Astrophysics

1608 Submissions

[24] viXra:1608.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 15:54:41

Scientific Return of a Lunar Elevator

Authors: T. Marshall Eubanks, Charles F. Radley
Comments: Pages.

The concept of a space elevator dates back to Tsilokovsky, but they are not commonly considered in near-term plans for space exploration, perhaps because a terrestrial elevator would not be possible without considerable improvements in tether material. A Lunar Space Elevator (LSE), however, can be built with current technology using commercially available tether polymers. This paper considers missions leading to infrastructure capable of shortening the time, lowering the cost and enhancing the capabilities of robotic and human explorers. These missions use planetary scale tethers, strings many thousands of kilometers long stabilized either by rotation or by gravitational gradients. These systems promise major reduction in transport costs versus chemical rockets, in a rapid timeframe, for a modest investment. Science will thus benefit as well as commercial activities.
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1608.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 09:38:18

Hot Dark Matter?

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For decades, researchers have tried to detect this invisible dark matter. Several types of devices have been put up on Earth and in space to capture the particles that dark matter is supposed to consist of, and experiments have attempted to create a dark matter particle by colliding ordinary matter particles at very high temperatures. [13] " Call it the sound of dark matter, " says Asimina Arvanitaki, a theoretical particle physicist at Perimeter Institute. Despite making up the vast majority of stuff in our universe, dark matter remains invisible. But perhaps it's not inaudible. Dark matter is some of the most abundant, yet most elusive, stuff in the universe. Though scientists are confident it is out there (thanks to the gravitational effects it has on its surroundings), the search to identify it has thus far come up empty. [12] An international team of scientists using a combination of radio and optical telescopes has for the first time managed to identify the location of a fast radio burst, allowing them to confirm the current cosmological model of the distribution of matter in the universe. [11] Invisibility — like time travel, teleportation, flying, and super-speed — has been a fixture in science fiction ever since science fiction has existed. The most well-known examples range from the one used by the Romulans in Star Trek, Harry Potter's deathly hallows cloaking device, and the eleven cloak Frodo and Sam used to evade Sauron's army at the gates of Mordor. There are hundreds, if not thousands, of other mentions in books, movies and television. Over the years, many scientists have come up with inventive ways to hide objects from sight (one includes a 3D printer); only the process is certainly much more complex than science fiction makes it look. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1608.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 12:27:16

The Energy Loss and Decai of Photons at Cosmological Distances

Authors: Pereverzev Vladimir
Comments: 10 Pages.

To date, accumulated a large number of observational data, which showed a loss of energy and decay photons at cosmological and intergalactic distances. This is evidenced by the folloving observational data: 1. Reduction of diameter of the elliptical galaxies with increase distance to them. The mass and age of the stellar population of galaxies with increasing distances to them do not change. In spiral galaxies with increasing distances to them are no longer observed portion of the spiral arms with low luminosity. The spiral arms seen as wispy at large distances. Spiral galaxies observed as irregular, anemic, diffuse at large distances. However, the diameter of spiral galaxies, for certain parts of the most striking, is not changed to the large distances. 2. The gradual reduction of the size structure of radio galaxies (their radio - emitting parts) at distances from z = 0 to z = 3. At distances greater then z = 3 radio-emitting structures are not observed. 3. With the increase in the distance to quasars have redused the length of jets. So, on z=1-2 jets length of about 100 kpc, and on z=4 - about 10 kpc. Although other parameters do not change or change slightly. 4. Reduced number of spiral galaxies with a bar, where increasing the distance to them. 5. The detection of very faint dwarf galaxies, in which the ratio of the mass-luminosity reaches 1000. Thet is, the stars in the shell of these galaxies are not observed. The reason for this is the loss of energy and decay of photons, because photons in the flow of a small power lose energy and decompose faster then photons in a higher power flows. 6. Powerful streams of photons from a gamma-ray bursts (GRB) raise the temperature of microwave background radiation. This fact confirms the reduction of photon energy loss in the power flovs. 8. Metallicity of galaxies decreases with increasing distances to the galaxies. However, if the flow of photons from the galaxy coincides with a stream of photons from the gamma-ray basts in this case does not decrease metallicity of galaxies. 9.Statistical analisis shows relationship thet galaxies with increasing their mass and luminosity deccreases the ratio of the mass-luminosity. This is due to a higher concentration of stars within the effective radius and visible radius of the massive (large) galaxies compared to galaxies of smaller mass. Terefore, the critical density of photons when they cease to be observed,move to the center of galaxies, if the mass of galaxies is reduced. The opening energy loss and decay of photons require an adjustment of the quantum and classical electrodinamics. Also, it would require to retarn to the model of a stationary universe.
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1608.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 14:42:26

The Failed Hypothesis

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 105 Pages.

We – LIVING IN A STRANGE AND wonderful universe (WHOSE age, size, violence, and beauty require extraordinary imagination to appreciate) still discovering the fundamental laws of nature – regards science as a beautiful truth and a true scientific inquiry which has been construed in such a way as to explain the complexities of cosmological world with an engaging combination of clarity and wit of the new picture of reality that is emerging as a result. It seems most appropriate, but, it is absolutely-absolutely false. Science has fatal limitations – filled with uncertainty, skepticism and deliberation participate in a powerfully deductive dialectic that enables us to rework our present understanding of nature — to step back from what we think we know, re-assess our preconceived notions, and bring forth newer, more fully formed views of our Universe. However, the scientific community (who can trace the roots of modern astronomy back to the ancient Greeks. Around 340 B. C) as a whole is ignorant about it. While the modern science is surely incomplete – it is largely based on heuristic arguments and oversimplified models. It is strange that most brilliant and eloquent scientists are not raising the issues and the majority of the current scientific community is imbued with the dogmas of the academic club and the voice of dissent conveniently ignored or ridiculed, contrary to the true spirit of scientific inquiry. Science means truth (what we now think the world is made of and how it got that way), and scientists (persons engaging in a systematic activity to acquire knowledge that describes and predicts the natural world) are proponents of the truth. But they are teaching incorrect ideas to children (upcoming scientists) in schools /colleges etc. who can work out the distances to nine different galaxies -- largely with flair and in a highly approachable fashion. One who will raise the issue will face unprecedented initial criticism. Anyone can read the book and encompass a rapid trip in a more gentle fashion from Newton through relativity to the expanding universe, the big bang, black holes, wormholes and all the traditional menagerie of the modern cosmologist and find out the truth. It is open to everyone.
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1608.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:05:24

The Temperature Principle of Stellar Evolution

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper it is explained that stars’ surfaces cool as they evolve, therefore leading to a general principle of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1608.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 15:39:44

The Crust Solidification Principle of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained another principle of foundational structure of stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1608.0369 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 00:49:38

The Formation Mechanism of the Crab Nebula

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a new explanation regard to the formation mechanism of the Crab Nebula.
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1608.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-26 01:17:34

Dark Matter Galaxy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Using the world's most powerful telescopes, an international team of astronomers has found a massive galaxy that consists almost entirely of dark matter. [16] Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1608.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 04:35:33

Fast Radio Bursts and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Astrophysicists from the Johns Hopkins University have proposed a clever new way of shedding light on the mystery of dark matter, believed to make up most of the universe. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1608.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-25 08:42:40

God Seems to Play Dice with Dual Entangled Pinball Machines in a Supersymmetric (Susy) Multiverse

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 7 Pages. 7

In a SUSY (Supersymmetric ) multiverse, God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us humans make decisions. Intelligent beings are lucky to became more time ( 0.5 sec.) to veto actions initiated by one of the other universes. As a result: The creation of a "democratic veto related free will" of each individual human! In Quantum FFF Theory it is assumed that each quantum is instant entangled with one or more dual Charge Parity (anti) symmetric copy particles present in opposing multiverse bubbles embedded in the so called raspberry shaped multiverse. Benjamin Libet measured the so called electric Readiness Potential (RP) time to perform a volitional act, in the brains of his students and the time of conscious awareness (TCA) of that act, which appeared to come 500 m.sec behind the RP. In addition, I found recently support for a multiverse related quantum experiment done by Giulia Rubino and Philip Walther of Institute for Quantum Optics Vienna as a strong indication, that not only for humans but also for “ dead” quanta a possible multiverse relation could be postulated. As a result we may say, that God seems to play dice with dual entangled distant Quantum pinball machines (universal bubbles like ours) to let the quantum world and intelligent species like us make more or less conscious decisions.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1608.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-24 12:02:20

Dynamic Universe Model Solves “Faster Than Light Neutrinos” Riddle

Authors: Satyavarapu Naga Parameswara Gupta
Comments: 36 Pages. Additional supplimentary files are there

There are many instances that reported Superluminal neutrinos. Dynamic Universe Model explains the how and why of “Faster than Light Neutrinos” without any modification in its theory. Various instances like Astronomical jets, Gravitational catapult, MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy Neutrinos travelling faster than speed of light were recorded. There were 76 theoretical experiments conducted and their results are reported in this paper. These experiments were done between 2009 to 2011. Dynamic Universe Model theory was tested in explaining many anomalies in Physics. Dynamic Universe Model’s many predictions came true.
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1608.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 19:38:38

The Sun is a Planet

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Masses, orbits and definitions of stars change as they evolve with us.
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1608.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 08:15:20

Neutrinos and Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Three distinguished particle physicists have joined the lab over the past months to pursue research on two particularly mysterious forms of matter: neutrinos and dark matter. [10] New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave, which could explain why matter persists over antimatter. [9] Over the past few years, multiple neutrino experiments have detected hints for leptonic charge parity (CP) violation—a finding that could help explain why the universe is made of matter and not antimatter. So far, matter-antimatter asymmetry cannot be explained by any physics theory and is one of the biggest unsolved problems in cosmology. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN's Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1608.0177 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-10 09:17:46

Black-holes’ Innate Character and Feature

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: show a viewpoint that regard to black-holes'innate character and feature.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1608.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 02:49:32

Fermi Expands Search for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Three studies published earlier this year, using six or more years of data from NASA's Fermi Gamma-ray Space Telescope, have broadened the mission's dark matter hunt using some novel approaches. [15] "These studies are providing increasingly sensitive results, slowly shrinking the box of parameters where dark matter particles can hide," said Alexander Kashlinsky, an astrophysicist at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center. "The failure to find them has led to renewed interest in studying how well primordial black holes-black holes formed in the universe's first fraction of a second-could work as dark matter." [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1608.0111 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-21 12:06:09

Quelques Conséquences de la Matière Noire Entropique Relativiste

Authors: Nicolas Poupart
Comments: 6 Pages.

L'objectif de cet article est de tirer quelques conséquences importantes de la théorie de la matière noire entropique relativiste (GEST) dont l'approximation des champs faibles (SWFA) est un modèle. Il y sera exposé la dérivation de la relation de Tully-Fisher, la dérivation d'une nouvelle forme de décalage de fréquence, le décalage intrinsèque, et la courbe de distribution de la masse (matière) noire. Ces extensions théoriques permettront peut-être de comprendre les erreurs expérimentales inexplicables dans le calcul de la constante de Hubble et le problème de la création et de la stabilisation des disques galactiques. De plus, puisque le champ de matière noire exposé est probablement le champ BEHHGK, les implications du calcul de la courbe de distribution dépasse largement le domaine de l'astrophysique.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1608.0101 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-18 15:48:23

Kic 8462852 Intrinsic Variability

Authors: Fernando Martinez Isla
Comments: 5 Pages.

The light curve of KIC 8462852 in dips around day 1519 and 1568 shows features matching clearly the rotational period of the star. Changes in brightness (unevenly distributed around its surface in these two cases) are shown modulated by the rotational period. Therefore the probable explication of this mysterious variability must be some phenomenon of the star itself instead of occultations by external objects.
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1608.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 07:01:39

Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) vs Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND)

Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo
Comments: 6 Pages.

Asking the question: What if the Newtonian gravitational constant G, is inherently comprised of segmented values? Modified Equations of Newtonian Dynamics (MEND) as an alternative to Modified Newtonian Dynamics (MoND), by postulating the Newtonian constant of gravitation G, as an aggregate of constants. A mechanism by which the galactic rotation curves could be explained by utilizing the segmented values of G. The sacrosanct doctrine of non-variability of G is preserved. The view is taken that the author of (MoND), Dr. Milgrom unwittingly stumbled upon the segmented values of the Newtonian constant of gravitation.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1608.0094 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-28 11:35:49

Plasma, Cosmic Noise, Heterodynes and Harmonics

Authors: Frank H.Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages.

The bulk of the electromagnetic (EM) waves produced and propagating throughout the universe are created in plasmas that are within the influence of a magnetic field. Every naturally produced EM wave will have multiple frequencies impressed upon their waveform during their initial creation and interactions within a plasma. The interaction of non-aligned electromagnetic waves within a plasma is not discussed in the literature and this interaction is the probable cause for cosmic and radio noise. Cyclotron particle motion in plasma tubes will produce helical electromagnetic waveforms. These waveforms will present a variety of characteristics at a receiving site depending upon the radius of the helical waveform, distance and viewing angle relative to the center of the helix. Incorrect conclusions can be made not knowing an electromagnetic waveform is helical with a radius.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1608.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 10:06:19

The Charge Separation Principle of Stellar Birth According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

The clouds that birth stars have to be completely ionized and have charge separation so that birthing can take place.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1608.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 06:33:27

Quark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1608.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 19:51:24

The Crust Ossification Principle of Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that in highly evolved rocky stars such as Earth, Venus or Mars, the crust thickens and hardens as it cools down from earlier stages of evolution.
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1608.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-02 07:18:43

Thermodynamically Open Stars

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In this paper it is explained that stars are thermodynamically open systems in their interface with outer space. Matter and energy can be exchanged freely.
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1608.0011 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-08 23:21:37

Theory of Periodical Bursts of the Sun and the Planets

Authors: G.-P. Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Raise the theory of periodical bursts of the Sun and the planets. Point out that the Jovian planets, main-belt asteroids, and the terrestrial planets originated from periodical bursts of the Sun from 4.8 billion to 4.4 billion years ago. A large amount of objects from the last burst of the Sun caused the Late Heavy Bombardment. Point out that planets also burst periodically and their bursts gave birth to their regular satellites, and the rings of Jovian planets. Many facts of the solar system were systematically explained with the theory.
Category: Astrophysics