Astrophysics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1180] viXra:1704.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 08:48:27

Heretical Physicsxia Newtons'g'

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 6 Pages.

Investigate the source of Newton's 'G' and unexplored dynamic applications beyond value 'g'
Category: Astrophysics

[1179] viXra:1704.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-24 02:09:56

Никитин В. Н., Никитин И. В. Если раcпадаться, то до конца! Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Конечный результат распада всего – Вселенское пространство фундаментальных частиц «ничего».
Category: Astrophysics

[1178] viXra:1704.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 13:45:16

Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Further evidence of the existence of dark matter – the mysterious substance that is believed to hold the Universe together – has been produced by Cosmologists at Durham University. [27] Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17]
Category: Astrophysics

[1177] viXra:1704.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-22 04:49:27

Mathematics for Input Space Probes in the Atmosphere of Gliese 581d.

Authors: R. Gobato, A. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo
Comments: 8 Pages. Parana Journal of Science and Education. v.2, n.5, 6-13(2016). https://sites.google.com/site/pjsciencea/archives

The work is a mathematical approach to the entry of an aerospace vehicle, as a probe or capsule in the atmosphere of the planet Gliese 581d, using data collected from the results of atmospheric models of the planet. GJ581d was the first planet candidate of a few Earth masses reported in the circum-stellar habitable zone of another star. It is located in the Gliese 581 star system, is a star red dwarf about 20 light years away from Earth in the constellation Libra. Its estimated mass is about a third of that of the Sun. It has been suggested that the recently discovered exoplanet GJ581d might be able to support liquid water due to its relatively low mass and orbital distance. However, GJ581d receives 35% less stellar energy than the planet Mars and is probably locked in tidal resonance, with extremely low insolation at the poles and possibly a permanent night side. The climate that demonstrate GJ581d will have a stable atmosphere and surface liquid water for a wide range of plausible cases, making it the first confirmed super-Earth (2-10 Earth masses) in the habitable zone. According to the general principle of relativity, “All systems of reference are equivalent with respect to the formulation of the fundamental laws of physics.” In this case all the equations studied apply to the exoplanet Gliese 581d. If humanity is able to send a probe to Gliese 581d, this has all the mathematical conditions set it down successfully on its surface.
Category: Astrophysics

[1176] viXra:1704.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:40:01

Interference Black Holes, Ball Lightning, Micro Comets, Sprite-Fireballs and Sunspots According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Ball Lightning. I assume that the largest Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..
Category: Astrophysics

[1175] viXra:1704.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 08:44:11

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V. Hypothesis of "Star" Disintegration of Galaxies Formation and Evolution of Galaxies is a Result of "Star" Disintegration of Their White Holes and Their Further Transformation Into Black Holes.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I. V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Formation and evolution of galaxies is a result of "star" disintegration of their White Holes and their further transformation into Black Holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1174] viXra:1704.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:24:29

An Analysis of Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity

Authors: Edward G. Lake
Comments: Pages.

An analysis of books, presentations and scientific papers about Albert Einstein’s Second Postulate to his Special Theory of Relativity shows that there is a fundamental disagreement between what Einstein wrote and how what he wrote is being interpreted by mathematician-physicists and taught in colleges and universities around the world. An analysis of the evidence shows that Einstein was correct and the interpretations and teachings are incorrect.
Category: Astrophysics

[1173] viXra:1704.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:27:33

Black Hole Heart Beating

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1172] viXra:1704.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 09:57:45

Singularity in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A team of scientists at the Tata Institute of Fundamental Research (TIFR), Mumbai, India, have found new ways to detect a bare or naked singularity, the most extreme object in the universe. [16] New data from NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory and other telescopes has revealed details about this giant black hole, located some 145 million light years from Earth. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think “the Big Bang”, except just the opposite. That’s essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1171] viXra:1704.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 06:09:47

The Physicist of an Origin of Forces of Gravitation and Range of S-Radiations in Whom Threats from Space Are Shown

Authors: V.Korniienko
Comments: 18 pages in English and a copy at 19 pages in Russian

In article it is experimentally proved that any body has the quantum electromagnetic field which as a result of deformation generates electromagnetic radiations (S-radiations). The S-radiations properties found by us demonstrates that interaction of quantum electromagnetic fields of different bodies causes their mutual attraction which is gravitation forces. Besides, tension which arises in matter of celestial bodies under the influence of gravitation and forces of other origin, cause deformation of the quantum electromagnetic field of these bodies owing to what they generate space S-radiations which have filled all Universe. Therefore there is a range of S-radiations in which we observed how in the summer of 2003 Earth and the Sun were occupied by a power information field which influence causes all global changes. In this range we also watch a space body which from a terrestrial orbit generates powerful S-radiations. Therefore, for the benefit of early identification of threats from Space, it is necessary to develop astronomical observations in a range of S-radiations.
Category: Astrophysics

[1170] viXra:1704.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 22:38:15

Heretical Physics Xii

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 2 Pages.

A check of the variations required to be produced by the sun 'g' to balance the Newton - Kepler planetary elliptic orbits as theorized by the 'Standard Model'
Category: Astrophysics

[1169] viXra:1704.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-20 03:08:52

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Perm Extinction – a Doomsday Prelude the Most Fissile Mass Cold Snap is the Reason of Mass Extinction of the Permian Period of Existence of Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The most fissile mass cold snap is the reason of mass extinction of the Permian Period of existence of Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1168] viXra:1704.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 07:46:39

The Krypton Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple conclusion is made concerning destroyed worlds with life on them according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1167] viXra:1704.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-16 20:04:11

Core Growth Termination During Stellar Evolution in the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis stars grow iron/nickel cores via vapor deposition and condensation during intermediate stages of evolution. It is proposed that these iron/nickel cores stop growing for a few reasons provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1166] viXra:1704.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 22:15:25

The Beginning of Homogeneous Nucleation of Iron/Nickel Cores in Homogeneous Young Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

To begin the process of forming homogeneous iron/nickel cores it is required that the young, hot stars be homogeneous in their interiors. To form an iron/nickel core as the star evolves, no nuclear core can be present. It would be too hot for the iron/nickel vapor to clump together and it would get in the way of the differentiation process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1165] viXra:1704.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 07:36:08

First Image of Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

After training a network of telescopes stretching from Hawaii to Antarctica to Spain at the heart of our galaxy for five nights running, astronomers said Wednesday they may have snapped the first-ever picture of a black hole. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1164] viXra:1704.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 11:11:40

Image of a Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Waterloo have been able to capture the first composite image of a dark matter bridge that connects galaxies together. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1163] viXra:1704.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-12 05:09:40

The Origin of Life and the Need for a Rigid String Propeller Fermion Model Combined with a Chiral Vacuum Lattice.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 38 Pages.

The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and is a strong argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare. Glycine molecules (Amino Acids) are found inside materials ejected from comets like Wild 2 ( 2004) and 67P-CG ( 2015-2016) which is reason to support the idea that new physics magnetic micro interference black holes postulated by Quantum FFF Theory are the origin of life creating comets and (ball) lightning all over the universe. . Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) new physics theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped rigid but transformable massless strings called Axion- Higgs (AH) particles. Colliding AH particles are responsible for pair production ( e- and e+) and even quarks around micro and macro black hole nuclei present in the splitting Big Bang down to Comets and Ball Lightnings. Black hole nuclei are supposed to be AH knots compressed by the in falling AH vacuum lattice. Two AHs should be able to change form by real high energy collision into two entangled electron positron propeller strings with opposite pitch and spin. Such high energy is supposed to be present at black hole event/photon horizons and inside particle colliders like the LHC at Geneva. The propeller form of fermions is assumed to be the origin of a new physics black hole model. All black holes attract (eat) the local AH vacuum but repel all fermions by spin polarisation effects, which make black holes pair producing and fermion producing phenomena observed in Quasars, Herbig Haro objects, Comets and even ball lightning. Thus the variable FORM of all particles is based on real internal joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons. However all new particles pairs are assumed to be instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. Massless transformed Axion particles are also assumed to be responsible for all compound quantum knots like quarks and massive Higgs particles of 126 GeV and Higher energy recently observed in the LHC at CERN. The oscillating AH vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon, Gluon and Neutrino information. Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Axion particles, compressed by the oscillating AH vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[1162] viXra:1704.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 21:09:40

Accretion Friction Braking in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is required in stellar metamorphosis to brake material so that it loses the momentum that would prevent coalescence. In order to do any sort of accretion in outer space, the material has to clump together slowly and be pulled together and heated significantly. Even the slightest momentum with gaseous matter, dust, 1 cm sized particles or 1 km sized asteroids would prevent accretion and result in a further disintegration or deflection of the material. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1161] viXra:1704.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-09 21:46:23

GJ 1132b in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A prediction of the atmosphere composition, differentiation, weather, life and future of GJ1132b is made in accordance with stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1160] viXra:1704.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-08 19:23:29

The Change in Gravitational Potential Energy of Objects Near Stars in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

With a few simple statements it is outlined that the gravitational potential energy of objects near stars in stellar metamorphosis changes as the stars evolve. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1159] viXra:1704.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 19:24:38

Internal Work to Heat Efficiency Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that the efficiency of internal work to heat transfer increases as a star evolves. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1158] viXra:1704.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 19:32:59

Dark Matter and Dark Energy: Mysteries of the Universe

Authors: Nirakar Sapkota, Binod Adhikari
Comments: 20 Pages.

The Universe has a flat geometry and its density is very close to critical density. However, the observed amount of matter accounts for only 5% of the critical density. The rest of the 95% is completely unknown to us which exists in the form of Dark Energy (68%) and Dark Matter (27%). We present an overview of how the very idea of the existence of Dark Matter emerged and some compelling evidences for the existence of such matter. Moreover, we also provide an insight on how scientific ideas have evolved from a static Universe to an expanding Universe and then to an accelerating Universe. In addition, we explain fundamental concepts related to Dark Energy and discuss briefly on the evidences of Dark Energy. We also discuss some alternative solutions to the problems of Dark Matter and Dark Energy provided by different scientists.
Category: Astrophysics

[1157] viXra:1704.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 07:13:39

Merging Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists at the University of Birmingham have made progress in understanding a key mystery of gravitational-wave astrophysics: how two black holes can come together and merge. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1156] viXra:1704.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 06:36:47

Dark Matter Wind

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

We know which way the dark matter wind should blow. Now we just have to find it. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1155] viXra:1704.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 22:58:13

Grand Unification from a Classical Interpretation of “Spin” Angular Momentum

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages. Thank you.

It is shown from the laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum that the gravitational energy of a bound state particle is dependent upon its geometric mean angular frequency. A classical interpretation for the intrinsic “spin” angular momentum of a particle is submitted that can be tested macroscopically with the Rarita−Schwinger equation for the orbit of Mercury. Librations in the relative obliquity of planetary bodies are shown to be analogous to the Larmor precession of atomic particles. Schrodinger's concept of a bound state electron's zitterbewegung is hypothesized to be the librations in the electron's relative obliquity.
Category: Astrophysics

[1154] viXra:1704.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-03 07:52:02

Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1153] viXra:1703.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 13:11:39

Magnetic Reconnection Experiment

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1152] viXra:1703.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 13:40:14

Magnetospheric Multiscale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

When NASA's Magnetospheric Multiscale—or MMS—mission was launched, the scientists knew it would answer questions fundamental to the nature of our universe—and MMS hasn't disappointed. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1151] viXra:1703.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 06:01:58

Detection of Vibranium in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1365 Through X-Ray Spectroscopy

Authors: F. Ursini, A. Tortosa, F. Ricci
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present results from a joint NuSTAR/VLT monitoring of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1365. We find conclusive evidences for an emission K alpha line from atomic vibranium in the X-ray spectrum, in combination with molecular vibranium absorption features in the mid-infrared spectrum. This is the first direct observation of vibranium in an astronomical environment. We also derive a measurement for its abundance of 2e-6 with respect to hydrogen.
Category: Astrophysics

[1150] viXra:1703.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-30 08:34:08

Universe Without Dark Energy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Enigmatic 'dark energy', thought to make up 68% of the universe, may not exist at all, according to a Hungarian-American team. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1149] viXra:1703.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-30 06:47:58

Using a Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis for Red Giant Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Using the principle of spherical celestial objects in stellar metamorphosis, we can determine if red giants are actual stars or something else.
Category: Astrophysics

[1148] viXra:1703.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 06:08:25

Alternative Reflections on EmDrives and Newton's Third Law, the Conservation of Momentum

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 8 Pages.

The EmDrive (Electromagnetic Drive) is assumed to be able to produce propulsive mechanical forces from electrical power, without the need of propellant material. On the basis of classical theories of gravitation, this idea, however, violates heavily a well-established physical law, the conservation of momentum. On the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation" (ARG), however, such a drive is not only seen as possible without the violation of Newton's third law. It even lets expect enormous improvements for interplanetary and even interstellar flight projects.
Category: Astrophysics

[1147] viXra:1703.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 02:51:58

Nucleosynthesis After Frequency Shifting in Electromagnetic Radiation Near Gravitating Masses in Dynamic Universe Model with Math

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 6 Pages. This paper was prepared for FQXi contest ... http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/2726.... This paper answers to the question given by Paul N Butler and answeres the question about Formation of all the elements in the Universe thro Dynamic Universe

Abstract: This paper is further to Dynamic Universe Model studies of the “light rays and other electromagnetic radiation” passing grazingly near any gravitating mass changes its frequency .This change in frequency will depend on relative direction of movement between mass and radiation. All these particles like “neutrinos, positrons, electrons, protons and neutrons” behave like waves also. We should remember the wave particle duality. Hence frequency enhancing is applicable here also. So in other words change in frequency can go further to converting radiation into matter like micro particles as stated above. Here in this paper we will discuss further into different element formations. And we will see some possible electrochemical reactions that are possible at high temperature and pressure for formation of these different elements.
Category: Astrophysics

[1146] viXra:1703.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-26 06:58:54

Pulsating X-ray Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1145] viXra:1703.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 12:16:52

Dark Sector Portal

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Portals mix or connect the dark sector particles with the Standard Model particles. Through the portals it is possible to explore the dark sector particles using the Standard Model particles. [27] The dark photon (A'), the gauge boson carrier of a hypothetical new force, has been proposed in a wide range of Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theories, and could serve as our window to an entire dark sector. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1144] viXra:1703.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-22 21:58:28

Creatio Ex Nihilo: The Evolution Equation

Authors: D. Chakalov
Comments: 6 Pages.

It seems possible to suggest a hypothetical evolution equation in cosmology, which permits unlimited creatio ex nihilo of mass and energy from the quantum vacuum, yet does not lead to any catastrophic event.
Category: Astrophysics

[1143] viXra:1703.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-21 08:12:54

Helium Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of scientists has discovered that a law controlling the bizarre behavior of black holes out in space—is also true for cold helium atoms that can be studied in laboratories. [13] A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12] To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1142] viXra:1703.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-21 01:43:45

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Now We Begin to Understand What Happened to You, the Sister Four Exclusive Hypotheses of the Reasons of the Abnormal Phenomena on Venus Are Given.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Four exclusive hypotheses of the reasons of the abnormal phenomena on Venus are given.
Category: Astrophysics

[1141] viXra:1703.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-20 01:25:16

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. as the Earth Becomes Tempered the General Cold Snap and Natural Cataclysms on Earth Are Inevitable and Are a Consequence of a Power Condition of Space of Solar System.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The general cold snap and natural cataclysms on Earth are inevitable and are a consequence of a power condition of space of Solar system.
Category: Astrophysics

[1140] viXra:1703.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-18 11:02:12

The Solar System Geometry (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 73 Pages.

Abstract The Solar Planets Group is One Machine This one machine cooperates together to enable the Earth to produce The Solar Day Time Providing the life chance on the Earth.. This paper aims to prove this idea and explains this machine mechanism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1139] viXra:1703.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-16 20:30:16

Flare Star Transitioning in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Flare stars signal the transition of red dwarfs to brown dwarfs in stellar metamorphosis. This means brown dwarfs are not “failed stars”, just the next stage after red dwarf. Reasoning is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1138] viXra:1703.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-17 02:13:34

Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. One More Example of Limitation and Orderliness of the Universe Results of Researches of Scientists on Detection of Borders of the Universe Are Given. the Confirming Exclusive Hypotheses of a Structure and Evolution of the Unive

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Results of researches of scientists on detection of borders of the Universe are given. the confirming exclusive hypotheses of a structure and evolution of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1137] viXra:1703.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 15:07:46

The Stability Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Another principle of planet formation is added to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. It is reasoned that planets can only form where the environment is stable for hundreds of millions of years.
Category: Astrophysics

[1136] viXra:1703.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-13 07:58:45

Solar Ponds on Mars: Ideal Habitats for Human Colonists Created at Negligible Cost, at Any Scale

Authors: Colin Bruce Jack
Comments: 17 Pages.

There is a cheap, simple way to create habitable zones on Mars: the solar pond. At a few metres depth in such a pond, the pressure and temperature are benign for Earth-evolved life, with ample sunlight but negligible hard radiation. To create and sustain the pond, lightweight mirrors of silvered plastic film similar to solar sail fabric are mounted on inclining masts, positioned by day to divert additional sunlight into the pond, by night horizontal above its surface to minimize thermal energy escape. A submersible at the pond’s warmest depth emits jets of water to melt any opaque surface ice that forms. A surface film of oil suppresses evaporation and absorbs UV. Tents of transparent bubble-wrap-style plastic, filled with breathable air like diving bells and anchored to the pond floor, provide pleasant sunlit living space. Crops can be grown both inside and outside the tents. Only the mirrors are exposed to the harsh conditions of the Martian surface: everything else is in a protected, quasi-terrestrial environment.
Category: Astrophysics

[1135] viXra:1703.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-12 08:14:56

The Solar System Geometry (Part II)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 75 Pages.

The Solar Planets Group is One Machine This one machine cooperates together to enable the Earth to produce The Solar Day Time Providing the life chance on the Earth.. This paper aims to prove this idea and explains this machine mechanism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1134] viXra:1703.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-11 13:34:13

Coolest Spot in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

This summer, an ice chest-sized box will fly to the International Space Station, where it will create the coolest spot in the universe. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1133] viXra:1703.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 13:41:12

Quasars and Galaxies' Origins

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1132] viXra:1703.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 20:12:40

An Inverse Relationship of Temperature and Population in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since stellar evolution is planet formation, a simple inverse relation can be drawn up concerning stars in evolved galaxies. Their surface temperatures and populations are inversely proportional. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1131] viXra:1703.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 10:20:02

Fuzzy Pulsars Orbiting Black Holes

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1130] viXra:1703.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-10 04:18:44

Dark Matter Detection Upgrade

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15]
Category: Astrophysics

[1129] viXra:1703.0069 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 10:06:06

Pluto, Should Be Defined As a Comet

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

showing a viewpoint about the classification of the Pluto.
Category: Astrophysics

[1128] viXra:1703.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 07:29:13

Black Holes Eject Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Black holes are well known to be voracious feeders, but in the rush to consume all around them, some of the material gets flung far into space. [16] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1127] viXra:1703.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-05 07:30:39

Neutrino Detectable Supernova Explosion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

A team of researchers at North Carolina State University has found that current and future neutrino detectors placed around the world should be capable of detecting neutrinos emitted from a relatively close supernova. [8] As a massive star dies, expelling most of its guts across the universe in a supernova explosion, its iron heart, the star's core, collapses to create the densest form of observable matter in the universe: a neutron star. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1126] viXra:1703.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-02 04:35:37

Dark Matter Mapped

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

A Yale-led team has produced one of the highest-resolution maps of dark matter ever created, offering a detailed case for the existence of cold dark matter-sluggish particles that comprise the bulk of matter in the universe. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16]
Category: Astrophysics

[1125] viXra:1703.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-01 01:05:01

PICO Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1124] viXra:1702.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-23 19:21:47

Cosmic Foam Could Negative Energy Matter Dark Energy be Hiding in Plain Sight?

Authors: R.Cooke
Comments: 1 Page.

Short letter to the Physics Community - I've had an interest in the concepts surrounding anti-gravity probably from science fiction since childhood. Twenty years ago I gave a hand written paper to a lecturer on the subject explaining that there could be four different types of matter- matter, anti-matter, anti-gravity matter, anti-gravity anti-matter. Anti-gravity matter would seem to repel normal gravitational matter so it would try to get as far from matter as possible. When a saw some of the work on cosmic foam done by the Nobel Prize winning George Smoot I wondered about its structure and felt that the reason for its structure could be due to a mirror anti-gravity universe that given its lack of interaction in the electromagnetic realm was invisible. This sort of answers my outstanding question- why if anti-gravity matter exists can't we detect it? Perhaps this idea is common knowledge within the physics community but wanted to comment on it in the case the possibility had been overlooked.
Category: Astrophysics

[1123] viXra:1702.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 14:27:53

Quasi-Periodic Oscillations of GRO J1744-28

Authors: Jacob Biemond
Comments: 14 Pages, including 1 table

Observed quasi-periodic oscillations (QPOs) of GRO J1744-28 are compared with predictions from a previously proposed three tori model. The three highest QPO frequencies are assumed to arise from three circular tori moving around the pulsar: an inner torus with charge Qi, a torus with mass mm in the middle and an outer torus with charge Qo, whereas the pulsar itself bears a charge Qs.

In addition, it follows from a special interpretation of the gravitomagnetic theory, that the three circular tori are subjected to a total number of four low-frequency precessions. The expressions of these four additional QPO frequencies are revised compared to earlier work. For GRO J1744-28 the two lowest observed QPO frequencies are attributed to the two highest of the four low-frequency QPOs. The two other frequencies of the quartet may be too low to be detected. From the two highest QPO frequencies of the quartet, lying close together, approximate values for the charges Qs, Qi, and Qo are extracted. The results are compared with the observed and predicted set of seven QPOs for five other pulsars and two black holes.

The observed magnetic field is compared with the polar magnetic field, also predicted by the gravitomagnetic theory. Remarkably, the observed highly ionized iron emission lines may be compatible with the tree tori model. In order to explain the discontinuity in recently observed phase lags of GRO J1744-28, a Compton reverberation mechanism is considered, compatible with electron temperatures that depend on the radii of the tori.


Category: Astrophysics

[1122] viXra:1702.0251 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-20 09:33:51

First Image of a Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1121] viXra:1702.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:45:36

Gravitomagnetism Including an Introduction to the Coriolis Theory

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 207 Pages.

One day in 2002, I discovered in a newspaper that "dark matter" is supposed to be responsible for the constancy of the orbital velocity of the stars, and that velocity is supposed to be in contradiction with the Kepler laws. I was upset. We can travel to the moon and invent great medicines, we have the supposed miracle-theory of general relativity and nobody can explain it? Next hour, I was rumbling in a slide of my old desk, where I stored old papers from my university period, and I found back the analogy I made between electromagnetism and gravitation. I never trusted Einstein's relativity theory, because it only calculates what is observed by using light, but not what is really happening. Also the great Richard Feynman once confessed that he didn't understand why gravitation would be so different from other physical theories. A few days later, I found the gravitational consequences of the motion of masses. Month after month, I steadily discovered that all the cosmic issues that are not understood by mainstream, make sense through gravitomagnetism. The shape of supernovae, the disc and the spiral galaxies, the motion of asteroids, the flatness of planetary systems, the tiny rings of Saturn, black holes, the expanding Earth and Sun, etc. I can't find any cosmic issue that is in contradiction with gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1120] viXra:1702.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:47:06

The Solar Protuberance Theory - Our Solar System and the Planetary System Creation

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 56 Pages.

It is a widely accepted misconception that the solar system would have been created by the collapse of nebulae around the solar region, just as our galaxy itself. Where this is true for the stars in the galaxy, this is definitely wrong for our planetary system. Indeed, many stars in our galaxy were created during the formation of our disk galaxy out of a regular, spherical or elliptical galaxy, due to the angular momentum of the galaxy's center, which contains fast spinning stars and black holes. This process has been extendedly explained in my book “Gravitomagnetism - including an introduction to the Coriolis Gravity Theory”. The disk was compressed by the angular gravity of the galaxy's center, a second gravity field on top of Newtonian Gravity. The smaller and colder parts were able to clump together and heathen up by that compression. Elsewhere, voids were created that way, and a heterogeneous disk, as our spiral disk galaxy shows us, could form. The difference between the solar system creation and the galaxy creation is enormous. Where we find numerous stars in the galaxy on the same orbit or at close orbits, our solar system counts only nine (or, more correctly: eight) planets, which orbit very far from each-other. Moreover, on each orbit or nearby it, there are no other planets nor objects. The only place where other objects are found is on the asteroid belt and, as an extension of that belt, a number of asteroids, called Trojans, on Jupiter’s orbit. The nebula theory has numerous unsolved problems. The very existence of the Trojans prove that asteroids doesn’t just go away or aren’t just absorbed by the planet of (or near) an orbit. At the contrary, one should then find several planets on the same orbit, and remaining asteroids from the nebula. The diversity of the planets’ spin orientations is another problem. More problems arise regarding the big difference between the set of core planets and the set of gas planets. Nothing in the nebula theory can explain the differences of spin either. In this little book, the reader will find numerous arguments in favor to a totally different point of view: the planets all come from an electromagnetic solar explosion. The reason of the existence of a set of four core planets versus the set of four gas planets will be explained, and why their masses, as groups, are related like the mass quotient of a proton versus an electron. Jupiter’s spin rate will be explained and the orientation of the planets’ spin as well. Also the orbital distance between the planets can be explained with very high probability. In a few moments, the reader will discover this fresh Solar Protuberance Paradigm, enriched with a multitude of evidence. Enjoy the reading!
Category: Astrophysics

[1119] viXra:1702.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 09:58:27

Gravitational Constants, the Earth's Expansion and Coriolis Gravity

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 33 Pages.

Is not everything settled with Gravitomagnetism, the analogy of electromagnetism for gravity, with which I explained the formation of disk galaxies without dark matter, the shape of supernova and hourglass stars, and many other phenomena? Is there more to be told? In this little booklet, I show that one of the parameters that are used to define the Sun's dynamics can be expressed by the other parameters. In other words, the Sun's gravity is defined by its angular velocity and its radius. This amazing property finds its origin in the way how particles interact, and the way how I expect that all kinds of forces work: by a Coriolis effect between particles. Henceforth the calculus of the Gravitational Constant is possible. Linked to this phenomenon is the expansion of spinning objects, like the Earth, the Sun and the stars. This occurs by gravity as well, and this can be explained by both the Gravitomagnetic as the Coriolis approach. Discover in the next few pages how these new gravitational realities take form.
Category: Astrophysics

[1118] viXra:1702.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-19 12:16:51

Asteroid Redirect

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

Asteroids are a great threat to mankind. Here we will show that it is possible to redirect them from their trajectories by means of a strong gravitational repulsion, produced by the gravitational interaction between the asteroid and a Gravitational Spacecraft positioned close to the asteroid.
Category: Astrophysics

[1117] viXra:1702.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 22:26:45

Rocket Invention Using Anti-Gravity Wheel Torque Induced Gyroscopic Precession to Decrease Apparent Weight and Increase Thrust Efficiency.

Authors: H Dhaliwal
Comments: 4 Pages.

By attaching multiple massive anti- gravity wheel type structures to the rocket we may achieve a less apparent weight for the rocket, allowing it to lift easier. Instead of a wheel, a hollow saucer like pod shall be used, attached to a bar, which connects to the rocket. There are multiple anti gravity saucers attached to the rocket in a symmetric fashion connecting to a point at the rocket. These saucers will carry water, fuel or cargo which is minused from the rocket and added to the saucer. Displacing the weight from the rocket and into the saucers will ensure no extra weight is added. These saucers will be spun up extremely fast from the ground via motors, storing energy in them. The motors are ground based at the lift off site and will decouple from the saucers on lift off. The torque induced gyroscopic precession of these spinning saucers will decrease the apparent weight of the rocket as the rocket raises, allowing the thrust to make the rocket raise easier. The fuel in the rocket tank will not be filled 100%. Perhaps it will be filled 50%. The other 50% of the fuel is displaced and divided amongst the saucers and stored in them. As the rockets main fuel tank level lowers during mid flight, the fuel in the saucers can be pumped into the tank of the rocket for continued use. These saucers spin rate will be slowed down as the rocket raises, allowing easier transfer of fuel. When the fuel in the saucer tanks is depleted, the anti gravity saucer arms can be disconnected from the rocket and the saucers shall fall back towards earth. Instead of fuel, water can also be stored in these saucers for long term human missions to mars. The water can be frozen solid in the saucer tanks to keep the saucers cool as they ascend, and the ice will melt as the rocket ascends. The water tank in the rocket will be empty on lift off. But will be refilled in the same manner as above after reaching a certain altitude. Cargo that can withstand centrifugal forces can also be stored, such as food, or metal equipment. This equipment can then be reintroduced to the rocket by moving the saucer pods to the rocket. The whole rocket structure can be on a platform that makes the rocket setup rotate just before liftoff so the saucer wheels can start their gyroscopic precession. Or mechanism can be built into the saucer arms to push the saucer outward a bit to start the gyroscopic precession. Or such a setup may not be needed as a rocket rotates by itself usually as it ascends which will efficiently create the needed gyroscopic precession.
Category: Astrophysics

[1116] viXra:1702.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:25:24

Introduction to the Flyby Anomaly: the Gyrotational Acceleration of Orbiting Satellites

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 4 Pages.

In the former paper “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination”, a physical deduction is found for the motion and the variations of the tilt of asteroids. This deduction is based upon the Maxwell Analogy for Gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1115] viXra:1702.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:30:02

The Observed Symmetrical Supernovae Remnants Form Overwhelming Evidence for the Gravitomagnetic Force

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 6 Pages.

Supernovae remnants that are double-lobe or double-ring shaped with a central ring are fully explained by Gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1114] viXra:1702.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:37:15

On the Formation of Prograde Disk Galaxies from Spherical Galaxies with a Global Null Angular Momentum

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

There seems to exist a way to transform apparent chaos into an ordered system. The key for such a behavior lays in gravity itself, and more precisely in gravitomagnetism. The results of the G Probe-B experiment, in 2011, proved gravitomagnetism’s superiority over other theories like General Relativity and its deduced metrics, and it is in this light that the solution can be found. We apply the gravitomagnetic principles to a random spherical galaxy with a global null angular momentum and unveil how this system eventually becomes a disk galaxy. Moreover, we deduce the quantum nature of galaxies through this process and, by the analogy between electromagnetism and gravitomagnetism, we prove by deduction the quantum nature of atomic structures as well.
Category: Astrophysics

[1113] viXra:1702.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:46:36

Gravitomagnetic Evolutionary Classification of Galaxies

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Milky Way might be a bar galaxy. In this paper, we show that bar galaxies are spiral galaxies with an orientation change of the bulge's gravitomagnetic field. The tilting of the gravitomagnetic field evolves from the bulge to the galaxy's extremities at wave speed and the physical acceleration of the stars away from the disc follow soon. Finally, this will result in a new, slightly elliptical galaxy that will again turn into a disc galaxy and then a spiral galaxy. If the Milky Way really is a bar galaxy, the solar system will some day get a novel acceleration (an apocalyptic sway?) towards a new, widely oscillating position in the galaxy. Finally, we come to a Gravitomagnetic Evolutionary Classification of Galaxies that is different from the usual classifications.
Category: Astrophysics

[1112] viXra:1702.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:49:23

Does Gravity Conserve Angular Momentum at a Distance?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

We found [4] that the key for many cosmic events lays in gravity, which is very well explained by gravitomagnetism, as suggested by O. Heaviside and further developed as a causal and coherent theory by O. Jefimenko. The angular momentum of spinning objects is transmitted to the surroundings by gravity, and form the rings of Saturn and the disc galaxies. In this paper, we analyze what happens with the gravity fields of collapsing stars. It is found that not only the mechanical angular momentum is regulating the orientation of disc galaxies. The magnetic-like component of gravity, which is velocity-dependent, is found to create forces that are consistent with the conservation of angular momentum. However, the retardation of the gravity fields by the speed of light, which is velocity-dependent, is found to cause a discrepancy between the mechanical angular momentum and the transmitted gravitational angular momentum.
Category: Astrophysics

[1111] viXra:1702.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:57:29

On the Variability of the Gravitational Constant by the Evolution of Stars and Galaxy Clusters

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 6 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism, initiated by O. Heaviside [1] and further developed by O. Jefimenko [2] consists of the Newtonian gravity and gyrotation, which is totally analogous to magnetism. This model successfully explained an important number of physical and cosmic phenomena [3]. Striking is the possibility of gravitational repel by particles with like-oriented spins. I also showed [5] why the gravitational constant is varying locally and I prove that, the particles in rotating bodies will preferentially form distributions that globally attract. This explains why masses have never been found to be repulsive. I deduced a new definition for “mass” as a vector, and conclude that the gravitational constant’s value is the sum of the orientations of the elementary vector-masses while taking their spacing into account. I found why the gravity force is so weak and why cohesion forces are so large. In this paper, I attempt to define the variations of the Gravitational Constant in the evolution of stars, and show that, for the same global mass of a star during its evolution, white dwarfs possess a much stronger gravitational constant than the red giant stars. Based upon these findings, I study the possibility that relaxed galaxy clusters possess, due to the same process, a much lower gravitational constant than unrelaxed galaxy clusters. This might be the reason why gravity lensing is a hundred times larger than the visible mass.
Category: Astrophysics

[1110] viXra:1702.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:37:03

Elliptical Fly-By and Expected Gyro-gravitational Orbit Accelerations

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 8 Pages.

Following to the two former papers “The Gyro-Gravitational Spin Vector Torque Dynamics of Main Belt Asteroids in relationship with their Tilt and their Orbital Inclination” and “Cyclic Tilt Spin Vector Variations of Main Belt Asteroids due to the Solar Gyro-Gravitation”, wherein we theoretically studied the tilt motions and variations of spinning asteroids, we continue the analysis with the study of the orbit anomalies of satellites. The equations for the fly-by of satellites near the Earth, or near planets in general are deduced.
Category: Astrophysics

[1109] viXra:1702.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:40:10

The Gravitational Stellar Constant Allows for an Improved Description of Stellar and Black Hole Dynamics

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

The Sun’s dynamics defines our Gravitational Constant. In a former paper [2], that strict relationship has been shown, based upon the most fundamental equations of gravity and gyrotation (the magnetic equivalent for gravity), applied upon elementary particles. The consequence is that one parameter can be eliminated, as explained before [6] and this allows me to unveil some issues on the shape and the moments of inertia of stars, supernovae and black holes, and the possibility of double bursts of forming black holes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1108] viXra:1702.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:43:35

Natural Decrease of Orbital Eccentricities

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

The amazing Solar Protuberance Theory gives three strong proofs for the creation of our planets from a huge electromagnetic eruption. I found a 99,98% probability fit between the initial planetary orbit diameters calculated with the theory and the actually observed ones. Since the initial orbits probably were highly eccentric, the question remains whether or not the actual planetary orbital eccentricities can be explained by the theory. This is proven here in different ways.
Category: Astrophysics

[1107] viXra:1702.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:46:57

Are Venus’ and Uranus’ Tilt of Natural Origin?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 15 Pages.

The formation theories of our solar system have still remained filled of question marks. Why are the orbits of Mercury and Pluto that much eccentric, and that of the other planets much less? Why are the axial tilts what they are? This we will discover in this paper. Here we will start from the primary model of a huge solar protuberance and next apply the electromagnetic and the gravitational dynamics to it. The application of these physics leads us to the description of how the planets arose, their orbits, their tilt, and their composition. Also we will comment why the Asteroids Belt and the Trojan Asteroids probably arose. Initially, we will bring in that the complete planetary system originated from a solar eruption, and reveal that the planets have successively developed in the order : Mercurius, Venus, the Earth, and Mars on the one hand, and on the other hand Neptune, next Uranus and probably Pluto, then successively Saturnus and Jupiter. At last, the Asteroids Belt was formed, just after the formation of Mars and Jupiter. This theory is supported by the other parameters such as the comparison of the planet’s density, size and chemical composition. Also the comparison of their tilt, the spacing between their orbits, and the elliptic orbit and tilt of some planets support the theory. We find evidence that Venus’ and Uranus’ tilt are totally natural.
Category: Astrophysics

[1106] viXra:1702.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:48:57

Outsmarting Inertia

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

Inertia is analyzed in the light of the Coriolis Gravity Theory. It is found that inertia is orientation-dependent, which opens a way to outsmart its effects. Particles can be oriented and made inertia-insensitive for given accelerations and forces by using magnetic fields. Although the theory allows it, effective technology to realize this still has to be developed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1105] viXra:1702.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:50:57

Novel Method for the Evaluation of the Rotation Velocity of Solar-like Stars

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

The evaluation of stars’ properties is classically performed by comparing the stars’ light spectra and fluxes to the known solar properties. Another method to find the stars’ rotation velocity will be discussed here: the extrapolation to the other solar-like stars of an empiric solar property, which consists of a direct relationship between the star’s frequency and its surface gravity, without the need of any other parameters.
Category: Astrophysics

[1104] viXra:1702.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:54:02

Gravitomagnetism Successes in Explaining the Cosmos

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 41 Pages.

Gravitomagnetism is almost totally similar to Electromagnetism. I call 'Gyrotation' the magnetic-like part of gravitomagnetism.
Category: Astrophysics

[1103] viXra:1702.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:01:32

How to Measure the Spin of a Black Hole

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

Black holes and fast spinning stars attract the surrounding objects in a different way than Newtonian gravity. As shown by my work on Gravitomagnetism [1], the spin of fast spinning stars and black holes is far the most important factor in the behavior of nearby objects. This paper shows that the accretion disc of any black hole is orbiting in prograde way. Moreover, it is explained that the accretion disc’s turbulence, curvature and quantity of the vortexes are predominant factors for the gravitational strength of a black hole. The measurement of the spin of a black hole depends mainly on this factor, and to a lesser extent, to a few other factors.
Category: Astrophysics

[1102] viXra:1702.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:05:47

Considerations on the Fundamental Forces Based Upon the Coriolis Gravity Theory

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 4 Pages.

The gravitational constant G is clearly not a universal constant [5]. It seems impossible to find a precise value for G. In this paper, I will analyze the reasons for that issue, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory. In my paper “Fundamental Causes of an Attractive Gravitational Constant, Varying in Place and Time” [4], I explained that, according Gravitomagnetism and the Coriolis Gravitation Theory, the orientation of the particles’ spin determines whether a set of particles attract or repel, but I proved that attraction takes the lead. Here, I show, based upon [3] , that the constant G depends from star to star. Furthermore, I generalize the Coriolis concept for the forces in electromagnetism and in quantum mechanics, as an identical process for all types of forces. I look at the meaning of matter, mass and electrical charge.
Category: Astrophysics

[1101] viXra:1702.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:08:11

Thoughts on the Nebular Theory of our Planetary System Formation

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 5 Pages.

The hypothesis of a Solar Nebula, also known as the Kant-Laplace hypothesis, is currently the most accepted explanation for the origin of the Solar System.
Category: Astrophysics

[1100] viXra:1702.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:10:01

On the Formation of Close Binary Systems

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 3 Pages.

I discuss the approach of black holes based upon the improved theory of gravity originated by Oliver Heaviside [2] and find that the Schwarzschild metric is highly improbable to occur at all, if not impossible. I found that a spinning black hole is always emitting information at the poles [6]. Close binary stars containing a fast spinning star or black hole and a companion are found to emerge from only one original star. Close binary stars consisting of two fast spinning stars or black holes are found to be much more rarely.
Category: Astrophysics

[1099] viXra:1702.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:16:21

Why Does Saturn Have Many Tiny Rings ?

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 7 Pages.

This publication is based on the fundamentals of the dynamics of masses interacting by gravitation, given by the Maxwell analogy for gravitation or the Heaviside field. In our paper “A coherent dual vector field theory for gravitation” © oct 2003, we have developed a model. This dynamics model allowed us to quantify by vector way the transfer of angular movement point by point, and to bring a simple, precise and detailed explanation to a large number of cosmic phenomena. With this model the flatness of our solar system and our Milky way has been explained as being caused by an angular collapse of the orbits, creating so a density increase of the disc. The constant velocity of the stars has been calculated, and the halo explained. The “missing mass” (dark matter) problem has been solved without harming the Keplerian motion law. The theory also explains the deviation of mass like in the diablo shape of rotary supernova having mass losses, and it defines the angle of mass losses at 0° and above 35°16’. Some quantitative calculations describe in detail the relativistic attraction forces maintaining entire the fast rotating stars, the tendency of distortion toward a torus-like shape, and the description of the attraction fields outside of a rotary black hole. Qualitative considerations on the binary pulsars show the process of cannibalization, with the repulsion of the mass at the poles and to the equator, and this could also explain the origin of the spin-up and the spin-down process. The bursts of collapsing rotary stars are explained as well. The conditions for the repulsion of masses are also explained, caused by important velocity differences between masses. Orbit ‘chaos’ is better explained as well. Finally, the demonstration is made that gyrotation is related to the Relativity Theory. The detailed photographs of the Saturn rings made by the Cassini-Huygens mission gives us new evidence for the validity of Gravitomagnetism. It explains the presence of the flat rings around Saturn, the presence of thin parallel rings, the shape of the edges of the F-ring and the reason why such rings are present at the border of large ring zones.
Category: Astrophysics

[1098] viXra:1702.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 11:50:33

New Axion Detection Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1097] viXra:1702.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 01:08:29

Cause Hypothesis Lunotryaseny Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Movement of Gravitational Educations on an Internal Surface of a Cover of the Moon Owing to Influence of "Tidal" Forces of the Moon and the Sun is the Main Reason for Lunotryaseniye.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Movement of gravitational educations on an internal surface of a cover of the Moon owing to influence of "tidal" forces of the Moon and the Sun is the main reason for lunotryaseniye.
Category: Astrophysics

[1096] viXra:1702.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-14 01:21:17

Hypothesis of the Origin of Ice Ages on the Earth Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Recurrence of Fluctuations of Internal Energy Pressure of the Solar System is a Basic Reason of Emergence of Ice Ages on Earth.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Recurrence of fluctuations of internal energy pressure of the Solar system is a basic reason of emergence of Ice Ages on Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1095] viXra:1702.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 14:23:15

Next-gen Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1094] viXra:1702.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 10:55:07

Modified Gravity from Gravitational Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1093] viXra:1702.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 09:31:55

New Findings Concerning Dark Matter

Authors: Wolfgang Westenberger
Comments: 9 Pages.

SUMMARY. Dozens of exceeding experiments all over the world were performed with high hopes to find dark matter particles. No evidence for any dark particle could be found despite all these efforts. This is an overwhelming result. Furthermore, one must consider some discrepancy between the theory of dark matter and astrophysical observations. But there is another theory to explain the galactic rotation curve by calculation, called method of gravity areas, which is based on the gravitation theorem and other well-known facts. Newton's gravitation law remains untouched, and no unknown is needed. At any position there is a single gravitational vector towards the centre and another single vector towards the opposite direction. So the billions-of-masses-problem has changed to a solvable threecomponent- problem. The summed up gravitational vectors of all near and far away mass within a galactic disc, baryonic mass only, will result in a horizontal gravitation curve, equivalent to a horizontal rotation curve. The theory of gravity areas is based on well-known physical laws and verifiable parameters. Therefore, the theory can be proved wrong, but up to now it has not been disproved.
Category: Astrophysics

[1092] viXra:1702.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-08 09:31:36

CP Symmetry Between Material and Anti Material Copy Universes Combined with Local- and Multi-Universal Cycle Time.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

Recent measurements by the LHC are a strong support for the stability differences between (anti)-proton and (anti)-neutrons. See Nature: “Measurement of matter–antimatter differences in beauty baryon decays” According to Quantum FFF Theory however there should be a multiversal CP symmetric origin if we assume that the vacuum is able to become chiral. So I concentrate here on Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral vacuum lattice models and consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature and time variation, including cyclic Multi- Universal time, and local time. The chirality of the oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum lattice in each universe is assumed to be the origin of the difference between material or anti-material universes.
Category: Astrophysics

[1091] viXra:1702.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 14:15:10

Rethinking Gravity

Authors: Adrian Packham
Comments: 7 Pages. phulpackham@gmail.com

GRAVITY ABSTRACT. With advances in technology in recent years, in particular space telescopes and space probes, mankind can now see further into space with more accuracy than ever before. This also applies to the microscopic world with the development of The Large Hadron Collider and electron telescopes. On a macroscopic level, it is now possible to view our solar system, galaxies and a portion of the known universe. Similar patterns are now emerging that may indicate that celestial bodies and systems have more in common than previously thought. From the planets in our solar system to the sun to other stars and galaxies it would appear that the activity around these bodies equators and polar regions require further investigation. That investigation should also include whether there are similarities to how the quantum world operates. Mankind may now be at the tipping point of being able to understand gravity at both microscopic and macroscopic levels. This paper attempts to explain how this is possible.
Category: Astrophysics

[1090] viXra:1702.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 08:05:27

The Time Principle of Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Since stellar evolution takes billions of years, and planet formation is stellar evolution in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis, it takes billions of years for a planet to form.
Category: Astrophysics

[1089] viXra:1702.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 04:02:52

The Beautiful Nebula and Its Formation Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about the formation mechanism of a Cat's eye nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[1088] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 10:02:14

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t), and all the other measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). So, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. Only the issue of which equation is a better choice to describe it is at this moment a point of contention. In order to determine the mass of the dark matter particle, in this work we will focus on developing such quantum equation for dark matter under gravity and on its application to galactic halos taking the Milky Way as our case of study. Also we consider the evaluation of such equation as the sought after halos' universal law. Afterwards, we will resolve such equation to estimate the mass of the dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[1087] viXra:1702.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 02:00:21

The CMB is Light Pollution from the Younger Universe Gravitationally Lensed Back After Millions of Turns.

Authors: H. Dhaliwal
Comments: 1 Page.

The CMB is light pollution from the younger universe gravitationally lensed back after millions of turns. Imagine the Milky Way when it was just a baby galaxy. Let's follow a photon that it emitted from a random point. This photon will pass by millions of galaxies or black holes, turning its direction with each pass via light bending as it passes by a gravity well. As the photon passes by each object, the objects get older since more time is passing. The photon, when had enough time to traverse the universe with enough turns will make its way back to the Milky Way. Now imagine the baby Milky Way galaxy with all its photons radiating every which way as a 360 degree light source, combined with the billions of galaxies doing the same thing. Most of these photons will gravitationally lense back to us at some point. The colder cmb is light that travelled longer. The hotter cmb is light that travelled a lesser distance relatively.
Category: Astrophysics

[1086] viXra:1702.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 03:14:35

The Real Origin of Hubble Redshift : Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[1085] viXra:1702.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:11:36

Rotation Curves of the Cosmic Objects and Attractive Force in the Universe

Authors: Tamara Kudykina, Alexander Pervak
Comments: 12 Pages.

A hydrodynamic model of the motion of galaxies, planets and moons is proposed in this paper. The solution of the Euler equation gives the description of the rotation curves with the positive parts of the Bessel functions J1(βr), where is the distance from the object to the axis of rotation, and β — is the parameter depending upon the angular velocities, the dimension of the system and the velocity of the progressive motion of the system. In the dimensionless units the case with β>>1 corresponds to the rotation curves of the planets and moons and in this limit coincides with the Kep-ler-Newton law. In the case of parameters β≤1 we have the rotation curves of the galaxies. The hydrodynamic theory describes the rotation curves of both the galaxies and the planets systems without invoking dark matter hypothesis. Within the limit of motion of the cosmic objects in the ideal medium, the expres-sion of the generalized attractive force is derived. In the case of planets (β>>1), the form of the attractive force coincides with the Newton law; in the case of the galax-ies, the attractive force differs sufficiently from the Newton law. The distribution of the energy-density for the cosmic objects is obtained. For the Solar system, the distances between the planets and the Sun are derived. For small planets, the calculation agrees well with the observed values at the parameters β≈80÷90 and for the planets-giants — at β≈40÷50.
Category: Astrophysics

[1084] viXra:1702.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 05:16:38

Redshift Of Quasars And Time Dilation

Authors: Tamara Kudykina, Alexander Pervak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The most of the cosmic objects moves along a screw line: a rotation and progressive motion. The shift of the spectrum of the emitting bodies is due to the time difference in the motionless and moving reference frames. In the case of the progressive motion, the Doppler effect takes place, in the case of rotation – the Sagnac effect is observed. It is shown that the observed redshift (and blue shift as well) of the spectra of cosmic objects is due to the Sagnac effect. The parameter of redshift z depends on the parameters of its own non-inertial reference frame of every cosmic object (its angular velocity and dimension). It is intrinsic ones for every object and does not determine the distance from us to a cosmic object. It was shown that the Sagnac effect predominates, and therefore, the time dilation and the change of the distances between close objects have to be negligible even at great z. Therefore, the Hubble law and the hypothesis about the Universe expansion (BigBang theory) don’t have their main grounds and are wrong.
Category: Astrophysics

[1083] viXra:1701.0669 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-30 09:07:54

Evidence of Holographic Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A UK, Canadian and Italian study has provided what researchers believe is the first observational evidence that our universe could be a vast and complex hologram. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1082] viXra:1701.0659 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 04:58:58

Extreme Facts about Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

As a massive star dies, expelling most of its guts across the universe in a supernova explosion, its iron heart, the star's core, collapses to create the densest form of observable matter in the universe: a neutron star. [7] NASA's Chandra X-ray Observatory has discovered the first direct evidence for a superfluid, a bizarre, friction-free state of matter, at the core of a neutron star. Superfluids created in laboratories on Earth exhibit remarkable properties, such as the ability to climb upward and escape airtight containers. The finding has important implications for understanding nuclear interactions in matter at the highest known densities. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1081] viXra:1701.0650 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 10:24:55

Two New Non Baryonic Dark Matter Profiles for Milky Way Halo

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 17 Pages.

In this work has been calculated two new non baryonic DM density profiles inside halo region of Milky Way, MW hereafter, and it has been demonstrated that both ones are mathematically equivalents. Data have been got from rotation curve published in [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P.2014. The first profile is called Direct DM density because it is got directly from velocity as power regression of radius in halo rotation curve. In other words velocity of rotation curve depend on radius as a power function. The second one, DM density as power of E, E is gravitational field, has been introduced by author in previous papers, [8] Abarca,M.2016, where it has been used to study non baryonic DM in several galaxies. It is called “as power of E” because DM density depend on E as a power function. Hypothesis which is the basis of theory is that non baryonic DM is generated locally by the own gravitational field according a power law. DM density = A• E^B where A& B are coefficients and E is gravitational intensity of field. To find reasons that author has to do so daring statement, reader can consult [1] Abarca,M.2014. Dark matter model by quantum vacuum. [8] Abarca,M.2016. Dark matter density on big galaxies depend on gravitational field as Universal law and other papers quoted in bibliography. Briefly will be explained method followed to develop this paper. Firstly are presented rotation curve and table with data points inside MW halo. These data come from [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P. Chaudary, S. Kundu, S.2014. In addition it is fitted a power regression of rotation curve points in halo region whose function is v = a•r^b . In fourth chapter it is developed a mathematical method to get a new DM density depending on radius called direct DM density because it is got directly from power regression of velocity depending on radius. Also it is compared Direct DM got from rotation curve [ 17] Bhattacharjee, P.2014 and Direct DM got from rotation curve [5] Sofue, Y.2015. It is shown that relative difference oscillate between 2.6% at 40 kpc and 3.8 % at 190 kpc which is a very exiguous difference. It is a very good news that two prominent teams of researchers got so similar results. In fifth chapter it has been demonstrated that Direct DM profile is mathematically equivalent to DM density depending on gravitational field, as a power function i.e. DM density = A• E^B, where A& B are cleared up depending on a & b (parameters of power regression of velocity). In sixth chapter it has been got that for radius bigger than 40 kpc ratio baryonic density versus DM density is under 4% so it is reasonable to consider negligible baryonic density in order to develop theory introduced in this work. In seventh chapter is compared Direct DM density got in this paper with NFW density profile fitted by Sofue in his paper. [5] Sofue, Y.2015. Throughout dominion NFW profile is bigger than Direct DM profile. Its relative difference oscillate between 25% at 40 kpc and 22% at 190 kpc. In my opinion this remarkable fact could be explained because NFW profile is fitted with total DM enclosed inside galactic disc and as it is known inside bulge and disc there is an unknown amount of baryonic DM such as dwarf browns and cold gas clouds. However Direct DM profile is fitted with data which radius are bigger than 40 kpc where baryonic matter is negligible. It is clear that extra DM density data inside disc have influence over the whole NFW profile so it is right to conclude that relative difference between Direct DM and NFW profile might be explained by baryonic DM inside bulge and disc. In eight chapter is compared DM density as power E in MW with DM density as power E in M31, which was published in [ 11] Abarca,M.2016. Results show that at a specific E, both DM densities are very similar. Relative differences are under 15 % inside main part of dominion. This fact support strongly author hypothesis about DM as power of E as Universal law.
Category: Astrophysics

[1080] viXra:1701.0633 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 05:15:17

Local and Multi-Universal Cycle Time According to Quantum FFF Theory. (FFF= Function Follows Form)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 21 Pages.

Construction principles for chiral “atoms of spacetime” based on geometrical 3-D chiral vacuum lattice models and consequences for spacetime, general relativity based space curvature and time variation, including cyclic Multi- Universal time, and local time.
Category: Astrophysics

[1079] viXra:1701.0627 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 13:57:24

The Mystery of the Large-Scale Structure of the Universe.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 3 Pages.

Dark energy pulsating hypothesis challenging mystery of cosmic large-scale structure. Even a hundred billion galaxies are distributed like bubbles (void) of aggregate space design structure. Galaxies are distributed to the grid of bubbles. Galaxy does not exist on the inside of the bubble. That is a mystery of Cosmic Physics. Oscillatory universe model to challenge its mysteries. Repeated mini-big bang due to pulsation of the microcosm. In each of its Moving bubbles around galaxies formed by the previous mini-big bang, centered in the grid of bubbles.
Category: Astrophysics

[1078] viXra:1701.0620 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 10:02:09

Electronic Chip Black Hole

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12] To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1077] viXra:1701.0615 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 14:19:03

From Neutrino's Microtokamaks or Microstellarators to Neutrino's Quantum Extradimensional Respectively Extraterrestrial Bundles and Boundless Neutrino's Transmissions of Yotta Bytes Neutrinic's “space Music”

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 5 Pages.

There have been observed very scientifically important facts and astrophysical events in the Scorpius Stars Constellation during the last twenty years. Like an example I can introduce Discovery of nova Scorpii 2007, probably Binar System (V 1280 Sco.), described by Japanese astronomer Yukio Samurai on 4th – 5th February 2007. In 1998 in many scientific journals (Science, Scientific American) was published many informations about our Sun's (G2V) homolog or equivalent in Scorpii Constellation. In exceptionally but probably case an existence of high–tech civilization or metacivilization with building of Super Dyson sphere could be important for radiowave or other way of communication. There could be an existence some extrasolar's planets with advanced hi–tech civilization respectively based on neutrinic or spin–tronic technology. In the Scorpius Constellation are these typically our Sun's homolog stars: Shaula (λ Scorpii), Dschubba (δ Scorpii) -> tetrastellar system, Acrab (β Scorpii) and Binar Sun System Wei (ε Scorpii).
Category: Astrophysics

[1076] viXra:1701.0607 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 10:42:08

Hawking Radiation in the Lab

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Astrophysics

[1075] viXra:1701.0604 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 05:44:04

Magnetic Fields Evidence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1074] viXra:1701.0595 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 08:33:34

Distances, Locations, Ages and Reproduction of Galaxies in our Dynamic Universe

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 9 Pages. This Exxay was submitted to FQXI---- FQXi FORUM: Wandering Towards a Goal Essay Contest (2016-2017) January 24, 2017

There are many distant Galaxies whose distances are about 30 Giga light years. There are Galaxies which were born just after 400 million years after Bigbang and which were born 6 to 7 billion years after Bigbang. In Dynamic Universe Model all the Galaxies are distributed at different distances and the Universe looks similar as it is now. On 01March2016 the news of the discovery about the observation of most distant Galaxy ‘GNZ11 or GN11’having an light travel distance 13.4 Giga light years & co-moving distance of 32 Giga light years and having a red shift z of 11.1 created quite a stir. There are many such Galaxies like EGSY8p7 (with z= 8.68, age =13.2) and EGS-zs8-1 (with z= 7.73, age =13.04). To show that Universe exists further to GNz11, a Galaxy at distance of 100 times 13.4 Billion light years (1.26862E+28 meters) is simulated and named it as GNz11 in this simulation. 132 more galaxies were assumed in the range (3.02001E+26 to 1.26862E+28) meter. Later distance of the first Galaxy was reduced by 50% and found the graphs of Universe become similar in both the simulations after 102 iterations. Slowly life of the stars and hence subsequently the life of Galaxy will come to end because of their electromagnetic radiation. Galaxies tend to evolve from spiral to elliptical structure and they perish to form Blue clouds known as Galaxy "quenching". Hence we can say that our Universe had reproduction ability, which is a very slow process. Universe produces new Galaxies, and the already formed Galaxies perish slowly. Ours is single universe and is a closed one. In other words, our Universe reproduces its Galaxies, as and when light and other electromagnetic radiation condenses to form enough matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1073] viXra:1701.0594 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 08:53:27

Existence of Many Blue Shifted Galaxies in the Universe by Dynamic Universe Model Came True

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 32 Pages. This paper is published in Open Journal of Modelling and Simulation with DOI 10.4236/ojmsi.2017.51009 . ISSN Print: 2327-4018 , ISSN Online: 2327-4026 , Gupta, S.N.P., (2017), 5, 113-144.

There are many blue shifted Galaxies in our universe. Here we will see old simulations to make such predictions from the output graphs using SITA simulations. There are four new simulations also presented here. In these sets of simulations, different point masses are placed in different distances in a 3D Cartesian coordinate grid; and these point masses are allowed to move on universal gravitation force (UGF) acting on each mass at that instant of time at its position. The output pictures depict the three dimensional orbit formations of point masses after some iterations. In an orbit so formed, some Galaxies are coming near (Blue shifted) and some are going away (Red shifted). In this paper, the simulations predicted the existence of a large number of Blue shifted Galaxies, in an expanding universe, in 2004 itself. Over 8300 blue shifted galaxies have been discovered extending beyond the Local Group by Hubble Space Telescope (HST) in the year 2009. Thus Dynamic Universe model predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[1072] viXra:1701.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 11:51:47

Is Newton's Gravitational 'Constant' Increasing?

Authors: Alphonsus J. Fagan
Comments: 11 Pages.

The Beckenstein-Hawking formula for black hole entropy indicates that black holes have the highest possible entropy density in the universe. This suggests that, in addition to increasing entropy by its inexorable expansion, the universe can also increase it by creating more black holes. And one way to accomplish this would be to have the gravitational 'constant' ('Big G') increase with time. This paper explores how the dynamic of these two competing entropic processes might play out, how 'Big G' might vary with time, and where to look for evidence.
Category: Astrophysics

[1071] viXra:1701.0587 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 03:32:22

Quantum Horizon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Patrick Hayden and Robert Myers describe how the study of “qubits”, quantum bits of information, may hold the key to uniting quantum theory and general relativity into a unified theory of quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1070] viXra:1701.0586 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 04:36:42

Dark Matter and Dwarf Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1069] viXra:1701.0571 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 13:17:59

Wave Gravity the Way Towards Planck's Scale

Authors: Dragan Turanyanin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Gravity phenomenon is observed as periodic and wavy by its nature. Wave function describing state of space encircling gravitodynamic vortex is being suggested. In the “strong field” area, a quantization of orbits should be quite natural and fully observable. That phenomenon is named as gravitonium. The so-called Resonance with de Broglie’s wave arises as a natural. A direct consequence is the natural existence of Planck’s values as the main quanta. Resonance observed there could be possible mechanism of mass creation. The whole concept leads to change of 20th century geometrization paradigm towards real wave dynamic description of Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1068] viXra:1701.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 21:17:29

The Law of Capture in Star System Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

If there are older stars orbiting younger ones, then star system formation via capture is the law of star system formation.
Category: Astrophysics

[1067] viXra:1701.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 10:05:13

Violations of Energy Conservation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Physicists have proposed that violations of energy conservation in the early universe, as predicted by certain modified theories of quantum mechanics and quantum gravity, may explain the cosmological constant problem, which is sometimes referred to as "the worst theoretical prediction in the history of physics." [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1066] viXra:1701.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 13:49:36

Purpose of Life in Universe

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 13 Pages.

This work is inspired by the discovery of a new class of dynamical system described by ODE coupled with their Liouville equation. These systems called self-controlled since the role of actuators is played by the probability produced by the Liouville equation. Following the Madelung equation that belongs to this class, non-Newtonian properties such as randomness, entanglement, and probability interference typical for quantum systems have been described. Special attention was paid to the capability to violate the second law of thermodynamics, which makes these systems neither Newtonian, nor quantum. It has been shown that self-controlled dynamical systems can be linked to mathematical models of livings. The discovery of isolated dynamical systems that can decrease entropy in violation of the second law of thermodynamics, and resemblances of these systems to livings implies that Life can slow down heat death of the Universe, and that can be associated with the Purpose of Life.
Category: Astrophysics

[1065] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 23:28:52

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[1064] viXra:1701.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 12:46:36

Inflation Space Model and Pulsation Space Model.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 4 Pages.

The inflation space model becomes the leading role of the cosmology now. The inflation cosmology supposes space to have been the size of the elementary particle level at a moment of the space birth and applies particle physics and is going to understand it. But for now, Innumerable inflation cosmology is proposed, and one cannot identify it. Introduction of the super velocity of light concept more than the velocity of light, A unit infinite other than the space where we live in other space with existing, There is it in confusion.
Category: Astrophysics

[1063] viXra:1701.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 01:10:24

White Spots of the Universe "FULL of HOLES" Become Black Holes Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Our Universe – One of Galaxies Multivselenna Limited to a Gravitational Cover and the Black Hole in the Center. the White Hole Has Turned Black, Having Let Out Gala

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 2 Pages.

Our Universe – one of galaxies Multivselenna limited to a gravitational cover and the Black hole in the center. The white hole has turned black, having let out galactic "tears", and we see that today, as have to see!
Category: Astrophysics

[1062] viXra:1701.0507 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 01:15:27

How Much "BLUEBERRY" on Mars? Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Once the Tail of an Unknown Comet "Covered" Mars with Red "Cover". Martian "Blueberry" is the Hail Which Arose from the "Torn-Off" Tail of an Unknown Comet.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Once the tail of an unknown comet "covered" Mars with red "cover". Martian "blueberry" is the hail which arose from the "torn-off" tail of an unknown comet.
Category: Astrophysics

[1061] viXra:1701.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 14:18:40

Supermassive Black Holes Galaxies Merge

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In roughly four billion years, the Milky Way will be no more. Indeed, our home galaxy is on course to collide and unite with the Andromeda Galaxy, at present some two million light years away. [16] A simulation of the powerful jets generated by supermassive black holes at the centers of the largest galaxies explains why some burst forth as bright beacons visible across the universe, while others fall apart and never pierce the halo of the galaxy. [15] Astronomers from Chalmers University of Technology have used the giant telescope Alma to reveal an extremely powerful magnetic field very close to a supermassive black hole in a distant galaxy. The results appear in the 17 April 2015 issue of the journal Science. [14] Quasars, even those that are billions of light years away, are some of the " brightest beacons " in the universe. Yet how can quasars radiate so much energy that they can be seen from Earth? One explanation is that at each quasar's center is a growing supermassive black hole (SMBH). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1060] viXra:1701.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 02:38:07

Hypothesis of Multistage Synthesis of Elements of Stars Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Hydrogen and Helium – the Subsequent Product of Synthesis of Elements of Stars.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Hydrogen and helium – the subsequent product of synthesis of elements of stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1059] viXra:1701.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 12:01:39

Could Planet 9 be a Dwarf star?

Authors: Jerrold Thacker
Comments: 12 Pages.

A review of parallax measurements of stars indicates there are major discrepancies in the distance measurements to red giant stars. There is very strong evidence that the nearest star is Betelgeuse, only a few light-weeks away and actually a dwarf star. It is possible that this dwarf star may be the missing Planet 9
Category: Astrophysics

[1058] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 07:30:58

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1057] viXra:1701.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 05:36:59

Video of Explosion Like Phenomena in the CMB Hot Spots Are Observed When WMAP and Planck CMB Images Are Superimposed and Transitioned Back and Forth.

Authors: H.S. Dhaliwal
Comments: 19 Pages.

I have compared Wmap to Planck and there appears to be explosion like phenomena occurring in the Cmb. A hot spot, after some time, disappears or explodes in the before and after comparisons. There are also observations of hot spots appearing where once there was a cold region. One may say this is noise in the data, to carry on the big bang theory, but there is a significant chance it is not as these changes are too large. If they are explosions, these hot spots may leave black holes behind and eject matter outwards, similar to a super novae event but macro. In some observations you will notice a round hollowish dark dot is left after the explosion like event. This observation, if correct, means we cannot rely on the redshift-distance theory interpretation as we know it when it comes to the distance between us and the Cmb. If in fact these were explosions, they should be significantly different in there frequency. There is also evidence from simulations on the Cmb of numerous concentric circles existing in the map. These circles may be the after affects of these Cmb hot spots exploding. The midpoint of these concentric rings do not have any hot spots in them, because the hot spot at the midpoint may have exploded in the past, which turned into cold spots, and the after affect was the concentric rings. A superimposition of the concentric circles on the Cmb is also included in the paper. Note some concentric rings have unique dark spots in the mid point, a black circle is placed over these interesting observations (Obs. 17).
Category: Astrophysics

[1056] viXra:1701.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-09 18:11:54

A Simple Solution to the Dark Matter Problem

Authors: Jerrold Thacker
Comments: 1 Page.

There is evidence that the attractive force of gravity is logarithmic instead of linear. If this is true, then the motion of stars in spiral galaxies is easily explained and there is no need for dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1055] viXra:1701.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 11:34:02

Giant Atoms Unveil Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Giant atoms could help unveil 'dark matter' and other cosmic secrets. [23] Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1054] viXra:1701.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 13:52:39

Exploring the Inflation and Gravity of the Universe with Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao, Yuanze Xu, Ting Hao
Comments: 20 pages, 4 figures

On the basis of the very successful free volume theory applicable to wide length scales from electrons to small molecules, macromolecules, colloidal particles and even granules, hypothetical particles dubbed “freevons” are proposed to fill up the free volume available in any system from microscopic atomic world to the macroscopic universe. The Eyring’s rate process theory that has a wide applicability to many chemical and physical phenomena is assumed to govern the behaviors of freevons. It turns out that for keeping the universe to expand in an accelerated manner, the freevons must form the paired structures, like electrons paired in superconductivity state and helium-3 atoms paired in superfluidity state; at about 5 K, there is a temperature induced phase transition happening and the Hubble’s constant is predicted to dramatically increase, implying that the universe will inflate even further rapidly. The universe is therefore viewed as particles, the stars and galaxies, dispersed in the superfluidity freevon sea and the gravity is considered to be induced from the force density, usually defined as a negative gradient of pressure in fluid mechanics. The Newton’s gravity equation is thus easily obtained under those assumptions, and similarly the Coulomb’s Law can also be obtained using the same approach. In this superfluiditiy framework, the volumes rather than the masses of particles are found to be important in determining the gravitational forces. The expansion driving force comes from the activity or concentration gradient of freevons formed at the beginning of the big bang, and there is no need to postulate a dark energy or dark matter to be responsible for such an accelerated inflation; Or freevons can be considered “dark matter”. Our approach may bridge many different theories in astrophysics field and provide a possibility to use quantum mechanics to study the universe through exploring the quantum mechanics behaviors of freevons.
Category: Astrophysics

[1053] viXra:1701.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 07:53:05

Existence of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Astronomers in the US are setting up an experiment which, if it fails – as others have – could mark the end of a 30-year-old theory. [22] Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1052] viXra:1612.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 04:52:24

Loss of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Russian scientists have discovered that the proportion of unstable particles in the composition of dark matter in the days immediately following the Big Bang was no more than 2 percent to 5 percent. Their study has been published in Physical Review D. [21] Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1051] viXra:1612.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 02:31:53

Variations of the Gravitational Constant with Time in the Framework of the Expanding Universe

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 11 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to find an answer in the matter of expanding universe from the time variance of the gravitational constant point of view. We took as reference the equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe and report the observational data to it. The equivalent variation of the gravitational constant of a static universe is estimated in a reference universe hypothesis. An expanding force is balanced by an attracting force and this is the basis from which we can establish a formal time variance for the gravitational constant in two cases. The first one correspond to an expanding universe, hence this case can’t be a reference for our evaluation. The second case corresponds to a static universe and it is the same as a de Sitter universe. This is the reason why this case can be a reference case. Thus the observational data smaller than our reference theoretical value, are linked to a collapsing universe and the observational data greater than the same reference value are characteristic to an expanding universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1050] viXra:1612.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 02:15:28

Dark Matter in Gamma-Ray Background

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Amsterdam's (UvA) GRAPPA Center of Excellence have just published the most precise analysis of the fluctuations in the gamma-ray background to date. [20] The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1049] viXra:1612.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-16 13:25:00

Verlinde's Theory of Gravity Tested

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A team led by astronomer Margot Brouwer (Leiden Observatory, The Netherlands) has tested the new theory of theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde (University of Amsterdam) for the first time through the lensing effect of gravity. [21] Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1048] viXra:1612.0225 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 13:57:47

Photonic-Magnetic Field in Interplanetary Space

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 14 Pages.

Imagine an interplanetary space where each celestial object will be attracted by the magnetic waves from these electromagnetic waves are created in more of photonic waves. From this set of waves there arises the photonic-magnetic field theory which is to attract a celestial body when the celestial object is undergoing a total shutdown. From this shutdown of the celestial body or planet, there is created an energy that emanates (Aggressively) photons. The photons have the function of joining with the magnetic waves, from this bond will create a cloud of magnetic charges (+ ;-) and photons ( Note that the photons are radiation magnetic waves.
Category: Astrophysics

[1047] viXra:1612.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 09:31:06

Theory of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Thierry Delort
Comments: 47 Pages.

In this article, we propose a new model of dark matter. According to this new model, dark matter is a substance, that is a new physical element not constituted of classical particles, called dark substance and filling the Universe. Assuming some very simple physical properties to this dark substance, we theoretically justify the flat rotation curve of galaxies and the baryonic Tully-Fisher’s law. We then study according to our new theory of dark matter the different possible distributions of dark matter in galaxies and in galaxy clusters, and the velocities of galaxies in galaxy clusters. Then using the new model of dark matter we are naturally led to propose a new geometrical model of Universe, finite, that is different from all geometrical models proposed by the Standard Cosmological Model (SCM). Despite that our Theory of dark matter is compatible with the SCM, we then expose a new Cosmological model based on this new geometrical form of the Universe and on the interpretation of the CMB Rest Frame (CRF), that has not physical interpretation on the SCM and that we will call local Cosmological frame. We then propose 2 possible mathematical models of expansion inside the new Cosmological model. The 1st mathematical model is based on General Relativity as the SCM and gives the same theoretical predictions of distances and of the Hubble’s constant as the SCM. The 2nd mathematical model of expansion of the Universe is mathematically much simpler than the mathematical model of expansion used in the SCM, but we will see that its theoretical predictions are in agreement with astronomical observations. Moreover, this 2nd mathematical model of expansion does not need to introduce the existence of a dark energy contrary to the mathematical model of expansion of the SCM. To end we study the evolution of the temperature of dark substance in the Universe and we make appear the existence of a dark energy, due to our model of dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1046] viXra:1612.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:58:44

Examples of Gravitational Polarization of Objects of the Universe Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. Gravitational Polarization is Inherent in All Objects of the Universe

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

Gravitational polarization is inherent in all objects of the Universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1045] viXra:1612.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:51:06

Smoother Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Analysis of a giant new galaxy survey, made with ESO's VLT Survey Telescope in Chile, suggests that dark matter may be less dense and more smoothly distributed throughout space than previously thought. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1044] viXra:1612.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 14:09:38

Co-Decaying Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

There isn't as much dark matter around today as there used to be. According to one of the most popular models of dark matter, the universe contained much more dark matter early on when the temperature was hotter. As the universe cooled, the dark matter annihilated away, at least up until a point when thermal equilibrium was reached and the annihilations ceased, resulting in the number of dark matter particles in the universe "freezing out" and remaining roughly constant. [21] Much of the universe is made of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1043] viXra:1612.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 09:22:10

Object Moving Towards the Observer Might Appear to Have Infinite Velocity and Hit Without Giving Any Warning.

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 4 Pages. apparent velocities might be faster than light

The apparent velocity of an object moving towards or away from the observer will be different from its actual velocity. To get the apparent velocity, actual velocity will have to be multiplied by a factor called scale factor. For an object moving away from an observer at considerable speed compared to that of light, scale factor is given by1/1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of the moving object and c = velocity of light in vacuum. So, apparent velocity = Actual velocity/(1+z).But when the object is moving towards an observer, it appears to move faster than actual velocity. This is because Scale factor for objects approaching the observer=1/ (1-z). Most important thing is that the velocity of the object appears to be faster than the velocity of light in vacuum, for all values of z > 0.5.Also, it appears to be approaching at infinite speed for z =1.
Category: Astrophysics

[1042] viXra:1612.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 05:00:50

Democratic Free Will and Telepathy in the Instant Entangled Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If I are able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained.
Category: Astrophysics

[1041] viXra:1612.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 04:23:32

Quantum Property of Empty Space

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

By studying the light emitted from an extraordinarily dense and strongly magnetized neutron star using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers may have found the first observational indications of a strange quantum effect, first predicted in the 1930s. The polarization of the observed light suggests that the empty space around the neutron star is subject to a quantum effect known as vacuum birefringence. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1040] viXra:1611.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 07:58:45

Unknown Source of Positrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of researchers known as the Alpha Magnetic Spectrometer (AMS) Collaboration has found evidence of a possible unknown source of positrons making their way through the universe to Earth. [9] Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1039] viXra:1611.0399 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 13:25:47

Pioneer Anomaly Re-visited

Authors: Robert T. Longo
Comments: 7 Pages.

This mysterious effect has been given considerable thought as to its nature. Some have thought that the effect is due to unknown spacecraft effects, such as gas leaks or anisotropic thermal radiation. Others hold out for some fundamental physics that might alter the theory of gravitation. Recently, a complete analysis of rediscovered spacecraft data provides a credible story for spacecraft engineering being the cause. However, more fundamental physics has not been absolutely ruled out. This paper will relook at the anomaly from a fundamental perspective by applying a recently published physical theory to the Pioneer anomaly, and will show that a new theory can explain the effect.
Category: Astrophysics

[1038] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 17:30:03

Hawking Radiation Addition to Theory Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12; UK English; Freelance scientist.

_ABSTRACT_ __Hawking Radiation -Addition to theory__ http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1037] viXra:1611.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 11:37:49

Dark Force of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Invisible Dark Force of the Universe --"CERN's NA64 Zeroing in on Evidence of Its Existence" [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they’re not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1036] viXra:1611.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 07:54:18

High-Energy Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Roughly once a year, the smallest Large Hadron Collider (LHC) experiment, LHC-forward (LHCf), is taken out of its dedicated storage on the site near the ATLAS experiment, reinstalled in the LHC tunnel, and put to use investigating high-energy cosmic rays. [8] An international team of astrophysicists including Russian scientists from the Space Research Institute of the Russian Academy of Sciences (RAS), MIPT, and Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1035] viXra:1611.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:24:49

The 1600 Kelvin Gap in Astrophysics

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 2 screenshots

In the accepted astronomy literature, and collected, publicly disbursed data there is a large temperature gap in the young stars which host older stars. It is apparent that specific data is ignored so that accepted models and theories do not receive unwanted attention by critical eyes. A prediction is therefore made concerning the presence of evolved stars (planets/exoplanets) around younger stars between the temperature range 540 – 2100 Kelvin, of which no public exoplanet data exists.
Category: Astrophysics

[1034] viXra:1611.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 16:55:08

16 Psyche in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The asteroid 16 Psyche is claimed to be a protoplanet that did not continue its formation process in the “early solar system”. This is false. The asteroid is a piece of the core of a dead star according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[1033] viXra:1611.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 06:26:29

Rest of the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Much of the universe is made of of matter that we can't see. [20] An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1032] viXra:1611.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-25 12:35:52

Mysterious Dark Photon

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

An overview of the NA64 experimental setup at CERN. NA64 hunts down dark photons, hypothetic dark matter particles. [19] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1031] viXra:1611.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 08:56:03

Computing the Mystery of Dark Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1030] viXra:1611.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 09:38:36

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn.
Category: Astrophysics

[1029] viXra:1611.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 06:11:32

Magnetic Reconnection

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) and Princeton University have proposed a groundbreaking solution to a mystery that has puzzled physicists for decades. At issue is how magnetic reconnection, a universal process that sets off solar flares, northern lights and cosmic gamma-ray bursts, occurs so much faster than theory says should be possible. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[1028] viXra:1611.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 08:33:01

X-ray Pulsars Propeller Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 11 Pages.

Pulkovo Observatory of RAS has detected an abrupt decrease of pulsar luminosity following giant outbursts. The phenomenon is associated with the so-called "propeller effect," which was predicted more than 40 years ago. [7] New observations with ESO's Very Large Telescope (VLT) in Chile have revealed alignments over the largest structures ever discovered in the Universe. A European research team has found that the rotation axes of the central supermassive black holes in a sample of quasars are parallel to each other over distances of billions of light-years. The team has also found that the rotation axes of these quasars tend to be aligned with the vast structures in the cosmic web in which they reside. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. [6] The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1027] viXra:1611.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 07:50:24

Saturn Hexagon Storm \\ Шестиугольный шторм на Сатурне

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages. in Russian

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn. \\ На северном полюсе Сатурна уже более 30 лет существует гигантский шторм в форме шестиугольника, каждая сторона которого больше диаметра Земли. Этот шестиугольник не перемещается на планете, вращается и сохраняет свою форму. Это явление до сих пор не имеет объяснения. Ниже предлагается математическая модель такого шторма, аналогичная математической модели океанского водоворота (предложенной автором ранее). При этом показывается, что источником энергии, позволяющей шторму длительное время вращаться, является гравитационное поле Сатурна.
Category: Astrophysics

[1026] viXra:1611.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 10:52:29

Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The Dark Energy Spectroscopic Instrument, called DESI, has an ambitious goal: to scan more than 35 million galaxies in the night sky to track the expansion of our universe and the growth of its large-scale structure over the last 10 billion years. [19] If the axion exist and it is the main component of Dark Matter, the very relic axions that would be bombarding us continuously could be detected using microwave resonant (to the axion mass) cavities, immersed in powerful magnetic fields. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1025] viXra:1611.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 06:07:51

New Theory of Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community—it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Astrophysics

[1024] viXra:1611.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-16 11:26:03

Unusual Origins of High-Energy Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

High above the surface, Earth's magnetic field constantly deflects incoming supersonic particles from the sun. These particles are disturbed in regions just outside of Earth's magnetic field-and some are reflected into a turbulent region called the foreshock. New observations from NASA's THEMIS mission show that this turbulent region can accelerate electrons up to speeds approaching the speed of light. Such extremely fast particles have been observed in near-Earth space and many other places in the universe, but the mechanisms that accelerate them have not yet been concretely understood. [8] The scientists analyze the magnetic field strengths and show that, even in the least massive fragment the field is not strong enough to inhibit gravitational collapse. In fact, they find indications that gravity, as it pulls material inward, drags the magnetic field lines along. [7] Astronomers have shed new light on the rarest and brightest exploding stars ever discovered in the universe. Their research proposes that the brightest exploding stars, called super-luminous supernovae, are powered by magnetars-small and incredibly dense neutron stars, with gigantic magnetic fields, that spin hundreds of times a second. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1023] viXra:1611.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 09:51:51

Are Quazars White Holes?

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on the mechanistic interpretation of J. Wheeler’s geometrodynamic concept, which allows for transitions between distant regions of space, it was suggested that a quasar is a cosmological object, i.e. a white hole, where gravitational forces are replaced with dynamic ones with together the balance of electric and magnetic forces. Thus, a schematic model of a typical quasar was proposed. Its parameters (calculated on the basis of this model) are consistent with the observational data on quasars.
Category: Astrophysics

[1022] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 04:58:29

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[1021] viXra:1611.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 09:16:55

Dark Matter and Intergalactic Gas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A correlation between the cosmic microwave background and hydrogen absorption lines may reveal a connection between dark matter and intergalactic gas clouds. [19] Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1020] viXra:1611.0197 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 01:20:31

Relativistic Time Correction on Movement of Distant Galaxies Makes the Present Age of the Universe as 28.2 Billion Years

Authors: Jayaram A S
Comments: 5 Pages. It changes the age of the universe from 14.1 to 28.2 billion years.

The relativistic approach gives us the apparent time of the events happening on a fast moving object away from us. It is called scale factor. It is given by Scale factor = 1+z, where z = v/c, v= velocity of moving object and c= speed of light in vacuum. This paper aims to illustrate that the above relativistic time correction when applied to Hubble’s law, gives us the age of the universe as 2/H0 and not 1/H0, where H0 is the present Hubble constant. This makes the age of the universe to a value double that of the present estimate. That is from 14.1 billion light years to 28.2 billion light years. Linear expansion of the universe is assumed.
Category: Astrophysics

[1019] viXra:1611.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:14:33

On the Secular Recession of Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 13 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., & Tsoka, W., (2015), ‘On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon’, Astrophys. & Space Sci., Jun. 2, Vol. 358(1): pp.1-12. (doi:10.1007/s10509-015-2394-4)

We here apply the ASTG-model to the observed anomalous secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances. For the recession of the Earth-Moon system, in agreement with observation, we obtain a recession of about 11.20 ± 0.20 cm/yr. The ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be absolute time constant. Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004) reported for the Earth-Moon system, an orbital recession from the Sun of about (15.00 ± 4.00) cm/yr; while Williams et al. (2004); Williams and Boggs (2009); Williams et al. (2014) report for the Moon, an orbital recession of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth. The predictions of the ASTG-model for the Earth-Moon system agrees very well with those the findings of Standish (2005); Krasinsky and Brumberg (2004). The lost orbital angular momen-tum for the Earth-Moon system – which we here hypothesize to be gained as spin by the two body Earth-Moon system; this lost angular momentum accounts very well for the observed lunar drift, therefore, one can safely safely say that the ASTG-model does to a reasonable degree of accuracy predict the observed lunar drift of about 38.00 mm/yr from the Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[1018] viXra:1611.0195 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-13 03:18:07

On the Secular Recession of the Earth-Moon System as an Azimuthal Gravitational Phenomenon (II)

Authors: Nyambuya G. G., Makwanya T., Tuturu B. A., Tsoka, W.
Comments: 4 Pages. Work in Progress

We here apply – albeit, with improved assumptions compared to our earlier work (Nyambuya et al., Astron. & Astro-phys. S. Sci. 358(1) : pp.1 − 12, 2015); the ASTG-model to the observed secular trend in the mean Sun-(Earth-Moon) and Earth-Moon distances thereby providing an alternative explanation as to what the cause of this secular trend may be. For the semi-major axis rate of the Earth-Moon system, we now obtain a new value of about +3.00 cm/yr while in the earlier work we obtained a value of about 5.00 cm/yr. This new value of +3.00 cm/yr is closer to that of of Standish (2005)'s measurement of (7.00 ± 2.00) cm/yr. Our present value accounts for only 43% of Standish (2005)'s measurement. The other 57% can be accounted for by invoking the hypothesis that the θ-component of the angular momentum maybe non-zero. In the end, it can be said that the ASTG-model predicts orbital drift as being a result of the orbital inclination and the Solar mass loss rate. The Newtonian gravitational constant G is assumed to be an absolute time constant
Category: Astrophysics

[1017] viXra:1611.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 10:27:17

Dark Matter in a Hidden Sector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Currently, one of the strongest candidates for dark matter is weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPS, although so far this hypothetical particle has not yet been directly detected. Now in a new study, physicists have proposed that dark matter is not a WIMP, and further, it is not any particle that is so far known or theorized to exist. [18] In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1016] viXra:1611.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 02:40:49

Calculating Axion Masses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

In yet another attempt to nail down the elusive nature of dark matter, a European team of researchers has used a supercomputer to develop a profile of the yet-to-be-detected entity that appears to pervade the universe. [17] MIT physicists are proposing a new experiment to detect a dark matter particle called the axion. If successful, the effort could crack one of the most perplexing unsolved mysteries in particle physics, as well as finally yield a glimpse of dark matter. [16] Researches at Stockholm University are getting closer to light dark-matter particle models. Observations rule out some axion-like particles in the quest for the content of dark matter. The article is now published in the Physical Review Letters. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1015] viXra:1611.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 06:47:12

Bright and Dark Sides of Galaxies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Since dark matter is the main component of these galaxies—and thus the main determinant of galactic rotation—this finding implies that the distribution of conventional matter in the disk specifies the density profile of the surrounding dark matter halo. [18] A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1014] viXra:1611.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 09:05:21

Active Galactic Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

In the 1970s, astronomers became aware of a compact radio source at the center of the Milky Way Galaxy – which they named Sagittarius A. After many decades of observation and mounting evidence, it was theorized that the source of these radio emissions was in fact a supermassive black hole (SMBH). Since that time, astronomers have come to theorize that SMBHs at the heart of every large galaxy in the Universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[1013] viXra:1611.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 12:53:06

Dark Matter Depending on Gravitational Field in Solar System

Authors: Manuel Abarca Hernandez
Comments: 9 Pages.

For last two years I have published several papers about DM on galaxies and cluster of galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original hypothesis which states that DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal law. As consequence this hypothesis, gravitational field is calculated through a Bernoulli differential equation which gives rightly DM density named Bernoulli profile. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters which are supposed to be valid for every gravitational system. Parameters A&B come form calculus made in paper [7] Abarca, M.2016. Specifically were calculated in M31 galaxy from rotation curve data for radius bigger than 40 kpc and lower than 200 kpc. In this region gravitational field is lower than 10^-11 m/s^2. Whereas inside Solar System gravitational field is billions of times bigger. However if it is supposed that DM generation mechanism is Universal then the same parameters should be right to study Dark matter density inside Solar System. It is remarkable the fact that through the same method I have published successful results for cluster of galaxies scale and galaxy scale. Unfortunately there is not experimental measures for DM inside Solar System yet so it is not possible for now check theoretical results published in this paper. The main results this paper are DM enclosed by spherical coronas defined by radius of Sun and planetary orbits. Through mass of Earth as unit of mass, results are the following ones: DM up to Mercury orbit is 71,61 MEARTH , up to Venus orbit is 75.57 MEARTH , up to Earth orbit is 77.33 MEARTH , up to Mars orbit is 79.32 MEARTH , up to Jupiter orbit is 83.76 MEARTH , up to Saturn orbit is 85.37 MEARTH , up to Uranus orbit is 86.85 MEARTH , up to Neptune orbit is 87.63 MEARTH , up to Pluto orbit is 88.056 MEARTH
Category: Astrophysics

[1012] viXra:1611.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:24:31

Observed Dual Higgs Mass 124-126 Gev and the Chirality of the Vacuum Lattice.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 9 Pages. 9

Observed dual LHC signals of 124-126 GeV Higgs The chirality of our material universal vacuum lattice formed by the massless Axion/Higgs oscillating dark energy field, is supposed to be the origin of these different masses. According to Quantum FFF Theory.
Category: Astrophysics

[1011] viXra:1611.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 06:28:35

Emergent Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A new theory of gravity might explain the curious motions of stars in galaxies. Emergent gravity, as the new theory is called, predicts the exact same deviation of motions that is usually explained by invoking dark matter. Prof. Erik Verlinde, renowned expert in string theory at the University of Amsterdam and the Delta Institute for Theoretical Physics, published a new research paper today in which he expands his groundbreaking views on the nature of gravity. [17] A theoretical particle that adapts to its surroundings could explain the accelerating expansion of our universe. [16] Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1010] viXra:1611.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 08:29:10

9 Series of Evidences of Periodical Bursts of Young Stars and Planets

Authors: GP Zhang
Comments: 12 Pages.

Fred Hoyle, the famous British astronomer, had the idea that matters explode from the Sun form planets. This paper develops this idea into the theory of periodical bursts of young stars and planets, provides 9 series of evidences to prove the theory, and explains many facts of the solar system and exoplanetary systems with the theory simplly, self-consistently, and systematically. First, the ratio of semi-major axes and stellar radius of three young exoplanets (V830 Tau b, K2-33 b and GJ674 b) increases with age, because they were born from the burst of their parent star and were pushed away by the strong stellar wind (Table 1). Second, there are many exoplanets and candidates with the ratio less than 5, such as K2-92 b, WASP-103 b and PTFO 8-8695 b. They are in the range of the contracting prostar and there were no enough nebular matters left in the range to accrete into planets. So they were born from the burst of their parent star (Table 2). Third, there is a law of semimajor axis of planets in multi-planet systems, such as Kepler-90’s system with 7 planets and HD 10180’s system with 6 planets. The law is similiar to Bode’s law in the solar system and it means that the planets were born from periodical bursts of their parent star in their youth (Table 3). Fourth, the jovian planets have density, composition and internal energy source similiar to the Sun, which mean they were once parts of the Sun (Table 4). Fifth, different classes of meteorites formed from very high temperature which cannot be reached with energy from accretion. They were once parts of the Sun. They were burst out from the Sun and they cooled down from the very high temperature. Sixth, Mars had widespread liquid water 3.7 billion years ago. Terrestrial and lunar rocks in early time recorded solar wind 10 million times stronger than it is now. These evidences proved that the terrestrial planets then were much nearer to the Sun than they are now. Seventh, satellites of the terrestrial planets, Moon, Phobos and Deimos, have lower density than the terrestrial planets and there is a law of their density. They were burst from the boundary between the core and the mantle of their parent planet in their youth (Table 5). Eighth, Galilean satellites have different ages, of their surface and as a whole, which proved they were born from periodical bursts of Jupiter (Table 6). Ninth, there is a law of semimajor axis of satellites and rings of the jovian planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[1009] viXra:1611.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 08:18:47

Muon Telescope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The GRAPES-3 muon telescope, the largest and most sensitive cosmic ray monitor recorded a burst of galactic cosmic rays that indicated a crack in the Earth's magnetic shield. The burst occurred when a giant cloud of plasma ejected from the solar corona struck Earth at a very high speed causing massive compression of the Earth's magnetosphere and triggering a severe geomagnetic storm. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[1008] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-03 05:03:57

Igid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages. 27

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes, with a different functions like masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Zparticles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[1007] viXra:1611.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 13:59:32

Supercomputer Profile of Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[1006] viXra:1611.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-02 02:06:21

Cause of Radiation Belts of the Earth Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.v. the Hypothesis of the Cause of an Internal Radiation Belt of Earth as Result of the Relative Movement of a Cover of a Kernel and Its Contents is Made.

Authors: Nikitin V. N., Nikitin I.V.
Comments: 1 Page.

The hypothesis of the cause of an internal radiation belt of Earth as result of the relative movement of a cover of a kernel and its contents is made.
Category: Astrophysics

[1005] viXra:1611.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-01 06:28:13

Electric Dark Matter Black Holes in the Moon (Orientale Basin)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

The multiple cliff-ringed lava plains on the moon are breath taking and how they came to be has puzzled scientists and even philosophers. However, multi-cliff ringed basins are also found in many different locations on other worlds. So, what created the basins? The suggestion of Quantum FFF Theory is that the double charged static electric fields assumed to be active concentric around new physics black holes should be the origin of circular cliff formation after the impact of a special comet which is only based on one nuclear black hole. Many comets however seem to be created around more than one new physics black hole as we may have observed in comets like 67P C-G and Shoemaker Levy 9. The resulting lava plains of such crashed comets are supposed to be represented by less circular gravity variations or less circular cliffed plains. Recent discussions around the foundation of black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about the nature of black holes and adjacent subjects.
Category: Astrophysics

[1004] viXra:1610.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 10:52:13

The Value of the Cosmological Constant

Authors: Ru-Jiao Zhang
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper presents a derivation of the value of the cosmological constant. The approach was based on the Einstein’s gravitational field equations and the Hubble’s law. The value of the cosmological constant Λ was found to be: Λ=(Ho^2)/3 , here Ho is the Hubble constant.
Category: Astrophysics

[1003] viXra:1610.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-31 12:53:01

FRB 150418 Confirms Predictions Made by New Tired Light

Authors: Lyndon Ashmore
Comments: 4 Pages.

For the first time, in April 2015, both the Dispersion Measure (DM) of a fast radio burst, FRB 150418, and the redshift of the host galaxy were measured. This gave the opportunity to test the New Tired Light Theory and its predictions. DM in mainstream physics is found from the time delay between the arrival of different frequencies from a short, sharp cosmological source (FRB or pulsar). DM is related to the mean free electron density along the path, n, and the distance from source to observer, d, by the formula DM=nd. New Tired Light (NTL) is an alternative cosmological theory to the Big Bang. In NTL the universe is static and redshifts are caused by photons of light interacting with the electrons in the plasma of the intergalactic medium (IGM). Energy is transferred from the photon to the recoiling electron on absorption and re-emission resulting in a reduction in frequency of the photon and an increase in the wavelength. The redshift distance relation is z=exp(Hd⁄c) -1 where c is the speed of light and H the Hubble constant. In NTL the Hubble constant is derived in terms of, n, the plank constant, h,and m and r the rest mass and classical radius of the electron giving H=(2nhr⁄m). Making, d, the subject of both equations from DM and NTL gives us the SI equation DM=(mc⁄2hr)LN(1+z). Substituting the measured redshift, z, and values for m,c,h and r as well as converting from SI units to those used in radio astronomy (pc cm^-3 ) gives a predicted DM of DM=949 pc cm^-3. This compares well with the observed DM of FRB 150418 of 776.2 pc cm -3 – a difference of just 22%. It is noted that a DM is produced for all electron number densities whilst in NTL redshifts only occur in the sparsely populated plasma of the IGM since in dense plasma, strong electromagnetic forces reduce or even prevent the electrons from recoiling. Consequently it is possible to have a DM but no redshift if the plasma density is too high. It is possible that denser plasma along the path may have resulted in the predicted DM being a little higher than the measured one - though the agreement is close and gives strong support to NTL.
Category: Astrophysics

[1002] viXra:1610.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:13:47

Rotating and Gravitationally Collapsing Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that for a star to increase in rotational velocity, it cannot experience solar wind or significant flaring events. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[1001] viXra:1610.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:31:25

Fusion as Thermodynamically Open System

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A thought to consider when developing a fusion reactor is mentioned. Maybe fusion is not a closed system, with internal feedback, but completely open as a result of another process.
Category: Astrophysics

[1000] viXra:1610.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 15:47:16

Stellar Age Location Theory vs. Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

In the accepted sciences, the ages of stars and their companions can be determined by their location in specific areas. This is false for simple reasons. Explanation in provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[999] viXra:1610.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 11:58:21

Fuzzy Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The idea is called "FDM", for "fuzzy dark matter". It posits that an extremely light boson, one almost exactly massless in fact, could be responsible for the scale of galaxy halos we observe in the universe. [17] Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[998] viXra:1610.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 16:30:44

Mass Continuum Principle in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is reasoned in a simple principle of stellar evolution that the masses of stars are not stepped, but continuous. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[997] viXra:1610.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 07:45:42

Cosmic Microwave Background 3D Print

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers have created a 3D printed cosmic microwave background-a map of the oldest light in the universe-and provided the files for download. [10] In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[996] viXra:1610.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 14:15:40

Future of Dark Matter Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Unlike x-rays that the naked eye can't see but equipment can measure, scientists have yet to detect dark matter after three decades of searching, even with the world's most sensitive instruments. [16] Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[995] viXra:1610.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 07:40:42

Latest Dark Matter Searches

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists have lost their latest round of hide-and-seek with dark matter, but they're not out of the game. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[994] viXra:1610.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-26 02:38:49

Dark Energy Supernova Analysis

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Dark energy may not exist, new supernova analysis says. But, Cathal O'Connell writes, the 2011 Nobel physics laureates shouldn't return their prize just yet. [15] A new study is providing evidence for the presence of dark matter in the innermost part of the Milky Way, including in our own cosmic neighborhood and the Earth's location. The study demonstrates that large amounts of dark matter exist around us, and also between us and the Galactic center. The result constitutes a fundamental step forward in the quest for the nature of dark matter. [14] Researchers may have uncovered a way to observe dark matter thanks to a discovery involving X-ray emissions. [13] Between 2009 and 2013, the Planck satellite observed relic radiation, sometimes called cosmic microwave background (CMB) radiation. Today, with a full analysis of the data, the quality of the map is now such that the imprints left by dark matter and relic neutrinos are clearly visible. [12] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. The Weak Interaction changes the temperature dependent Planck Distribution of the electromagnetic oscillations and changing the non-compensated dark matter rate, giving the responsibility to the sterile neutrino.
Category: Astrophysics

[993] viXra:1610.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 08:29:26

The Speed of a Black Hole to Attract a Celestial Body

Authors: Luca Nascimbene
Comments: 6 Pages.

The speed of a black hole to attract a celestial body thanks to its universal gravity and many other parameters described in article
Category: Astrophysics

[992] viXra:1610.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 19:35:06

The Cooling Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 picture

According to the 1st Law of Thermodynamics stars will cool indefinitely. Explanation is provided below.
Category: Astrophysics

[991] viXra:1610.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 16:02:25

Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Average Particles

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[990] viXra:1610.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-21 09:32:59

Dynamics of Satellite Rotation (Revisiting the Results of J.wisdom, et Al. (1984)).

Authors: Sergey V. Ershkov
Comments: 15 Pages. AMS Subject Classification: 70F15, 70F07 (Celestial mechanics); Keywords: Beletskii’s equation, satellite rotation, Abel ODE, gradient catastrophe.

The main motivation of the current research is the analytical exploring of the dynamics of satellite rotation during the motion on the elliptic orbit around the planet. We should discuss the revisited results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984). By elegant change of variables (considering the true anomaly f as the independent variable), the governing equation of satellite rotation is presented in a form of the Abel ODE of the 2-nd type, a kind of generalization of Riccati ODE. We should also note that for the reason of a special character of the solutions of Riccati-type ODE, there exists a possibility for sudden jumping of the magnitude of a solution at some moment of time-parameter. In physical sense, such the jumping of the Riccati-type solutions of the governing ODE could be associated with the effect of sudden acceleration/deceleration of the satellite rotation around the chosen principle axis at definite moment of parametric time. It means that there exists not only a chaotic regime of rotation of satellite (according to the results of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984)), but a kind of gradient catastrophe Arnold 1992 could occur during the process of satellite rotation. We should especially note that if gradient catastrophe could occur, it does not mean that it must occur: such a possibility depends on the initial conditions. Besides, the asymptotical solutions have been obtained, manifesting a quasi-periodic character of the solution even at a strong simplifying assumptions e → 0, p = 1, which reduces the governing equation of J.Wisdom, et al. (1984) to a kind of the Beletskii’s equation.
Category: Astrophysics

[989] viXra:1610.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 17:18:20

Decreasing Plasma Instabilities in Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is provided to explain that plasma instabilities decrease as stars age and cool.
Category: Astrophysics

[988] viXra:1610.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 18:07:07

Interpreting Disks Alongside Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle is used to explain that disks cannot be used to determine the ages of stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[987] viXra:1610.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 08:27:06

Understanding Cosmic Rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

In a new study researchers at the Swedish Institute of Space Physics have used measurements from NASA's MMS (Magnetospheric MultiScale) satellites to reveal that there are ripples, or surface waves, moving along the surface of shocks in space. Such ripples in shocks can affect how plasma is heated and are potential sites of particle acceleration. [9] The universe is not spinning or stretched in any particular direction, according to the most stringent test yet. [8] A discrepancy in the measurement of how quickly the universe is expanding has been found by researchers at the John Hopkins University in Baltimore, and released online. [7] Dark matter and dark energy are two of the greatest mysteries of the universe, still perplexing scientists worldwide. Solving these scientific conundrums may require a comprehensive approach in which theories, computations and ground-based observations are complemented by a fleet of spacecraft studying the dark universe. One of the space missions that could be essential to our understanding of these mysteries is European Space Agency's (ESA) Euclid probe, designed to unveil the secrets of dark energy and dark matter by accurately measuring the acceleration of the universe. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: Astrophysics

[986] viXra:1610.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 12:02:26

Dark Matter and the Dynamics of Galaxies: a Newtonian Approach

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I propose a correction to the well-known Newtonian gravitational potential, a correction which explains the form of the radial velocities as a function of the discoid galaxies radii. The main scope of this work is to find a correction to the Newtonian gravitational potential which has to fulfil two major conditions: a) to take into account the entire amount of the experimental data; b) the resulting potential to be a consequence of condition a) from a physical perspective. As a result, the corrected form of the Newtonian gravitational potential was found to belong to a physical cause and this cause can be the existence of the dark matter, evenly distributed within galaxies. This distribution makes dark matter to act as a binder for ordinary matter, so that the discoid galaxies not rotate as a fluid (as standard Newtonian theory states), but as some rigid frames (as the observational data state).
Category: Astrophysics

[985] viXra:1610.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 07:48:35

The Blue Shift Paradox

Authors: Eran Sinbar, Gabriel Sinbar, Yoav Weinstein
Comments: 7 Pages.

Based on Einstein’s equation E=mc^2, matter and anti-matter annihilate into photonic radiation energy. Photons have unique characteristics since they are massless and they travel at the speed of light in all the inertial reference frames. No other particle shares these unique characteristics. We claim that this unique behavior is due to the fact that photons do not apply gravitational effects on space-time, meaning, although photons will be forced to move in a curved line if space-time is curved they will not curve space time by themselves or apply gravity forces and time dilation . In order to prove our claims we suggest a thought experiment that leads to a blue shift paradox which happens after annihilating 2 symmetrical in size and mass, matter and anti- matter (A&B) in the center of a hollow particles spherical shell . The only way to explain this paradox is to conclude that anti-matter imposes anti–gravity and therefore matter and anti-matter together impose zero gravity. Furthermore, this proves that the photonic energy from the annihilation phase has also zero gravity effect on space-time.
Category: Astrophysics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[475] viXra:1704.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-14 05:25:26

The Origin of Life and the Need for a Rigid String Propeller Fermion Model Combined with a Chiral Vacuum Lattice and Micro Interference Black Holes

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 40 Pages.

The discovery of glycine in a comet supports the idea that the fundamental building blocks of life are prevalent in space, and is a strong argument that life in the Universe may be common rather than rare. Glycine molecules (Amino Acids) are found inside materials ejected from comets like Wild 2 ( 2004) and 67P-CG ( 2015-2016) which is reason to support the idea that new physics magnetic micro interference black holes postulated by Quantum FFF Theory are the origin of life creating comets and (ball) lightning all over the universe. . Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) new physics theory states, that the vacuum is seeded with fast opposite oscillating massless 3-Dimensional torus shaped rigid but transformable massless strings called Axion- Higgs (AH) particles. Colliding AH particles are responsible for pair production ( e- and e+) and even quarks around micro and macro black hole nuclei present in the splitting Big Bang down to Comets and Ball Lightnings. Black hole nuclei are supposed to be AH knots compressed by the in falling AH vacuum lattice. Two AHs should be able to change form by real high energy collision into two entangled electron positron propeller strings with opposite pitch and spin. Such high energy is supposed to be present at black hole event/photon horizons and inside particle colliders like the LHC at Geneva. The propeller form of fermions is assumed to be the origin of a new physics black hole model. All black holes attract (eat) the local AH vacuum but repel all fermions by spin polarisation effects, which make black holes pair producing and fermion producing phenomena observed in Quasars, Herbig Haro objects, Comets and even ball lightning. Thus the variable FORM of all particles is based on real internal joints and gears, responsible for the FUNCTION even for composite Quarks and Photons. However all new particles pairs are assumed to be instant entangled and guided in a dual mirror multiversal way. Massless transformed Axion particles are also assumed to be responsible for all compound quantum knots like quarks and massive Higgs particles of 126 GeV and Higher energy recently observed in the LHC at CERN. The oscillating AH vacuum system is the messenger medium of all Photon, Gluon and Neutrino information. Black Holes are equipped with a nucleus of compacted Axion particles, compressed by the oscillating AH vacuum and acting as dark matter point sources called “Dark Matter Black Holes”( DMBHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[474] viXra:1704.0033 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-08 21:17:36

Grand Unification from a Classical Interpretation of “Spin” Angular Momentum

Authors: Brent Jarvis
Comments: 5 Pages.

It is shown from the laws of conservation of energy and angular momentum that the gravitational energy of a bound state particle is dependent upon its geometric mean angular frequency. A classical interpretation for the intrinsic “spin” angular momentum of a particle is submitted that can be tested macroscopically with the Rarita−Schwinger equation for the orbit of Mercury. Librations in the relative obliquity of planetary bodies are shown to be analogous to the Larmor precession of atomic particles. Schrodinger's concept of a bound state electron's zitterbewegung is hypothesized to be the librations in the electron's relative obliquity.
Category: Astrophysics

[473] viXra:1703.0296 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-03 15:22:51

Detection of Vibranium in the Seyfert Galaxy NGC 1365 Through X-Ray Spectroscopy

Authors: F. Ursini, A. Tortosa, F. Ricci
Comments: 2 Pages.

We present results from a joint NuSTAR/VLT monitoring of the Seyfert 2 galaxy NGC 1365. We find conclusive evidences for an emission K alpha line from atomic vibranium in the X-ray spectrum, in combination with molecular vibranium absorption features in the mid-infrared spectrum. This is the first direct observation of vibranium in an astronomical environment. We also derive a measurement for its abundance of 2e-6 with respect to hydrogen.
Category: Astrophysics

[472] viXra:1703.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-12 00:18:29

Pluto, Should Be Defined As a Comet

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

showing a viewpoint about the classification of the Pluto.
Category: Astrophysics

[471] viXra:1702.0052 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-05 00:16:14

The Beautiful Nebula and Its Formation Mechanism

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about the formation mechanism of a Cat's eye nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[470] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-01 11:38:16

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle (WIMP)

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from an actual measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the gμν metric consequence of the distribution of mass. In addition, in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[469] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-31 10:21:02

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle (WIMP)

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the gμν consequence of the distribution of mass. In addition, in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[468] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-30 14:06:58

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle, WIMP

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this paper we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions Ψ(r,t) of quantum particles, since such wave functions must live in the space-time defined by the gμν consequence of the mass present, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian to determine the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function of dark matter particles inside galactic halos we will consider a quantum equation containing in the Hamiltonian the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the whole halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[467] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-19 15:54:38

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo A Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this work we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions of quantum particles, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potential energy present in the Hamiltonian have an affect on the shape of the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine such wave function Ψwimp(r,t) of dark matter particles inside galactic halos, we will consider a quantum equation containing the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this, our derived quantum equation, as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along all this process we will pay some special attention to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, extremely large information travel time across the halo quantum system, etc. Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve our equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[466] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-28 18:06:43

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this work we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions of quantum particles, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potentials that affect the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine the wave function Ψwimp(r,t) of dark matter particles inside galactic halos, we will consider a quantum equation containing the gravitational potential energy due to the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this our derived quantum equation as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along all this process some special attention will be paid to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, very large information travel time across the halo system, etc, Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve that equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[465] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-27 11:35:20

Determining the Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It's clear that by measuring the density profile ρ(r) of a dark matter galactic halo we are also indirectly measuring the mass of the dark matter particles (WIMPs.) So in this work we will derive such mass value mwimp from a current measured ρ(r) function. It's undeniable that gravitational fields affect the form and shape of the wave functions of quantum particles, and in the case of dark matter, where no other interaction is assumed acting, such gravitational fields are the only potentials that affect the quantum wave function Ψwimp(r,t). Therefore to determine the wave function Ψwimp(r,t) of dark matter particles inside galactic halos, we will consider a quantum equation containing the gravitational potential energy produced by the totality of the galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. At some point we will propose this our derived quantum equation as the sought after universal law for dark matter halos. Along all this process some special attention will be paid to the fact that we will be solving a quantum equation, including boundary conditions, etc, under very unusual circumstances in terms of lengths of galactic proportions, very large information travel time across the system, etc, Finally, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, we will solve that equation to determine the mass mwimp of this elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[464] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 10:39:48

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 41 Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t) and all of the measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). Therefore, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. So at this point the only element of contention would be which equation may be a better choice to describe the behavior of Ψ(r,t) for a dark matter particle in a galactic halo: 1) a Schrödinger type of equation 2) a Klein-Gordon type of equation 3) or even perhaps a new type of quantum equation better suited to our application in untested galactic dimensions. In this work we will focus on evaluating which quantum equation could be used, and under which conditions, to describe quantum states available to dark matter in galactic halos, under the gravitational field produced my all galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. We also will propose such quantum equation as the sought after halos' universal law. And at the end we will solve such equation, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, to estimate, applying this entirely different approach, the mass of the so elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[463] viXra:1702.0046 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-12 06:04:22

The Mass of the Dark Matter Particle

Authors: Guillermo Rios
Comments: 40 Pages.

It is obvious to us that the shape and form of a quantum wave function (and hence the probability density Ψ(r,t)Ψ*(r,t) and all of the measurable magnitudes it leads to,) must be affected by the presence of a gravitational field, since such Ψ(r,t) would be existing in a space-time which curved geometry is determined by its metric tensor gμν(r,t). Therefore, the effect of gravity over the shape, form and behavior of Ψ(r,t) is undeniable. So at this point the only element of contention would be which equation may be a better choice to describe the behavior of Ψ(r,t) for a dark matter particle in a galactic halo: 1) a Schrödinger type of equation 2) a Klein-Gordon type of equation 3) or even perhaps a new type of quantum equation better suited to our application in untested galactic dimensions. In this work we will focus on evaluating which quantum equation could be used, and under which conditions, to describe quantum states available to dark matter in galactic halos, under the gravitational field produced my all galactic matter, both baryonic and dark. We also will propose such quantum equation as the sought after halos' universal law. And at the end we will solve such equation, taking the Milky Way as our case of study, to estimate, applying this entirely different approach, the mass of the so elusive dark matter particle.
Category: Astrophysics

[462] viXra:1702.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-22 02:37:23

The Alternative Origin of Hubble Redshift : Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 35 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[461] viXra:1702.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-14 04:40:04

The Real Origin of Hubble Redshift : Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 34 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, ( which surpass the redshift of relative speed) as a sign for universal contraction and negative entropy, leading to a cyclic universe. All Black holes EAT the dark energy Axion-Higgs vacuum lattice supposed to be the origin of the Hubble redshift and universal contraction.
Category: Astrophysics

[460] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-03 08:12:27

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[459] viXra:1701.0520 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-18 00:39:26

Black Holes and Accumulation Disk of a Galaxy

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to the mechanism between the black holes and the disks of galaxies.
Category: Astrophysics

[458] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-30 10:13:04

Black Holes, White Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about black holes, white holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[457] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-30 07:08:30

Black Holes, White Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint about black holes, white holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[456] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-23 23:54:57

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[455] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-23 04:40:03

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[454] viXra:1701.0398 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 21:35:24

Black Holes, Pulsars and Neutron Stars

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: showing a viewpoint with regards to black holes, pulsars and neutron stars.
Category: Astrophysics

[453] viXra:1701.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-06 16:04:29

Exploring the Inflation and Gravity of the Universe with Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao,Yuanze Xu,Ting Hao
Comments: Pages.

On the basis of the very successful free volume theory applicable to wide length scales from electrons to small molecules, macromolecules, colloidal particles and even granules, hypothetical particles dubbed “freevons” are proposed to fill up the free volume available in any system from microscopic atomic world to the macroscopic universe. The Eyring’s rate process theory that has a wide applicability to many chemical and physical phenomena is assumed to govern the behaviors of freevons. It turns out that for keeping the universe to expand in an accelerated manner, the freevons must form the paired structures, like electrons paired in superconductivity state and helium-3 atoms paired in superfluidity state; at about 5 K, there is a temperature induced phase transition happening and the Hubble’s constant is predicted to dramatically increase, implying that the universe will inflate even further rapidly. The universe is therefore viewed as particles, the stars and galaxies, dispersed in the superfluidity freevon sea and the gravity is considered to be induced from the force density, usually defined as a negative gradient of pressure in fluid mechanics. The Newton’s gravity equation is thus easily obtained under those assumptions, and similarly the Coulomb’s Law can also be obtained using the same approach. In this superfluiditiy framework, the volumes rather than the masses of particles are found to be important in determining the gravitational forces. The expansion driving force comes from the activity or concentration gradient of freevons formed at the beginning of the big bang, and there is no need to postulate a dark energy or dark matter to be responsible for such an accelerated inflation; Or freevons can be considered “dark matter”. Our approach may bridge many different theories in astrophysics field and provide a possibility to use quantum mechanics to study the universe through exploring the quantum mechanics behaviors of freevons.
Category: Astrophysics

[452] viXra:1612.0349 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-14 04:18:08

Physical Properties of Stars and Stellar Dynamics

Authors: Yuri Heymann
Comments: 15 Pages. Accepted for publication in Progress in Physics

The present study is an investigation of stellar physics based on observables such as mass, luminosity, radius, and photosphere temperature. We collected a dataset of these characteristics for 360 stars, and diagramed the relationships between their characteristics and their type (white dwarf, red dwarf, main sequence star, giant, supergiant, hypergiant, Wolf-Rayet, carbon star, etc.). For stars dominated by radiation pressure in the photosphere which follow the Eddington luminosity, we computed the opacity and cross section to photon flux per hydrogen nuclei in the photosphere. We considered the Sun as an example of star dominated by gas pressure in the photosphere, and estimated the density of the solar photosphere using limb darkening and assuming the adiabatic gradient of a monoatomic gas. We then estimated the cross section per hydrogen nuclei in the plasma of the solar photosphere, which we found to be about 2.66\e{-28} \, m^2, whereas the cross section of neutral hydrogen as given by the Bohr model is 8.82\e{-21} \, m^2. This result suggests that the electrons and protons in the plasma are virtually detached. Hence, a hydrogen plasma may be represented as a gas mixture of electrons and protons. If the stellar photosphere was made of large hydrogen atoms or ions such as the ones we find in gases, its surface would evaporate due to the high temperatures.
Category: Astrophysics

[451] viXra:1612.0026 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-28 06:20:13

Democratic Free Will and Telepathy in the Instant Entangled Multiverse.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 17 Pages.

Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. The “volitional act” was in principle based on the free choice to press an electric switch button. The results of this experiment gives still an ongoing debate in the broad layers of the scientific community, because the results are still (also in recent experiments) in firm contrast with the expected idea of Free Will and causality. However I would propose the absurd but constructive possibility that we are not alone for decision making in a multiverse as an individual person. Even Max Tegmark suggested already about the multiverse: “Is there a copy of you reading this article?” We could be instant entangled with at least one instant entangled anti-copy person living inside a Charge and Parity symmetric copy Universe. In that case we could construct a causal explanation for Libet’s strange results. New statistical difference research on RPI and RPII of repeated Libet experiments described here could support these ideas. Wikipedia says: “Democracy is a form of government in which all eligible citizens participate equally”. Free will in a multiverse seems to be based on: all instant entangled ideas of copy persons living in all CP symmetric copy universes, have the same possibility to Veto an act and participate equally. If I am able to “Tap into” those instant entanglement connections” sent out by other people, then even telepathic effects (mind reading) could be explained. Uri Geller like others, is the man who seems to be able to “tap in” and even influences metal objects like spoons.
Category: Astrophysics

[450] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-30 18:14:53

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 2 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-positron & Proton-antiproton Event Horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[449] viXra:1611.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-28 18:36:58

Hawking Radiation, Addition to Theory, Seeing Within the Electron-Positron & Proton-Antiproton Event Horizons

Authors: S.C. Gaudie
Comments: 3 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 12 UK English; Freelance scientist;;tetrahedron_1_3_6@aim.com

Hawking Radiation, Addition to theory, Seeing within the electron-positron & proton-antiproton event horizons.. http://education.jlab.org/qa/electron_01.html Electrons in atoms move at 1% of the speed of light. Electrons are in the “e.m. energy wave state” [moving at c.] 1% of the time. Electrons are in the “mass state” 99% of the time. In everyday language: (a) [A sphere is SOMETIMES squashed at the poles & a sphere is SOMETIMES stretched at the poles]{mutually exclusive, sequential actions of the 2 properties} NOT (b) [ALWAYS black & ALWAYS a ball] {no interaction of the 2 properties} i. e. an electron’s “e.m. energy wave state” & “mass state” properties are SEQUENTIAL. The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive OR dead, but the experimenter does not know until the experimenter “observes” the cat, DOES APPLY! The “Schrodinger’s cat, thought experiment where the cat is alive AND dead DOES NOT APPLY! The “e.m. energy wave state” can easily escape at a shallow angle from between the electron - positron event horizon & the e. m. radiation event horizon. As well as the “standard Hawking radiation” [in the “mass state”] , there would also be “sub-electron-positron event horizon, Hawking radiation” [in the “e.m. energy wave state”; taking the “mass” away from the black hole in the form of energy!], from the [1%] electrons in the “e.m. energy wave state”, from the region between the electron-positron event horizon & the e.m. event horizon. The “e.m. energy wave” would normally “escape” this region before flipping back to the “mass state”. Electrons, positrons, protons & antiprotons will be accelerated towards the black hole, at high speeds by the very high gravity forces, before they flip to the “e.m. energy wave state” and then “escape" / are “emitted” from the black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[448] viXra:1611.0277 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-23 09:42:58

Hexagonal Storm on Saturn \\ Шестиугольный шторм на Сатурне

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik
Comments: 15 Pages.

At the north pole of Saturn has more than 30 years there is a giant storm in the shape of a hexagon, each side of which is greater than the diameter of Earth. This hexagon does not move on the planet, rotates and maintains its shape. This phenomenon still has no explanation. The following is a mathematical model of such a storm similar to the mathematical model of an ocean whirlpool (proposed earlier by the author). Also in the article shows that the energy source, that allows the storm to spin for a long time, is the gravitational field of Saturn. \\ На северном полюсе Сатурна уже более 30 лет существует гигантский шторм в форме шестиугольника, каждая сторона которого больше диаметра Земли. Этот шестиугольник не перемещается на планете, вращается и сохраняет свою форму. Это явление до сих пор не имеет объяснения. Ниже предлагается математическая модель такого шторма, аналогичная математической модели океанского водоворота (предложенной автором ранее). При этом показывается, что источником энергии, позволяющей шторму длительное время вращаться, является гравитационное поле Сатурна.
Category: Astrophysics

[447] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-02 04:03:06

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by black holes as a Support for Quantum Dipole Repeller Gravity and a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 31 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the Big Bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. The vacuum Lattice is supposed to represent a dynamic reference frame and the so called Dark Energy or Zero Point Energy acting as the motor for all Fermion spin and as the transfer medium for all photon information, leading to local lightspeed and local time. The energetic vacuum lattice is also assumed to act as a Gravity Quantum Dipole Repeller because gravitons do not supposed to attract- but repel Fermions with less impulse than the vacuum particles. So, Feynman diagrams become more complex than before.. Recent measurements by Yehuda Hoffman et al. did show the repelling effect of “empty space” in opposition of the “attracting gravity effect” of super clusters which he called “Dipole Repeller” effect. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, (Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[446] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-10 10:35:08

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole. Black Holes EAT the vacuum (Axion Higgs Field) and leave a temporary superconducting channel behind . Black Holes of all sizes, (even the fast evaporating smallest ones) are supposed to EAT the Vacuum and leave a super conducting channel behind, e.g. for fast lightning charge transmission. According to Quantum FFF Model.
Category: Astrophysics

[445] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-13 07:19:18

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[444] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-09 02:42:19

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[443] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-28 11:07:56

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 30 Pages. 30

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[442] viXra:1611.0226 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-16 11:17:25

Galaxy Cluster Merging and Vacuum Absorption by Black Holes as a Support for a Contracting Universe.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages.

According to Quantum Function Follows Form Theory, the big bang was the evaporation and splitting of a former Big Crunch black hole nucleus of compressed Axion Higgs particles into the oscillating Axion /Higgs field vacuum lattice respectively chunky nuclei of dark matter black holes. At the same time this explosion should remain symmetric by entanglement and not only produce material universes but also anti material universe bubbles in the form of a raspberry, the multiverse. As a consequence, of a cyclic multiverse we should be able to find signs of a contracting process inside our own universe. One of that signs is the well known merging of galaxies into clusters and Galaxy cluster merging into galaxy super clusters. However it is still not observed that the vacuum space between the galaxy super clusters is also contracting. The Hubble redshift we observe, is the main objection for such a contracting vacuum system which is adopted by the physics community as a sign for the expansion of the universe. The Hubble redshift is not a definite signal for expansion if we adopt that the redshift is also subjected to a process of vacuum absorption by proliferated chunks of “new physics” electric dark matter black holes. Recently I found that the merging of galaxy clusters itself show dynamic observational signs of a contraction of the vacuum inside the merging galaxy clusters by the anomalous central clustering of the dark matter black hole content which seems to be stripped from the individual galaxy clusters located at the borders of the new super cluster. ( see Abell 520 and bullet cluster: “no inertia effect of dark matter black holes”.) If there is vacuum absorption inside galaxy clusters, then we also may assume that the universal vacuum between galaxy clusters should be also subjected to this absorption process, as a sign for universal contraction leading to a big crunch black hole.
Category: Astrophysics

[441] viXra:1611.0187 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-13 12:42:02

Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 6 Pages. Published: Nyambuya G. G., (2015): Oct. 11, ‘Pioneer Anomaly as a Mass Accretion Phenomenon’, Oct. 10, Vol. 6(10) Article 18, PSTJ, pp.1015 − 1022. (ISBN: 1518674054; EAN13: 9781518674051)

We consider a possible scenario that we strongly believe has never been considered before in the quest to understand the origins of the Pioneer Anomaly (PA). If our investigation is anything to go by, then, perhaps we have made an omission in our application of Newton's second to the spacecrafts. That is – in the region 20 − 70 AU (and perhaps beyond), there may very well be an Interplanetary Medium (IPM) through which the spacecrafts ac-crete mass as they swim through it. If this simple idea is correct description of physical and natural reality, then, we find that the accretion rate of the spacecrafts required to account for the PA is ∼ 6.00 × 10 −4 kgyr −1. Additionally, we find that in-order to explain the non-existence of the PA in the region (1 − 20 AU), the IPM must have an opacity that is two orders of magnitude larger than the average Interstellar Medium (ISM). In the perhaps very narrow margin of the likelihood that the our suggested idea has anything at all to do with reality, then, the present findings suggest that opacity, which is a frequency dependent quantity, it may very well have a density dependence as-well.
Category: Astrophysics

[440] viXra:1611.0105 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 14:36:23

Dark Matter in Solar System

Authors: Manuel abarca hernandez
Comments: 9 Pages. II version has calculated DM up to Eris orbit and up to Proxima Centauri distance

For last two years I have published several papers about DM on galaxies and cluster of galaxies. Data have been taken from recent papers written by prestigious researches. The main target of papers have been to calculate DM density through an original hypothesis which states that DM is generated by gravitational field according a Universal law. As consequence this hypothesis, gravitational field is calculated through a Bernoulli differential equation which gives rightly DM density named Bernoulli profile. Formula which relates DM density and gravitational field is DM density = A•E^B. Where A & B are parameters which are supposed to be valid for every gravitational system. Parameters A&B come from calculus made in paper [7] Abarca, M.2016. Specifically were calculated in M31 galaxy from rotation curve data for radius bigger than 40 kpc and lower than 200 kpc. In this region gravitational field is lower than 10^-11 m/s^2. Whereas inside Solar System gravitational field is billions of times bigger. However if it is supposed that DM generation mechanism is Universal then the same parameters should be right to study Dark matter density inside Solar System. It is remarkable the fact that through the same method I have published successful results for cluster of galaxies scale and galaxy scale. Unfortunately there is not experimental measures for DM inside Solar System yet so it is not possible for now check theoretical results published in this paper. The main results this paper are DM enclosed by spherical coronas defined by radius of Sun and planetary orbits. Through mass of Earth as unit of mass, results are the following ones: DM up to Mercury orbit is 71,8 MEARTH , up to Venus orbit is 75.76 MEARTH , up to Earth orbit is 77.5 MEARTH , up to Mars orbit is 79.5 MEARTH , up to Jupiter orbit is 83.96 MEARTH , up to Saturn orbit is 85.56 MEARTH , up to Uranus orbit is 87.04 MEARTH , up to Neptune orbit is 87.82 MEARTH , up to Pluto orbit is 88.25 MEARTH, up to Eris orbit is 88.98 MEARTH, up to half distance to Proxima Centauri is 92.33 MEARTH and up to Proxima Centauri distance is 92.39 MEARTH
Category: Astrophysics

[439] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-09 02:17:06

Rigid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages.

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes. These shapes permit the particles to have different functions like different masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Z particles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[438] viXra:1611.0031 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-03 08:01:36

Rigid String Cosmology with a Massless Axion-Higgs Oscillating Photon Vacuum Lattice and Massive Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 27 Pages. 27

In particle physics it is an interesting challenge to postulate that the FORM and structure of elementary particles is the origin of different FUNCTIONS of these particles. The model which is the result is called “Quantum Function Follows Form” model. As a consequence, the standard model should be extended with changes for an alternative black hole , quantum gravity, the mass related local lightspeed, a topological superconductive vacuum etc. In this essay, I present possible 3D rigid string particle solutions based on only one massless and closed 3-D ring shaped Axion-Higgs particle, which is equipped with three point like hinges and one splitting point, all four points divided equally over the ring surface. The 3-D ring itself is postulated to represent the “Virgin Mother” of all other particles and is coined Axion-Higgs particle, the ring is equipped with 3-hinges coded (OOO), which gives the particle the opportunity to transform after real mechanical collision with other particles into different open string shapes. These shapes permit the particles to have different functions like different masses and interlocking abilities with other particles to form quantum knots such as quarks, W-Z particles and black holes. The massless Axion-Higgs particle itself is supposed to be the base for an discrete energetic oscillating space lattice with the Planck scale and the origin of Casimir pressure effect as one half of all forces in nature such as a repulsive quantum gravity or magnetism. The other half of all forces is supposed to be created by the opposing repulsive force on fermions of open rigid monopole photonic space oscillating vacuum lattice particles. Occam’s razor seems to be not needed here to create an ontological sound mechanism. As a consequence, a singularity (black hole) is depicted as a complex knot of different shaped rigid Axion Higgs particles and the Big Bang singularity black hole is supposed to contain all the particles which lived before in a former universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[437] viXra:1611.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-02 04:56:30

Electric Dark Matter Black Holes in the Moon (Orientale Basin)

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 22 Pages. 22

The multiple cliff-ringed lava plains on the moon are breath taking and how they came to be has puzzled scientists and even philosophers. However, multi-cliff ringed basins are also found in many different locations on other worlds. So, what created the basins? The suggestion of Quantum FFF Theory is that the double charged static electric fields assumed to be active concentric around new physics black holes should be the origin of circular cliff formation after the impact of a special comet which is only based on one nuclear black hole. Many comets however seem to be created around more than one new physics black hole as we may have observed in comets like 67P C-G and Shoemaker Levy 9. The resulting lava plains of such crashed comets are supposed to be represented by less circular gravity variations or less circular cliffed plains. Recent discussions around the foundation of black hole theory principles by Stephen Hawking and others, is a clear sign of great uncertainty about the nature of black holes and adjacent subjects.
Category: Astrophysics

[436] viXra:1610.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-22 06:43:23

Planets and Suns and Their Corresponding Sphere Packed Average Particles

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 3 Pages.

When one talks about the density of a planet or star, one normally talks about the average density, despite the fact that the core is much more dense and the surface much less dense than the average density. Here we will link the notion of an average density to a new concept of a hypothetical planetary average subatomic particle. We will define this hypothetical particle as a particle if, when sphere-packed according to the Kepler conjuncture, it matches both the volume and the mass of the planet or sun in question. Even if this type of average particle may not actually exist, we still feel it gives us some new insight into how the average density could be linked to a hypothetical average particle. Take the question of how such a particle would be compared to an electron, for example. The answer is in the analytical solution presented.
Category: Astrophysics

[435] viXra:1610.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-21 18:24:24

The Eternal Universe Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages.

A simple principle is provided so that future scientists can understand that all stages of stellar evolution (which is planet formation) and galaxy birth, growth and decay can be observed.
Category: Astrophysics