Astrophysics

1809 Submissions

[30] viXra:1809.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 13:00:57

The Stellar Disintegration Zone

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 52 Pages. 1 graph, 1 data set of 2,504 objects

The stellar disintegration zone is the area that separates hot Jupiters from their more evolved and evolving counterparts. It shows that hot Jupiters lose their thick helium/hydrogen atmospheres faster if they orbit close to a much hotter host star, which is predicted by the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. The SDZ on this graph is between 5-9 Earth Radii, with a period shorter than 10 days. As well, the SDZ's can be different for different stars, this graph is only a generalization. Data is taken from various telescopes including the Kepler, and 2,504 evolving/dead stars are on the graph. The periods of the dead/evolving stars on the graph do not include the ones beyond 50 days, and objects beyond a radius of 23 Earths. Data for the points on the graph is included, as well as the objects' names.
Category: Astrophysics

[29] viXra:1809.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 13:07:59

Appearances of the Haybusa2 and Osiris-Rex Target Asteroids Ryugu and Bennu

Authors: A. Soumbatov-Gur
Comments: 48 Pages.

Properties and features of asteroid (101955) Bennu to be reached this fall by NASA’s OSIRIS-REx probe are anticipated. As of September 2018 we reconcile distant groundwork data on the asteroid in a unified approach based on the paradigm of ejective formation of celestial bodies. Recent JAXA’s observations of diamond-shaped asteroid (162173) Ryugu are also systematically considered to give grounds to Bennu’s study as explosively casted out rock body. We as well analyze data on top-like main belt and near-Earth asteroids: (2867) Steins, (341843) 2008 EV5, (65803) Didymos, and others. Dozens Bennu’s constraints and properties redicted include diamond shapes, North-South dichotomy, strong equatorial mountain range, curved northern relief features, global fault, regular equatorial depressions, ten meters wide crater in high outhern latitudes, angular crater shapes, side difference in crater statistics, larger than expected density, recent geologic activity, lined distributions of substances and minerals, restricted positions of locally synthesized organic materials, x-ray and electromagnetic transients, etc.
Category: Astrophysics

[28] viXra:1809.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 16:32:23

Metonic and Saros Cycles Harmony Reason

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

In all my papers I try to prove just one idea, that The solar planets data are created depending on each other, that because the solar group is one machine or one body. The idea simply tells us that, the solar planets data are found based on a geometrical structure connects all solar planets together, that's why any solar planet data depends on others'… For example, if we found 3 angles their total =180 degrees we may conclude that these 3 angles are triangle angles… Similar to that …. I found 687 days (Mars orbital period) = 365.25 days (Earth orbital period) x 1.9 (Mars orbital inclination = 1.9 degrees) The previous relationship between Mars and Earth is considered as Pure coincidence by the current theories, but I try to prove that this relationship is found because there's a geometrical structure connects Earth with Mars and causes this relationship. Let's summarize the idea: -A geometrical structure connects and unifies all solar planets together to make the solar group as one body or one machine. And this geometrical structure causes each planet data to be created depending on other planets data which guarantees the planets motions harmony with each other. Now the idea is almost clear, but questions are needed to be solved..! 1-What's this geometrical structure which unifies the solar planets? 2-How this geometrical structure can be found? Let's start by answer the 2nd question: How this structure can be found? The solar group is created from one energy i.e. The solar planet matter is created from this Energy as the Equation (E=mc2) tells us, and the planet orbital distance is created also from this same Energy (my hypothesis), Let's see that in details… Suppose the Energy started her trajectory from the sun toward Mercury (this supposition is for explanation only because the Energy real trajectory is more complex) The Energy will build Mercury orbital distance (Distance =Energy) and then the same energy will build Mercury Matter (Matter = Energy), So Mercury diameter and Mass should be related to Mercury orbital distance Then the Energy causes Mercury motion, and then the Energy travels toward Venus, where in her trajectory will build Mercury Venus Distance, then will build Venus Matter, and causes Venus Motion to be in Harmony with Mercury Motion… etc So, how this geometrical structure can be found? By the Energy which creates the matter, distances and motions… this same energy needs geometrical structure to use all solar planets in one machine… So, the geometrical structure is a fact and necessity…..means, if the solar group is created from one Energy, that means there's a geometrical structure controls all these planets data … Now let's try to answer the 1st question… What's this geometrical structure, which unifies the solar planets? This is the hard question, I don't know yet this geometrical structure and I try to reach to him In fact I face real difficulties in my way…. basically because we don't know this geometrical structure rules.. For Example I found an Equation d2 = 4do(d-do) where d = Planet orbital distance do= Previous Planet orbital distance So, if we use Jupiter and Saturn orbital distances in the previous equation we'll find that it's correct Equation.. (in Fact there are 3 exceptions for this Equation) Any way the question is why? Why Jupiter and Saturn orbital distances follow the previous equation? It's a geometrical rule, but why this rule is found? No one can answer! Let's see another example The light with velocity c (=0.3mkm/sec) will travel a distance 2088 mkm (Jupiter Uranus distance) during 6939.75 seconds (but Metonic Cycle is 6939.75 days!) Also The light with velocity c (=0.3mkm/sec) will travel a distance 627 mkm (Jupiter Earth distance) during 2088 seconds This geometrical rule or feature I found frequently… The same value is used in time units and distance units!? This feature I found frequently in the solar group… why the same value is used in time and distance units?!! It's a geometrical rule but we don't know this rule and we don't understand its reason… In fact the solar group geometry is beyond our Geometry books I wish I explained my idea as clear as possible… In this paper I try to show and prove that, Metonic and Saros cycles harmony depends on the geometrical structure which unifies all solar planets. i.e. Metonic and Saros cycles harmony proves there's a geometrical structure which unifies all solar planets.
Category: Astrophysics

[27] viXra:1809.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 04:27:28

Effects of Planetary Rotation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The earth's rotation causes the Coriolis effect, which deflects massive air and water flows toward the right in the Northern Hemisphere and toward the left in the Southern Hemisphere. [14] A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13] The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[26] viXra:1809.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 02:51:47

Dark Matter Maps in the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Today, an international group of researchers, including Carnegie Mellon University's Rachel Mandelbaum, released the deepest wide field map of the three-dimensional distribution of matter in the universe ever made and increased the precision of constraints for dark energy with the Hyper Suprime-Cam survey (HSC). [21] Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[25] viXra:1809.0508 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-24 09:38:30

Hydrogen Supershell in the Milky Way

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

A duo of researchers from the Czech Republic has performed a study of the neutral hydrogen supershell known as GS242-03+37, a large structure in the Milky Way galaxy. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36]
Category: Astrophysics

[24] viXra:1809.0484 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-24 01:11:39

Heretical Physics Fake 'G'

Authors: John E. Miller
Comments: 15 Pages.

Newton’s ‘G’ is a measure of the error in assigning gravitational ‘g’ to be caused by mass. Newspapers continually report the failure of Students to enroll for the Physics curriculum. Also for those who do, there is a high attrition rate. Prof. Brian Cox (T.V. fame) stated “…common sense is completely worthless and irrelevant when trying to understand reality…” In an average galaxy of a few billion binary stars, each pair shares a common Aether Sphere. Their charge fields keeping them separated within the confines of a compression ‘Aether’ envelope. Pairing seems to be the best compromise of volume to minimum surface area. At a remote location at the extremities, there is a ‘single’ contained in a dust spec a few light hours across, having lost its companion after exploding but leaving behind a debris field. Debris matter, is now compressed by its surroundings, curved SPACE (EVERT; EINSTEIN), and such that each bit of debris is enveloped in an Aether Sphere to minimize energy contact. Such Aether Compression at contact initiates a force labelled ‘gravity’ or ‘g’.(Einstein;- matter tells Space how to curve) Inhabitants of a bit of debris, a blue coloured sphere, calculate this event as occurring 4.5 Billion years past. Each component of the debris field form into helical orbits around their star uniquely. These helixes travel around the Galaxy at 390km/s. There is no energy source between debris components; all energy is supplied by the Galaxy. Aether spheres maintain charge separation, while transporting their polluting debris matter. In this paper a spreadsheet will confirm each Planet and Moon has an independent SUN orbit. The helical 3D structure of planetary transport destroys the Newtonian concept of a 2D disk and its associated tangent as the defining planetary gravitational energy hypothesis. The 390km/s travel of the ‘Ecliptic Plane, a cross section of helical volume, transports Aether spheres in a spin pattern. The “Innate Tangential Velocity?” of all planets is a common 390km/s in a third dimension;- ‘Z’ Quoting Mathis;- ”… Physics no longer exists as mechanics, but replaced by ‘slippery maths’…”
Category: Astrophysics

[23] viXra:1809.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-22 05:44:27

Was Mars Terraformed

Authors: Greg Orme
Comments: 103 Pages.

This consists of a chapter from my book “Why We Must Go to Mars” and two unpublished papers. It examines the hypothesis that Mars was visited billions of years ago by aliens. They terraformed Mars by a series of oblique impacts aimed at the poles, these formed volcanoes on them including Tharsis, Olympus Mons, and Elysium Mons. The volcanoes outgassed thickening the atmosphere, they also sublimated the frozen atmosphere at the poles. The polar ice was also melted, this is traced in how it formed the Martian oceans. The rise of these volcanoes, particularly Tharsis, caused an imbalance of the planet inducing polar wander. The South Pole settled for a time a few hundred kilometres west of Hellas, the three main Martian faces (Cydonia Face, King Face, and Nefertiti) were on a great circle probably defining this former equator. Many possibly artificial formations follow this old equator. When the volcanoes cooled the atmosphere and oceans froze again at the poles, this moved them to their current positions. It also caused the extinction of the hypothesized alien colony. These papers are dated but indicate how the hypotheses of polar wander explain many of the fluvial and glacial formations on Mars.
Category: Astrophysics

[22] viXra:1809.0468 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-22 19:01:29

The Solar Group Main Equation (Part 2)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 8 Pages.

C2= 90000 mkmm (my claim) 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3413 mkm +187 mkm We continue our discussion concerning the solar group main equation… The Equation tells new information: 1-The Planet Motion depends on the solar group geometrical structure and not on the gravity forces. 2-Metonic and Saros Cycles both of them originated from the same source which causes their relationship and dependency
Category: Astrophysics

[21] viXra:1809.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 10:25:03

Collision-Free Energy Transfer in Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38] Now, in a new result unveiled today at the Neutrino 2018 conference in Heidelberg, Germany, the collaboration has announced its first results using antineutrinos, and has seen strong evidence of muon antineutrinos oscillating into electron antineutrinos over long distances, a phenomenon that has never been unambiguously observed. [37] The Precision Reactor Oscillation and Spectrum Experiment (PROSPECT) has completed the installation of a novel antineutrino detector that will probe the possible existence of a new form of matter. [36] The MINERvA collaboration analyzed data from the interactions of an antineutrino— the antimatter partner of a neutrino—with a nucleus. [35] The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34]
Category: Astrophysics

[20] viXra:1809.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 12:48:23

Our Universe and a Dark Flow.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 2 Pages. NEW PHYSICS AND EMERGENT THEORIES.

Our confusing universe with dark flow, dark matter, dark energy and our observations from a separating speeding vehicle.
Category: Astrophysics

[19] viXra:1809.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-18 06:39:38

Nuclear Pasta in Neutron Stars

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Nuclear pasta is incredibly dense, about 100 trillion times the density of water. It’s impossible to study such an extreme material in the laboratory, says physicist Constança Providência of the University of Coimbra in Portugal who was not involved with the research. [24] Researchers at Oregon State University have confirmed that last fall's union of two neutron stars did in fact cause a short gamma-ray burst. [23] Quark matter – an extremely dense phase of matter made up of subatomic particles called quarks – may exist at the heart of neutron stars. [22] When a massive astrophysical object, such as a boson star or black hole, rotates, it can cause the surrounding spacetime to rotate along with it due to the effect of frame dragging. [21] Rotating black holes and computers that use quantum-mechanical phenomena to process information are topics that have fascinated science lovers for decades, but even the most innovative thinkers rarely put them together. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14]
Category: Astrophysics

[18] viXra:1809.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 11:35:22

Symmetry Breaking Between Fundamental Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to recreate the early universe conditions. [28] Now researchers at the Paul Scherrer Institute PSI have helped to better understand the first minutes of the universe: They collected artificially produced beryllium-7 and made it into a sample that could be investigated. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19]
Category: Astrophysics

[17] viXra:1809.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 06:16:43

The Evolution of Star Habitable Zones

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

It was discovered that planets are older, evolving stars. This means the Circumstellar Habitable Zone collapses and/or shrinks into the star itself, thus evolves as the star evolves. Explanation is provided.
Category: Astrophysics

[16] viXra:1809.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 11:33:03

Gravity Theory Saved

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

An international group of astronomers, including physicists at the University of St Andrews, has revived a previously debunked theory of gravity, arguing that motions within dwarf galaxies would be slower if close to a massive galaxy. [19] While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[15] viXra:1809.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 15:25:58

Alternative Reflections on Gravitational Anomalies During Solar Eclipses

Authors: Johann Albers
Comments: 8 Pages.

Since the first reports by Allais about gravitational anomalies during solar eclipses, a large number of papers appeared until now which assume that these anomalies are due to a shielding or an absorption of the attracting force of the Sun by the mass of the Moon. In the meantime it became more and more clear that this is not the case. Instead of a single maximum of the anomaly at totality, as expected from a shielding effect, due to several recent observations, a quite different effect seems to exist: The appearance of two maxima of the gravitational anomalies, one near the first and a second near the fourth contact. This curious behavior can hardly be explained by classical theories of gravitation. On the basis of the "Alternative Reflections on Gravitation" (ARG), however, just such a behavior of the anomalous gravitational effects can very well be expected. This can be derived quite straightforward from the principles of the ARG, considering the interaction of ALPs from the Sun with the unusual spatial arrangement of the magnetic field of the Moon.
Category: Astrophysics

[14] viXra:1809.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 07:14:43

The Real Meaning of the Hubble Diagram

Authors: Karan R.Takkhi
Comments: 17 pages, 16 tables, 9 equations, 5 graphs, 1 figure (Manuscript submitted to a journal)

The Hubble diagram continues to remain one of the most important graphical representations in the realm of astronomy and cosmology right from its genesis that depicts the velocity-distance relation for the receding large-scale structures within the observable Universe. The linear behaviour of the Hubble diagram has remained consistent right from the very beginning when it got plotted for the very first time. In this paper I unravel the real meaning of the Hubble diagram by introducing the molecular diffusion model in order to explain the expansion of the Universe. The molecular diffusion model considers the distribution of large-scale structures as molecules inside a vacuum chamber. Since large- scale structures are ensemble of atoms, therefore, they can be treated as molecules possessing finite amount of energy. Instead of considering that space is expanding, the paper emphasizes upon the actual recession of large-scale structures. The study conducted in this paper finds the recessional behaviour of large-scale structures to be consistent with the recessional behaviour of molecules.
Category: Astrophysics

[13] viXra:1809.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 11:41:33

Dark Matter Clusters

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists are hoping to understand one of the most enduring mysteries in cosmology by simulating its effect on the clustering of galaxies. [20] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved nearly $1 million in funding for the research team, which has been tasked with leveraging large-scale computer simulations and developing new statistical methods to help us better understand these fundamental forces. [19] According to a new study, they could also potentially detect dark matter, if dark matter is composed of a particular kind of particle called a "dark photon." [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[12] viXra:1809.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 16:00:27

The Solar Group Main Equation

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 6 Pages.

The Solar Group Main Equation C2 = 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3600 mkm (c= light velocity = 300000 km/sec) -The Equation tells us that, the solar planets and the sun herself are created from this same energy c2 -The solar group geometrical structure causes that c2= 90000 mkm
Category: Astrophysics

[11] viXra:1809.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 23:23:27

Hubble Law Extended for the Accelerating Universe

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 7 Pages. your comment is very much welcomed

Hubble law describes both the uniformly expanding universe originally and then the accelerating universe. We argue that for describing an accelerating system, physics laws should include terms of acceleration for accuracy and completeness. We extend Velocity-Distance and Distance-Redshift relations of Hubble law to Acceleration-Velocity-Distance and Acceleration-Velocity-Distance-Redshift relation of Extended-Hubble-Law (denoted as EHL). The latter contains Doppler effect, Acceleration-Redshift, Hubble’s Distance-Redshift, and the cosmological redshift; and, thus, is appropriate for small and large redshift, slow and fast velocity, near and faraway source. EHL shows: (1) acceleration causes both redshift and the time change of redshift, which may be tested by sound wave; (2) the age of the accelerating universe is older. EHL provides an approach to test jerking motion of the universe. We suggest that EHL is worth to pursue for restudying Hubble law related phenomena including measurement of Hubble constant.
Category: Astrophysics

[10] viXra:1809.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 19:05:09

The Solar Group Main Energy

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 17 Pages.

The main hypothesis "The Solar Group is created from one Energy, where this Energy creates the planet matter and his orbital distance, so the solar group can be similar to one body and each planet is considered as a member in this body. That means, the solar planets existence depends on their cooperation with each other". The solar Group energy is defined by the following Equation C2 = 90000 mkm = 86400 mkm +3600 mkm (c= light velocity = 300000 km/sec and c2 is the squared value) The previous Equation expresses the solar group main Energy This paper studies only this Equation to prove the main hypothesis
Category: Astrophysics

[9] viXra:1809.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 12:55:08

Black Hole Disks Hiding

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

We now understand that massive stars and black holes typically segregate into a disk," said Ákos Szölgyén of Eötvös University, Hungary, who led the study that has been published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [21] Answering the question "How did galaxies form and evolve during the 13.8-billion-year history of the universe?" has been one top issue in modern astronomy. [20] If someone were to venture into one of these relatively benign black holes, they could survive, but their past would be obliterated and they could have an infinite number of possible futures. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18] But for rotating black holes, there's a region outside the event horizon where strange and extraordinary things can happen, and these extraordinary possibilities are the focus of a new paper in the American Physical Society journal Physical Review Letters. [17] Astronomers have constructed the first map of the universe based on the positions of supermassive black holes, which reveals the large-scale structure of the universe. [16] Astronomers want to record an image of the heart of our galaxy for the first time: a global collaboration of radio dishes is to take a detailed look at the black hole which is assumed to be located there. [15] A team of researchers from around the world is getting ready to create what might be the first image of a black hole. [14] "There seems to be a mysterious link between the amount of dark matter a galaxy holds and the size of its central black hole, even though the two operate on vastly different scales," said Akos Bogdan of the Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics (CfA). [13] If dark matter comes in both matter and antimatter varieties, it might accumulate inside dense stars to create black holes. [12] For a long time, there were two main theories related to how our universe would end. These were the Big Freeze and the Big Crunch. In short, the Big Crunch claimed that the universe would eventually stop expanding and collapse in on itself. This collapse would result in…well…a big crunch (for lack of a better term). Think " the Big Bang " , except just the opposite. That's essentially what the Big Crunch is. On the other hand, the Big Freeze claimed that the universe would continue expanding forever, until the cosmos becomes a frozen wasteland. This theory asserts that stars will get farther and farther apart, burn out, and (since there are no more stars bring born) the universe will grown entirely cold and eternally black. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[8] viXra:1809.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 06:52:15

Electron Anti-Neutrinos in Supernova

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

An international team of researchers has proposed a new method to investigate the inner workings of supernovae explosions. [38] The researchers used distant quasars, one of which emitted its light 7.8 billion years ago and the other 12.2 billion years ago, to determine the measurements to be made on pairs of entangled photons. [37] Researchers have demonstrated the first quantum light-emitting diode (LED) that emits single photons and entangled photon pairs with a wavelength of around 1550 nm, which lies within the standard telecommunications window. [36] JILA scientists have invented a new imaging technique that produces rapid, precise measurements of quantum behavior in an atomic clock in the form of near-instant visual art. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29] Particle physicists are studying ways to harness the power of the quantum realm to further their research. [28]
Category: Astrophysics

[7] viXra:1809.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 13:14:11

Gravitational Wave Detector Tricks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Astrophysics

[6] viXra:1809.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 03:10:58

Possible and Impossible in Physics. Hypotheses and Laws

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 7 Pages. -

Article F.M.Kanarev "Is origin an planets of solar system" http://sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/10112.html making a hypothesis of the formation of solar system caused by close flight of the "small star" were born.
Category: Astrophysics

[5] viXra:1809.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 10:55:42

Life Requires Earth Clone

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[4] viXra:1809.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 13:27:57

Earth's Oxygen Increased Gradual

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

A carbon cycle anomaly discovered in carbonate rocks of the Neoproterozoic Hüttenberg Formation of northeastern Namibia follows a pattern similar to that found right after the Great Oxygenation Event, hinting at new evidence for how Earth's atmosphere became fully oxygenated. [13] The conditions for life surviving on planets entirely covered in water are more fluid than previously thought, opening up the possibility that water worlds could be habitable, according to a new paper from the University of Chicago and Pennsylvania State University. [12] Scientists at Rutgers University–New Brunswick and elsewhere are at a crossroads in their 50-year quest to go beyond the Standard Model in physics. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Astrophysics

[3] viXra:1809.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 18:43:44

Jupiter Uranus Distance (Metonic Cycle Reason) (revised)

Authors: Gerges Francis Tawdrous
Comments: 45 Pages.

1- Metonic Cycle is Energy sent from Uranus to the moon 2- Pluto also effects on Metonic Cycle 3-There's a relationship between Earth and the Moon at one side and Pluto at the other side 4- There's a relationship between Jupiter and Uranus at one side and Pluto at the other side 5- There's a relationship between Mercury and Pluto. The previous relationships are found because The solar group is one body (or one machine), and the solar planets are members in this body, and as the body blood connects all remembers. similar to that, the solar group is created from one energy, and this one energy creates the planet matter and orbital distance and connects all planets together in one system, which makes the solar group as one body (or one Energy trajectory).
Category: Astrophysics

[2] viXra:1809.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 10:19:25

Resolution for Expanding Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Astronomers are engaged in a lively debate over plans to rename one of the laws of physics. [28] Unexpected hot spots in the cosmic microwave background (CMB) could have been produced by black holes evaporating before the Big Bang. [27] Researchers have developed a new way to improve our knowledge of the Big Bang by measuring radiation from its afterglow, called the cosmic microwave background radiation. [26] The group's results reinforce a disagreement over the value of the Hubble constant as measured directly and as calculated via observations of primordial radiation – a disparity, say the researchers, which likely points to new physics. [25] Neutron stars consist of the densest form of matter known: a neutron star the size of Los Angeles can weigh twice as much as our sun. [24] Supermassive black holes, which lurk at the heart of most galaxies, are often described as "beasts" or "monsters". [23] The nuclei of most galaxies host supermassive black holes containing millions to billions of solar-masses of material. [22] New research shows the first evidence of strong winds around black holes throughout bright outburst events when a black hole rapidly consumes mass. [21] Chris Packham, associate professor of physics and astronomy at The University of Texas at San Antonio (UTSA), has collaborated on a new study that expands the scientific community's understanding of black holes in our galaxy and the magnetic fields that surround them. [20] In a paper published today in the journal Science, University of Florida scientists have discovered these tears in the fabric of the universe have significantly weaker magnetic fields than previously thought. [19] The group explains their theory in a paper published in the journal Physical Review Letters—it involves the idea of primordial black holes (PBHs) infesting the centers of neutron stars and eating them from the inside out. [18]
Category: Astrophysics

[1] viXra:1809.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 11:51:42

Estimating the Number of Water Worlds in the Milky Way Galaxy with Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Since the dogma has no method for determining how many water worlds are in the Milky Way galaxy, an estimate method and estimate is given using the assumptions garnered by stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Astrophysics