Astrophysics

1310 Submissions

[53] viXra:1310.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2013-11-07 20:00:43

Powering Starships with Compact Condensed Quark Matter

Authors: Thomas Marshall Eubanks
Comments: 15 Pages. Revised version with changes for publication

Compact Composite Objects (CCOs), nuggets of dense Color-Flavor-Locked Superconducting quark matter created before or during the Quantum Chromo- Dynamics phase transition in the early universe, could provide a natural explanation for both Dark Matter (DM) and the observed cosmological baryon asymmetry, without requiring modifications to fundamental physics. This hypothesis implies a relic CCO population in the Solar System, captured during its formation, which would lead to a population of “strange asteroids,” bodies with mm-radii quark matter cores and ordinary matter (rock or ice) mantles. This hypothesis is supported by the observed population of small Very Fast Rotating (VFR) asteroids (bodies with rotation periods as short as 25 sec); the VFR data are consistent with a population of strange asteroids with core masses of order 10^10 - 10^11 kg. If the VFR asteroids are indeed strange asteroids their CCO cores could be mined using the techniques being developed for asteroid mining. Besides being intrinsically of great scientific interest, CCO cores could also serve as very powerful sources of energy, releasing a substantial fraction of the mass energy of incident particles as their quarks are absorbed into the QCD superfluid. Through a process analogous to Andreev reflection in superconductors[7], even normal matter CCOs could be used as antimatter factories, potentially providing as much as 10^9 kg of antimatter per CCO. While of course speculative, this energy source, if realized, would be suitable for propelling starships to a substantial fraction of the speed of light, and could be found, extracted and exploited in our Solar System with existing and near-term developments in technology.
Category: Astrophysics

[52] viXra:1310.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-23 22:14:07

Thomas Scott Zolotor's Hypothesis and Theories Expanded

Authors: Thomas Scott Zolotor
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper is in English and about predictions coming true in astronomy.

Thomas Scott Zolotor's hypothesis and theories expanded. This adds on to my predictions with more details and new data. This shows proof of the predictions coming true. This paper adds more details and proof of the fact that I predicted these events.
Category: Astrophysics

[51] viXra:1310.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-23 10:04:23

Mayan Calendar Explained by Vedic Physics

Authors: John Frederick Sweeney
Comments: 41 Pages.

Our Solar System revolves around the Milky Way Galaxy once each 26,000 years, crossing the Galactic Center once each time, with a halfway point at 13,000 years. The Abhimaan interface between the C3 Thaamasic and a spectrum of Raja states, varying from C^2 to C in cyclic periods, extending over 13 billion years, forms an unusual junction or transfer point. This paper links the transfer point to the end of the Mayan Calendar and periodic cataclysms on Earth, including mass animal extinction and gamma waves. The end of the Mayan Calendar in 2011 marked the passing of our solar system past the Galactic Center, one of the transfer points. Calculations show the possibility of global disaster within the next six years.
Category: Astrophysics

[50] viXra:1310.0203 [pdf] replaced on 2013-10-23 17:51:20

Stellar Metamorphosis: Kepler-56, Another Falsification of the Nebular Hypothesis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 diagram, 2 pictures

A red star has shown to be rotating at a 45 degree angle as measured against its adopted aging stars. This falsifies the nebular hypothesis.
Category: Astrophysics

[49] viXra:1310.0196 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-15 08:32:52

Galactic Cloud

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 5 Pages.

Free 3D matter-particles and other debris, present in a region of space, may gather under gravitational attraction to form a galactic cloud. Development of a galactic cloud depends on its total 3D matter-content and spin-speed. Galactic cloud (or region within a galactic cloud), with low or no spin-speed, condenses to form a black-hole, under gravitational collapse. Outer regions of a galactic cloud, with higher spin speed, condense to form stable galaxy. A galaxy may remain stable only for a short while. As spin speed of galaxy increases, its 3D matter-content gradually disburses or reverts into universal medium.
Category: Astrophysics

[48] viXra:1310.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-15 08:29:19

Black Hole

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 7 Pages.

Physical parameters of stable galaxies produce sufficient mutual repulsion by their halos to overcome gravitational attraction between them. However, those very large galactic clouds (or central regions of stable galaxies), which do not develop sufficient spin-speeds to develop into stable galaxies, succumb to gravitational collapse and form very large single macro bodies of very high 3D matter-density. Their huge sizes and very large 3D matter-contents give them certain logical properties, one of which is to reduce and prevent outward radiation (of light) from the zone of their existence. This phenomenon makes them invisible and hence the name, ‘Black Hole’. An alternative concept, presented in the book ‘MATTER (Re-examined)’ envisages to remove all mysteries about black holes and to explain logical sequences of their birth, life and death.
Category: Astrophysics

[47] viXra:1310.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-22 09:31:35

Novae

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 4 Pages. Published in General Science Journal

Towards the end of its stable life, a ‘black hole’ becomes quasar and pulsar. Activities of quasar or pulsar are managed by cyclic outward and inward radial motion of universal medium from or towards its central region. Relative motion of universal medium acts as inertial effort on 3D matter-particles. As and when outer envelope (mantle) of a pulsar is unable to withstand outward effort due to increase in its internal pressure and due to outward displacement of universal medium, the pulsar explodes as a super nova. Intense external pressure on 3D matter-particles causes matter-cores of their photons to merge and form very high-frequency photons.
Category: Astrophysics

[46] viXra:1310.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-19 01:28:48

Hypothesis by Thomas Scott Zolotor About Our Universe and Space

Authors: Thomas Scott Zolotor
Comments: 1 Page.

Hypothesis by Thomas Scott Zolotor about our universe. I added more predictions and screenshots proof that I made these predictions before they happened.
Category: Astrophysics

[45] viXra:1310.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-19 02:37:10

Thomas Scott Zolotor Predicts an Energy Source Around Galaxies

Authors: Thomas Zolotor
Comments: 1 Page.

Thomas Zolotor wrote on his blog: An energy source will be detected in or around a galaxy that never been detected before. Thomas Scott Zolotor predicts an energy source around galaxies that came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[44] viXra:1310.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:14:52

Commentary Relative to the Seismic Structure of the Sun: Internal Rotation, Oblateness, and Solar Shape

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L3-L4.

Helioseismological studies have the ability to yield tremendous insight with respect to the internal structure and shape of the solar body. Such observations indicate that while the convection zone displays differential rotation, the core rotates as a rigid body. The latter is located below the tachocline layer, where powerful shear stresses are believed to occur. Beyond simple oblateness, seismological studies indicate that the Sun displays significant higher order shape terms (quadrupole, hexadecapole) which may, or may not, vary with the solar cycle. In this work, such seismological findings are briefly discussed with the intent of highlighting that 1) the differential rotation of the convection zone, 2) the rigid body rotation of the core, 3) the presence of the tachocline layer and 4) the appearance of higher order shape terms, all lend support to the idea that the solar body is composed of material in the condensed state. In this regard, the existence of the tachocline layer in the solar interior and the solid body rotation of the core constitute the nineteenth and twentieth lines of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[43] viXra:1310.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:18:05

Commentary on the Radius of the Sun: Optical Illusion or Manifestation of a Real Surface?

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L5-L6.

In modern solar theory, the photospheric surface merely acts as an optical illusion. Gases cannot support the existence of such a boundary. Conversely, the liquid metallic hydrogen model supports the idea that the Sun has a distinct surface. Observational astronomy continues to report increasingly precise measures of solar radius and diameter. Even the smallest temporal variations in these parameters would have profound implications relative to modeling the Sun and understanding climate fluctuations on Earth. A review of the literature convincingly demonstrates that the solar body does indeed possess a measurable radius which provides, along with previous discussions (Robitaille P.M. On the Presence of a Distinct Solar Surface: A Reply to Herv´e Faye. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 75–78.), the twenty-first line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed-matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[42] viXra:1310.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:21:27

Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun: Insight Relative to Coronal Holes, Sunspots, and Solar Activity

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L7-L9.

While mankind will always remain unable to sample the interior of the Sun, the presence of sunspots and coronal holes can provide clues as to its subsurface structure. Insight relative to the solar body can also be gained by recognizing that the Sun must exist in the condensed state and support a discrete lattice structure, as required for the production of its continuous spectrum. In this regard, the layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice advanced as a condensed model of the Sun (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 60–74; Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47; Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, in press) provides the ability to add structure to the solar interior. This constitutes a significant advantage over the gaseous solar models. In fact, a layered liquid metallic hydrogen lattice and the associated intercalation of non-hydrogen elements can help to account for the position of sunspots and coronal holes. At the same time, this model provides a greater understanding of the mechanisms which drive solar winds and activity.
Category: Astrophysics

[41] viXra:1310.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:24:11

Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun II. Insight Relative to Coronal Rain and Splashdown Events

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L10-L11.

Coronal rain represents blobs of solar material with a width of ~300 km and a length of ~700 km which are falling from the active region of the corona towards the solar surface along loop-like paths. Conversely, coronal showers are comprised of much larger bulks of matter, or clumps of solar rain. Beyond coronal rain and showers, the expulsion of solar matter from the surface, whether through flares, prominences, or coronal mass ejections, can result in massive disruptions which have been observed to rise far into the corona, return towards the Sun, and splashdown onto the photosphere. The existence of coronal rain and the splashdown of mass ejections onto the solar surface constitute the twenty-third and twenty-fourth lines of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[40] viXra:1310.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:29:14

Commentary on the Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun III. Insight into Solar Lithium Abundances

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L12-L13.

The apparent depletion of lithium represents one of the greatest challenges to modern gaseous solar models. As a result, lithium has been hypothesized to undergo nuclear burning deep within the Sun. Conversely, extremely low lithium abundances can be easily accounted for within the liquid metallic hydrogen model, as lithium has been hypothesized to greatly stabilize the formation of metallic hydrogen (E. Zurek et al. A little bit of lithium does a lot for hydrogen. Proc. Nat. Acad. Sci. USA, 2009, v. 106, no. 42, 17640–17643). Hence, the abundances of lithium on the solar surface can be explained, not by requiring the nuclear burning of this element, but rather, by suggesting that the Sun is retaining lithium within the solar body in order to help stabilize its liquid metallic hydrogen lattice. Unlike lithium, many of the other elements synthesized within the Sun should experience powerful lattice exclusionary forces as they are driven out of the intercalate regions between the layered liquid metallic hydrogen hexagonal planes (Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, in press). As for lithium, its stabilizing role within the solar interior helps to account for the lack of this element on the surface of the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[39] viXra:1310.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:34:12

Commentary Relative to the Emission Spectrum of the Solar Atmosphere: Further Evidence for a Distinct Solar Surface

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L2-L4.

The chromosphere and corona of the Sun represent tenuous regions which are characterized by numerous optically thin emission lines in the ultraviolet and X-ray bands. When observed from the center of the solar disk outward, these emission lines experience modest brightening as the limb is approached. The intensity of many ultraviolet and X-ray emission lines nearly doubles when observation is extended just beyond the edge of the disk. These findings indicate that the solar body is opaque in this frequency range and that an approximately two fold greater region of the solar atmosphere is being sampled outside the limb. These observations provide strong support for the presence of a distinct solar surface. Therefore, the behavior of the emission lines in this frequency range constitutes the twenty fifth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[38] viXra:1310.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:38:10

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere I. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Chromosphere

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L5-L7.

The continuous spectrum of the solar photosphere stands as the paramount observation with regard to the condensed nature of the solar body. Studies relative to Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission: 150 years. Progr. Phys., 2009, v. 4, 3–13.) and a detailed analysis of the stellar opacity problem (Robitaille P.M. Stellar opacity: The Achilles’ heel of the gaseous Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 93–99) have revealed that gaseous models remain unable to properly account for the generation of this spectrum. Therefore, it can be stated with certainty that the photosphere is comprised of condensed matter. Beyond the solar surface, the chromospheric layer of the Sun also generates a weak continuous spectrum in the visible region. This emission exposes the presence of material in the condensed state. As a result, above the level of the photosphere, matter exists in both gaseous and condensed forms, much like within the atmosphere of the Earth. The continuous visible spectrum associated with the chromosphere provides the twenty-sixth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[37] viXra:1310.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:41:57

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L8-L10.

The K-corona, a significant portion of the solar atmosphere, displays a continuous spectrum which closely parallels photospheric emission, though without the presence of overlying Fraunhofer lines. The E-corona exists in the same region and is characterized by weak emission lines from highly ionized atoms. For instance, the famous green emission line from coronium (FeXIV) is part of the E-corona. The F-corona exists beyond the K/E-corona and, like the photospheric spectrum, is characterized by Fraunhofer lines. The F-corona represents photospheric light scattered by dust particles in the interplanetary medium. Within the gaseous models of the Sun, the K-corona is viewed as photospheric radiation which has been scattered by relativistic electrons. This scattering is thought to broaden the Fraunhofer lines of the solar spectrum such that they can no longer be detected in the K-corona. Thus, the gaseous models of the Sun account for the appearance of the K-corona by distorting photospheric light, since they are unable to have recourse to condensed matter to directly produce such radiation. Conversely, it is now advanced that the continuous emission of the K-corona and associated emission lines from the E-corona must be interpreted as manifestations of the same phenomenon: condensed matter exists in the corona. It is well-known that the Sun expels large amounts of material from its surface in the form of flares and coronal mass ejections. Given a liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, it is logical to assume that such matter, which exists in the condensed state on the solar surface, continues to manifest its nature once expelled into the corona. Therefore, the continuous spectrum of the K-corona provides the twenty-seventh line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[36] viXra:1310.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:45:20

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere III. Importance of Continuous Emission Spectra from Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, Prominences, and Other Coronal Structures

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L11-L14.

The solar corona and chromosphere are often marked by eruptive features, such as flares, prominences, loops, and coronal mass ejections, which rise above the photospheric surface. Coronal streamers and plumes can also characterize the outer atmosphere of the Sun. All of these structures, fascinating in their extent and formation, frequently emit continuous spectra and can usually be observed using white-light coronagraphs. This implies, at least in part, that they are comprised of condensed matter. The continuous spectra associated with chromospheric and coronal structures can be viewed as representing the twenty-eighth line of evidence, and the eighth Planckian proof, that the Sun is condensed matter. The existence of such objects also suggests that the density of the solar atmosphere rises to levels well in excess of current estimates put forth by the gaseous models of the Sun. In this work, the densities of planetary atmospheres are examined in order to gain insight relative to the likely densities of the solar chromosphere. Elevated densities in the solar atmosphere are also supported by coronal seismology studies, which can be viewed as constituting the twenty-ninth line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[35] viXra:1310.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:49:50

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 7 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L15-L21.

The chromosphere is the site of weak emission lines characterizing the flash spectrum observed for a few seconds during a total eclipse. This layer of the solar atmosphere is known to possess an opaque Hα emission and a great number of spicules, which can extend well above the photosphere. A stunning variety of hydrogen emission lines have been observed in this region. The production of these lines has provided the seventeenth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II: A critical assessment of current and primordial helium levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47). Contrary to the gaseous solar models, the simplest mechanism for the production of emission lines is the evaporation of excited atoms from condensed surfaces existing within the chromosphere, as found in spicule. This is reminiscent of the chemiluminescence which occurs during the condensation of silver clusters (Konig L., Rabin I., Schultze W., and Ertl G. Chemiluminescence in the Agglomeration of Metal Clusters. Science, v. 274, no. 5291, 1353–1355). The process associated with spicule formation is an exothermic one, requiring the transport of energy away from the site of condensation. As atoms leave localized surfaces, their electrons can occupy any energy level and, hence, a wide variety of emission lines are produced. In this regard, it is hypothesized that the presence of hydrides on the Sun can also facilitate hydrogen condensation in the chromosphere. The associated line emission from main group and transition elements constitutes the thirtieth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter. Condensation processes also help to explain why spicules manifest an apparently constant temperature over their entire length. Since the corona supports magnetic field lines, the random orientations associated with spicule formation suggests that the hydrogen condensates in the chromosphere are not metallic in nature. Spicules provide a means, not to heat the corona, but rather, for condensed hydrogen to rejoin the photospheric layer of the Sun. Spicular velocities of formation are known to be essentially independent of gravitational effects and highly supportive of the hypothesis that true condensation processes are being observed. The presence of spicules brings into question established chromospheric densities and provides additional support for condensation processes in the chromosphere, the seventh line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[34] viXra:1310.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:53:32

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere V. On the Nature of the Corona

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L22-L25.

The E-corona is the site of numerous emission lines associated with high ionization states (i.e. FeXIV-FeXXV).Modern gaseous models of the Sun require that these states are produced by atomic irradiation, requiring the sequential removal of electrons to infinity, without an associated electron acceptor. This can lead to computed temperatures in the corona which are unrealistic (i.e. ~30–100 MK contrasted to solar core values of ~16 MK). In order to understand the emission lines of the E-corona, it is vital to recognize that they are superimposed upon the K-corona, which produces a continuous spectrum, devoid of Fraunhofer lines, arising from this same region of the Sun. It has been advanced that the K-corona harbors self-luminous condensed matter (Robitaille P.M. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere II. Continuous Emission and Condensed Matter Within the Corona. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L8–L10; Robitaille P.M. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere III. Importance of Continuous Emission Spectra from Flares, Coronal Mass Ejections, Prominences, and Other Coronal Structures. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L11–L14). Condensed matter can possess elevated electron affinities which may strip nearby atoms of their electrons. Such a scenario accounts for the high ionization states observed in the corona: condensed matter acts to harness electrons, ensuring the electrical neutrality of the Sun, despite the flow of electrons and ions in the solar winds. Elevated ionization states reflect the presence of materials with high electron affinities in the corona, which is likely to be a form of metallic hydrogen, and does not translate into elevated temperatures in this region of the solar atmosphere. As a result, the many mechanisms advanced to account for coronal heating in the gaseous models of the Sun are superfluous, given that electron affinity, not temperature, governs the resulting spectra. In this regard, the presence of highly ionized species in the corona constitutes the thirty-first line of evidence that the Sun is composed of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[33] viXra:1310.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 10:01:10

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VI. Helium in the Chromosphere

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L26-L29.

Molecular hydrogen and hydrides have recently been advanced as vital agents in the generation of emission spectra in the chromosphere. This is a result of the role they play in the formation of condensed hydrogen structures (CHS) within the chromosphere (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 3, 15–21). Next to hydrogen, helium is perhaps the most intriguing component in this region of the Sun. Much like other elements, which combine with hydrogen to produce hydrides, helium can form the well-known helium hydride molecular ion, HeH+, and the excited neutral helium hydride molecule, HeH*. While HeH+ is hypothesized to be a key cosmological molecule, it's possible presence in the Sun, and that of its excited neutral counterpart, has not been considered. Still, these hydrides are likely to play a role in the synthesis of CHS, as the He I and He II emission lines strongly suggest. In this regard, the study of helium emission spectra can provide insight into the condensed nature of the Sun, especially when considering the 10830 Å line associated with the 23P-23S triplet state transition. This line is strong in solar prominences and can be seen clearly on the disk. The excessive population of helium triplet states cannot be adequately explained using the gaseous models, since these states should be depopulated by collisional processes. Conversely, when He-based molecules are used to build CHS in a liquid metallic hydrogen model, an ever increasing population of the 23S and 23P states might be expected. The overpopulation of these triplet states leads to the conclusion that these emission lines are unlikely to be produced through random collisional or photon excitation, as required by the gaseous models. This provides a significant hurdle for these models. Thus, the strong 23P-23S lines and the overpopulation of the helium triplet states provides the thirty-second line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[32] viXra:1310.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 10:07:17

The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere VII. Further Insights into the Chromosphere and Corona

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 7 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 3, L30-L36.

In the liquid metallic hydrogen model of the Sun, the chromosphere is responsible for the capture of atomic hydrogen in the solar atmosphere and its eventual re-entry onto the photospheric surface (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere IV. On the Nature of the Chromosphere. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L15–L21). As for the corona, it represents a diffuse region containing both gaseous plasma and condensed matter with elevated electron affinity (P.M. Robitaille. The Liquid Metallic Hydrogen Model of the Sun and the Solar Atmosphere V. On the Nature of the Corona. Prog. Phys., 2013, v. 3, L22–L25). Metallic hydrogen in the corona is thought to enable the continual harvest of electrons from the outer reaches of the Sun, thereby preserving the neutrality of the solar body. The rigid rotation of the corona is offered as the thirty-third line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter. Within the context of the gaseous models of the Sun, a 100 km thick transition zone has been hypothesized to exist wherein temperatures increase dramatically from 104–106 K. Such extreme transitional temperatures are not reasonable given the trivial physical scale of the proposed transition zone, a region adopted to account for the ultra-violet emission lines of ions such as CIV, OIV, and Si IV. In this work, it will be argued that the transition zone does not exist. Rather, the intermediate ionization states observed in the solar atmosphere should be viewed as the result of the simultaneous transfer of protons and electrons onto condensed hydrogen structures, CHS. Line emissions from ions such as CIV, OIV, and Si IV are likely to be the result of condensation reactions, manifesting the involvement of species such as CH 4, SiH4, H3O+ in the synthesis of CHS in the chromosphere. In addition, given the presence of a true solar surface at the level of the photosphere in the liquid metallic hydrogen model, it follows that the great physical extent of the chromosphere is supported by gas pressure, much like the atmosphere of the Earth. This constitutes the thirty-fourth line of evidence that the Sun is comprised of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[31] viXra:1310.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 07:41:29

Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 15 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 60-74.

Liquid metallic hydrogen provides a compelling material for constructing a condensed matter model of the Sun and the photosphere. Like diamond, metallic hydrogen might have the potential to be a metastable substance requiring high pressures for formation. Once created, it would remain stable even at lower pressures. The metallic form of hydrogen was initially conceived in 1935 by Eugene Wigner and Hillard B. Huntington who indirectly anticipated its elevated critical temperature for liquefaction (Wigner E. and Huntington H. B. On the possibility of a metallic modification of hydrogen. J. Chem. Phys., 1935, v.3, 764–770). At that time, solid metallic hydrogen was hypothesized to exist as a body centered cubic, although a more energetically accessible layered graphite-like lattice was also envisioned. Relative to solar emission, this structural resemblance between graphite and layered metallic hydrogen should not be easily dismissed. In the laboratory, metallic hydrogen remains an elusive material. However, given the extensive observational evidence for a condensed Sun composed primarily of hydrogen, it is appropriate to consider metallic hydrogen as a solar building block. It is anticipated that solar liquid metallic hydrogen should possess at least some layered order. Since layered liquid metallic hydrogen would be essentially incompressible, its invocation as a solar constituent brings into question much of current stellar physics. The central proof of a liquid state remains the thermal spectrum of the Sun itself. Its proper understanding brings together all the great forces which shaped modern physics. Although other proofs exist for a liquid photosphere, our focus remains solidly on the generation of this light.
Category: Astrophysics

[30] viXra:1310.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 07:47:47

On the Presence of a Distinct Solar Surface: A Reply to Hervé Faye

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 75-78.

In this exposition, the existence of the solar surface will be briefly explored. Within the context of modern solar theory, the Sun cannot have a distinct surface. Gases are incapable of supporting such structures. The loss of a defined solar surface occurred in 1865 and can be directly attributed to Herv´e Faye (Faye H. Sur la constitution physique du soleil. Les Mondes, 1865, v.7, 293–306). Modern theory has echoed Faye affirming the absence of this vital structural element. Conversely, experimental evidence firmly supports that the Sun does indeed possess a surface. For nearly 150 years, astronomy has chosen to disregard direct observational evidence in favor of theoretical models.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1310.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 07:56:28

On Solar Granulations, Limb Darkening, and Sunspots: Brief Insights in Remembrance of Father Angelo Secchi

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 10 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 79-88.

Father Angelo Secchi used the existence of solar granulation as a central line of reasoning when he advanced that the Sun was a gaseous body with a photosphere containing incandescent particulate matter (Secchi A. Sulla Struttura della Fotosfera Solare. Bullettino Meteorologico dell’Osservatorio del Collegio Romano, 30 November 1864, v.3(11), 1–3). Secchi saw the granules as condensed matter emitting the photospheric spectrum, while the darkened intergranular lanes conveyed the presence of a gaseous solar interior. Secchi also considered the nature of sunspots and limb darkening. In the context of modern solar models, opacity arguments currently account for the emissive properties of the photosphere. Optical depth is thought to explain limb darkening. Both temperature variations and magnetic fields are invoked to justify the weakened emissivities of sunspots, even though the presence of static magnetic fields in materials is not usually associated with modified emissivity. Conversely, within the context of a liquid metallic hydrogen solar model, the appearance of granules, limb darkening, and sunspots can be elegantly understood through the varying directional emissivity of condensed matter. A single explanation is applicable to all three phenomena. Granular contrast can be directly associated with the generation of limb darkening. Depending on size, granules can be analyzed by considering Kolmogoroff’s formulations and Bénard convection, respectively, both of which were observed using incompressible liquids, not gases. Granules follow the 2-dimensional space filling laws of Aboav-Weiner and Lewis. Their adherence to these structural laws provides supportive evidence that the granular surface of the Sun represents elements which can only be constructed from condensed matter. A gaseous Sun cannot be confined to a 2-dimensional framework. Mesogranules, supergranules, and giant cells constitute additional entities which further support the idea of a condensed Sun. With respect to sunspots, the decrease in emissivity with increasing magnetic field strength lends powerful observational support to the idea that these structures are comprised of liquid metallic hydrogen. In this model, the inter-atomic lattice dimensions within sunspots are reduced. This increases the density and metallic character relative to photospheric material, while at the same time decreasing emissivity. Metals are well known to have lowered directional emissivities with respect to non-metals. Greater metallicity produces lower emissivity. The idea that density is increased within sunspots is supported by helioseismology. Thus, a liquid metallic hydrogen model brings with it many advantages in understanding both the emissivity of the solar surface and its vast array of structures. These realities reveal that Father Secchi, like Herbert Spencer and Gustav Kirchhoff, was correct in his insistence that condensed matter is present on the photosphere. Secchi and his contemporaries were well aware that gases are unable to impart the observed structure.
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1310.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 08:02:59

On the Temperature of the Photosphere: Energy Partition in the Sun

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 89-92.

In this note, energy partition within the Sun is briefly addressed. It is argued that the laws of thermal emission cannot be directly applied to the Sun, as the continuous solar spectrum (Tapp ~6,000 K) reveals but a small fraction of the true solar energy profile. Without considering the energy linked to fusion itself, it is hypothesized that most of the photospheric energy remains trapped in the Sun’s translational degrees of freedom and associated convection currents. The Sun is known to support both convective granules and differential rotation on its surface. The emission of X-rays in association with eruptive flares and the elevated temperatures of the corona might provide some measure of these energies. At the same time, it is expected that a fraction of the solar energy remains tied to the filling of conduction bands by electrons especially within sunspots. This constitutes a degree of freedom whose importance cannot be easily assessed. The discussion highlights how little is truly understood about energy partition in the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1310.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 08:07:36

Stellar Opacity: The Achilles’ Heel of the Gaseous Sun

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 7 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2011, v. 3, 93-99.

The standard gaseous model of the Sun is grounded on the concept of local thermal equilibrium. Given this condition, Arthur Milne postulated that Kirchhoff’s law could be applied within the deep solar interior and that a blackbody spectrum could be generated in this region, based solely on equilibrium arguments. Varying internal solar opacity then ensured that a blackbody spectrum could be emitted at the photosphere. In this work, it is demonstrated that local thermal equilibrium and solar opacity arguments provide a weak framework to account for the production of the thermal spectrum. The problems are numerous, including: 1) the validity of Kirchhoff’s formulation, 2) the soundness of local thermal equilibrium arguments, 3) the requirements for understanding the elemental composition of the Sun, and 4) the computation of solar opacities. The OPAL calculations and the Opacity Project will be briefly introduced. These represent modern approaches to the thermal emission of stars. As a whole, this treatment emphasizes the dramatic steps undertaken to explain the origins of the continuous solar spectrum in the context of a gaseous Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1310.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 08:13:49

Lessons from the Sun

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First published in: Progress in physics, 2011, v. 3, 100-102.

In this brief note, the implications of a condensed Sun will be examined. A celestial body composed of liquid metallic hydrogen brings great promise to astronomy, relative to understanding thermal emission and solar structure. At the same time, as an incompressible liquid, a condensed Sun calls into question virtually everything which is currently believed with respect to the evolution and nature of the stars. Should the Sun be condensed, then neutron stars and white dwarfs will fail to reach the enormous densities they are currently believed to possess. Much of cosmology also falls into question, as the incompressibility of matter curtails any thought that a primordial atom once existed. Aging stars can no longer collapse and black holes will know no formative mechanism. A condensed Sun also hints that great strides must still be made in understanding the nature of liquids. The Sun has revealed that liquids possess a much greater potential for lattice order than previously believed. In addition, lessons may be gained with regards to the synthesis of liquid metallic hydrogen and the use of condensed matter as the basis for initiating fusion on Earth.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1310.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 08:21:58

Magnetic Fields and Directional Spectral Emissivity in Sunspots and Faculae: Complimentary Evidence of Metallic Behavior on the Surface of the Sun

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 6 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 1, 19-24.

Sunspots and faculae are related phenomena and constitute regions of elevated magnetic field intensity on the surface of the Sun. These structures have been extensively studied in the visible range. In this regard, it has been recognized that the intensity contrast of faculae, relative to the photosphere, increases considerably as the line of observation moves from the center to the limb of the Sun. Such center to limb variation (CLV) suggests that the directional spectral emissivity of the faculae increases at the same time that photospheric directional emissivity decreases. Since the directional spectral emissivity of faculae increases towards the limb, these structures, along with sunspots, provide strong evidence for metallic behavior at the level of the solar surface. This further strengthens claims that the body of the Sun is not gaseous, but rather, comprised of condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1310.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 08:27:45

Liquid Metallic Hydrogen II. A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in the Sun

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 13 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, 35-47.

Before a solar model becomes viable in astrophysics, one must consider how the elemental constitution of the Sun was ascertained, especially relative to its principle components: hydrogen and helium. Liquid metallic hydrogen has been proposed as a solar structural material for models based on condensed matter (e.g. Robitaille P.-M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 60–74). There can be little doubt that hydrogen plays a dominant role in the universe and in the stars; the massive abundance of hydrogen in the Sun was established long ago. Today, it can be demonstrated that the near isointense nature of the Sun’s Balmer lines provides strong confirmatory evidence for a distinct solar surface. The situation relative to helium remains less conclusive. Still, helium occupies a prominent role in astronomy, both as an element associated with cosmology and as a byproduct of nuclear energy generation, though its abundances within the Sun cannot be reliably estimated using theoretical approaches. With respect to the determination of helium levels, the element remains spectroscopically silent at the level of the photosphere. While helium can be monitored with ease in the chromosphere and the prominences of the corona using spectroscopic methods, these measures are highly variable and responsive to elevated solar activity and nuclear fragmentation. Direct assays of the solar winds are currently viewed as incapable of providing definitive information regarding solar helium abundances. As a result, insight relative to helium remains strictly based on theoretical estimates which couple helioseismological approaches to metrics derived from solar models. Despite their “state of the art” nature, helium estimates based on solar models and helioseismology are suspect on several fronts, including their reliance on solar opacities. The best knowledge can only come from the solar winds which, though highly variable, provide a wealth of data. Evaluations of primordial helium levels based on 1) the spectroscopic study of H-II regions and 2) microwave anisotropy data, remain highly questionable. Current helium levels, both within the stars (Robitaille J.C. and Robitaille P.-M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion versus Gravitational Settling, and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, in press) and the universe at large, appear to be overstated. A careful consideration of available observational data suggests that helium abundances are considerably lower than currently believed.
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1310.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 08:33:08

Liquid Metallic Hydrogen III. Intercalation and Lattice Exclusion Versus Gravitational Settling and Their Consequences Relative to Internal Structure, Surface Activity, and Solar Winds in the Sun

Authors: Joseph Christophe Robitaille, Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 11 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, 87-97.

Invocation of a liquid metallic hydrogen model (Robitaille P.M. Liquid Metallic Hydrogen: A Building Block for the Liquid Sun. Progr. Phys., 2011, v. 3, 60–74; Robitaille P.M. LiquidMetallic Hydrogen II: A Critical Assessment of Current and Primordial Helium Levels in Sun. Progr. Phys., 2013, v. 2, 35–47) brings with it a set of advantages for understanding solar physics which will always remain unavailable to the gaseous models. Liquids characteristically act as solvents and incorporate solutes within their often fleeting structural matrix. They possess widely varying solubility products and often reject the solute altogether. In that case, the solute becomes immiscible. “Lattice exclusion” can be invoked for atoms which attempt to incorporate themselves into liquid metallic hydrogen. In order to conserve the integrity of its conduction bands, it is anticipated that a graphite-like metallic hydrogen lattice should not permit incorporation of other elements into its in-plane hexagonal hydrogen framework. Based on the physics observed in the intercalation compounds of graphite, non-hydrogen atoms within liquid metallic hydrogen could reside between adjacent hexagonal proton planes. Consequently, the forces associated with solubility products and associated lattice exclusion envisioned in liquid metallic hydrogen for solutes would restrict gravitational settling. The hexagonal metallic hydrogen layered lattice could provide a powerful driving force for excluding heavier elements from the solar body. Herein lies a new exfoliative force to drive both surface activity (flares, coronal mass ejections, prominences) and solar winds with serious consequences relative to the p–p reaction and CNO cycle in the Sun. At the same time, the idea that non-hydrogen atomic nuclei can exist between layers of metallic hydrogen leads to a fascinating array of possibilities with respect to nucleosynthesis. Powerful parallels can be drawn to the intercalation compounds of graphite and their exfoliative forces. In this context, solar winds and activity provide evidence that the lattice of the Sun is not only excluding, but expelling helium and higher elements from the solar body. Finally, exfoliative forces could provide new mechanisms to help understand the creation of planets, satellites, red giants, and even supernova.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1310.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 09:10:53

Commentary Relative to the Distribution of Gamma-Ray Flares on the Sun: Further Evidence for a Distinct Solar Surface

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 2, L1-L2.

High energy gamma-ray flares are almost always observed near the limb of the Sun and are seldom, if ever, visualized in the central region of the solar disc. As such, they exhibit a powerful anisotropy best explained by invoking a true photospheric surface. In this regard, the anisotropic nature of the gamma-ray emissions from high-energy flares constitute the eighteenth line of evidence that the Sun is condensed matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1310.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 14:06:08

Water, Hydrogen Bonding, and the Microwave Background

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 4 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 2, L5-L8

In this work, the properties of the water are briefly revisited. Though liquid water has a fleeting structure, it displays an astonishingly stable network of hydrogen bonds. Thus, even as a liquid, water possesses a local lattice with short range order. The presence of hydroxyl (O-H) and hydrogen (H-OH2) bonds within water, indicate that it can simultaneously maintain two separate energy systems. These can be viewed as two very different temperatures. The analysis presented uses results from vibrational spectroscopy, extracting the force constant for the hydrogen bonded dimer. By idealizing this species as a simple diatomic structure, it is shown that hydrogen bonds within water should be able to produce thermal spectra in the far infrared and microwave regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. This simple analysis reveals that the oceans have a physical mechanism at their disposal, which is capable of generating the microwave background.
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1310.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 14:10:44

Global Warming and the Microwave Background

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 3 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 2, L9-L11

In the work, the importance of assigning the microwave background to the Earth is addressed while emphasizing the consequences for global climate change. Climate models can only produce meaningful forecasts when they consider the real magnitude of all radiative processes. The oceans and continents both contribute to terrestrial emissions. However, the extent of oceanic radiation, particularly in the microwave region, raises concerns. This is not only since the globe is covered with water, but because the oceans themselves are likely to be weaker emitters than currently believed. Should the microwave background truly be generated by the oceans of the Earth, our planet would be a much less efficient emitter of radiation in this region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Furthermore, the oceans would appear unable to increase their emissions in the microwave in response to temperature elevation, as predicted by Stefan’s law. The results are significant relative to the modeling of global warming.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1310.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 14:32:59

COBE: A Radiological Analysis

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 26 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2009, v. 4, 17-42.

The COBE Far Infrared Absolute Spectrophotometer (FIRAS) operated from ~30 to ~3,000 GHz (1–95 cm-1) and monitored, from polar orbit (~900 km), the ~3 K microwave background. Data released from FIRAS has been met with nearly universal admiration. However, a thorough review of the literature reveals significant problems with this instrument. FIRAS was designed to function as a differential radiometer, wherein the sky signal could be nulled by the reference horn, Ical. The null point occurred at an Ical temperature of 2.759 K. This was 34 mK above the reported sky temperature, 2.725 0.001 K, a value where the null should ideally have formed. In addition, an 18 mK error existed between the thermometers in Ical, along with a drift in temperature of ~3 mK. A 5 mK error could be attributed to Xcal; while a 4 mK error was found in the frequency scale. A direct treatment of all these systematic errors would lead to a ~64 mK error bar in the microwave background temperature. The FIRAS team reported ~1 mK, despite the presence of such systematic errors. But a 1 mK error does not properly reflect the experimental state of this spectrophotometer. In the end, all errors were essentially transferred into the calibration files, giving the appearance of better performance than actually obtained. The use of calibration procedures resulted in calculated Ical emissivities exceeding 1.3 at the higher frequencies, whereas an emissivity of 1 constitutes the theoretical limit. While data from 30–60 GHz was once presented, these critical points are later dropped, without appropriate discussion, presumably because they reflect too much microwave power. Data obtained while the Earth was directly illuminating the sky antenna, was also discarded. From 300–660 GHz, initial FIRAS data had systematically growing residuals as frequencies increased. This suggested that the signal was falling too quickly in the Wien region of the spectrum. In later data releases, the residual errors no longer displayed such trends, as the systematic variations had now been absorbed in the calibration files. The FIRAS team also cited insufficient bolometer sensitivity, primarily attributed to detector noise, from 600–3,000 GHz. The FIRAS optical transfer function demonstrates that the instrument was not optimally functional beyond 1,200 GHz. The FIRAS team did not adequately characterize the FIRAS horn. Established practical antenna techniques strongly suggest that such a device cannot operate correctly over the frequency range proposed. Insufficient measurements were conducted on the ground to document antenna gain and field patterns as a full function of frequency and thereby determine performance. The effects of signal diffraction into FIRAS, while considering the Sun/Earth/RF shield, were neither measured nor appropriately computed. Attempts to establish antenna side lobe performance in space, at 1,500 GHz, are well outside the frequency range of interest for the microwave background (<600 GHz). Neglecting to fully evaluate FIRAS prior to the mission, the FIRAS team attempts to do so, on the ground, in highly limited fashion, with a duplicate Xcal, nearly 10 years after launch. All of these findings indicate that the satellite was not sufficiently tested and could be detecting signals from our planet. Diffraction of earthly signals into the FIRAS horn could explain the spectral frequency dependence first observed by the FIRAS team: namely, too much signal in the Jeans-Rayleigh region and not enough in the Wien region. Despite popular belief to the contrary, COBE has not proven that the microwave background originates from the universe and represents the remnants of creation.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1310.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 14:39:09

Calibration of Microwave Reference Blackbodies and Targets for Use in Satellite Observations: An Analysis of Errors in Theoretical Outlooks and Testing Procedures

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 8 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2010, v. 3, 3-10.

Microwave reference blackbodies and targets play a key role in astrophysical and geophysical studies. The emissivity of these devices is usually inferred from return-loss experiments which may introduce at least 10 separate types of calibration errors. The origin of these inaccuracies depends on test conditions and on the nature of each target. The most overlooked errors are related to the geometry adapted in constructing reference loads and to the effects of conduction or convection. Target shape and design can create an imbalance in the probabilities of absorption and emission. This leads to loss of radiative equilibrium, despite the presence of a thermodynamic steady state. Heat losses or gains, through conduction and convection, compensate for this unexpected physical condition. The improper calibration of blackbodies and targets has implications, not only in global climate monitoring, but also relative to evaluating the microwave background
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1310.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 14:43:13

The Planck Satellite LFI and the Microwave Background: Importance of the 4 K Reference Targets

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 8 Pages. First publishe in: Progress in Physics, 2010, v. 3, 11-18.

Armed with ~4K reference targets, the Planck satellite low frequency instrument (LFI) is intended to map the microwave anisotropies of the sky from the second Lagrange point, L2. Recently, the complete design and pre-flight testing of these ~4K targets has been published (Valenziano L. et al., JINST 4, 2009, T12006). The receiver chain of the LFI is based on a pseudo-correlation architecture. Consequently, the presence of a ~3K microwave background signal at L2 can be established, if the ~4K reference targets function as intended. Conversely, demonstration that the targets are unable to provide the desired emission implies that the ~3K signal cannot exist, at this location. Careful study reveals that only the second scenario can be valid. This analysis thereby provides firm evidence that the monopole of the microwave background, as initially detected by Penzias and Wilson, is being produced by the Earth itself.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1310.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 06:20:59

WMAP: A Radiological Analysis

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 16 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 1, 3-18.

In this work, results obtained by the WMAP satellite are analyzed by invoking established practices for signal acquisition and processing in nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Dynamic range, image reconstruction, signal to noise, resolution, contrast, and reproducibility are specifically discussed. WMAP images do not meet accepted standards in medical imaging research. WMAP images are obtained by attempting to remove a galactic foreground contamination which is 1,000 times more intense than the desired signal. Unlike water suppression in biological NMR, this is accomplished without the ability to affect the signal at the source and without a priori knowledge. Resulting WMAP images have an exceedingly low signal to noise (maximum 1–2) and are heavily governed by data processing. Final WMAP internal linear combination (ILC) images are made from 12 section images. Each of these, in turn, is processed using a separate linear combination of data. The WMAP team extracts cosmological implications from their data, while ignoring that the ILC coefficients do not remain constant from year to year. In contrast to standard practices in medicine, difference images utilized to test reproducibility are presented at substantially reduced resolution. ILC images are not presented for year two and three. Rather, year-1 data is signal averaged in a combined 3-year data set. Proper tests of reproducibility require viewing separate yearly ILC images. Fluctuations in the WMAP images arise from the inability to remove the galactic foreground, and in the significant yearly variations in the foreground itself. Variations in the map outside the galactic plane are significant, preventing any cosmological analysis due to yearly changes. This occurs despite the masking of more than 300 image locations. It will be advanced that any “signal” observed by WMAP is the result of foreground effects, not only from our galaxy, but indeed yearly variations from every galaxy in the Universe. Contrary to published analysis, the argument suggests there are only questionable findings in the anisotropy images, other than those related to image processing, yearly galactic variability, and point sources. Concerns are also raised relative to the validity of assigning brightness temperatures in this setting.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1310.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 06:34:21

On the Origins of the CMB: Insight from the COBE, WMAP, and Relikt-1 Satellites

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 5 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 1, 19-23.

The powerful “Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB)” signal currently associated with the origins of the Universe is examined from a historical perspective and relative to the experimental context in which it was measured. Results from the COBE satellite are reviewed, with particular emphasis on the systematic error observed in determining the CMB temperature. The nature of the microwave signal emanating from the oceans is also discussed. From this analysis, it is demonstrated that it is improper for the COBE team to model the Earth as a 285K blackbody source. The assignment of temperatures to objects that fail to meet the requirements set forth in Kirchhoff’s law constitutes a serious overextension of the laws of thermal emission. Using this evidence, and the general rule that powerful signals are associated with proximal sources, the CMB monopole signal is reassigned to the oceans. In turn, through the analysis of COBE, WMAP, and Relikt-1 data, the dipole signal is attributed to motion through a much weaker microwave field present both at the position of the Earth and at the second Lagrange point.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1310.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 06:40:54

A High Temperature Liquid Plasma Model of the Sun

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 12 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 1, 70-81; also on arXiv:astro-ph/0410075.

In this work, a liquid model of the Sun is presented wherein the entire solar mass is viewed as a high density/high energy plasma. This model challenges our current understanding of the densities associated with the internal layers of the Sun, advocating a relatively constant density, almost independent of radial position. The incompressible nature of liquids is advanced to prevent solar collapse from gravitational forces. The liquid plasma model of the Sun is a non-equilibrium approach, where nuclear reactions occur throughout the solar mass. The primary means of addressing internal heat transfer are convection and conduction. As a result of the convective processes on the solar surface, the liquid model brings into question the established temperature of the solar photosphere by highlighting a violation of Kirchhoff’s law of thermal emission. Along these lines, the model also emphasizes that radiative emission is a surface phenomenon. Evidence that the Sun is a high density/high energy plasma is based on our knowledge of Planckian thermal emission and condensed matter, including the existence of pressure ionization and liquid metallic hydrogen at high temperatures and pressures. Prior to introducing the liquid plasma model, the historic and scientific justifications for the gaseous model of the Sun are reviewed and the gaseous equations of state are also discussed.
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1310.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 06:46:02

On the Earth Microwave Background: Absorption and Scattering by the Atmosphere

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 3, 3-4.

The absorption and scattering of microwave radiation by the atmosphere of the Earth is considered under a steady state scenario. Using this approach, it is demonstrated that the microwave background could not have a cosmological origin. Scientific observations in the microwave region are explained by considering an oceanic source, combined with both Rayleigh and Mie scattering in the atmosphere in the absence of net absorption. Importantly, at high frequencies, Mie scattering occurs primarily with forward propagation. This helps to explain the lack of high frequency microwave background signals when radio antennae are positioned on the Earth’s surface.
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1310.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 07:03:09

On the Nature of the Microwave Background at the Lagrange 2 Point. Part I

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 10 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2007, v. 4, 74-83.

In this work, the nature of the microwave background is discussed. It is advanced that the 2.725 K monopole signal, first detected by Penzias and Wilson, originates from the Earth and therefore cannot be detected at the Lagrange 2 point (L2). Results obtained by the COBE, Relikt-1, and WMAP satellites are briefly reviewed. Attention is also placed on the upcoming PLANCK mission, with particular emphasis on the low frequency instrument (LFI). Since the LFI on PLANCK can operate both in absolute mode and in difference mode, this instrument should be able to unequivocally resolve any question relative to the origin of the 2.725K monopole signal. The monopole will be discovered to originate from the Earth and not from the Cosmos. This will have implications relative to the overall performance of the PLANCK satellite, in particular, and for the future of astrophysics, in general.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1310.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 07:17:17

The Earth Microwave Background (EMB), Atmospheric Scattering and the Generation of Isotropy

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 2 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2008, v. 2, 164-165.

In this work, the presence of substantial microwave power in the atmosphere of the Earth is discussed. It is advanced that this atmospheric microwave power constitutes pools of scattered photons initially produced, at least in substantial part, by the ~3K microwave background. The existence of these microwave pools of photons can serve to explain how the Earth, as an anisotropic source, is able to produce an Earth Microwave Background (EMB) at ~3K which is isotropic.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1310.0110 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 05:45:49

Forty Lines of Evidence for Condensed Matter - The Sun on Trial: Liquid Metallic Hydrogen as a Solar Building Block

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 53 Pages. First published in: Progress in Physics, 2013, v. 4, 90-142.

Our Sun has confronted humanity with overwhelming evidence that it is comprised of condensed matter. Dismissing this reality, the standard solar models continue to be anchored on the gaseous plasma. In large measure, the endurance of these theories can be attributed to 1) the mathematical elegance of the equations for the gaseous state, 2) the apparent success of the mass-luminosity relationship, and 3) the long-lasting influence of leading proponents of these models. Unfortunately, no direct physical finding supports the notion that the solar body is gaseous. Without exception, all observations are most easily explained by recognizing that the Sun is primarily comprised of condensed matter. However, when a physical characteristic points to condensed matter, \textit{a postori} arguments are invoked to account for the behavior using the gaseous state. In isolation, many of these treatments appear plausible. As a result, the gaseous models continue to be accepted. There seems to be an overarching belief in solar science that the problems with the gaseous models are few and inconsequential. In reality, they are numerous and, while often subtle, they are sometimes daunting. The gaseous equations of state have introduced far more dilemmas than they have solved. Many of the conclusions derived from these approaches are likely to have led solar physics down unproductive avenues, as deductions have been accepted which bear little or no relationship to the actual nature of the Sun. It could be argued that, for more than 100 years, the gaseous models have prevented mankind from making real progress relative to understanding the Sun and the universe. Hence, the Sun is now placed on trial. Forty lines of evidence will be presented that the solar body is comprised of, and surrounded by, condensed matter. These `proofs' can be divided into seven broad categories: 1) Planckian, 2) spectroscopic, 3) structural, 4) dynamic, 5) helioseismic, 6) elemental, and 7) earthly. Collectively, these lines of evidence provide a systematic challenge to the gaseous models of the Sun and expose the many hurdles faced by modern approaches. Observational astronomy and laboratory physics have remained unable to properly justify claims that the solar body must be gaseous. At the same time, clear signs of condensed matter interspersed with gaseous plasma in the chromosphere and corona have been regrettably dismissed. As such, it is hoped that this exposition will serve as an invitation to consider condensed matter, especially metallic hydrogen, when pondering the phase of the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1310.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-15 06:08:53

The Solar Photosphere: Evidence for Condensed Matter

Authors: Pierre-Marie Robitaille
Comments: 5 Pages. First Published in: Progress in Physics, 2006, v. 2, 17-21.

The stellar equations of state treat the Sun much like an ideal gas, wherein the photosphere is viewed as a sparse gaseous plasma. The temperatures inferred in the solar interior give some credence to these models, especially since it is counterintuitive that an object with internal temperatures in excess of 1 MK could be existing in the liquid state. Nonetheless, extreme temperatures, by themselves, are insufficient evidence for the states of matter. The presence of magnetic fields and gravity also impact the expected phase. In the end, it is the physical expression of a state that is required in establishing the proper phase of an object. The photosphere does not lend itself easily to treatment as a gaseous plasma. The physical evidence can be more simply reconciled with a solar body and a photosphere in the condensed state. A discussion of each physical feature follows: (1) the thermal spectrum, (2) limb darkening, (3) solar collapse, (4) the solar density, (5) seismic activity, (6) mass displacement, (7) the chromosphere and critical opalescence, (8) shape, (9) surface activity, (10) photospheric/coronal flows, (11) photospheric imaging, (12) the solar dynamo, and (13) the presence of Sun spots. The explanation of these findings by the gaseous models often requires an improbable combination of events, such as found in the stellar opacity problem. In sharp contrast, each can be explained with simplicity by the condensed state. This work is an invitation to reconsider the phase of the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1310.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-14 15:19:26

Discoveries by Astronomer Thomas Scott Zolotor

Authors: Thomas Scott Zolotor
Comments: 8 Pages.

Thomas Scott Zolotor has made several hypothesis in the field of astronomy and other fields. These are his updated predictions that came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1310.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-14 20:43:46

The Uniqueness of Rational Structure and its Graph

Authors: Jin He
Comments: 15 Pages. 1 Figure

Galaxies are the basic components of the universe. A massive Hubble Space Telescope photos survey reveals that the diversity of galaxies in the early universe was as varied as the many galaxy types seen today. Therefore, understanding galaxies is the great challenge to humans. This paper deals with the disk-typed galaxies which is called spirals. In longer wavelength image, galaxy arms are mostly gone, and spiral galaxies fall to two types: ordinary and barred. The ordinary ones are basically an axi-symmetric disk whose stellar density decreases exponentially outwards. It is called the exponential disk. It is straightforward to show that any exponential disk has infinite nets of orthogonal curves such that the stellar density on one side of each curve is in constant ratio to the density on the other side of the curve. These curves are call proportion curves or Darwin curves. It happens that the Darwin curves of exponential disk are all golden spirals. Amazingly, astronomers found out that the arms of ordinary spiral galaxies are all golden spirals. Therefore, I had a proposition in 2004 that a two dimensional structure is called a rational one if there exists at least one orthogonal net of Darwin curves in the structure plane. Now in this paper, the mathematical solution to rational structure is completely obtained. We prove that rational structure is unique.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1310.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-13 19:09:57

Possible Cgle Signatures in Solar System: Spiral Gravity from Spherical Kinetic Dynamics

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 29 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

The present article discusses how some known phenomena in solar system, including the Lense-Thirring effect of anomalous precession, could be described using spherical kinetic dynamics approach. Other implications include a plausible revised version of the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization equation described by Rubćić & Rubćić. Our proposition in this paper can be summarized as follows: by introducing time-increment to the ordinary celestial quantization method (Nottale et al.), we can expect to observe signatures of CGLE (complex Ginzburg-Landau equation) in Solar system. Possible verification may include the use of Earth-based satellites, which go beyond traditional GTR tests such as precession of the first planet. Further observation to verify or refute this conjecture is recommended, plausibly using LAGEOS-type satellites.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1310.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-09 05:08:23

The Semi Relativistic Higgs Field Aether with Mass Related Lightspeed Adaptation.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 28 Pages. 28

Quantum FFF Theory states, that Black holes don't emit gravitons (as Fermions do) but suffer under the "Casimir push" of the oscillating Higgs (pushing gravity) Aether field lattice. That the Black hole is a real multiple string alike Higgs Knot inside this energetic oscillating Higgs vacuum lattice, which is origin of a Semi-Relativistic Aether!. This Semi-relativistic Higgs aether is supposed to be the origin of Lightning-channelling, Ball Lightning and Micro-Comet phenomena on earth and the origin of Comets, Sunspots, Herbig Haro Objects evolving into Stellar- or Galaxy Anchor Black Holes in space. Photons are propagating through the Higgs vacuum lattice as "ripples" able to collapse (by Higgs transformation) as real string shaped photons connected to a string propeller shaped electron on a screen or as interference with two or more photons into Quantum Knots of a Sprite or ball Lightning. http://vixra.org/author/leo_vuyk . I expect that the new generation of telescopes will show the evidence of dual Dark Matter Black Holes found as Herbig Haro hotspots and in pairs outside Galaxies as Galaxy Anchor Black Holes (GABHs).
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1310.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-07 07:27:37

Stellar Metamorphosis: What a Quasar/Embryonic Galaxy Looks Like Up Close

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

According to establishment and their thought police on Wikipedia, the Crab Nebula or M1, is the remains of an exploding star. This is horrendously absurd. M1 is an embryonic galaxy. It resembles a homo-polar motor, is expanding, has a central pulsar and will eject from the Milky Way becoming a galaxy itself many millions of years in the future.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1310.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-02 09:39:43

Stellar Metamorphosis: Super-Earths

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram

Super-Earths are quite common in evolved galaxies such as the Milky Way and Andromeda. They are stars in late stages of their evolution. All Super-Earths are ocean worlds.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1310.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-14 11:29:52

Stellar Metamorphosis: Gliese 433

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

The Gliese 433 system contains 3 stars in different stages of metamorphosis, a red dwarf, a grey dwarf and a blue dwarf/water world.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1310.0013 [pdf] replaced on 2013-12-14 11:34:41

Stellar Metamorphosis: Rho Cassiopeiae, Yellow Hypergiant

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram, 3 references

According to the establishment Rho Cassiopeiae is a yellow hypergiant star with 450 times the diameter of the Sun. This is incorrect. We shall see that their parallax measurements are completely bogus, as RC is a normal yellow star like the Sun.
Category: Astrophysics