[6] **viXra:1409.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 04:57:48*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A three-page letter published in Astrophysics and Space Science

This letter points out that the values of ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND, and the ‘accelerated-expansion’ of the universe are just two of the fourteen strikingly equal values of accelerations recurring in different physical situations. Alternative expressions for the cosmological red-shift, the ‘critical-acceleration’ of MOND and Newton’s law of universal gravitation are also presented.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[5] **viXra:1409.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-30 05:04:01*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** A seven-page paper

This letter presents some new expressions for gravity without the big G and proposes their possible wave-theoretical-explanation. This attempt leads to some insight that: (i) We need the proportionality-constant G because we measure masses and distances in our arbitrarily-chosen units of kg. and meters; but if we measure ‘mass’ as a fraction of ‘total-mass of the universe’ M0 and measure distances as a fraction of ‘radius-of-the-universe’R0 then there is no need for the proportionality-constant G. However, large uncertainties in the M0 and R0 limit the general application of this relation presently. (ii) The strength of gravity would be different if the total-mass of the universe were different. Then this possibility is supported with the help of wave-theory. (iii) This understanding of G leads to an insight that Planck’s-length, Planck-mass and Planck’s unit of time are geometric-mean-values of astrophysical quantities like: total-mass of the universe and the smallest-possible-mass h H0 / c^2. (iv) There appears a law followed by various systems-of-matter, like: the electron, the proton, the nucleus-of-atom, the globular-clusters, the spiral-galaxies, the galactic-clusters and the whole universe; that their ratio Mass / Radius^2 remains constant. This law seems to be more fundamental than the fundamental-forces because it is obeyed irrespective of the case, whether the system is bound by strong-force, electric-force, or gravitational-force.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[4] **viXra:1409.0149 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-10-16 00:40:53*

**Authors:** Yuri Heymann

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

By differentiating the standard formula for the luminosity distance with respect to time, we find
that the equation is inconsistent with light propagation. Therefore, a new defnition of the luminosity distance is provided for an expanding Universe. From supernovae observations, using this defnition we find that the Hubble parameter is a constant of physics equal to Ho = 63.2 km/s/Mpc.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[3] **viXra:1409.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 20:38:08*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Considering the subject of black hole cosmology as a key branch of the quantum gravity, many fundamental issues of theoretical and observational cosmology can be understood.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[2] **viXra:1409.0036 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-09-06 03:54:54*

**Authors:** Hasmukh K. Tank

**Comments:** Two page priliminary note

In a paper titled: Explanation of the anomalous Doppler observations in Pioneer-10 and 11 Renshaw, C. (Aerospace Conference, 1999, Proceedings IEEE, Vol-2) finds that: “The value of the anomalous shift is shown to equal the difference between the calculated values for Newtonian and Special Relativistic Doppler expressions. The anomalous signals seem to indicate a preference for the Newtonian values.” This value of anomalous acceleration (8.0 x 10-8 cm/s2) is now known to equal H0 c, the value of accelerated expansion of the universe. It implies that if we use Newtonian formula for Doppler shift, then there is a possibility of vanishing the ‘accelerated expansion’ of the universe.

**Category:** Astrophysics

[1] **viXra:1409.0017 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-06 11:41:23*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 12 Pages; 5 Tables; 21 References

In a previous series of papers relating to the Combined Gravitational Action (CGA), we have exclusively studied orbital motion without spin. In the present paper we apply CGA to any self-rotating material body, i.e., an axially spinning massive object, which itself may be locally seen as a gravito-rotational source because it is capable of generating the gravito-rotational (field) acceleration, which seems to be unknown to previously existing theories of gravity. The consequences of such an acceleration are very interesting, particularly for Compact Stellar Objects. Independently of the equation of state, it is found that the critical and maximum internal magnetic field strength of a stable neutron star cannot exceed the value of 3x10^18 G .

**Category:** Astrophysics