… we deal here with one machine – one geometrical structure- so if this geometrical structure has many elements we should be wise enough to see that these elements are members in the same geometrical structure and this structure is found by the cooperation and integration of his members….. We should fight to prove that we are correct and the current theory is mistaken… Please read the argument…
Category: Astrophysics

[2006] viXra:1904.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 16:40:32

Calling Into Question of Einstein's Second Postulate

Authors: Fabien Sabinet
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based on the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 with a magnitude of 8.7 × 10-10 m/s² directed towards the Sun, we can demonstrate that the anomaly is due to the use of a wrong Doppler shift formula used by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Indeed the formula used by JPL based on the Einstein's second postulate, generate an error. I demonstrate here that if we use the classic Galilean velocity addition formula, there is no more any anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10.
Category: Astrophysics

[2005] viXra:1904.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-03 21:18:51

How the Solar Group is Created? (Discussion No. 1)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 15 Pages.

This Paper provides our first try to answer the question… How The Solar Group Is Created? Here we'll try to prove The Following Arguments: 1-The Solar Group is One Geometrical Structure or one building and each planet is a part of this same geometrical structure (building)- i.e. Each planet data is created to be suitable for the required task of this planet in the whole building and No solar planet can be found or move independently a.Also the solar group can be similar to one body, and each planet is a member in this same body. All solar planets and their orbital distances are created by the same energy (by the same blood all body members are created) b.OR, The solar group be similar to one machine each planet is a gear in this same machine… so the machine job depends on the gears different tasks.. and that means the cooperation and integration between the solar planets data is the main base on which the solar group is created and move. c.Also, The solar group can be similar to a great river has many canals and these canals created soils on their banks. The river, canals and their soils all of them are created from the same water (the same energy) The previous claim and conclusion is discussed in this paper strongly and the paper provides curial proves to show this fact as clear as the sun herself. 2-Saturn is The Most Important Planet in the solar group and he connects the group together where without Saturn the solar group can't be found or move. 3-Mars current existence and motion depends on Earth Moon Orbit.
Category: Astrophysics

[2004] viXra:1904.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 09:11:22

Stellar Metamorphosis: What are White Dwarf Stars?

Authors: Daniel Archer
Comments: 5 Pages. made possible by DARE (Daniel Archer Research Enterprise)

This is en exploratory paper about White Dwarf stars, are we sure we know what they are? The standard astronomy explanation is questioned and replaced with the position of White Dwarf stars in Stellar Metamorphosis. A main characteristic of these stars is changed.
Category: Astrophysics

[2003] viXra:1904.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 10:27:25

No Random Process Causes The Solar Group Creation (No Big Bang)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract The Main Conclusion The solar group can't be created by any random process. i.e. The Big Bang Concept is Unreal The previous conclusion is produced easily and clearly through the solar planets data analysis.. That means… The Big Bang Theory contradicts strongly and clearly with the solar planets data analysis and their geometrical meanings which supports the claim that, the big bang concept is Unreal one. This paper tries to show and prove this contradiction and to show that the solar planets data analysis is the best way to understand the solar group origin and motion which necessitates to review many other theories concern the solar group origin an motion.
Category: Astrophysics

[2002] viXra:1904.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-01 20:41:11

Does Mars Fit his Position Is The Solar Group? Why Not?!

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 11 Pages.

Mars Data Doesn't Fit his Position In The Solar Group Because Mars had immigrated from his original point with distance 84 million km from the sun and dwell in his new point with distance 227.9 million km from the sun (My Conclusion) So Mars Data was fit to his original position (with distance 84 mkm) But Mars Data doesn't fit his new position (with distance 227.9 mkm) This paper analyzes Mars Data to prove this Fact.
Category: Astrophysics

[2001] viXra:1903.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 06:35:49

Break Axion as Dark Matter Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Leslie Rosenberg, a physicist with the University of Washington has published a paper in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, describing the current state of research that involves investigating the possibility that axions are what make up dark matter. [27] Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[2000] viXra:1903.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 08:12:24

Closeup Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

We're about to see the first close-up of a black hole. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1999] viXra:1903.0569 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 10:16:53

The Sun Gravity Concept is Unreal (Proves)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 16 Pages.

The Hypothesis "There's No Gravity Found By The Sun" This paper provides 5 proves for this hypothesis which are: 1-Planet Orbital Distance disproves The Sun Gravity Concept 2-The Sun Gravity Value disproves The Sun Gravity Concept 3-The Planet Velocity disproves The Sun Gravity Concept 4-The moon orbit analysis proves the solar group current description is incorrect. 5-The Solar Group is One Machine consists of all solar planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[1998] viXra:1903.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 17:01:15

There Are Relativistic Effects In The Solar Group

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 24 Pages.

The Main Hypothesis "There Are Relativistic Effects In The Solar Group" We can't observe the higher velocity which produces these relativistic effects but we can observe the relativistic effects which are produced by it. As proves for the relativistic effects, I may refer to the following: 1.The Earth Moon Motion … 2.Mercury Day Period… The previous 2 phenomena should be discussed in this paper with many other as proves for the relativistic effects are found in the solar group geometry. This Papers provides 2 Points 1st Point : The Relativistic Effects Proves 2nd Point : The Relativistic effects Geometrical Meaning and Description.
Category: Astrophysics

[1997] viXra:1903.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 17:07:13

Lowering Abundances During Stellar Metamorphosis: Three Types of Elemental and Isotopic Decay

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 hand written note

There are three types elemental and isotopic decay during planet formation (stellar evolution). The first is isotopic abundances lowering, the second is light element loss, and finally the loss of radioactive isotopes, due to radioactive decay. Wording of these types of decay processes will change as the theory is developed, and explanation is provided with a handwritten note.
Category: Astrophysics

[1996] viXra:1903.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 19:38:45

Eddington’s Mass-Luminosity Relationship: A Violation of the Laws of Thermodynamics

Authors: Stephen J. Crothers, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 13 Pages.

This is a copy of the slides for a talk presented at the Spring Meeting of the Ohio Section of the American Physical Society in Wooster, Ohio on March 30, 2019: http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/OSS19/Session/F02.5
Category: Astrophysics

[1995] viXra:1903.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-30 07:51:37

Sun's Magnetic Field Ten Times Stronger

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The sun's magnetic field is ten times stronger than previously believed, new research from Queen's University Belfast and Aberystwyth University has revealed. [19] University of Southern Denmark researchers have conducted simulations of dark matter particles hitting the Earth. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called "dark photons" in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1994] viXra:1903.0539 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 07:59:29

Neutrino is a Neutral Electron

Authors: Antonio PUCCINI
Comments: 10 Pages.

As known the brilliant idea of a new particle came to Pauli (fully shared by Fermi) to compensate the energy-mass gap that emerged from the disintegration of the neutron, or negative  decay (d): N P + e. The basic requirements originally requested by Pauli and Fermi for the new particle, or 3rd particle (called neutrino), are essentially three: it is electrically neutral and it must have the same mass and spin of an electron. Therefore, if the mass of the neutrino () corresponded to that assumed by Pauli and Fermi, the mass gap problem of the βd would be brilliantly solved. However, the current upper limits of the mass of the  are <2eV. Here we show that a clear incongruity comes out: the mass attributed to the  will never be able to solve the energy gap problem of the βd ; it takes  250˙000  to compensate the energy-mass gap. Unless we consider, instead of , another particle, probably still unknown, as the 3rd particle of βd. To find a solution, we hypothesized the existence of an electron with no electric charge: a neutral electron (e°).
Category: Astrophysics

[1993] viXra:1903.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 08:14:22

Superconducting Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Superconducting nanowires could be used as both targets and sensors for the direct detection of dark matter, physicists in Israel and the US have shown. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1992] viXra:1903.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 13:27:58

Fast Radio Bursts from Terraformation

Authors: Almog Yalinewich, Mubdi Rahman, Alysa Obertas, Patrick C. Breysse
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fast radio bursts (FRBs) are, as the name implies, short and intense pulses of radiation at wavelengths of roughly one metre. FRBs have extremely high brightness temperatures, which points to a coherent source of radiation. The energy of a single burst ranges from $10^{36}$ to $10^{39}$ erg. At the high end of the energy range, FRBs have enough energy to unbind an earth-sized planet, and even at the low end, there is enough energy to vaporise and unbind the atmosphere and the oceans. We therefore propose that FRBs are signatures of an artificial terraformer, capable of eradicating life on another planet, or even destroy the planet entirely. The necessary energy can be harvested from Wolf-Rayet stars with a Dyson sphere ($\sim 10^{38}$ erg s$^{-1}$) , and the radiation can be readily produced by astrophysical masers. We refer to this mechanism as Volatile Amplification of a Destructive Emission of Radiation (VADER). We use the observational information to constrain the properties of the apparatus. We speculate that the non-repeating FRBs are low-energy pulses used to exterminate life on a single planet, but leaving it otherwise intact, and that the stronger repeating FRB is part of an effort to destroy multiple objects in the same solar system, perhaps as a preventative measure against panspermia. In this picture, the persistent synchrotron source associated with the first repeating FRB arises from the energy harvesting process. Finally we propose that Oumuamua might have resulted from a destruction of a planet in this manner.
Category: Astrophysics

[1991] viXra:1903.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 10:20:42

Dark Matter Constrain

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1990] viXra:1903.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 10:39:58

Galaxies Defy Dark Matter Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

After drawing both praise and skepticism, the team of astronomers who discovered NGC 1052-DF2-the very first known galaxy to contain little to no dark matter-are back with stronger evidence about its bizarre nature. [21] Researchers from Russia, Finland, and the U.S. have put a constraint on the theoretical model of dark matter particles by analyzing data from astronomical observations of active galactic nuclei. [20] Just how quickly is the dark matter near Earth zipping around? The speed of dark matter has far-reaching consequences for modern astrophysical research, but this fundamental property has eluded researchers for years. [19] A NASA rocket experiment could use the Doppler effect to look for signs of dark matter in mysterious X-ray emissions from space. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17] In a paper published July 20 in the journal Physical Review Letters, an international team of cosmologists uses data from the intergalactic medium-the vast, largely empty space between galaxies-to narrow down what dark matter could be. [16] But a new hypothesis might have gotten us closer to figuring out its identity, because physicists now suspect that dark matter has been changing forms this whole time-from ghostly particles in the Universe's biggest structures, to a strange, superfluid state at smaller scales. And we might soon have the tools to confirm it. [15] Superfluids may exist inside neutron stars, and some researchers have speculated that space-time itself may be a superfluid. So why shouldn't dark matter have a superfluid phase, too? [14] "The best result on dark matter so far-and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron-proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1989] viXra:1903.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 04:00:10

No Evidence of Axions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Physicists from MIT and elsewhere have performed the first run of a new experiment to detect axions-hypothetical particles that are predicted to be among the lightest particles in the universe. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1988] viXra:1903.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 08:50:23

Black Hole in Radio Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Italian astronomers have conducted an X-ray analysis of the accreting supermassive black hole in the broad line radio galaxy PKS 2251+11 as part of a study aimed at investigating the galaxy's nuclear environment. [24] All massive galaxies are believed to host supermassive black holes (SMBH) at their centers that grow by accreting mass from their environment. [23]
Category: Astrophysics

[1987] viXra:1903.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 20:28:27

Does Earth Velocity Causes The Eclipse Phenomena? (T.S. Eclipse III)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 7 Pages.

We continue our discussion about the total solar eclipse…. Why We See the Sun Disc = the Moon Disc? (T.S. Eclipse II) Total Solar Eclipse Analysis (Part I) In this paper we ask does Earth velocity effects on total solar eclipse? We deal here with the velocity and not the motion That means The question can be as following: If Earth moves by different velocity, can that effect on the eclipse phenomena? Let's think …. Why the total solar eclipse is occurred? Because the moon moves between the sun and Earth…! It's NOT Enough…. Venus moves between the sun and Earth but doesn't cause any solar eclipse…. The point here that we see the sun disc = the moon disc…. That's why when the moon moves between the sun and Earth that creates solar eclipse…. Why we see the moon disc = the sun disc? We have discussed that in (part II) Here we deal with new question… If Earth velocity changes, does it effect on the solar eclipse? Let's think The total solar eclipse is a process done by 3 players (Earth, moon and the sun). to put the three planets on the same straight line we need some configuration between the 3 planets motions to produce the angle 180 degrees between the 3 players… So Earth velocity is a player which faces the 2 other players… any velocity change may effect on the eclipse geometrical structure but to perform the eclipse event the three players have to cooperate with each other… The Concept (Cooperation And Integration) This concept is what I try frequently to explain and prove. Without the cooperation and integration between the planets the solar group can't be found or even can't be created…! The cooperation is the source of life But what's this cooperation? While we understood the unit 1 meter by some meaning, and we understood the unit 1 second by another meaning…so our advanced description (in our mind) prevent us completely to think that 1 second may be very near to 1 meter… these 2 values are not similar or equal by any way..! the time is time and distance is a distance… we keep by heart! But What's The Time? No definition What's the distance? How can I create a distance? From what the distance is created? All such questions have no answers…! That's what I'm trying here to do…let's summarize my idea in following: 1st.The solar group is one machine, each planet is a gear in this same machine and no one planet can move or even can be found alone because each planet is a part in one body or one machine. 2nd.The cooperation between these planets is the source of their lives- that means the solar planets cooperation is started in their data! What does that mean? oThe planet data is created to be cooperative with other planets data and that means we can't see any truth when we study just one planet because this planet is just a part of a whole system – only in the whole system we can see the effect of this data clearly – Eclipse Phenomena is an example. oThe planets data have their definitions, and this is our main difficulty because the imaginary description in our minds which doesn't depend on any planet data prevents us to understand any truth we may reach from the solar planets data analysis- for example – I claim there's a real relationship between Earth and Pluto (Pluto Data Shows a Relationship with Earth) oNo one will accept this claim (Earth Pluto Relationship), of course because the huge distance between both where gravity prevents such relationship to be found… that's my point of fighting…. The imaginary description is the gravity and the distance effect on gravity…! Where the planet data tells clearly there's a relationship, please open your eyes to see it, But we believe the gravity which is trustee more than any eyes…. So we have another argument to fight for …let's write it down here How The Planet Orbital Distance Is Defined? By gravity…the gravitation equation defines the planet orbital distance… ! Let's examine this answer 1st critic / Mercury – Venus – Earth ….. these 3 planets order lead us to conclude that, there's some relationship between the planet diameter and his orbital distance With a clear rule "Greater Diameter needs Greater Orbital Distance" The current theory tells us this is pure coincidences! But There's a similar order (but reversed). Let's see that Jupiter – Saturn – Uranus – Neptune – Pluto The previous order tells us a reversed rule "Greater Diameter needs Shorter Orbital Distance" Something is occurred with Mars which caused the rule to be reversed after Mars! The current theory still consider this second order also as "pure Coincidences" But URANUS DIAMETER IS GREATER THAN NEPTUNE DIAMETER, where NEPTUNE MASS IS GREATER THAN URANUS… That tells us the solar planets order is done Depending On The Diameter And Not On The Mass! disproving the gravity concept …! 2nd Critic/ If the planet moves by gravity, and defines his orbital distance by the gravitation equation, which depends on the masses, why Jupiter isn't in place of Mercury? Why the greatest Mass has no shortest orbital distance? According to the gravitation equation (m/r2)? The told answer is because of the initial points!! And why we accept the gravitation equation based on that if there's no any proof for it?! For myself I try to understand and don't believe deeply the current theory So the conclusions are clear before my eyes 1-There's A Relationship Between The Planet Diameter And His Orbital Distance 2-Mars causes Disturbance For This Relationship It's hard fighting – but for what? What we should do to understand better the solar group geometry? We should see the contradictions between the planet data and the current theory, then we should create an alternative theory (much better theory) to explain the solar planets motions and origin In this paper while we discuss the eclipse phenomena as cover – in fact the fighting is around the Motion and Velocity Definitions
Category: Astrophysics

[1986] viXra:1903.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 11:58:07

Before the Big Bang

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 57 Pages.

A team of scientists has proposed a powerful new test for inflation, the theory that the universe dramatically expanded in size in a fleeting fraction of a second right after the A signal caused by the very first stars to form in the universe has been picked up by a tiny but highly specialised radio telescope in the remote Western Australian desert. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26] If they exist, axions, among the candidates for dark matter particles, could interact with the matter comprising the universe, but at a much weaker extent than previously theorized. New, rigorous constraints on the properties of axions have been proposed by an international team of scientists. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24]
Category: Astrophysics

[1985] viXra:1903.0443 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 06:49:02

Listening to the Quantum Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Since the historic finding of gravitational waves from two black holes colliding over a billion light years away was made in 2015, physicists are advancing knowledge about the limits on the precision of the measurements that will help improve the next generation of tools and technology used by gravitational wave scientists. [31] Physicists in the United States, Austria and Brazil have shown that shaking ultracold Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) can cause them to either divide into uniform segments or shatter into unpredictable splinters, depending on the frequency of the shaking. [30] In terms of physics, the interiors of neutron stars, cold atomic gasses and nuclear systems all have one thing in common: they are gaseous systems made up of highly interactive, superfluid fermions. [29] Engineers at MIT and Penn State University have found that under the right conditions, ordinary clear water droplets on a transparent surface can produce brilliant colors, without the addition of inks or dyes. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1984] viXra:1903.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-22 16:34:36

The Iron/Nickel Cores of Ancient Stars as Leftover Catalyst

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

It is explained that the iron/nickel cores of ancient stars are composed of unconsumed catalyst used in the chemical reactions required to form many chemical compounds found on rocky highly evolved stars. As well, it explains why only specific elements are found with the iron/nickel composites, it is because they are also function as catalysts, such as platinum, copper and gallium, which can be unconsumed in the process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1983] viXra:1903.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-21 17:23:43

In Ferent Quantum Gravity there Are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter Universe, the Matter Universe and the Spiritual Universe

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 326 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

In Ferent Quantum Gravity there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe. “Because there are 3 walls, there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “I discovered that: a < h < s” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall inside the Dark Matter universe emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall inside the Matter universe emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe and the Matter universe is much bigger than the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “We live in 3 universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe” Adrian Ferent Multiverse represents multiple domains in the universe with different properties. Here multiverse means multiple universes, means multiple contiguous domains within a larger universe, each with different properties such as different values of the physical parameters and different structures. Our universe is an island where the parameters, the space have enough complexity, to lead to a fascinating world, with forms of life. Our universe is the Planck universe. Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains what happened at Ferent wall and after the expansion of the Universe attains the Ferent wall. There are 3 walls: the Ferent wall, the Planck wall and the Spiritual wall. “There are 3 walls in our Universe: the Ferent wall with the constant ‘a’, the Planck wall with the constant ‘h’ and the Spiritual wall with the constant ‘s’.” Adrian Ferent The most general form of the time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent “I discovered that: a < h < s” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged Dark Matter, at Planck wall emerged Matter and at Spiritual wall emerged Spiritual Matter.” Adrian Ferent “Because there are 3 walls, there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent The Universe as a quantum system! The time-dependent Ferent equation of the Universe, which gives a description of the Universe as quantum system, made of Matter, N elementary particles, Dark Matter, M elementary particles, and Spiritual Matter, L elementary particles, evolving in time. “Ferent equation of the material and spiritual Universe:” Adrian Ferent This means: “In our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall inside the Dark Matter universe emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall inside the Matter universe emerged the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent “The Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe and the Matter universe is much bigger than the Spiritual universe.” Adrian Ferent Proof of Ferent Quantum Gravity: Ferent Quantum Gravity is right because in our galaxy there is 5 times more Dark Matter than Matter. This means the Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe. “We live in 3 universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe” Adrian Ferent 192. I am the first who discovered that because there are 3 walls, there are 3 Universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe 193. I am the first who discovered that in our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall emerged the Spiritual universe 194. I am the first who discovered that: a < h < s 195. I am the first who discovered that in our Universe at Ferent wall emerged the Dark Matter universe, at Planck wall inside the Dark Matter universe emerged the Matter universe and at Spiritual wall inside the Matter universe emerged the Spiritual universe 196. I am the first who discovered that the Dark Matter universe is much bigger than the Matter universe and the Matter universe is much bigger than the Spiritual universe 197. I am the first who discovered that we live in 3 universes: the Dark Matter universe, the Matter universe and the Spiritual universe
Category: Astrophysics

[1982] viXra:1903.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 12:22:11

A Mechanism of Accelerating and Jerking Expansion of Universe

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 20 Pages. thanks very much for consideration of my paper

In 2016, scientists report that the acceleration of the expansion of the universe could be accelerating, denote as jerk universe. We notice that the acceleration of the expanding universe is attributed to linear-effect of gravity, and believe that the jerk is linear-effect as well. We face two tasks: (1) A single dynamic mechanism is required to explain both acceleration and jerk; (2) higher order derivative theories of gravity is needed to govern jerk. We propose a theory-independent dynamic mechanism and extend Newton’s and linearized Einstein’s theory to contain high order differential evolution equations for time-varying source, gravitational field, and movement. We show that the mechanism, (1) predicts repulsive gravitational force, explain the accelerating expansion without fine-tuning problem, and provide an explanation of the jerk; (2) provides a candidate for driving inflation; (3) suggests a new understanding of the nature of dark energy, and postulates gravitational-charge/dark energy duality. Generalized linearized Einstein’s theory predicts that the accelerated receding objects in the universe emit gravitational wave.
Category: Astrophysics

[1981] viXra:1903.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 09:48:23

Dark Energy Particle is the Photon

Authors: Antonio PUCCINI
Comments: 39 Pages.

The Dark Energy (DE) is a mysterious, un-eliminable energy distributed, as a fluid, evenly throughout the whole Universe. The nature of the Dark Energy Particles (DEP) is unknown. DE appears to be associated with vacuum in space. Just the omnipresent quantum vacuum energy is the key element to help us understand the characteristics, profile and properties of DEP, for us represented ultimately by photons (Ps) but, likely, not Ps of the optical band. Probably DE is the sum of the common photonic energy of a lot of Ps, often inexorably amassed and thickened by the Gravity Interaction, until the radiation cannot be further compressed. These concepts are elegantly confirmed by the equation: PV 4/3 = C . Consequently, from each individual P triggers an energetic repulsive action, which, summing up (by the Overlap Principle), acts in unison as a counter-pressure. To trigger this counter-pressure, is the mass-energy density of a very compact wall of Ps, no further compressible. DE is ubiquitously widespread both within intergalactic and intra-atomic space, between the nucleus and the orbiting electrons: the latter is a space notoriously swarming of Ps. In our opinion, DEP are conveyed by Ps, also of different energies, engaged in various tasks and operating contexts, sometimes peculiar and/or unusual, whose common denominator is represented by the impossibility of being compressed beyond a determined limit. In short, DE is represented by a Photonics Counter-Pressure, or negative pressure, that is expansive, repulsive, anti-gravitational, exerted by Ps no further compressible. As well-known in fact, Ps are not ethereal and dimensionless particles. Ps are the Planck grains, equals to: 6.6261027[ergs] 10n [c/s], where n indicates the number of oscillations per second of a single P.
Category: Astrophysics

[1980] viXra:1903.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 22:40:43

Positive Energy of Gravitational Field

Authors: Hu iPeng
Comments: 22 Pages. thanks for publish my article

The issues, such as the negative energy density of the gravito-static field and the lack of an energy-momentum tensor in General Relativity (GR), have a long history. To provide possible resolutions for these issues, based on the U (1) gauge theory of gravity, the gravito-static and gravito-magnetic field lines are introduced for the positive/negative gravitational charge and current, respectively. It is shown that the direction of gravitational force acting on a negative gravitational charge is opposite to that of the gravitational field. Then we show that positive energy is stored in the gravitational field and that the exchanged energy between the gravitational field and gravitational charges/currents is always positive. The energy-momentum tensor,T_g^μν,of the vector gravitational field is introduced and has the following physical properties: (1) symmetric, T_g^μν= T_g^νμ; (2) positive energy density, T_g^00>0; (3) zero trace, T_gμ^μ=0; (4) conserved, (∂T_gν^μ)/(∂x_μ )=0; (5) localizable.
Category: Astrophysics

[1979] viXra:1903.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 22:46:50

Negative Gravitational Charge and Theories of Gravity

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 30 Pages. thanks very much for consideration of my paper

The purpose of this article is to identify laws that would describe gravitation if negative gravitational mass/gravitational charge (g-charge) exists. WEP is generalized to establish correlations between mass and positive/negative g-charge (Q_(g+)/Q_(g-)), although Q_(g-) on Earth would fall upward. Newton’s theory and Einstein’s theory are generalized to describe behaviors of objects carrying Q_(g-). A significant conclusion is that, as long as Q_(g-) is introduced, all of Newton’s theory, Gravitodynamics and Einstein’s theory explain the accelerated expansion of Universe equally well without needs of “negative pressure” and “cosmological constant” that has fine-tuning issue. This implies that this mechanism of the cosmological phenomenon is universal and theory independent, which strongly supports the existence of negative g-charges. Moreover the acceleration is increasing with time. Gravitodynamics and generalized Einstein’s theory predict: (1) gravitational wave (GW_-) emitted by Q_(g-); (2) GW_- cannot be distinguished from GW_+ emitted by Q_(g+).
Category: Astrophysics

[1978] viXra:1903.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 03:49:19

The Effects of Astronomical Bodies on Imouto’s Local Solutions to Rankine–Hugoniot Equations.

Authors: P. Gomez, P. Gomez, Tiddles the cat, P. Erdős, P. Gomez
Comments: 8 pages; published in Modern Aviation and Sexology Daily

We herein present a proof of the existence and smoothness of the Navier-Stokes equations via a new method of manipulating Calabi-Yau manifolds, which in turn leads us to a disproof by contradiction of the Collatz conjecture; four separate, independent proofs of the Jacobian conjecture; a complete decipherment of Linear A; a method of determining whether or not a book is worth reading based on its cover alone; and an entire new field of mathematics which we hereby name ”Weird Calculus”. We completely and utterly fail to present any convincing arguments, but at least there’s some nice text art. We make no attempt to clarify anything in the field. Astute readers may notice the complete lack of content and coherence in this paper.
Category: Astrophysics

[1977] viXra:1903.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-18 07:04:44

X-ray Bright Galactic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

All massive galaxies are believed to host supermassive black holes (SMBH) at their centers that grow by accreting mass from their environment. [23] In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1976] viXra:1903.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-17 10:27:04

Why We See the Sun Disc = the Moon Disc? (T.S. Eclipse II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper discusses Mercury Data to prove 3 conclusions which are: 1-The solar group is one machine, each planet is a gear in this same machine. (i.e. each solar planet depends on other solar planets in his Origin And Motion). 2-Mercury Data shows a relationship with Jupiter can't be explained by gravity concept or any current theory. (i.e. The Solar Group Current Theory Is Insufficient) 3-Special Theory of Relativity provides empirical results only and need a theoretical extension to be a complete theory. (Specifically, the theory needs to explain why the lorentz length contraction phenomenon is done and what geometrical effect it practices) The paper also suggest the following idea "The Time existence depends on relativistic effects" i.e. "Time Definition" is a process extends beyond the human daily experiences This paper completes the previous discussion Total Solar Eclipse Analysis (Part I)
Category: Astrophysics

[1975] viXra:1903.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-17 13:42:06

A New Dimension In The Area Of Event Horizon

Authors: Kanishk Chitransh
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, calculations and arguments are reported which gives us a basis of a new dimension in the area of event horizon of black hole astrophysics.We know that two black holes in different regions of space-time can never be similar in terms of their mass, temperature (event horizon) and entropy. This paper further extends the idea and states that two black holes in different regions of space-time can never be similar in terms of their area of event horizon too.
Category: Astrophysics

[1974] viXra:1903.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-16 05:33:20

Black Holes Conquer Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

In short, the concept of a black hole gravity machine presents humanity with a plausible path to becoming an interstellar species. In the meantime, the study of the concept will provide SETI researchers with another possible technosignature to look for. [22] Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21]
Category: Astrophysics

[1973] viXra:1903.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 07:18:29

Specifications for Elementary Particles, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, and Unifying Physics Theories

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 27 Pages.

We suggest united models and specific predictions regarding elementary particles, dark matter, aspects of galaxy evolution, dark energy, and aspects of the cosmology timeline. Results include specific predictions for new elementary particles and specific descriptions of dark matter and dark energy. Some of our modeling matches known elementary particles and extrapolates to predict other elementary particles, including bases for dark matter. Some modeling explains observed ratios of effects of dark matter to effects of ordinary matter. Some models suggest aspects of galaxy formation and evolution. Some modeling correlates with eras of increases or decreases in the observed rate of expansion of the universe. Our modeling framework features mathematics for isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators and provides a framework for creating and unifying physics theories. Aspects of our approach emphasize existence of elementary particles and de-emphasize motion. Some of our models complement traditional quantum field theory and, for example, traditional calculations of anomalous magnetic dipole moments.
Category: Astrophysics

[1972] viXra:1903.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 12:12:24

Space Radiation Detector Masterpieces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Technology originally developed for CERN's Large Hadron Collider and then flown in space by ESA is now being used to analyse historic artworks, helping to detect forgeries. [25] Entangled photons generated by a spaceborne quantum source could enable hack-proof key exchange for ultra high security applications. [24] These qubits are based on silicon carbide in which molybdenum impurities create color centers. [23] Scientists at Radboud University discovered a new mechanism for magnetic storage of information in the smallest unit of matter: a single atom. [22] One of these are single-atom magnets: storage devices consisting of individual atoms stuck ("adsorbed") on a surface, each atom able to store a single bit of data that can be written and read using quantum mechanics. [21] Physicists have experimentally demonstrated 18-qubit entanglement, which is the largest entangled state achieved so far with individual control of each qubit. [20] University of Adelaide-led research has moved the world one step closer to reliable, high-performance quantum computing. [19] A team of researchers with members from IBM Research-Zurich and RWTH Aachen University has announced the development of a new PCM (phase change memory) design that offers miniaturized memory cell volume down to three nanometers. [18] Monatomic glassy antimony might be used as a new type of single-element phase change memory. [17] Physicists have designed a 3-D quantum memory that addresses the tradeoff between achieving long storage times and fast readout times, while at the same time maintaining a compact form. [16] Quantum memories are devices that can store quantum information for a later time, which are usually implemented by storing and re-emitting photons with certain quantum states. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1971] viXra:1903.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 18:02:25

Sunqm-3s4: Using {N,n} QM Structure and Multiplier N’ to Analyze Saturn’s (And Other Planets’) Ring Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 19 Pages.

All Saturn rings do follow p{N,n} QM structure. By using planet’s Earth-sized core as pCore{0,1} and r1, Saturn’s inner core, outer core, surface, B-ring, and moons of Mimas, Enceladus, Tethys, Dione, and Rhea, are almost perfectly at pCore{0,n=1..9//3} orbits or sizes. Also Uranus’ major ring (ε ring), and its minor moons Portia, Puck, and its major moons Miranna, Arial, Umbriel, Titania, Oberon, are at orbit of pCore{0,n//2} with n ≈ 3, 3, 4, 5, 6,7, 9, and 10 approximately. All major rings of gas/ice planet are at Δn = +1 out of planet’s surface (if using their Earth-sized core as r1). For Neptune and Uranus, both of their surfaces are at pCore{0,2//2} size, and their major rings are at pCore{0,3//2} orbit. For Saturn and Jupiter, both of their surfaces are at around pCore{0,3//3} size, and their major rings are at pCore{0,4//3} orbit. By comparing between similar massed planets, the pCore{N,n} QM structure analysis suggests that Uranus’ ring is younger than that of Neptune’s, and Saturn’s ring is younger than that of Jupiter’s. Saturn’s major ring (B-ring, base frequency n=4)’s inner edge can be described by a multiplier n’ = 4*3^6 - 167 = 2749, its outer edge can be described by n’ = 4*3^6 +225 = 3141, and its thickness can be described by n’ =4*3^25 = 3.39E+12. Saturn’s A, B, C, D rings may follow the radial probability density distribution curve. We can use p{N,n} QM and r^2 *|R(n,l)|^2 *|Y(l,m)|^2 to build Saturn major ring’s true 3D structure probability function as shown in equation-4.
Category: Astrophysics

[1970] viXra:1903.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-10 09:05:16

Two Colliding Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Located in the constellation of Hercules, about 230 million light-years away, NGC 6052 is a pair of colliding galaxies. [38] Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[1969] viXra:1903.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 06:06:50

Nuclear Reactions in Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27]
Category: Astrophysics

[1968] viXra:1903.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 12:35:33

Counter-deception in Astronomy: Unmasking the Second Greatest Astronomical Deception

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper I will try my best to explain how nature has deceived millions of scientists and researchers, as well as how those very same scientists and researchers spread the deception. The deception is as follows, it is believed that a "star" is something mutually exclusive of "planet". It is the second greatest astronomical deception because the greatest was the belief that Earth was the center of the Solar System. Unmasking the Second Greatest astronomical deception needed more data, but now requires the humility to acknowledge the deception. Now that the data has already been obtained and the discovery made, we can review how the deception took place. There is a lot more to this than what I will write about here, this is just to serve as a back drop for future reference and research into what went wrong. It is suggested for the reader to study counter-deception and intelligence gathering processes in the political and military sphere as well as the scientific, as they are all very, very similar.
Category: Astrophysics

[1967] viXra:1903.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-07 07:31:53

Entangled Qubits Probe Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Physicists have used a seven-qubit quantum computer to simulate the scrambling of information inside a black hole, heralding a future in which entangled quantum bits might be used to probe the mysterious interiors of these bizarre objects. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20]
Category: Astrophysics

[1966] viXra:1903.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-07 20:14:15

Polar "Hot Spots" Are Caused by Birkeland Currents

Authors: Anonymous
Comments: 1 Page.

The now accepted theory of sun-Earth Birkeland currents, what astro-physicists call "magnetic ropes" or "flux ropes", provides a mechanism to explain polar "hot spots" on planets throughout the solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1965] viXra:1903.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 07:19:17

Galaxies, Photon Mass on Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

With this in mind, the physicists Dmitri Ryutov, Dmitry Budker and Victor Flambaum have suggested that the rotational dynamics of galaxies might be explained by other factors. They hypothesize that the mass of photons, which are particles of light, might be responsible. [31] Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30]
Category: Astrophysics

[1964] viXra:1903.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 11:21:17

An Analysis of the Rotation Curves of Disk Galaxies Using the Sparc Catalogue

Authors: Jo Ke
Comments: 20 Pages.

The SPARC catalogue of disk galaxies contains data on both the rotation curves and the baryonic matter distributions. This data set enables an analysis to be carried out to see whether a simple weighting function applied to the matter distributions can explain the rotation curves, without the need for any dark matter. It turns out that the radial distance raised to a small negative power is such a weighting function and it is sufficient to explain the observed rotation curves. This observational result leads to a new expression for the rotation curve with only one adjustable parameter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1963] viXra:1903.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-05 07:52:07

Total Solar Eclipse Analysis (Part I)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 12 Pages.

Why the total solar eclipse is occurred? Why We See The Sun Disc = The Moon Disc? We know this answer…. because (Earth orbital distance/ Earth moon distance) = (sun diameter/ Moon diameter) Now The question is…"Is there a geometrical reason behind the previous equation?" The current theory tells us No ….It's just pure coincidence….! But easily we can guess that, there's some geometrical reason behind and the current theory is incorrect Let's see this same equation in more clear light (Sun diameter / Earth moon distance) = (Earth Diameter / Moon diameter) (Equ. No. II) Equation No. II This equation has specific significance Let's analyze The Left Part in following: 1-The Sun Diameter = Jupiter Circumference x π(error 1.5%) 2-Earth Moon Distance 378675 km (Solar Eclipse Radius) =Saturn Circumference We know that, 3-(2 Saturn Circumference) = (2 Jupiter Circumference – Jupiter Diameter) 4-Solar Planets Diameters Total = 2 Jupiter diameters + 1 Saturn diameter we'll try to explain this data in this paper
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[661] viXra:1907.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-17 04:13:28

The Conscious Readiness Potential Ratio Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

The Benjamin Libet discovery of two different Readiness Potentials (RPI and RPII) and the potential to VETO an act, is reason to suggest the presence of a SuSy multiverse with entanglement down to each quantum. However, Libet did not Notice, because he (or his successors) did not measure the ratio between RPI and RPII , as a base for the total number of SuSy Universes.
Category: Astrophysics

[660] viXra:1906.0572 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-08 20:51:22

Stellar Metamorphosis: Maximum Mass and Density of a Dead Star

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. updated with K2-229b

The purpose of this paper is to re-interpret stellar evolution from physical observations in accordance with the General Theory. The maximum density of a dead star is, 8.9 ± 2.1 g cm−3, and the maximum mass is 0.0082 ± 0.0014 Jupiter masses. This is important as it sets an upper bound for dead stars, for the maximum size object a star can make, and allows us to reinterpret the interiors of gas giants as they evolve into life hosting worlds.
Category: Astrophysics

[659] viXra:1906.0563 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-09 17:45:04

Newton's Gravity Depending on the Topology of Space.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 34 Pages.

Taking into account the fact that gravity is a curvature of 3D space, it can be represented as a conic section. And this leads to the formulation of the law of I. Newton’s law in a general form, depending on the topology of space, which makes it possible to theoretically derive the speeds of the stars in galaxies. The theoretical derivation of the Hubble–Lemaître law is also given, and the relativistic form of the law of I. Newton is derived (in a generalized form). Explained relation between galaxies speeds with distance to it, on the basis of the A. Einstein's STR.
Category: Astrophysics

[658] viXra:1906.0529 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-29 20:14:05

Stellar Metamorphosis: Stellar Axial Angular Momentum During Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 11 pages of handwritten notes and calculations, 1 graph

A new branch to the general theory is described. The star's total axial angular momentum decreases as it evolves. Angular momentum is mathematically described as L = I*W. L is angular momentum, I is the moment of inertia, W is the angular velocity. As well, for future reference the moment of inertia factor will change for the Sun as it is a homogeneous body. Its moment of inertia factor is probably very close to .4, not .070 as purported by the dogma. The math is shown for I= 2/5Mr^2, and W = 2Pi rad/86,400 seconds, for the Earth. Plus a few additional notes are added to compare Mars to Venus to Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[657] viXra:1906.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-16 12:48:21

The New Gyrochronology, Version 2

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 9 Pages.

Gyrochronology can be used to measure the age of a low mass, or highly evolved star. Depending on how fast the star is spinning, we can also determine how fast it lost its mass from earlier stages of evolution, which in turn tells us if it was orbiting very close to another host. This is all in accordance with the general theory, meaning the oldest, most highly evolved and/or dead stars will barely spin at all. Examples are provided with hand written notes to prove that I did not steal the idea from anybody, as it is a natural consequence of realizing stars are young hot planets, and planets are very old, slowly spinning stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[656] viXra:1905.0420 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-22 06:22:15

The Great Filter And The Fermi Paradox

Authors: Daniele Zamori
Comments: 6 Pages.

The purpose of this paper is to seek an explanation to the following questions: “What is the Great Filter?” and “When it will arrive?”. Creating a theoretical model capable to provide an objectively valuable solution over those issues, it is also possible to hypothesize a valid solution for the Fermi paradox: “Where is everybody?”. The ultimate aim of this theory is to give a solution using only the facts we can see and evaluate, finding a logical path that could give a full solution, and to raise awareness to the notion that we have of technological developement.
Category: Astrophysics

[655] viXra:1905.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-27 13:49:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: Using D/H Ratios of Mars to Determine it's Age

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. replacing because I had Mercury written in Mars' spot.

In the general theory Mars is a dead star. We can figure out how old it is by measuring its atmospheric deuterium/hydrogen ratio against the Earth. I have made this paper as simple as possible by starting with the Earth as between 4.5-10 billion years old, and with a D/H ratio of 1/6250. From that we can determine how old Mars is.
Category: Astrophysics

[654] viXra:1904.0407 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-26 07:20:57

Proof that the Ether Exists and that the Speed of Light is Anisotropic

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 5 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson Morley interferometer experiment in 1887 has been widely regarded as proof that the aether does not exist, and that Relativity’s assertion that the speed of light is isotropic is all reference frames is the correct model. However, a number of experiments have detected anisotropy in the speed of light by exploiting the effect known as Fresnel Dragging to reveal the different travel times by light in each direction between two points.
Category: Astrophysics

[653] viXra:1904.0407 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-24 17:36:00

Proof that the Ether Exists and that the Speed of Light is Anisotropic

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 7 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson Morley interferometer experiment in 1887 has been widely regarded as proof that the aether does not exist, and that Relativity’s assertion that the speed of light is isotropic is all reference frames is the correct model. However, a number of experiments have detected anisotropy in the speed of light by exploiting the effect known as Fresnel Dragging to reveal the different travel times by light in each direction of a round trip.
Category: Astrophysics

[652] viXra:1904.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-24 22:18:32

Back to Cosmos

Authors: F.M. Sanchez, V. Kotov, M. Grosmann, D. Weigel, R. Veysseyre, C. Bizouard, N. Flawisky, D. Gayral, L. Gueroult
Comments: 28 Pages. To be published in Progress in Physics

To the memory of Sir Michael Atiyah Abstract. The ancestral concept of Cosmos is rediscovered through the idea of a Tachyonic Grandcosmos Multibasis Computer, inversing the Anthropic Principle and reestablishing the Laplace Determinism. The observed fine tuning between physical dimensionless parameters is interpreted as relations between optimal calculation basis, announcing a dramatic progress in computer software. Three type of mathematical constants are considered: Large, Intermediate and close to unity. The famous Large Number problem is resolved by Eddington's statistical theory and the gravitational Hydrogen Molecule model, leading to the visible Universe horizon radius R ≈ 13.812 Giga ligth-years. The extension of the double cosmic correlation defines a Topological Axis using Euler-Napier constant e as primary basis, confirming String Theory, Cartan-Bott periodicity and the 30 holic dimensions corresponding to the simplest space-time-matter diophantine equation T2 = L3 = M5 = N30. This dimension n = 30 corresponds to the common time, about 10^58 s, given by two mandatory dimensional analysis, interpreted as the Supercycle period. The visible Universe wavelength 'Topon' 2Għ/Rc3 ≈ 4 × 10^-96 m corresponds to n ≈ 2e^e and enters the 1D mono-radial holographic extension of the Bekenstein-Hawking Universe entropy, implying the critical condition, and breaking the Planck wall by a factor 10^61, justifying the Hawking trans-planckian frequencies. The monochrome holographic extension leads to a Grandcosmos, larger than the visible Universe by the same factor 10^61. A toponic quantization justifies the Cosmos vastness in a scanned Universe, justifying the entropy factor 1/4. This implies a tachyonic speed in the same ratio by respect to c, justifying the Planck re-normalisation of the vacuum energy, independently checked by the Casimir effect. The couple Universe-Grandcosmos is confirmed by a dramatic geo-dimensional analysis, where Length, Time and Mass ratios are considered as unit vectors in a 3D Super-space. A matter-antimatter 10^104 Hz Oscillatory Bounce unifies standard Single Bang with steady-state cosmology, but suppress Relativity in cosmology at large, reestablishing the Newton Absolute Space realized by the Microwave Cosmic Radiation, while Kotov cycle defines an absolute clock. This new scanning space-time structure is confirmed by single-electron cosmology, connected with Kotov period, and relying Sternheimer Scale Factor and Atiyah constant, which appear as privileged computation basis, as well as e, p and a ≈ 137.036, in liaison with the sporadic groups. The Atiyah constant enters dramatic ppb precision relations with particle data. This unifies philosophy, mathematics, physics, chemistry, biology and informatics. It is predicted that the future telescopes will find mature galaxies in the very far range, instead of a Dark Space, ruining the standard evolutionary cosmology, ill-founded on an imperfect Cosmological Principle.
Category: Astrophysics

[651] viXra:1904.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-04 03:54:59

Pioneer 10 Anomaly Calling Into Question Einstein's Second Postulate

Authors: Fabien Sabinet
Comments: 3 Pages. Some precisions in the title and in the article...

Based on the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 with a magnitude of 8.7×10-10 m/s² directed towards the Sun, we can demonstrate that there is serious indication that the anomaly is due to the use of a wrong Doppler shift formula by the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL). Indeed if we compare the result given by the formula used by JPL based on the Einstein's second postulate, and the result given by the classic Galilean velocity addition formula, we found exactly the value of the anomalous acceleration acting on Pioneer 10 toward the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[650] viXra:1903.0407 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-19 12:19:34

Gravitational Index of Refraction

Authors: D.H.W. Reffer
Comments: 4 Pages. Replacement of the General Theory of Relativity

Henceforth the fact is admitted as an axiom that all bodies in the universe set up gravitationally the universal optical medium, named gravitational ether, whose strength—from which we derive its index of refraction—is the sum of all relative-velocity dependent gravitational potentials, hence both nonuniform in space and changing in time as bodies move. Besides, Einstein’s E = mc 2 is of gravitational cosmological nature, including pure Newtonian.
Category: Astrophysics