Biochemistry

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[266] viXra:1709.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 05:26:15

Analytical Comparison Between Microhematocrit and Automated Methods for Packed Cell Volume (PCV) Determination

Authors: Audu I. Stephen, Simon T. Ubwa, Ogbene G. Igbum, Stephen S. Hati, NwannadiI.Alex
Comments: 4 Pages.

Analytical methods comparison for the determination of packed cell volume(PCV) are essential in clinical laboratory practice as it improves the quality of health care through accurate and reliable clinical decision making from diagnostic results of suitable alternatives. Comparison is necessary because each method is expected to serve as a quality control measure for the other. This study was done to assess the analytical performance between the Microhematocrit and automated methods for PCV determination. In this study carried out at the heamatology laboratory of the Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria, the Microhematocrit method determined by using the HC 702, (ApelCo. Ltd, Korea) was compared with the Automated hematology Analyzer method (KX-21N sysmex, USA) using paired data of blood samples analyzed respectively from 206 patients in the hospital. Data analysis was performed using Analyse-it ® Version 4.6 method validation software. The results showed that similar overall mean values of PCV were obtained by both microhematocrit (34.5±7.3%) and automated (34.3±6.8%) methods. Result of t-test analysis was not statistically significant (p= 0.135) between the overall measurements by both methods.
Category: Biochemistry

[265] viXra:1709.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 05:33:48

Augmentation of Anticoagulant Effect with Vitamin D: Possible Therapeutic Target for Venous Thromboembolism

Authors: Anindita Banerjee, Vineet Kumar Khemka
Comments: 5 Pages.

Venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly. Arrays of risk factors altering the blood flow, endothelial function and coagulability have been identified. However, the precise mechanisms that trigger clotting in major veins have not been fully elucidated. Activation of endothelial cells by hypoxia or inflammatory stimuli results in surface expression of adhesion molecules that facilitate the binding of circulating leukocytes and microvesicles. Subsequent leukocyte activation induces the release of potent procoagulant tissue factor that triggers thrombosis. Aging, immobility, smoking, surgery, OCP intake, cancer etc predispose to stasis, increased coagulation factor levels, impaired function of the venous valves, decreases in the efficacy of natural anticoagulants associated with the vessel wall, increased risk of immobilization and increased risk of severe infection. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological with anticoagulation being the mainstay of treatment. Thus, better understanding the mechanisms of venous thrombosis may lead to the development of new therapeutic / preventive modalities. Recently, vitamin D, the sunshine hormone, has been in the limelight due to some experimental and epidemiological evidences showing its antithrombotic actions by various mechanisms. With emerging data about the potential association of vitamin D as an antithrombotic agent, our review has dissected the recent evidences of vitamin D having any beneficial effect on the markers of thrombosis or improvement among patients with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolidm(DVT/PE).
Category: Biochemistry

[264] viXra:1709.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 05:35:13

Sickle Cell Disease

Authors: Lavanya B
Comments: 1 Page.

Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a hereditary constant disorder. Peoples with the disease turn out abnormal hemoglobin, a protein in red blood cells affix to oxygen in the lungs and carries it to all parts of the body. This irregular hemoglobin causes the red blood cells to become inflexible and sickle- cell shaped, which causes them to fix together and hunk the flow of blood and oxygen to the body. The disease results from a single mutation in the gene that codes one of the protein chains that make up the hemoglobin molecule. Hemoglobin is the main constituent of red blood cells and allows the cells to raise up oxygen from the lungs and drop it off in tissues throughout the body, from the brain to the muscles. The sickle alteration causes the red blood cells to make a tainted version of the hemoglobin that forces the red cell into a sickle shape when oxygen levels drop. The sickled red blood cells tangle together, overcrowding blood vessels throughout the body and causing severe pain and unfortunate health consequences.
Category: Biochemistry

[263] viXra:1709.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:55:11

A Genotyping and Phenotyping Study Concerning the Possible Effects of Some Inflammatory Cytokine Gene Polymorphisms on the Development of Coal Workers’ Pneumoconiosis

Authors: Ilker Ates, Asuman Karakaya, Sinan H. Suzen, Berran Yucesoy
Comments: 5 Pages.

Cytokines are important for playing a major role in several inflammatory reactions resulting in development of several diseases as well as Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis (CWP). Coal dust exposure stimulates inflammatory response leading to enhanced cytokine release from monocytes such as TNF-alpha and IL1. These released cytokines are the key points in the pathogenesis of CWP. The present study aimed to seek the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal workers by genotyping and phenotyping analysis of important CWP-related proinflammatory cytokines; TNF-alpha, IL1-alpha and IL1-beta. According to the genotyping results, TNFA –238 gene polymorphism was appeared to be a risk factor in development of CWP (OR=3.79) and regarding to the phenotyping analysis, both TNF-alpha and IL1 cytokine releases from the monocytes in CWP patients were enhanced significantly compared to the healthy workers. Therewithal, LPS and coal dust stimulated TNF-alpha release were higher significantly in allele 2 carriers than allele 1 carriers in both of the groups. These data propose that coal dust-induced TNF-alpha release from monocytes may be a valuable biomarker of CWP.
Category: Biochemistry

[262] viXra:1709.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:56:12

A T Cell Equation as a Conceptual Model of T Cell Responses for Maximizing the Efficacy of Cancer Immunotherapy

Authors: Haidong Dong, Yiyi Yan, Roxana S. Dronca, Svetomir N. Markovic
Comments: 5 Pages.

Following antigen stimulation, the net outcomes of a T cell response are shaped by integrated signals from both positive co-stimulatory and negative regulatory molecules. Recently, the blockade of negative regulatory molecules (i.e. immune checkpoint signals) demonstrates promising therapeutic effects in treatment of human cancers, but only in a fraction of cancer patients. Since this therapy is aimed to enhance T cell responses to cancers, here we devised a conceptual model by integrating both positive and negative signals in addition to antigen stimulation that can evaluate strategies to enhance T cell responses. A digital range of adjustment of each signal is formulated in our model for prediction of a final T cell response. Our model provides a rational combination strategy for maximizing the therapeutic effects of cancer immunotherapy.
Category: Biochemistry

[261] viXra:1709.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:57:11

Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia:Focusing on Therapy According to Classification

Authors: Fergun Yilmaz, Filiz Vural
Comments: 6 Pages.

AutoImmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature destruction of the red blood cells due to autoantibodies produced against erythrocyte antigens. Early destruction shortens the lifespan of the erythrocytes and causes anemia, the hallmark of the disease. It is a heterogeneous disease so the clinical presentation is diverse from a mild asymptomatic anemia to a refractory disease associated with mortality and morbidity. The different classifications are constituted to determine the prognosis and appropriate treatment strategy. It can be classified according the absence or presence of an underlying cause as primary or secondary. Another classification in AIHA is according to the type and thermal activity of the antibody as Cold Agglutinin Disease (CAD) or warm AIHA. In CAD, rituximab monotherapy or combinations is the treatment of choice. In the warm AIHA, the steroid should be preferred as a first line therapy. In the steroid refractory or relapsed patients, rituximab or splenectomy can be chosen according to the patient’s characteristics and the experience of the doctor. Since treatment mainly depends on the subtype of the disease differential diagnosis between the subtypes becomes important. This review will be focused on the classification and the treatment of AIHAs according to subtypes.
Category: Biochemistry

[260] viXra:1709.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 01:58:09

Extraintestinal Involvements of Crohn’s Disease Complicated with Nocardia Bacterium: An Overview Due to A Case

Authors: Onur Özgenç, Seher Ayten Coşkuner, Hakan Evren, Meltem Avci
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this case report authors wanted to draw attention, to extraintestinal disorders of Crohn’s disease; an old disease known for more than a century, and to an emerging infectious pathogen Nocardia; a recently emphasized challanging species. A case of Crohn’s disease with complicated skin disorders, and acute compartment syndrome and cervical epidural abscess evolving due to Nocardia bacterium, has been discussed. The two medical entities, the Crohn’s disease with its extraintestinal involvements and nocardial infection with potential risk to cause disseminated infection especially in the immune compromised host, are the main subjects of this manuscript. In this respect, it is concluded that the patients with Crohn’s disease should be monitored closely for their extraintestinal involvements, and emerging and fastidious infections, so that the role of those infectious pathogens in the etiology of Crohn’s disease can be further investigated.
Category: Biochemistry

[259] viXra:1709.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:00:36

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia and Autoimmune Cytopenias: Pathogenesis, Diagnosis and Treatment

Authors: Fergun Yilmaz, Demet Kiper, Filiz Vural
Comments: 7 Pages.

Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a clonal proliferation of B cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, peripheral blood, spleen and other lymphoid tissues. CLL is mostly associated with dysregulated immune system. Intrinsic immune dysfunction results in increased frequency of autoimmune disorders and susceptibility to infections at the time of diagnosis or during course of the disease. Autoimmune cytopenias especially Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) is observed frequently. AIHA is the most common immune cytopenia ranging between 5-10 % and it is followed by less frequent Immune Thrombocytopenia (IT) (1-5%). Autoimmune Neutropenia (AIN) and Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA) are rare entities (<1%). In CLL patients, the differential diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenias is important since there are many confounding factors which may cause cytopenia in CLL patients such as infiltration of bone marrow by malignant cells, chemotherapy and infections. A careful diagnostic workup should be performed including history taking, physical examination, laboratory tests and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The treatment of AIHA and IT is similar to their counter parts primary AIHA and IT where the steroids are the treatment of choice. In PRCA, steroids are mostly ineffective and immunosuppressive agents should be tried. AIN is a very rare entity in CLL patients. Granulocyte stimulating factors, immunosuppressive therapies may be options in symptomatic patients.
Category: Biochemistry

[258] viXra:1709.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:04:15

Platelet-Rich Fibrin as a New Approach in Treating Gingival Recession: Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

Authors: Reham AL Jasser, Hania AlKudmani, Sebastiano Andreana
Comments: 12 Pages.

The purpose was to systematically review the effect of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of Miller class I and II recession defects in comparison to conventional surgical procedures. Three electronic databases were searched, and hand search was performed for relevant articles, up to October 2015. All relevant articles were independently screened to specific inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes were Recession Depth (RD), Keratinized Tissue Width (KTW), and Percentage of Root Coverage (%RC). Secondary outcomes were Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Probing Depth (PD), Healing Index (HI), and Pain. Ten randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria and seven were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in %RC between Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) and CAF + PRF or between CAF + Connective Tissue Graft (CAF + CTG) and CAF + PRF (p = 0.17 and p = 0.56) respectively. A borderline statistical difference was observed between CAF and CAF + PRF (p = 0.05), and no statistically significance difference between CAF + CTG and CAF + PRF (p = 0.23) in KTW. In regards to pain and healing, a significant reduction in pain during the first 5-7 days and faster healing observed in the PRF intervention when compared to the use of CTG or Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD). In conclusion, there was no statistical or clinical difference present between PRF and CAF, CAF + CTG, or CAF + EMD for RD, %RC and KTW when treating Miller class I and II gingival recession. Significant improvement of postoperative pain and healing can be achieved, which may indicate PRF use as an alternative to conventional surgical approaches.
Category: Biochemistry

[257] viXra:1709.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:05:06

Assessment of Occlusal Contacts Leading to Orthodontic Relapse. A Case Study

Authors: Svitlana Koval
Comments: 4 Pages.

The probable mechanism of the orthodontic relapse was described in the article. T-scan III occlusal analysis system was used to examine occlusal contacts in post-orthodontic patient according to the author’s protocol.
Category: Biochemistry

[256] viXra:1709.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:08:13

Dental Biofilm and Saliva Biochemical Composition Changes in Young Orthodontic Patients

Authors: Shady Ahmed Moussa, Hany Gameil Gobran, Mohamed Ahmed Salem, Ibrahim Farouk Barkat
Comments: 5 Pages.

Saliva and dental biofilm of children with orthodontic treatment may be associated with high risk factors that increase incidence of caries development in this population. Aim:To assess the dental biofilm and saliva biochemical composition of young fixed orthodontic patients. Design:The sample comprised 64 participants between 12 to 18 years of age, of whom 32 had fixed orthodontic treatment as study group and 32 did not as a control group. Supragingival biofilm samples were collected from all teeth of all participants by using sterile curettes. The level of insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (IEPS)Calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (Pi) concentrations in dental biofilm was measured using phenol sulphuric acid colorimetric method. The estimated unstimulated salivary flow, pH, buffering capacity and count of Streptococcal Mutants were determined on selective media of all participants.
Category: Biochemistry

[255] viXra:1709.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:09:17

Gender Variation in Pattern of Mandibular Third Molar Impaction

Authors: Obuekwe ON, Enabulele JE
Comments: 4 Pages.

A tooth is said to be impacted when it is obstructed on its path of eruption with the most commonly impacted tooth being the third molar. Various factors have been reported to cause obstruction in the path of eruption of the third molar and these include adjacent tooth, bone as well as soft tissue. Lack of space in the dental arch for the third molar to emerge as well as pathological lesions, stunted growth of tooth germ following nutritional deficiency, irradiation and physical trauma have been implicated in the etiology of third molar impaction [1]. There are varying reports regarding the prevalence of impacted third molars. Impacted third molars are more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla [2,3].However, studies have consistently shown that mesioangular impaction is the most common angulations of impaction of mandibular third molars [1,2,4-6]. A few studies [4,6-8] tried to determine if there are any gender variations in mandibular third molar impaction with varying reports about the association of gender with third molar impaction. Previous studies [2,4] reported no statistically significant difference between gender and mandibular third molar impaction while another study [9] reported significant association between gender and number of impacted teeth as well as the presence of impacted mandibular teeth. With the varying reports regarding the association of gender to third molar impaction, this study was designed to determine the gender variation in mandibular third molar impaction among a group of Nigerian dental patients.
Category: Biochemistry

[254] viXra:1709.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-25 02:09:57

Emphasizing Minimally Invasive Strategies for Improved Dental Care of Children

Authors: Robert L. Karlinsey
Comments: 3 Pages.

In the spirit of National Children’s Dental Health Month, this paper highlights a few strategies that can be used to promote effective management of dental care for children, including fluoride modalities, effective dentist-patient communication, and minimally invasive recommendations for handling enamel lesions; in short, these strategies may serve to provide the child with a more patientcentered approach to improved oral care. At the same time, such management may potentially save the child’s tooth structure from potentially counter-productive solutions involving ‘drill and fill’.
Category: Biochemistry

[253] viXra:1709.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:19:37

Laparoscopic Removal of a Migrated Intra Uterine Device Embedded in the Anterior Abdominal Wall in Yaounde (Cameroon), a Third World Country

Authors: Bang Guy Aristide, Nana Oumarou Blondel, Nong Libend Gilles Thierry, Noah Noah Dominique, Savom Eric Patrick
Comments: 3 Pages.

Uterine perforation is a serious complication which can happen after intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Following the uterine rupture, an IUD may migrate into gynecologic, urinary or gastro-intestinal system organs. There are many reports of migrated iuds but fewer report of iuds embedded in the abdominal wall. Laparoscopic removal of a migrated IUD wasn’t yet described in our country For more information : https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/
Category: Biochemistry

[252] viXra:1709.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:23:20

Controversies in Pregnancy Management after Prenatal Diagnosis of a Twin Pregnancy Discordant for Trisomy 21 Diagnosed by Cell-Free Fetal DNA Testing

Authors: Emine Cetin, Tamina Rawnaq, Boris Schulze-Koenig, Moritz Doebert, Panagiota Zoi, Peter Schwaerzler
Comments: 3 Pages.

Background: Current preliminary data is advocating cfDNA testing in twin pregnancies since both increasing use of ART and higher maternal ages have raised the incidence of (discordant) aneuploidies. Procedures and findings:This report is raising ethical implications deriving from a twin pregnancy discordant for trisomy 21 conceived from egg donation and diagnosed by cfDNA testing after low risk conventional first-trimester screening. For More Information : https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/
Category: Biochemistry

[251] viXra:1709.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:25:10

Giant Oocytes with Two Meiotic Spindles and Two Polar Bodies: Report of Two Cases

Authors: Baris Baykal, Cem Korkmaz, Muhterem Bahçe, Cihangir Mutlu Ercan, Temel Ceyhan
Comments: 3 Pages.

With the advent of IVF technology, the terms normal and abnormal oocytes have been defined and one type of abnormal oocyte is the “giant oocyte”. Giant oocytes are defined to have a 30% larger diameter and twice the volume of normal oocytes[1,2]. Giant oocyte is a rarery observed phenomenon among humans and embryos may develop from these oocytes [2,3].The first hypothesis for the mechanism of their formation is cytoplasmic fusion of two oogonia and the second one is the lack of cytokinesis during mitotic divisions in an oogonium [4]. Fertilization and progression of a giant oocyte is suspected to be the cause of digynic triploidy, which is defined as triploidy with two maternal and one paternal complements [5]. In this case report, we present two giant oocytes, each shown to have two meiotic spindles via visualization by polarization microscope. Because giant oocytes can develop into embryos that are morphologically normal, but genetically abnormal, an embryologist has to be aware of this phenomenon. For this reason, the scientific aim of this report is to present the polarization microscopic properties of giant oocytes and increase the awareness of such oocytes among embryologists.
Category: Biochemistry

[250] viXra:1709.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:26:35

Risk Factors for Preterm Birth among Women Who Delivered Preterm Babies at Bugando Medical Centre, Tanzania

Authors: Josephine J. Rugaimukam, Michael J. Mahande, Sia E. Msuya, Rune N. Philemon
Comments: 7 Pages.

Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality globally. Infants who are born preterm suffer long term health consequences. There only few studies done on risk factors for prematurity in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for preterm birth among women who delivered preterm babies at Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania. Methods:A matched case-control study was conducted at the Bugando Medical Centre from May to June 2015. A total of 50 women with preterm birth (cases) were matched with 50 women who had term births (controls). Cases were matched with controls by date of delivery. We excluded mothers with multiple gestations and those who were sick and unsuitable for the interview. A structured questionnaire was used to collected relevant information from all participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were estimated in a multivariate regression model to determine factors associated with preterm delivery.
Category: Biochemistry

[249] viXra:1709.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:27:14

Pregnancy, Exercise and Late Effects in the Offspring until Adult Age

Authors: Jana Pařízková
Comments: 6 Pages.

Maternal exercise during pregnancy as one of the critical periods can have significant delayed effect in the offsprring’s fetal imprinting of future development until adult age; adequate and voluntary exercise is provided, not a forced one as a stress. Spontaneous physical activity of the offspring until adult age can be increased, and body composition, cardiac micro structure and reactibility (greater resistance to noxi), vasomotor function, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity along with related diseases (diabetes) can be positively influenced. Bone development and also the enhancement of brain function and learning sensitivity can be improved as revealed in a number of experimental model animal studies. Exercise during pregnancy was also shown to compensate in the offspring the detrimental effect of inadequate, e.g. high fat diets. Possibility of introducing significant modifications of the programming of the offspring’s desirable development and health status by adequate and physiological maternal exercise during pregnancy was supported also by some observations in humans.
Category: Biochemistry

[248] viXra:1709.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:33:58

The Role of Veterinarians in a Foundation for Elderly Dogs

Authors: Ronald Lagoe, Alyssa Chandler, Christine Berry
Comments: 2 Pages.

In recent years, interest in the care of elderly dogs has increased in the United States. Advances in veterinary medicine have prolonged the life spans of the animals that it supports. The needs of elderly dogs have generated interest among many specialties within veterinary medicine. These include internal medicine, surgery, anesthesiology, neurology, orthopedics, dermatology, and ophthalmology. This process has occurred in university teaching hospitals and private practices. This evolution of clinical practice has been supported by funding from veterinary providers and dog owners. Unlike in the case of human health care, this has not been accompanied by the development of large third party payers. As a result, a number of relatively small insurance plans and private organizations have emerged to address these needs.
Category: Biochemistry

[247] viXra:1709.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:35:28

Effect of Moringa Oleifera Leaf Meal (Molm) on the Growth, Carcass, Heamatology and Biochemical Parameters of Rabbits

Authors: Ghomsi MOS, Enow JT, Etchu KA, Tientcheu BL, Enamou G, Chouengouong TM, Mongo BG, Bayemi PH
Comments: 5 Pages.

An experiment was conducted with 30 mixed bred rabbits (6 to 8 weeks old) averaging 592g to assess the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry, carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits fed graded levels of dried Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM) of 0%, 25%, and 50%, as a replacement of Soya Bean Meal (SBM) and groundnut cake in 8-week feeding trial. Feed consumption and weight gain were monitored. Blood samples were collected from the animals through the ear vein for haematology and serum biochemistry, while weight of cut parts and visceral organs were collected from the animals after they were stunned and sacrificed after the 8-week feeding trials and weighed. Results showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the value obtained for weight gain, feed conversion ratio, total protein and White Blood Cell (WBC). While the results of carcass and organ weight showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in values obtained for live weight, dress weight spleen, head and kidney. While there was no significant difference among the blood constants (VGM and MCHC). Among the leukocyte differential counts examined, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the dietary treatments. The results suggest that MOLM possess good dietary protein quality for optimal growth of rabbits and be incorporated in the rabbit’s diets up to 25% inclusion levels without any detrimental effects on the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits.
Category: Biochemistry

[246] viXra:1709.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:38:31

Effect of Month and Season of Birth on Milk Quantity and Quality of Holstein Friesian Cows in Kabul Bini Hisar Dairy Farm

Authors: Shaour Gul Faqiri, Gul Mohammad Tanin
Comments: 4 Pages.

AEffect of calving month and season on productive traits of Holstein dairy cows. In Kabul Bini Hisar Dairy farm. Productive data on 305 days lactation period for 49 Holstein dairy cows, which were collected during one month from dairy cattle in Beni Hisar Farm in Kabul province using recorded data from 1389 to 1392 years, were used to estimate the effect of calving month and season for the purpose of estimating the correlation between milk yield, fat production and fat percentage of the Holstein dairy cows. General linear model (GLM) procedure and SPSS software were used for the estimation of the effect calving month and seasons. The results showed calving month influenced significantly on productive traits (P < 0.05). The greatest milk and fat production (kg) were observed in dairy cows that calved in December. In addition, dairy cows that calved in October had the greatest fat percentage totally, the results showed, animals that calved in fall season had greater performance than the others. Naturally, milk production of these animals reached production peak in winter when the weather and nutritional conditions are suitable for production.
Category: Biochemistry

[245] viXra:1709.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:39:27

The Prevalence of Coxofemoral Osteoarthritis in Small Dog Breeds and HD Screening in Cairn Terries A Clinical Radiological Study

Authors: Jens Arnbjerg
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: The prevalence of coxofemoral osteoarthritis being very high, > 40 %, in some large dog breeds. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoarthritic changes in the hip joints in small dog breeds and study the clinical relevance of Hip Dysplasia scoring in Cairn Terries in Denmark. Methods: In a five-year-period study of 2423 small dog breeds (< 15 kg) at the University Hospital, Copenhagen the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the hip joints was calculated A full clinical examination was performed and hip joint radiographs taken in 18 Cairn Terriers, earlier officially scored for hip dysplasia by The Danish Kennel Club, 13 of them with a score of C, D or E respectively
Category: Biochemistry

[244] viXra:1709.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:40:22

Effect of Natural Gastrointestinal Parasitic Infection on Carcass Yield and Characteristics of Sudan Desert Sheep

Authors: Nazik Z Eisa, Salih A Babiker, Hamid S Abdalla
Comments: 7 Pages.

This study was conducted to detect the effect of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection along with age and level of energy on the carcass yield and characteristics of Sudan Desert sheep. Forty-eight lambs were divided into eight groups of 6 animals each and fattened for 60 days. A total of twenty four animals (3 from each group) were selected for slaughter at the end of the fattening process. The study revealed significant differences in slaughter weights (P < 0.05), carcass weights (P < 0.05) and carcass characteristics. Both hot and cold empty body weights and dressing percentages were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by internal parasitic infection and dietary energy level. Wholesale cuts yields and loin composition were not significantly affected by infection except for muscle percentage (P < 0.05).
Category: Biochemistry

[243] viXra:1709.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:50:32

Liposomes and Nanotechnology in Drug Development: Focus On Pancreatic Cancer

Authors: Abdul Malik, Jin Wei, Abdul Raheem, Walidullah Adil, Lei Cui, Ji-Xiang Chen, Jian-Guo Qu, Min Gu, Sheng-Chun Dang
Comments: 10 Pages.

Pancreatic cancer usually has high morbidity and mortality and rests one of the most challenging cancers to treat. 5 years survival rate is less than 6 percent overall for people with pancreatic cancer, because of very late diagnosis and absence of effective treatment. In a western world, pancreatic tumor is the fourth most common cause of death in a western world. The pancreatic tumor needs selective delivery of drugs to target cells, with no side effects is major goals of the recent investigations for the real treatment of the pancreatic tumor. Medication which targets pancreatic tumor cells specially and carriers which deliver medications to specific cells which are quickly dividing, development of these kind drugs is considered as magic for the management of pancreatic cancer. In latest years, liposomes and nanotechnology can show a vital character in the treatment of pancreatic tumor. Liposomes contain multiple characteristics, such as the ability to protect the material from degradation, the capacity for encapsulating many materials and capability for delivering materials intracellularly fusion with plasma membrane. Nanoparticles as a carrier offer a new style of delivery of the medications to target cells of a tumor and allow drugs for the binding to tumor cell membrane, to cytoplasmic and to nuclear receptor sites. It delivers high medication concentrations to specific cells with few side effects to other normal tissues. The general importance of this evaluation is to increase overall understanding of development of the therapeutic nanomedicine for the treatment of pancreatic tumors, agents delivered by nanoliposomes, liposomal nanomedicine in targeting cancer and safety issues.
Category: Biochemistry

[242] viXra:1709.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:51:52

Α Cost of Illness Analysis of Hepatitis B Virus Infection in Greece

Authors: Athanasakis K, Pliarchopoulou F, Reppas L, Brountzos E, Filippiadis D, Foukas P, Sidiropoulos O, Kyriopoulos J, Boumpas D, Chounta A
Comments: 3 Pages.

Background/Objective: Although often called a “silent disease”, HBV entails a significant disease and financial burden for the health system. An attempt to provide detailed estimates of the direct cost of this – rather neglected – disease in Greece comprised the objective of this study. Methods: The medical records of 254 patients diagnosed with HBV and monitored in the Hepatology Unit of the ‘Attikon’ university hospital provided the basis for the analysis. Detailed resource use data (physician visits, medications, labwork, and hospitalizations) were derived from the patients’ records for a retrospective 12month period, before their most recent visit to the clinic. Calculations followed a third-party payer perspective, according to official prices and tariffs, and are expressed in year 2015 Euros.
Category: Biochemistry

[241] viXra:1709.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:53:19

Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis B Virus Patients Related Liver Cirrhosis in a Tertiary Care Referral Hospital, Duhok, Iraqi Kurdistan

Authors: Muayad A Merza
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) related to liver cirrhosis is an advanced liver fibrosis that is usually progressive, irreversible, and the only option for the treatment is liver transplantation in selected patients Objectives: to examine the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients with the chronic HBV related to cirrhosis. Methods: The viral hepatitis clinic in Azadi Teaching Hospital is dealing with all viral hepatitis cases. All patients with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic HBV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information of the patients were retrieved by interviewing and from the case notes of September in 2014 until December in 2016. Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) classification was used to evaluate the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. The results obtained were analyzed by entering the data into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. A value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Category: Biochemistry

[240] viXra:1709.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:55:05

Does Aberrant Hepatic Arterial Anatomy Affect Resection Margin Status In Pancreaticoduodenectomy For Pancreatic Adenocarcinoma?

Authors: Patrick E Casey, Snehal Lapsia, Rosanna De Souza, Kariem El hadd, Zaria Ali, Ambareen Kausar, David Chang, Colin A Harris, Daren A Subar
Comments: 5 Pages.

Aims: Resection margin status impacts on survival after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This study aims to assess the incidence and association between aberrant hepatic arterial anatomy and resection margin status. Methodology: This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 2007 and 2012. Patient demographics, pathology data, and resection margin status (R) were analysed. Arterial anatomy based on contrast enhanced computed tomography as per Michels classification was delineated.
Category: Biochemistry

[239] viXra:1709.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 04:59:38

Primary Hepatic Leiomyosarcoma A Space Occupying Lesion in the Liver: An Enigma for Diagnosis

Authors: Rajdeep B More, Irfan A Shera, Sitendu K Patel, Ashwini Kumar Setya, Vivek Raj
Comments: 3 Pages.

Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma are rare soft tissue sarcomas with about only about 60 cases reported in the English literature [1]. Due to its rare existence and less studied, the diagnostic algorithms and standards of care have not been adequately defined. This has led to a delayed diagnosis and subsequently a poor prognosis and survival of such patients. We herein present a 72 year old lady with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma treated with chemotherapy and attempt to delineate the line of management after reviewing the medical literature. Primary Hepatic Leiomyosarcoma is a rare primary hepatic malignancy which is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. The standard treatment guidelines are yet to be established; large cohort database is needed for better understanding of disease behaviour and management.
Category: Biochemistry

[238] viXra:1709.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:05:32

Electrospinning of Guar Gum/Corn Starch Blends

Authors: Weiqiao Yang, Ana MM Sousa, Xihong Li, Peggy M Tomasula, LinShu Liu
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, electrospun nanofibers were prepared for the first time, from aqueous blends of guar gum (GG) and corn starch with amylose contents of 27.8% (CS28) and 50% (CS50). The fiber morphology and fiber diameter sizes (FDS) were correlated with solution rheology. The spinning solutions were prepared with 3 wt% total concentration and mass ratios ranging from 4:1 to 1:4 GG/CS. The GG alone (3 wt%) was highly viscous and predominantly elastic (G’>G’’) over the range of tested frequencies. Both CS were effective rheological modifiers that facilitated the electrospinning process. Partial substitution of GG by CS decreased solution viscosity and moved the elastic plateau (G’=G’’) to higher frequencies resulting in improved fiber morphology and defectfree nanofibers with uniform FDS at an optimal GG/CS ratio of 2:1 for CS28 and of 1:1 for CS50. The sonication of CS50 prior to blending with GG was important to eliminate nanofiber defects. GG and CS are costattractive options to produce 100% food-grade electrospun nanofibers with potential to encapsulate active food ingredients and be used to develop functional foods and other active food systems.
Category: Biochemistry

[237] viXra:1709.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:06:39

Making the Nitrification Inhibitor with LatexChitosan Raw Material for Agricultural Fertilizers Products

Authors: Sudirman Habibie, Moh Hamzah, Ade Sholeh Hidayat, Eryanti Kalembang, Jaudin, Diah Ayu Fitriani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Fertilizer is one of the priorities for the agricultural industry and it contributes about 15 to 30% in the cost structure of rice farming. Capacity of national urea production in Indonesia is about 8 million tons per year while the needs are about 9 million tons per year. According to the Ministry of Industry in 2015 urea production can be increased by 6% from the previous national urea production capacity. On the use of fertilizers in the field, however, lost of nutrients during fertilization in the field (paddy) occurs a lot, so the efficiency of fertilizer use is reduced partly due to nitrification and urease. Therefore, it needs innovation and technological development of efficient agricultural fertilizer currently need to modify fertilizers with coating technology of nitrification inhibitor on the surface of the fertilizer granules. In this study the nature polymers (latex and chitosan) are used as a raw material nitrification inhibitors, several studies have shown that chitosan has a performance as anti bacteria that can be applied in agriculture. The study of a material generally involves the characterization by SEM and FT-IR to determine the characteristics micrographics and molecular bonding group of materials including latex-chitosan. The results of the study nitrification inhibitor made from latex-derived chitosan found that optimum formula of latex-chitosan mixture is sample with the mixture of latex 20% and chitosan 80% and be compatible with the surface of agricultural fertilizer granule, and a layer of latex-chitosan capable of strengthening the structure of fertilizer granules when tested in water for 3 months. This latex-chitosan based fertilizer shown as slow release fertilizer (urea and NPK) and resistant to moisture.
Category: Biochemistry

[236] viXra:1709.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:07:31

Investigation on Photoluminescence Behaviour of 2, 3-Diphenylquinoxalin-6-Vinyl Benzaldehyde

Authors: R Padma, M Sathiya, S Guhanathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Poly (p-phenylene vinylene) is one of the most important classes of conjugated polymers, with a wide range of applications, such as lightemitting diodes, optoelectronic devices etc. Electroluminescence from OLEDs arises from the radioactive decay of excitation generated by the recombination of electrons and holes injection from two opposite electrodes into the emissive polymer layer. Quinoxaline is a useful n-type building block with high electron affinity and good thermal stability. It has been successfully incorporating small molecules to find utility as electron transport materials in multilayer OLEDs based on PPV. Hence, vinyl benzaldehyde containing quinoxaline derivatives was synthesized using 6-methyl-2, 3-diphenylquinoxaline with terephthaldicarboxaldehyde via Wittig reaction. The structures of synthesised compounds were confirmed by FT-IR, 1 H, 13C, 31P-NMR, and MASS spectral data. The result of photoluminescence studies showed that vinyl benzaldehyde capped quinoxaline exhibited green emission maxima at shorter wavelengths of 454nm.
Category: Biochemistry

[235] viXra:1709.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:08:19

An Insight into the Capability of Composite Technology to Enable Magnesium to Spread its Wings in Engineering and Biomedical Applications

Authors: Gupta M
Comments: 2 Pages.

Nature has various ways to inspire humans through a lot of its creations that researchers in different disciplines are trying to understand and mimic in order to enhance current state of technology and quality of life. From materials perspective, nature uses composites in its creations involving plants and animals with bone as a classical example.
Category: Biochemistry

[234] viXra:1709.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-23 05:09:13

Polyvinyl Alcohol-Nanobioceramic Based Drug Delivery System

Authors: Shameem Shaik, Seethalakshmi K, Kaviya M, Venkatachalapathy B, Sridhar TM
Comments: 6 Pages.

Drug delivery research today is an advanced and important area in pharmaceutical research and application of nanotechnology includes enhancement of the solubility and permeability of the drugs so as to improve their bioavailability including delivery to the targeted site. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) based bioceramic nanoparticles composed of biodegradable polymers have been used in the present work to develop an amoxicillin based delivery systems. The synthesized n-HAP powders were estimated for the Ca/p ratio. This ratio indicates the presence of HAP as a single phase. The nano structure, morphology and presence of vibrational groups are con- firmed using instrumental analysis. The SEM images show the spherical shaped particles of nano hydroxyapatite are confirmed. The loading and unloading characteristics of the drug were recorded spectro photometrically.
Category: Biochemistry

[233] viXra:1709.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-17 13:43:36

When Were Hydrocarbons Really Formed?

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 MS paint diagram

Establishment dogma has a false worldview, which compounds into hundreds of false smaller theories, models and guesses. They accept that hydrocarbons found in oil and natural gas form as a by-product of decaying life. This is false. Oil and natural gas formed alongside the beginning formation of life itself. It can even be argued that oil/natural gas formed even slightly before life began. This would render the accepted decaying organic material dogma false. Explanation is provided.
Category: Biochemistry

[232] viXra:1708.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:13:35

Why not a Stress Test in an Asymptomatic Person? “The World is Drowning…….”

Authors: Sonia Mishra, Ajay Mishra, Jagdish P Mishra
Comments: 4 Pages.

While growing up, I remember someone telling me a poignant story: “Once a teenager was drowning in a river, he started to yell, “Help me; help me, the world is drowning...........” Well, I will come back to this story at the end of this article... The really so very pertinent question in Medicine is: Should we do any test when someone is asymptomatic? In Cardiology, the very simple question to be asked is: “Do we need to do a stress test when a person is asymptomatic?” Whether that person is truly asymptomatic or not is altogether a different kind of question, however most of the guidelines (US, European and others) state not to do a stress test when a person is asymptomatic (Class III Indication). You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[231] viXra:1708.0457 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:15:16

Diagnosis and Management of Infective Endocarditis in Patient with Ventricular Septal Defect: A Report of Clinical Case from Dakar, Senegal

Authors: Mohamed Leye, Momar Dioum, Adama Sawadogo, Modibo Doumbia, Joseph Mingou, Dominique Bindia, Arame Diagne Diallo, Magalie Kaya, Simon Manga, Kadia Ba, Ousmane Dieye, Ibrahima Bara Diop
Comments: 3 Pages.

Infective Endocarditis (IE) due to Streptococcus pneumoniae is a rare serious complication in the patients with congenital heart diseases. The authors report a case of pneumococcal endocarditis in a 13-year-old boy diagnosed with VSD. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[230] viXra:1708.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:16:21

Efficacy of High-Resolution Epicardial Ultrasonography in Cardiovascular Surgery

Authors: Masaya Oi, Ryuji Higashita, Noboru Ishikawa
Comments: 2 Pages.

In cardiovascular surgery, it is important to identify the target vessel and to assess the quality of vascular structure. Preoperative enhanced computed tomography (CT) and angiography give us that information; however, we sometimes encounter difficulties due to limitation of those preoperative examinations. Intraoperative use of 15-MHz high-frequency epicardial ultrasound with small probe has a great potential to detect small vessels and it will give us benefits in cardiovascular operations, especially coronary artery bypass surgery You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[229] viXra:1708.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:17:11

Massive Bleeding After Median Sternotomy: Case Report of an Infrequent Complication of Infective Endocarditis

Authors: Laura Varela Barca, Jose Lopez Menendez, Ana Redondo Palacios, Jorge Rodriguez Roda Stuart
Comments: 3 Pages.

bstract We report an unusual complication of acute infective endocarditis, found in a 70 year-old man with a previous history of two cardiac surgery procedures. The first one was a full root replacement (BentallDe Bono procedure), associated with three bypasses (one mammary and two vein grafts). The second procedure was a mitral valve replacement through a right thoracotomy ought to native mitral valve endocarditis. In the current admission, echocardiography showed a periaortic abscess (Figure 1) and severe prosthetic mitral valve insufficiency. CT scan showed a big collection in the anterior mediastinal space adjacent to the composite graft (Figure 2), which was suspected to be purulent material. A third surgical intervention was programmed despite the extreme surgical risk. During the median sternotomy, a massive bleeding occurred. It was originated in the mediastinal collection, which truly was a collection of contained bleeding, originated in the 10 yearsold anastomosis of the saphenous vein to the composite graft, which was completely detached due to endocarditic involvement of the aortic graft. The institution of cardiopulmonary bypass before sternal opening enabled the surgical team to maintain a stable hemodynamic situation and to continue the procedure satisfactorily. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[228] viXra:1708.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:18:32

Total Artificial Heart as the Destination Therapy: A Review

Authors: Abdul Mannan Khan Minhas, Salman Assad, Maryam Khan, Saba Ahmed, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Sriharsha Chakravarthi Athota, Jonathan Constantin
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: For the patients awaiting cardiac transplantation, mechanical circulatory support has been widely utilized in the form of left ventricular assist device or total artificial heart. Both total artificial heart and left ventricular assist device have been approved for the use as a bridge to transplantation therapy; however only left ventricular assist device has been approved for use as the destination therapy. The purpose of this review is to establish, using this literature, the possibility for the artificial heart transplant to be used as destination therapy besides highlighting the recent developments in this area of research in order to narrate the future of artificial heart transplantation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[227] viXra:1708.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:54:16

Vascular Effects of Cannabis: Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Homa Timlin, Kirthi Machireddy, Luc Nguyen, Hilda T Draeger
Comments: 3 Pages.

Marijuana is the 3rd most popular recreational drug and the use of recreational and medical marijuana has been legalized in several states. Knowledge of both acute and chronic adverse effects of cannabis is essential when counseling the public. We report 2 cases who developed arteritis and Raynaud’s as a squeal of long term cannabis use and provide a literature review. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[226] viXra:1708.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:56:21

Renal and Paraspinal Mass in a Patient with Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis: Does Biopsy of one Mass Reflect Pathology in the other

Authors: Homa Timlin, Michael Phillips, Jeremy Hackworth, Duvuru Geetha
Comments: 2 Pages.

Granulomatosis with Polyangiitis (GPA) is a necrotizing vacuities affecting medium and small sized blood vessels and produces necrotizing granulomas often involving the upper and lower respiratory tract . GPA can present as tumor like masses in the breast and kidney. However, an association between GPA and renal cell cancer has also been reported. We report a GPA patient who presented with abdominal pain and was found to have a renal and paraspinal mass which were biopsied revealing two distinct pathologic entities. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[225] viXra:1708.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:57:23

Pseudo-Pseudo Meigs’ Syndrome in Rheumatology

Authors: Vitorino Modesto dos Santos
Comments: 1 Page.

The Meigs’ Syndrome (MS) described in 1937 by Meigs and Cass was characterized by benign ovarian fibroma, ascites and hydrothorax that resolve after the tumor removal. Peritoneal and pleural fluids of the patients originally with MS were transudates. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[224] viXra:1708.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:58:24

Needle Versus Forceps Technique in Ultrasound-Guided Synovial Biopsy of the Knee Joint

Authors: Thomas Hügle, Piotr Urbaniak, Magdalena Müller-Gerbl, Christian Marx, Giorgio Tamborrini
Comments: 3 Pages.

Objectives: Ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy is increasingly applied in rheumatology. Usually forceps- or needle-based techniques are used. So far there has been no direct comparison of different devices regarding their suitability in high resolution musculoskeletal ultrasound (hrMSUS)-guided synovial biopsy. Methods: A core needle biopsy (Quickcore, Cook Medical, Bloomington, IN, USA), an anterograde arthroscopy forceps (Karl Storz GmbH, Tuttlingen, Germany), a retrograde forceps (Retroforce, KarlStorz GmbH Tuttlingen, Germany) and an convexly shaped integrated core needle system (Synovex, Hipp Medical, Kolbingen, Germany) were tested for ultrasound-guided synovial biopsy of the suprapatellar recess in cadaver knee joints. Four senior rheumatologists scored each intervention from 0-5 regarding the following characteristics: visualization, handiness, accuracy, synovial tissue yield, invasiveness and overall suitability. Each intervention was recorded as static images and video clips. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[223] viXra:1708.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 06:59:31

Myelomeningocele as Newborn Complication of Lupus Patient. a Singular Case.

Authors: TMSc. Urbano Solis Cartas, MSc. Guillermo Gualpa Jaramillo, Dr.C. Pablo Djabayan Djibeyan, MSc. Lilia del Carmen Villavicencio Narváez
Comments: 4 Pages.

Introduction: pregnancy is considered a risk in patients with rheumatic diseases. The relationship between pregnancy and rheumatic diseases is colored by exacerbation or remission of the disease and possible effects of pregnancy and your final product. Disorders of neural tube development are the second largest group of congenital malformations, with the myelomeningocele is one of the most common malformations. Case presentation: the case of a newborn with myelomeningocele, the son of a female patient of 27 years diagnosed with systemic lupus erythematosus 4 years of evolution is presented. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[222] viXra:1708.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:01:29

Tropical Infection Induced Hemophagocytic LymphoHistiocytosis

Authors: Pannu AK, Sharma N
Comments: 4 Pages.

Tropical infections include Dengue, Malaria, Scrub Typhus, Leptospirosis, Typhoid and some other fevers, lead to high morbidity and mortality. Many of these cases have multi-organ dysfunction and require intensive care unit care. Hemophagocytic LymphoHistiocytosis (HLH), represent a severe hyper-inflammatory condition, can complicate the clinical course of tropical fevers. Methods: Here we report the clinico-pathological features, laboratory data, treatment and outcome of 3 cases of tropical fever (2 scrub typhus and 1 dengue) complicated by HLH. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[221] viXra:1708.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:02:30

Dermatomyositis as Initial Presentation of Hodgkin’s Lymphoma: a Case Report and Review of Literature

Authors: Pannu AK, Varma SC
Comments: 3 Pages.

The increased incident of malignancy is well established in patients with inflammatory myopathies and specifically in Dermatomyositis (DM). However, the association between DM and Hodgkin’s Disease (HD) is very unusual. We have recently had the opportunity of observing a patient who manifested the clinical features of DM and found to have HD after a detailed work up. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[220] viXra:1708.0434 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:03:24

Aplastic Anemia in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: a Better Prognosis Acquired Aplastic Anemia

Authors: Pannu AK, Varma SC
Comments: 2 Pages.

Aplastic anemia (AA) is an uncommon hematologic manifestation of systemic Lupus erythematosus (SLE) with significant difference in the course and outcome from other forms of acquired AA due to underlying immune mediated mechanism of the disease. Here we report a case of SLE with thrombocytopenia at presentation and later evolved to develop pancytopenia with bone marrow aplasia. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[219] viXra:1708.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:04:28

Warfarin Related Nephropathy: a Case Report from a Tertiary Hospital of North India and Review of Literature

Authors: Pannu AK, Vohra G, Agarwal P
Comments: 3 Pages.

Warfarin is the most widely used anticoagulant to treat or prevent thrombotic complications since its approval in the 1950s. Bleeding is the most common complication of warfarin and the risk increases sharply with the International Normalized Ratio (INR). Warfarin Related Nephropathy (WRN) is a newly recognised disease entity and an undiagnosed complication of warfarin. It occurs with over anticoagulation and is associated with increased renal morbidity and all cause mortality. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[218] viXra:1708.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:06:42

Farmers Perception on Fungicide Use for Developing Sustainable Environment and Conservation of Biodiversity: A Study in Cooch Behar District of India

Authors: Ganesh Das
Comments: 4 Pages.

Fungicide was essential for control of infestation of fungus on different crop. Farmers were use different type of fungicide on crop field. Their perception on fungicide use may be different. Different government and private organisation took initiative to aware the farmer about the use of fungicide. But still a problem was found by Cooch Behar Krishi Vigyan Kendra that farmer perception of fungicides use were not homogeneous and the different sources of information may be use by the farmers for fungicide application. So a study was conducted at Gopalpur village in Cooch Behar district, West Bengal, India to know the farmer perception on fungicide use and sources of information utilize for fungicide application. The data were collected during June, 2016. The research design was followed in the study was survey research method. The sample size of the study was 100.The dependent variable of this study was perception and independent variables were age, gender, number of family member, caste, land holding, education, annual income and sources of information. The descriptive statistics like frequency, percentage, Pearson’s product moment correlation and other statistical tools were used for the investigation. This study had shown the relation of the perception of fungicide use with the different independent variable and the role of different extension mechanism for fungicide information providing. It was concluded from the study that farmers’ perception of fungicide use were not homogeneous and the different socio-economic variable may affect the perception of the farmers on fungicide use. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[217] viXra:1708.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:07:43

Evaluation of Different Crop Sequence Production Potential, Economics and Nutrient Balance under New Alluvial Situation Of NEPZ

Authors: Dhiman Mukherjee
Comments: 5 Pages.

A field experiment was conducted during 2014-16 at Kalyani, under the aegis of Bidhan Chandra Krishi Viswavidayalayathe to evaluate the most profitable and efficient cropping systems for indogangetic belt of west Bengal. Treatment comprised of 14 cropping sequence system tested in randomized block design with three replications. For comparison between crop sequences, the yields of all crop sequences were converted into rice equivalent on price basis. With various treatments, more rice equivalent yield was observed with rice-mung sequence (5897 kg/ha), and was significantly higher than rest of the sequence during kharif season and was at par with the maize-wheat (5868 kg/ha), chilly- wheat (5694 kg/ha) and maizecabbage (5503 kg/ha) system. This tested crop sequence resulted in 21.9, 21.3, 17.7 and 13.7 % more grain yield over traditional practice of rice- wheat system, which is most dominant in this region. However, during Rabi season rice- potato (6613 kg/ha), gave significantly more economic yield compare to all other cropping pattern. This sequence resulted in 128.1 % more rice equivalent grain yield over traditional practice of rice- wheat system. Further, rice - cauliflower sequence gave the highest net return (Rs. 97.58 thousand/ha), followed by rice – chickpea (Rs. 88.69 thousand/ha) and rice – mung (Rs. 84.36 thousand/ha). Higher benefit: cost ratio was obtained from ricemung (2.23) and was just followed by chilly –wheat (2.22) and ricecauliflower (2.19) cropping sequence. Present work revealed that, productivity, profitability and sustainable yield index were higher under rice – cauliflower and rice – mung cropping sequence then the traditional rice –wheat sequence. Further, overall nutrient mining by this system was quite low compared to other sequences and suitable under this zone. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[216] viXra:1708.0430 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:08:51

Supply Chains and Rural Communities: Applying Terroir to American Rural Development

Authors: Joseph Molnar, Jolene Glenn
Comments: 5 Pages.

Terroir is a French concept establishing the natural ecology, cultural history, and social organizations of a community create unique agricultural food products. This paper outlines the conceptual foundation for quality promotion in the in the supply chain of geographically differentiated agricultural products. It identifies production processes and pressures determining the current and potential change shaping the commodity chain. It delineates who and how value is added though all stages of production from farm to consumer. The significance of these types of crops in terms of economic as well as cultural value warrants high investment in insuring its terroir, identity, and quality. The actors involved in each stage of production are identified. Many products possessing terroir are advanced and protected by these social groups. The study is part of a larger research project concerning the terroir of Vidalia Onions and through quality and identity development, preservation of the economic and cultural assets of southern Georgia. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[215] viXra:1708.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:09:51

Using Ahp for Evaluation of Criteria for Agro-Industrial Projects

Authors: Gregory Yom Din, Aislu B Yunusova
Comments: 6 Pages.

The article describes an application of the Analytic Hierarchy Process (AHP) to evaluation of criteria for agro-industrial projects. For this purpose, a database was collected from interviews with experts in agricultural regions of Russia (South Urals) in 2015-2016. Experts are classified according to their relationship to agro-industrial business, work experience, education, and gender. The questionnaire was developed based on the analytic hierarchy process methodology. Part of the questions was based on the approach of the prospect theory in order to identify expert attitude to risk associated with the implementation of investment projects. In total, 226 experts responded to the questionnaire. Criteria of agro-industrial projects - financial, social, and risk criteria - were ranked according to their importance and taking into account the expert attitude to risk. Estimates of the criteria importance and expert features analyzed in the study may be used to improve the presentation of agro-industrial projects thus contributing to their successful evaluation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[214] viXra:1708.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-29 07:11:02

Computational Identification of Conserved Domains from Genomic Survey Sequences in Green Gram [vigna Radiata (L.) R. Wilczek]

Authors: Ramprasad Eruvuri, Prasad Gajula MNV, Durga Rani V, Anuradha1, Vanisri S
Comments: 4 Pages.

With recent advances in the field of genome sequencing, analysis and availability of large genomic data in the public domain, we made an attempt to survey the presence of the conserved domains, super families and multi domains having putative functions identified from green gram [Vigna radiata (L.) R. Wilczek] Genomic Survey Sequences (GSS) using computational tools. In this study we have been identified the various conserved domains, super families having putative functions for fundamental, metabolic, developmental, evolutionary processes and physiogenic nature from the query sequences. This study was beneficial in the area of comparativ e genomics for the identification of important genes and also development of functional molecular markers in identified genes for green gram and its related crops improvement. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[213] viXra:1708.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:13:54

Gene Editing: do not Forget About Animal Agriculture

Authors: Yanina Petracca, Alison L. Van Eenennaam, Martin Alfredo Lema
Comments: 2 Pages.

In vivo gene editing techniques have attracted great interest, not only in the scientific community, but also among regulatory agencies worldwide. Within the agricultural sector, gene-edited organisms pose an opportunity to help with broad challenges such as climate change, disease and pest pressure and increasing demands for agri food products . Nevertheless, there are ongoing debates on how to handle such challenges at the regulatory level that need to be solved as a sine qua non condition for these organisms to have a chance of becoming commercially available. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[212] viXra:1708.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:15:10

Socio-Commercial Agri-Biotech Model for Rural Development in India by Combining Livestock and Organic Farming Practices

Authors: Abhishek Cukkemane
Comments: 4 Pages.

India experienced major success in agriculture productivity, post-green revolution, due to use of fertilizers. Around the same time, operation flood made India from a milk-deficient to highest producer by introducing exotic breeds. These approaches resulted in food and milk security but at a cost of decrease in soil health and loss in animal farming especially indigenous breeds of cattle. Since few years, educated medium land holding farmers have adopted organic farming practises. But, the supply of high quality organic manures remains a bottle neck in many sectors. It is therefore necessary to highlight the importance of combining organic- and cattle farming to the rural folk by introducing socio-commercial models based on modern biotechnological processes that can convert animal wastes into high quality manures on a mass-scale that can be efficiently marketed in the rural areas. Such practise will make small and medium land holding farmers adopt cattle farms, which will in turn be an epicenter for rural development by constant supply of manures to the farmers at a reasonable price. Therefore, we briefly highlight the impact of farming revolutions and the problems faced by farmers in India. Our analysis of the total cattle waste in India and the area of arable land, we highlight the possibility of organic farming across the nation. By utilizing readily available raw materialist is possible to accommodate socio-commercial model that can result in revenue generation by combining organic- and animal- farming practises for agronomic and rural development. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[211] viXra:1708.0408 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:16:21

Zika Virus Infection: An Emergency of International Concern

Authors: Sunny Mandal, Sudhish Mishra, Prabir K. Mandal
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus, meaning that it is insect vector-borne disease, most commonly transmitted through Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV was first identified in Uganda in 1947 in monkeys through a network that monitored yellow fever. It was later identified in humans. ZIKV is endemic to parts of Africa and Asia, but over the past months, a large number of locally acquired cases have been discovered in Brazil. The number of cases and the locations of the outbreak qualify ZIKV as a rapidly growing epidemic threat. The ZIKV causes microcephaly, small heads and often damaged brains, which may not have developed properly during pregnancy or may have stopped growing in the first years of life. These children may experience a range of problems, like developmental delays, intellectual deficits or hearing loss. Until recently, Zika was not considered a major threat because its symptoms are relatively mild. There is no widely available test for Zika infection. Infection with Zika virus may be suspected based on symptoms and recent history of travel. A diagnosis of Zika virus infection can only be confirmed through laboratory tests on blood or other body fluids, such as urine, saliva or semen. Protection against mosquito bites is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[210] viXra:1708.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 04:17:55

Development and Evaluation of a Multiplex PCR for Simultaneous Detection of Five Foodborne Pathogens

Authors: Thuy Trang Nguyen, Vo Van Giau, Tuong Kha Vo
Comments: 9 Pages.

Foodborne pathogens present serious concerns to human health and can even lead to fatalities. The gold standard for pathogen identification – bacterial culture – is costly and time consuming. A cheaper and quicker alternative will benefit in controlling food safety. In this study, we developed a multiplex-PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of five Foodborne pathogens including Escherichia coli O157:H7, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella spp., Listeria monocytogenes, and Vibrio cholerae, based on five genes stx1, femA, invA, iap, và ctxA, respectively. Specific primers for multiplex PCR amplification of the stx (Shiga-like toxin), nuc (thermo nuclease), inv A (invasion protein A), iap (invasive associative protein), and ctx A (cholera toxin A) genes that were established to amplify simultaneous detection of the target pathogens. The assay was also validated for its specificity, sensitivity, and applied to test some spiked food samples. The results showed the products expected multiplex PCR fragments of approximately 112, 244, 301, 453, 518 and 720bp for S. aureus, Salmonella spp. V. cholera, L. monocytogenes, E. coli O157:H7 and 16S rRNA, respectively. The assay was specific to the targeted pathogens and was sufficiently sensitive and robust to effectively analyze market samples. The whole process took less than 24 h to complete indicating that the assay is suitable for reliable and rapid identification of these five foodborne pathogens, which could be suitable in microbial epidemiology investigation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[209] viXra:1708.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:08:24

The Therapeutic Potential of Cocos Nucifera Water on Cadmium-Induced Lipid Toxicity in Male Rat

Authors: Olabisi O. Ogunrinola, Omolade O. Fajana, Babakunle O. Williams, Eunice Ogedengbe, Ajibola A. Onifade, Francisca C. Ekeocha, Kareemat O. Shasore
Comments: 6 Pages.

Cocos nucifera (Coconut) water is one of the world natural products with increasing scientific evidence that support its role in health and medicinal application. This study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of Cocos nucifera water on cadmium-induced toxicity in male rat. Sixty-four animals were randomly grouped into five, groups 3, 4, 5 (n=16) were exposed to 100, 200, and 300 ppm cadmium doses for 6 weeks in their drinking water as cadmium chloride. At the end of 6 weeks, eight from each group were sacrificed and the remaining was administered with 10 % coconut water for a week. Control animals (n=8; group 1) received distilled water and Cocos nucifera water (n=8; group 2) for the same six week period. Lipid profile analysis revealed that cadmiuminduction exhibited different dyslipidemia patterns. Significant dose-dependent hypocholesterolemia, hypotriacylglyceridemia and hypophospholipidemia characterized the effect of cadmium exposure at all doses while Cocos nucifera water treatment for a week reverse these effects by 4, 24 and 22 % in plasma and 16, 15 and 2 % in the erythrocytes respectively. The exposure to cadmium resulted in reduced cholesterol, triacylglyceride concentration in the brain and cholesterol, phospholipids concentrations in the hepatic compartments. Also, the exposure caused an increase in brain phospholipids and hepatic triacylglycerides concentrations. The administration of Cocos nucifera water significantly (p < 0.05) reverses these effects. Our findings indicate that although the cadmium-exposure at different doses resulted in down and upregulation of lipid profile, the administration of Cocos nucifera water was able to reverse the damage caused by cadmium-induced toxicity. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[208] viXra:1708.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:11:18

Degradation and Human Health Risk Assessment of Underground Water of Trans Ganga-Yamuna Rural Regions of a North Indian District

Authors: Ayesha Mariya, K.P. Singh, Ashutosh Tripathi, Mohd Masood, Niraj Kumar
Comments: 9 Pages.

The present study investigates the physico-chemical qualities and fecal contamination of ground water; and related health risks of rural areas of trans-Ganga and Yamuna region of a North-Indian district, Allahabad, India. The pH, turbidity, TDS, BOD, and COD, total alkalinity, total hardness, chloride and fecal coliform contamination was estimated in 269 water samples of 14 villages. Higher levels of turbidity, alkalinity, chloride and fecal contamination in ground water of trans-Yamuna area were found as compared to trans-Ganga. About 75% samples of trans-Yamuna were contaminated with faecal coliform as compared to trans-Ganga region (55%).Significant positive correlation existed between chloride, TDS, alkalinity (r=0.74- 0.91; p < 0.05), hardness and pH (r = 0.75-0.85; p < 0.05). The Relative Risk (RR) of some waterborne diseases was very high (2.11-8.00) in trans-Yamuna as compared to trans-Ganga region (1.81-3.48). Furthermore, the new treatment requirement parameter (NNT) for waterborne diseases of these rural areas was also estimated, which suggests that the need of a new and improved treatment approach for these diseases is more frequent in the trans-Yamuna area as compared to trans-Ganga. Our results suggest urgent attention and intervention for improving the quality of potable water in these rural areas and to control the waterborne diseases associated to rural health risks. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[207] viXra:1708.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:12:53

Fine Structure of the Gas Bladder of Alligator Gar, Atractosteus Spatula

Authors: Ahmad Omar-Ali, Wes Baumgartner, Peter J. Allen, Lora Petrie-Hanson
Comments: 8 Pages.

Anthropogenic factors seriously affect water quality and adversely affect fish populations. Agricultural run-off accumulates in the Mississippi River and the coastal estuaries. Alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula) inhabits these waters and is impacted by agricultural pollution, petrochemical contaminants and oil spills. These fish are bimodal air breathers, and use a primitive lung as an accessory organ. The gas bladder, or Air Breathing Organ (ABO) of alligator gar (Atractosteus spatula), is a vascularized air sac located dorsal to the body lumen. It has characteristics of amphibian lungs. Alligator gar air-breathing organs function to supplement branchial respiratory exchange with aerial gas exchange. The alligator gar gas bladder is an elongated air sac that originates dorsal to the pharynx. Air enters through a pharyngeal-esophageal duct that is controlled by two glottal ridges. The pharyngeo-esophageal duct is approximately 5mm long and is lined by ciliated columnar epithelium that is continuous with the central canal epithelium. The gas bladder has a central canal that subdivides the bladder into right and left lobes. Each lobe is further divided by septa into series of air spaces. The septa consist of blood vessels and smooth and striated muscles. Air circulates throughout the central canal, lobes and air spaces. The thickness of the septa is determined by underlying, supportive striated muscle. The internal surface of the gas bladder is a continuous respiratory epithelial layer that includes mucus cells, pneumocytes, and ciliated epithelial cells. An understanding of the normal tissue characteristics of this air breathing organ provides a baseline for studying the effects of environmental toxins on this organ. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[206] viXra:1708.0395 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:14:22

Studies on HIV Resistance to Multiple Drug Therapy (Lamivudine, Zidovudine and Nevirapine) in Benin Metropolis, Nigeria

Authors: Ibeh IN, Okungbowa, Ibeh NI, Isitua CC
Comments: 3 Pages.

Resistance to anti-retroviral drugs has long been recognized as a possible occurrence which may further complicate the management and control of microbial infections including the dreaded Human Immuno Deficiency Virus (HIV) infection. The present study evaluates cases of suspected unresponsiveness to Lamivudine, Zidovudine and Nevirapine (HAART) in Benin City Nigeria. Five adult males and females (3m, 2f) between the ages of 35 - 50 years who had been on triple drug therapy (LZN) for a minimum of five years and were terminally ill in hospitals were recruited for this study. Venous blood (5.0mls) was collected from the subjects for analysis for viral antibodies, CD4 + T cells and viral load determination. The subjects were then placed on 10.0g of Manna and 20.0mls of Bioclean II daily and observed for 120 days. Venous blood samples were collected again at 30, 60, 90 and 120 days after commencement of treatment for analysis. Skin rashes disappeared after 60days. There were increases in Body weight from 47.4(Kg) to 62.4kg, CD4+ T cells from 47.3 cells/µl to 327.8 and a reduction of viral load from 253,671.5 copies/ml to 23, 240.3 copies.ml after 90 days. This finding suggests that the viruses carried by the individuals investigated in this study were not responding to Lamivudine + Zidevudine + Nevirapine. The implication is that resistance to HAART may be developing challenges to the management of HIV/AIDS in this community. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[205] viXra:1708.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:15:52

Bacterial Community Structure in Activated Sludge Process

Authors: Shah M, Hiral Borasiya
Comments: 7 Pages.

Microbial activity and structure of the bacterial community of activated sludge reactors, which treated industrial wastewater, were studied. Microbial communities, including ammonia oxidation bacteria, eubacteria, actinomycetic communities were studied in two different systems of the polymerase chain electrophoresis gradient denaturing gel reaction using amplified gene fragments 16S rRNA of bacteria. Both systems, which used an anoxic-aerobic process and anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic process, respectively, received the same industrial waste water, operating under the same conditions and showed the similar processing performance. Oxidizing bacterial communities of ammonia from two systems showed almost identical structures corresponding to ammonia removal like, while the bacterial community actinomycetic showed obvious differences. The anoxic-aerobic-anaerobic system showed eubacterial richer communities actinomycetic the anoxic-aerobic system. FISH results showed that the ammonia-oxidizing bacterial cells in the anaerobic-anoxic-aerobic system are increased by 3.8 ± 0.2% of the total bacterial population while those in the anoxic-aerobic system represented 1.7 ± 0.2%. Thus, the existence of an anaerobic-anoxic environment in the anaerobic-aerobic system has resulted in a marked increase in biodiversity. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[204] viXra:1708.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:21:16

Optimization of Extraction Techniques SPE, QuEChERS and Ultrasound Method for Trace level Determination of Imidacloprid in Vegetables (Cabbage and Spinach) and Soil by (UFLC)

Authors: Prakash Samnani, Kamlesh Vishwakarma, Bipul Bihari Saha
Comments: 6 Pages.

Abstract A simple, sensitive, fast and inexpensive method was developed using solid-phase extraction (SPE), ultrasound and QuEChERS method with Ultra Fast Liquid Chromatography (UFLC) for trace level determination of imidacloprid in vegetables (Cabbage and Spinach) and Soil. The method was validated using Cabbage; Spinach and soil samples spiked with imidacloprid at different concentration levels (LOQ 0.01, 10 x LOQ 0.10 and 50 x LOQ 0.50 µg/g). Average recoveries (using each concentration 5 replicates) ranged from 89.39 to 99.5%, with relative standard deviations less than 2.15%, calibration solutions concentration used were in the range 0.005 - 1.0 µg/mL and limit of detection (LOD) and limit of quantification (LOQ) were 0.005 µg/mL and 0.01 µg/mL, respectively You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[203] viXra:1708.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:22:23

The Importance and Applications of High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography in Biopharmaceutical and Medical Device Industries

Authors: X. Michael Liu
Comments: 1 Page.

Size Exclusion Chromatography (SEC) or High Performance Size Exclusion Chromatography (HPSEC) is the most broadly accepted method for the determination of molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of macromolecules. It is a special type of liquid chromatography that separates molecules based on molecular sizes or hydrodynamic volumes and not according to partition or affinities toward the stationary phases. HPSEC is also called Gel Permeation Chromatography (GPC) in polymer science and gel filtration chromatography (GFC) in the biological sciences. Conventional HPSEC equipped with a concentration detector (i.e. refractive index, UV-vis, or photodiode array) acquires molecular weights and molecular weight distributions of analytes according to the elution volumes or a peak position calibration using a series of standards of known molecular weights and chemistry. Therefore, the obtained molecular weights and molecular weight distributions by conventional HPSEC are the relative ones. The advantages of conventional SEC are high robustness, excellent reproducibility, and ease of transfer between laboratories. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[202] viXra:1708.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:24:17

Quantitative Analysis of KH903 from Human Serum by Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay and its Application in a Pharmacokinetic Study

Authors: Bing Tian Bi, Ben Y. Zou, Min J. Zhao, Wen L. Zhu, Xiao Ke, Li T. Deng, Hai Liao, Jing Zhan, Kun Y. Feng, Su Li
Comments: 6 Pages.

KH903 is a novel antiangiogenic drug for cancer therapy. Its pharmacokinetic study in cancer patients is therefore very important for choosing doses and dosing intervals in clinical application. A selective, sensitive, and rapid Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) method was developed and validated here for the determination of KH903 in patient serum. This method is specific enough for the detection of KH903 in serum samples. Nonlinear calibration curves were obtained for KH903 at a concentration range of 0.781-50 ng/ ml (r > 0.999). The intra-batch accuracy ranged from 83.4% to 94.5%, and the inter-batch accuracy varied from 88.8% to 91.7%. Stability tests showed that KH903 was stable throughout the analytical procedure. This study is the first to utilize the ELISA method for the pharmacokinetic study of KH903 in six cancer patients who had received a single dose of KH903 (4.0 mg/ kg) administered intravenously. The results address the pharmacokinetic profile of KH903 in cancer patients in detail and evaluate the binding efficacy of KH903 on VEGF in patients to provide guidance for the regimen of KH903 in phase I clinical trials. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[201] viXra:1708.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:26:25

Simultaneous Estimation of Emtricitabine and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate in Tablet Dosage Form by Reverse Phase High-performance Liquid Chromatography

Authors: Bala Rami Reddy.Yenumula, Mutta Reddy.Singampalli, Bala Sekhara Reddy.Challa
Comments: 6 Pages.

A simple, rapid reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatographic method had been developed and validated for estimation of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in tablet dosage form. The estimation was carried out on PhenomenexLuna C18 (25 cm x 4.60 mm, particle size 5 µm) column with a mixture of 10mM phosphate buffer (pH 6.8): Acetonitrile; 40: 60 (v/v) as mobile phase. UV detection was performed at 260 nm. The method was validated for linearity, accuracy, precision, specificity and sensitivity as per ICH norms. The developed and validated method was successfully used for the quantitative analysis of commercially available dosage form. The retention time was 2.81 and 7.42 min for emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate respectively and total run time was 10 min. at a flow rate of 1.0 mL/ min. The calibration curve was linear over the concentration range of 40.00 - 240.00 µg/ mL for emtricitabine and 60.00 - 360.00 µg/ mL for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate. The LOD and LOQ values were found to be 1.54 and 4.54 µg/ mL for emtricitabine and 4.60 and 13.65 µg/ mL for tenofovir disoproxil fumarate respectively. The high percentage of recovery and low percentage coefficient of variance confirm the suitability of the method for the simultaneous estimation of emtricitabine and tenofovir disoproxil fumarate in tablet dosage form. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[200] viXra:1708.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:28:05

High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC): The Workhorse in the Analytical Laboratory

Authors: Victoria F. Samanidou
Comments: 2 Pages.

Instrumental analysis has disposed classical chemical analysis in every analytical laboratory, since many decades, as it is faster and more productive. Beyond any doubt chromatography and above all High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) is the workhorse in routine analysis, either as standalone technique or hyphenated with specific and more sensitive spectroscopic techniques. Thus the detection of analytes can be feasible at low concentrations following regulatory requirements, as for example those set by environmental protection agencies, food authorities or pharmacopeias, that are getting stricter every day.
Category: Biochemistry

[199] viXra:1708.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:32:59

Optimization and Evaluation of Monodispersed TetrandrineLoaded PLA Microspheres Prepared With A SPG Membrane Emulsification Technique

Authors: Jin Lu, Ai-ling Yin, Meng Zhang, Xue-e Yu, Ting-ming Fu, Hua-xu Zhu, Li-wei Guo
Comments: 11 Pages.

To improve pulmonary drug concentrations and to maximize the effectiveness and minimize the adverse side effects, uniformsized tetrandrine-loaded polylactide (PLA) microspheres with a suitable particle size for pulmonary inhalation were prepared by the Shirasu Porous Glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique. The main parameters influencing PLA microsphere properties were investigated: transmembrane pressure, circulation speed, high hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB value), PLA concentration and oil-water volume ratio. Narrowly size-distributed tetrandrine-loaded PLA microspheres were obtained with a high drug encapsulation efficiency of 81.0% and an average diameter of 3.16 μm under optimized conditions. The results of Fourier transform infrared, differential scanning calorimetry and powder X-ray diffraction revealed that tetrandrine would be either molecularly dispersed in the polymer or distributed in an amorphous form. Further, the in vitro drug release experiment confirmed that the uniform-sized tetrandrine-loaded PLA microspheres showed suppressed burst release. These studies provide a basis for the use of uniformly sized 3.16 μm tetrandrine-loaded PLA microspheres for pulmonary inhalation. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[198] viXra:1708.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:34:45

Pharmacokinetics of Cymbopogon Citratus Infusion in Rats After Single Oral Dose Administration

Authors: Gustavo Costa, Ana Fortuna, Daniela Gonçalves, Isabel Vitória Figueiredo, Amílcar Falcão, Maria Teresa Batista
Comments: 9 Pages.

Cymbopogon citratus, commonly known as lemongrass, is a tropical herb used in worldwide traditional medicine for centuries. Studies previously conducted by our team demonstrated its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects, and recently, the antiinflammatory potential was also observed in vivo. However, little is known about its pharmacokinetics. The current study aimed at obtaining, for the first time, the pharmacokinetic profile of lemongrass infusion after a single dose oral administration to rats. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[197] viXra:1708.0386 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:36:48

Two New Coumarins from the Leaves of Phellodendronamurense.

Authors: Zhao Zhang, Guangzhi Li, Lingchao Dai, Bengang Zhang, Jianyong Si
Comments: 4 Pages.

Two new coumarins, PhellodenolsI (1) and J (2), were isolated from the leaves of Phellodendronamurense. The structures of these compounds were elucidated by extensive spectroscopic analysis. The two new compounds were tested against Hela, AGS, and MGC-803 human cancer cell lines and exhibited cytotoxic activities with IC50 values between 18.71± 5.23 μM and 36.92± 4.72 μM. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[196] viXra:1708.0385 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:38:13

Rp-Hplc Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tolperisone Hcl and Diclofenac Sodium in Pharmaceutical Dosage Form

Authors: G Kumaraswamy, V Swapna, D Sudheer kumar
Comments: 6 Pages.

A new method was established for simultaneous estimation of Tolperisone and Diclofenac sodium by RP-HPLC method. The chromatographic conditions were successfully developed for the separation of Tolperisone and Diclofenac sodium by using Agilent C18 column flow rate was 1ml/min, mobile phase ratio was (70:30 v/v) ACN: phosphate buffer pH 3 (pH was adjusted with orthophosphoricacid), detection wavelength was 240nm.The retention times were found to be 4.645 mins and 2.242 mins. The % purity of Tolperisone and Diclofenac sodium was found to be 100.3% and 99.27% respectively. The analytical method was validated according to ICH guidelines. The precision study was precision, robustness and repeatability. LOD value was 2.17 and 0.0372 and LOQ value was 6.60 and 0.1125 respectively. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[195] viXra:1708.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-28 02:39:23

Criteria of Patient Selection in a Clinical Trial

Authors: Michel Bourin
Comments: 4 Pages.

Which criteria will govern patient selection if this choice is to take various requirements into account and if the key problem is to obtain homogeneous groups in order to reduce variability in response and yet provide representative samples of the affection studied? The means of selecting patients will be defined by inclusion and exclusion criteria, which should be as explicit as possible. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[194] viXra:1708.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:46:13

Endothelial Dysfunction in Mexican Obese Children, is there A Role of the Gut Microbiota?

Authors: Khemlal Nirmalkar, Selvasankar Murugesan, María Luisa Pizano-Zárate, María del Socorro Romero-Figueroa, Carlos Hoyo-Vadillo, Jaime Garcia-Mena
Comments: 4 Pages.

Endothelial dysfunction is a predisposing factor for atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; and at the same time, endothelial dysfunction is associated to obesity. The prevalence of endothelial dysfunction, atherosclerosis and obesity is quite high among Mexican children; on the other hand, gut microbiota has been associated to obesity in the same population. Atherosclerosis is associated to gut microbiota in humans, and this association raise the possibility that endothelial dysfunction is also related with the gut microbiota in obese population. This review addresses the current knowledge of association of endothelial dysfunction, with obesity and atherosclerosis; however, there are no reports of association of endothelial dysfunction with gut microbiota through the measurement of adhesion molecules like ICAM-1, VCAM-1, and selectins. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[193] viXra:1708.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:53:25

Disparate Body Composition Outcomes for Underwater Weighing, Dual-Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry, and Two Bioelectrical Impedance Devices in Overweight Young Adults

Authors: Michelle Alencar, Kelly E. Johnson, Nathan Cole, Ann L. Gibson
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: As the prevalence of obesity rises, so does the need for reliable Body Composition (BC) methods. Many methods of BC analysis exist, however validity between methods has been questioned. Uncertainty exists within the scientific literature about which laboratory method and field measurement is applicable for the overweight population to estimate Percent Body Fat (% BF). There is scarce research comparing Hydrostatic Weighing (HW) and Dual Energy X-Ray Absorptiometry (DXA) with field methods in overweight individuals. The purpose of this study was to compare HW and DXA with Multi-Frequency (MF-BIA) and a Single-Frequency (SFBIA) Bioelectrical Impedance (BIA) device. Methods: Twenty-five overweight and obese adults (BMI 30.1 ± 4.1 kg/ m2, 13 males, 12 females, ages 24.6 ± 4.7y) were randomly assessed by vertical SF-BIA, and supine MF-BIA against DXA and lastly HW. All participants followed standardized pre-testing guidelines for BC assessment. Agreement was assessed using a 2 (group) x 4 (method) RMANOVA and post-hoc t-tests were applied as appropriate. All methods of body composition were used and compared to DXA and HW. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[192] viXra:1708.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:54:39

Assessing Stages of Readiness to Lose Weight among Overweight and Obese Adolescents using Trans-Theoretical Model

Authors: Asmah Johari, Rosnah Sutan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: Assessing the individual’s level of readiness to change will help in losing weight and targeting for an ideal body weight. This study was aimed to determine the readiness to lose weight among overweight and obese adolescents using TransTheoretical Model (TTM) assessment tool. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among 631 adolescents aged 13 to 19 years whose screened as overweight or obese (body mass index for age with z-score of ≥ 1 SD from WHO Reference 2007). Samples were selected using multistage random sampling from secondary level schools of two urban districts. The students had completed the translated and validated TTM constructs questionnaire and were categorized according to five stages of readiness to lose weight. One way ANOVA and MANOVA were used to analyze the relationship between stages of readiness to lose weight according to TTM assessment tool. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[191] viXra:1708.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:55:54

Understanding Weight Change While Incarcerated: Qualitative Groundwork for a Collaborative Health Intervention

Authors: Nell Baldwin, Amber Cardoos, Jennifer G. Clarke
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the context of the ever-increasing incarcerated population in the U.S. and our “obesity epidemic,” recent work has investigated whether incarcerated individuals are at higher risk for obesity and related diseases. We build on this scholarship by interviewing incarcerated men and women, as well as correctional facility staff to parse the barriers and facilitators to maintaining a healthy weight on the inside. This qualitative analysis forms the groundwork for a collaborative health intervention to address weight gain and weight maintenance in a U.S. correctional facility. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[190] viXra:1708.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 01:57:38

Obesity and Cancer: Evidence, Postulated Mechanisms and Prospectives

Authors: Hala Fawzy Mohamed Kamel, Hiba Saeed A Bagader Al-Amodi, Mohammed Hasan Mukhtar
Comments: 11 Pages.

Obesity is a major health problem tremendously increasing worldwide, obesity has been accompanied by a state of metabolic dysregulation, characterized by insulin resistance and may be associated with many comorbidities such as metabolic syndrome, type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular complications. Lately a great attention has been gained toward the association of obesity with certain cancers. Numerous studies and meta-analysis reported that, obesity is associated with increased risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma, postmenopausal breast cancer, and endometrial, renal, pancreatic, prostate and colorectal cancers. In spite of, the evidence of such association that link obesity with risk and recurrence or death from cancer, however the linking mechanisms has not been yet fully explained. Obesity may promote cancer by: 1) alteration of adipocytokines: Leptin, adiponectin, resistin and visfatin with promotion of angiogenesis and interactions with other mediators and cytokines. 2) Hypoxia and angiogenesis due to expansion of adipose tissue with release of certain mediators that stimulate angiogenesis. 3) Metaflammation state of low grade and chronic inflammation that merely stimulate release of cytokines as (TNFα) and (IL-6) and the activation of pro-inflammatory signaling. 4) Insulin resistance with hyperinsulinemia and increased levels of insulin and growth factors as IGFs and IGF binding proteins. 5) Increased levels of sex steroids, including estradiol and Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) particularly in cases of endometrial and postmenopausal breast cancers. 6) oxidative stress and reduction of antioxidants with possibility of oxidative damage or mutation of DNA. 7) epigenetic mechanisms, including DNA methylation , histones and chromatin remodeling factors . In fact, it remains unclear how the convergence of these mechanisms may drive obesity-associated cancer, considering the complex and multi-factorial characterization of cancer as well as the variation of genetics background of obese subjects. Prospective studies is worth pursuing especially towards therapeutic implications to prevent or treat obesity- associated cancer. Our aim is providing updated and comprehensive review about postulated and prospective links and molecular mechanisms between obesity and cancer, focusing upon mechanistic mediators that may drive obesity- associated cancers and may be targeted molecules for prospectives therapies. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[189] viXra:1708.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:15:21

Contralateral Prophylactic Mastectomies: Correlations Between Primary Tumor and Histological Findings of Controlateral Breast

Authors: Vitale V, Mattei MS, Lombardi A, Maggi S, Stanzani G, Di Stefano D, Argento G, Cunsolo G, Campanella L, Mastrangeli MR, Amanti C
Comments: 6 Pages.

Backgound: In Italy in 2015 48,000 new cases of breast carcinomas were diagnosed. Women who are diagnosed with breast cancer have a significant risk of developing contralateral breast cancer during the rest of their lives and this risk is closely associated to the family history, to the onset of breast cancer at a young age and is expressed at about 0.5 to 1% of metachronous tumors per year. The purpose of this work was to evaluate which and how many neoplastic lesions were seen in the contralateral breast that underwent prophylactic mastectomy and to understand what factors predict the appearance of such lesions. Methods: 168 bilateral mastectomies were analyzed in patients with an average age of 47 years, carried out from July 2008 to April 2016, at the Breast Unit of the Sant’Andrea Hospital. We considered women of any age suffering from unilateral breast cancer without either clinical or radiological evidence of a malignant lesion in the contralateral breast and negative for mutations of the BRCA1-BRCA2 genes test. Of the 168 bilateral mastectomies 35 patients were excluded from the study because they underwent neoadjuvant chemotherapy, another 35 patients because they were suffering from a bilateral neoplasia and 7 cases because they had mutated BRCA1 or BRCA2 genes. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[188] viXra:1708.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:17:40

Serpiginous Supravenous Hyperpigmentation

Authors: Nora Naqos
Comments: 1 Page.

Serpiginous supravenous hyperpigmentation is a rare clinical event that occurs almost exclusively after peripheral intravenous chemotherapy. A patient of 40 years old diagnosed with cavum carcinoma and received fluorouracile and Cisplatine chemotherapy. After the second cycle, hyperpigmentation appears in the left forearm, clinical examination found serpiginous hyperpigmented streaks along the course of the superficial veins without any other mucocutaneous lesions. Initially described with 5FU and also reported with other molecules such as vinorelbine, cisplatin, Bleomycin, doxorubicin, actinomycin, docetaxel, fotemustine, it does not require specific therapeutic and doesn’t impose any dosage reduction. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[187] viXra:1708.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:21:31

Role of Surgery in the Treatment of Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Review

Authors: Basem T. Jamal, Scharukh Jalisi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Background: Since most oropharyngeal carcinomas are locally advanced at presentation, patients are often treated with radiation therapy and/or chemotherapy. However, for early stage oropharyngeal carcinoma, national guidelines state that it can be treated by either primary surgery or radiotherapy. This study analyse national survival rates of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma for surgical and nonsurgical treatment modalities. Methods: All cases of squamous cell carcinoma of the oropharynx between 1988 and 2007 were selected from the Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) 17 database. The SEER database is a population-based cancer registry that captures 17 distinct population groups in 198 counties in the United States. It represents approximately 26% of the overall United States population and contains information on 6,117,327 cases of cancer diagnosed since 1973. Overall survival was the primary outcome measure. Survival curves were generated using the Kaplan-Meier method and compared using the Mantel-Cox log-rank test. Significance was defined as P<0.05. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[186] viXra:1708.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:22:48

Convergence Revolution – Piloting the Third Scientific Revolution Through Start-Ups for Breast Cancer Cure

Authors: Pramod Khargonekar, Anthony Sinskey, Charles Miller, Balu Ranganathan
Comments: 6 Pages.

Convergence revolution integrates various academic disciplines with wide spectrum of activities and also connects them with translation and innovation ecosystem thereby going well beyond traditional collaborations. This is the third revolution in the life science arena, first being DNA discovery and second genomics where almost entire human genome has been sequenced. The third revolution, convergence revolution has the potential to lead to a solution for breast cancer cure. Breast cancer is the second largest mortality causative agent among women. In United States, nearly 40,000 women die of breast cancer every year. Till date (March 2017), 3.1 million women have been medicated for breast cancer. On an average every 2 minutes, a woman in the U.S. is diagnosed with breast cancer. Convergence may provide a more effective solution for cure breast cancer by multipronged approach using nanotechnology (targeted delivery with controlled release), imaging protocols (Raman spectroscopy) and biomarkers detection involving physicists, chemists, bioengineers, radiologists, clinical oncologists and entrepreneurs and proposing for a National Cancer Data Ecosystem. This work is a classic example of convergence involving multi-disciplinary researchers and technology developers. Several start-ups are working in the direction of breast cancer therapy onto clinical trials which can pave way for translation to clinics for the cure of belligerent types of breast cancers which affect young women. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[185] viXra:1708.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:28:53

Sirenomelia, the Mermaid Syndrome in Kuwait: A case Report

Authors: Fatemah Alhadhoud
Comments: 4 Pages.

Sirenomelia also called as Mermaid Syndrome, is a rare congenital malformation of uncertain etiology. It is characterized by fusion of the lower limbs and commonly associated with severe urogenital and gastrointestinal malformation. We report a case of sirenomelia occurring in a 25 year old Kuwaiti woman following premature rupture of membranes. This is the first documented case in this country. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[184] viXra:1708.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:31:54

Fetal Echography Remotely Controlled Using A TeleOperated Motorized Probe and Echograph Unit

Authors: Philippe Arbeille, Jose Ruiz, Gabriel Carles, Victorita Stefanescu, Monica Georgescu
Comments: 6 Pages.

Objective to evaluate the performance of a new device for fetal tele-echographyin isolated medical centers. Methods fetal tele-echography and Doppler was performed using,a) a portable echograph which setting and function (Doppler pulsed and color, 3D capture..) can be operated from away via internet, b) equipped with motorized probes (400g, 430cm3) which transducer can be orientated from away by an expert also via internet. The pregnant were in medical center far away from the expert center. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[183] viXra:1708.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:33:03

A Staged Feasibility Study of a Novel Vaginal Bowel Control System for the Treatment of Accidental Bowel Leakage in Adult Women

Authors: Michelle Miki Takase-Sanchez
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background Accidental bowel leakage, or fecal incontinence, impacts the quality of life in women of all ages. A minimallyinvasive vaginal bowel control system was designed to reduce accidents and provides a new health care option for women. Methods A feasibility study was conducted to evaluate fit, patient comfort, and ease-of-use of this novel vaginal bowel control therapy at home to better inform device design, treatment delivery, and the design of a subsequent pivotal clinical trial protocol. Staged evaluations were performed in women without and with self-reported accidental bowel leakage of any severity. Wear duration progressed from an initial one-time, in-office fitting to extended-wear periods at home. Device-related adverse events were collected in all subjects exposed to the device. Treatment responses were collected at baseline and after 1-month wear in women with accidental bowel leakage. Additionally, device comfort and satisfaction were assessed. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[182] viXra:1708.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:35:20

A Rare Case of Newborn with Accessory Scrotum Associated with Bifid Scrotum and Perineal Lipoma

Authors: Enrica Rossi, Massimo Basile, Ubaldo Bongini, Anna Maria Buccoliero, Chiara Caporalini, Claudio Defilippi
Comments: 3 Pages.

We report a case of bifid scrotum with accessory scrotum and peduncular lipoma in perineal region occurring in a full-term male neonate. Physical examination showed two soft perineal masses located between a bifid scrotum and the anus. No abnormalities of anus were detected. The patient underwent ultrasound and magnetic resonance examinations confirming a homogeneous fat tissue matter of the posterior mass and showing fluid content inside the anterior one. The patient also underwent a Gastrografin enema and no analcolon anomalies were detected. The masses were completely excised and the histological examination revealed a lipoma, with tissue suggestive of scrotum, so a definite diagnosis of accessory scrotum, associated with lipoma was made. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[181] viXra:1708.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:40:16

The Impact of Maternal Incarceration on Emotional and Behavioral Outcomes: Research Findings from a National Longitudinal Study on Adolescent Health

Authors: Zina McGee, Bertha L. Davis, Sherri Saunders-Goldson, Marissa Fletcher, Lindsay Fisher
Comments: 7 Pages.

Data for this study were drawn from quantitative analyses derived from secondary statistics from the National Longitudinal Study of Adolescent to Adult Health (Add Health), which is a longitudinal study of a nationally representative sample of adolescents in grades 7-12 in the United States to examine the impact of maternal incarceration on emotional and behavioral outcomes among adolescents. It was hypothesized that maternal incarceration would increase the number of risk factors among adolescents including delinquency, victimization, emotional outcomes and drug usage. For this project, the survey data were analyzed on self-identified non-white (minority) participants reporting criminal justice involvement measured through lifetime arrest, age at first arrest, number of pre-18 arrests and number of post-18 arrests as behavioral outcomes. Measures of self-reported depression and anxiety were also included to examine mental health outcomes. Results from hierarchical multiple linear regressions indicated that having a mother incarcerated explains variance in emotional outcomes and behavioral risk influences such as symptomatology, criminal involvement, and drug use over and beyond sociodemographic factors including gender, educational level and family income. Policy implications and suggestions for future research are addressed. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[180] viXra:1708.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:42:04

Critical Incident Technique Applied in Nursing and Healthcare Sciences

Authors: Bengt Fridlund, Maria Henricson, Jan Mårtensson
Comments: 5 Pages.

Purpose: The aim of this study was to elucidate the development and current status of the critical incident technique (CIT), with focus on its fundamental definitions, guidelines, and pros and cons when applied in nursing and healthcare sciences. Method: A theoretical reasoning based on the original literature and with the support of updated literature relevant to the CIT was used. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[179] viXra:1708.0347 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:43:09

Utilization of a Clinical Reminder System to Increase the Incidence of Hepatitis C Screening

Authors: Jennifer Cameron, Robyn Ray
Comments: 5 Pages.

The purpose of this project was to evaluate the use of a clinical reminder system to increase the incidence of patients born between 1945 and 1965 who are offered screening for Hepatitis C Virus (HCV). A clinical reminder form was utilized to prompt primary care providers to offer screening for HCV. Pre-implementation and postimplementation data were collected via retrospective chart review. Data was analyzed to compare patients who were offered testing for HCV pre- and post-implementation of the clinical reminder system. In the pre-implementation data that was collected, 238 patients out of the 600 randomly collected met inclusion criteria of being born between 1945 and 1965. Of these 238 patients, only four were offered screening for HCV prior to implementation of the project. In the post-implementation data, 248 out of 600 patients met the inclusion criteria of being born between the ages of 1945 and 1965. Of these 248 who met inclusion criteria, 211 were offered screening for HCV. This resulted in 85% of patients who were offered screening for HCV post-implementation versus 2% pre-implementation. The results of the study showed that the use of a clinical reminder system was effective in increasing the number of patients who were offered screening for HCV. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[178] viXra:1708.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:44:20

Effect of Hospital-Based Providers Continuous Support on Progress of Active Phase of Labor

Authors: Gehan Ebrahim Ghonemy, Entesar Fatouh Abd El Moneim, Zeinab Ahmed Abdelsalam
Comments: 6 Pages.

events in a woman and spouse life, and can have strong physical, emotional, and psychological effects. Aim of the study: To evaluate the effect of continuous support provided by nurses during labor on the duration of the active phase of labor. Method: A quasi- experimental design was adopted, using Apurposive Sample of 200 women was randomly divided into control group (n=100) who had not received support on childbirth. In the intervention group (n =100) continuous support during labor was provided. Data collected using an interview sheet, a partograph (labor progress record), and visual analogue scale to assess severity of pain. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[177] viXra:1708.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-26 02:45:32

The Impact of Intravenous Protocols During Labor on Maternal \ Newborn Outcomes

Authors: Gehan Ebrahim Ghonemy, Naglaa Fathy Mahmoud Kotob
Comments: 9 Pages.

common practice in labor. Adequate rehydration has shown a reduction in labor duration. However results of other trials proposed that labor duration could be decreased by administering IV fluids at a rate of 250ml/hr which is better than giving such fluids in a rate of 125ml/hr. Aim: Thus, the aim of the current study was to assess the effect of three protocols of intravenous fluids on the progress of labor and newborn weight loss during the first week post partum. Design: A descriptive Correlation research design was adopted. In this study in order to investigate the research hypothesis. Sample: A convenient sample of 150 laboring women (divided to 50 each group) was selected. Partograph, fluid chart and baby weight and diaper sheet was used to collect the data. Setting: The study was conducted at the labor room in two Egyptian governmental hospitals. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[176] viXra:1708.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 04:01:54

Study on Knowledge Level of Livestock Owners Related to Breeding Aspect of Organic Animal Husbandry Practices in Arid Region of Rajasthan

Authors: Gujar B, Purohit NR, Basant Bais
Comments: 3 Pages.

A study was conducted in two selected districts of arid region of Rajasthan i.e. Barmer and Bikaner. From each selected district, two tehsils were selected purposively. She and Chohtan tehsils from Barmer district and Kolayat and Lunkaransar tehsils from Bikaner district were selected on the basis of highest livestock population and two villages were selected randomly from each tehsil. Thus, total eight villages were selected and from each selected village, 15 respondents were selected randomly making the sample size of 120 livestock owners in present study. Data were collected from livestock owners with the help of semi-structured interview schedule, researcher’s own observations were also recorded regarding the breeding practices followed by livestock owners. From the study it was found that majority (40.8%) of the livestock owners had high level of knowledge followed by medium (32.5%) and low (26.7%) level knowledge about breeding aspect of Organic Animal Husbandry practices. The sub-areas under different organic breeding practices in which the livestock owners had highest knowledge was promoted animals for natural service and knowledge of heat detection (mean score 1.00 for each) from breeding practices and the livestock owners had highest adoption about traditional methods for heat detection (adoption index 99.58). It was concluded that Livestock owners in Arid Region of Rajasthan mostly kept desi (local) breeds and preferred natural service for reproduction. These practices of farmers were well fitted with the standards of organic livestock farming related to breeding aspect. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[175] viXra:1708.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:33:56

Is Global 2D-Strain Able to Be Better Tool for Cardiotoxicity Determination in Cancer Survivors Received Various Chemotherapeutic Agents?

Authors: Alexander E Berezin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The cardiac toxicity has been recognized as a major medical problem that negatively affecting quality of life and prognosis in cancer survivors within chemotherapies and after ending of the treatment. The mini review is focused on the innate mechanisms of cardiotoxicity and the techniques regarding the cardiac evaluation of cancer patients. It has discussed radial and circumferential strain rates as a tool for the early detection of cardiotoxicity, whereas there are some limitation to correctly interpret findings in cancer patients with known cardiac disease and heart failure. It is concluded that more investigations are required to explain the advantages and weakness of 2D strain / 2D strain rate in cardiotoxicity determination. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[174] viXra:1708.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:39:00

Does Baseline Pao2/Fio2 Affect the In-Hospital Outcome in Patients Undergoing Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting?

Authors: Minati Choudhury, Kreethi Chigurupati, Milind P Hote, MV Kalaivani
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Oxygen saturation and the PaO2 are the direct risk factors for post -operative respiratory outcome in patients undergoing prolonged surgery under general anaesthesia. However the effect of preoperative PaO2 and PaO2 /FiO2 ratio on the postoperative course of the patient undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting is not known. Hypothesis: Pre-operative PaO2 and PaO2 /FiO2 ratio have a significant effect on the postoperative outcome among the patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting. Study design: Prospective clinical study Setting: Tertiary health care centre Materials and Methods: One hundred and fifty eight consecutive patients with a EURO Score of <6 undergoing routine first time coronary artery bypass grafting were selected for this study. Patients with ventricular dysfunction, Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD), renal or hepatic dysfunction, patients on mechanical ventilation, on preoperative Intra Aortic Ballon Pump (IABP) and those who had to undergo emergency surgery were excluded from the study. All patients were managed by the same anaesthesia and surgical team and the anaesthesia management protocol was similar for all the patients. The pre-operative PaO2 /FiO2 ratio (base line) for all patients was noted before anaesthesia induction in room air. The primary outcome measures were duration of mechanical ventilation, ICU stay and hospital stay. The secondary outcome measures were requirement of inotropes, arrhythmias, requirement of IABP, cardiogenic shock, perioperative myocardial infarction, sepsis, respiratory failure , any other organ dysfunction and death .The total duration of follow up period was one month. Statistical analysis: Seventeen subjects were subsequently dropped because of incomplete data. Consequently, the data for 141 subjects were used for the analysis. The various methods used were Student T test, Spearman’s coefficient correlation, bi-variate and univariate logistic regression analysis. In each case a p value of <0.05 was considered to be significant. Results: There exists a positive correlation between preoperative PaO2 /FiO2 ratio and duration of intubation (r = -0.5607, p = 0.001) as well as Intensive Care Unit (ICU) stay (r = -0.2564, p = 0.002). PaO2 /FiO2 ratio also has a positive correlation with the use of inotropes (p=0.03) and frequency of death (p=0.014) in the patients undergoing CABG . Conclusion: Low pre-operative PaO2 /FiO2 ratio has a direct impact on the in-hospital outcome among the patients undergoing coronary arterybypass grafting. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[173] viXra:1708.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:40:14

Open Source Research: A Proposed Method to Study Peripartum Myocardial Infarction

Authors: Philip D Houck
Comments: 7 Pages.

Rare diseases such as peripartum myocardial infarction are difficult to study using double blind randomized controlled clinical trials. There have been no new advancements in the conduct of clinical trials since 1947. As a result, rare diseases have not been effectively studied despite a gradual gain in knowledge of potential mechanisms. This paper suggests a method of study that can be applied to rare disorders by an older method suggested by James Lind – the controlled clinical trial. Open source models similarly developed by software engineers will allow free access to multiple protocols and allows the physician to choose the protocol that seems most promising. Free access of clinical data will be available to help the physician decide which protocol is successful. Results will be updated continuously by a biostatistician compared with historical control and other competing protocols. Open Source - as a philosophy that promotes a universal access via free license to a product’s design or blueprint, and b) universal redistribution of that design or blueprint, including subsequent improvements to it by anyone. Open-source model includes the concept of concurrent, yet different agendas and differing approaches in production. The components of Open source research consist of a WEB site, governing body, data partner, biostatistician, tissue, genetic, proteomic specimen analysis, and funding. The site will be a center for literature review, protocol and protocol rational, consent forms, data collection center, case material, data analysis, and provide on line future publications generated by this open data source. Open source research is different from a registry in that the protocols are based on a biologic model and selected by the physician. Open source allows multiple models to be tested. A successful protocol suggests the model of disease is correct. Results are recorded similarly to a registry and can be used to assess the real time efficacy each protocol used. This method allows an iterative adjustment of treatments until the most effective therapy is found. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[172] viXra:1708.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:42:01

Long-Term Follow-Up Analysis of Percutaneous Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty: Experience of an Indian Tertiary Care Hospital

Authors: Babu Ezhumalai, Neeraj Awasthy, Ajit Ananthakrishna, Santhosh Satheesh, Balachander Jayaraman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objectives: Our objectives were to study the effectiveness and long-term follow-up outcomes of percutaneous Balloon Pulmonary Valvuloplasty (BPV) performed in adults and children at an Indian tertiary care hospital. Methods: This retrospective study included patients with more than mild congenital valvular Pulmonary Stenosis (PS) having echocardiographic peak gradient ≥50mmHg, who underwent BPV in a tertiary care hospital in India from 1988 to 2011. Clinical profile, echocardiographic details, procedural data, complications etc were studied. Patients were followed with annual echocardiographic and clinical assessment. Results: 108 patients including 37 children and 71 adults underwent BPV. Single balloon technique was mostly employed (99.1%). The mean balloon/annulus ratio was 1.22 ± 0.02. The transvalvular peak-to-peak gradient measured immediately before and after valvuloplasty was 103.4 ± 33.9mmHg and 33.9 ± 17.5mmHg respectively (65.1% reduction, p<0.0001). Intervention was successful and partially successful in 100 (92.6%) subjects and 8 (7.4%) subjects respectively, irrespective of age and gender. Less than moderate pulmonary regurgitation occurred in 73 (67.6%) patients. At discharge, peak Doppler gradient was reduced by 74.1% compared to admission value. This was further significantly reduced (25.4%) at short-term follow-up. This reduction in gradient was sustained at mid-term and long-term follow-up. The median duration of follow-up was 15years (range: 2 to 27 years). All patients were asymptomatic at short-term and mid-term follow-up. Two (1.9%) patients who developed restenosis on long-term underwent repeat valvuloplasty. Conclusions: BPV is a well-tolerated non-surgical treatment modality for congenital valvular PS producing highly effective results irrespective of age or gender. The results are excellent at immediate-term, short-term, mid-term and long-term. Submit Your Manu Script at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[171] viXra:1708.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:48:11

The Choice Of Optimal Coronary Stents: Is It Possible To Maximize Cost-Effectiveness?

Authors: Rajeev Gupta, Neelesh Gupta, Shukri Saliba Shukri Mushahwar, Abdullah Mohammed Shehab
Comments: 4 Pages.

Percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with implantation of the stent have become standard-of-care in the management of obstructive coronary artery disease (CAD), including amongst patients with acute coronary syndromes (ACS). The most expensive hardware in PCI is drug-eluting stent (DES), thus making PCI an expensive affair; leading to unaffordability in many parts of the world. We made an attempt, to identify improved cost-effective ways to substitute DES with bare-metal stent (BMS) as and when feasible, while preserving the interests of the patients. While for patients with unstable CAD, DES is superior to BMS in device-oriented outcomes (unlike in patientoriented outcomes); patients with stable CAD with lesion (type A/B1 morphology) with coronary vessels larger than or equal to 3.75 mm: BMS is as good as second-generation DES, in both patient-oriented composite outcomes (all-cause death, any myocardial infarction, MI; and revascularization) and in device-oriented composite outcomes (cardiac death, target vessel MI, or symptom-driven TLR) both in shortand long-term follow-up. For patients with very-high risk of bleeding, irrespective of the cause of bleeding: BMS may be preferred with a view to reducing bleeding complication (as major bleeding adversely affects prognosis). Prefer no stent strategy i.e., only plain old balloon angioplasty (POBA) as and when possible like for patients with focal tandem stenotic-aneurysmal lesions and in diabetic patients with acute coronary syndromes with triple-vessel disease (planned for coronary artery bypass, POBA to relieve the obstruction to achieveing TIMI 3 flow, if possible). Replace temptation of oculostenotic reflex with the objective assessment of ischemia with flow fractional reserve (FFR) for lesions between 50% and 90%, particularly in stable CAD. Of course, for patients with obstructive left main stem (LMCA) disease and for bifurcation lesions (needing 2 or more stent strategy), and for lesions with Type B2 / C morphology, use of DES (preferably secondgeneration) to improve both patient-oriented and device-oriented outcomes is cost-effective and is recommended. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[170] viXra:1708.0317 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 01:59:08

Microvascular Decompression of the Optic Nerve

Authors: Jack Andrew S, Mc Dougall Cameron, O Kelly Cian J, Edwards Marianne C, Chow, MichaelM
Comments: 3 Pages.

Symptomatic compression of the optic apparatus by a tortuous internal carotid artery (ICA) is rare. We report a patient with visual decline due to optic nerve compression by the ICA. The patient presented with a visual field deficit and standard work-up revealed no discernible cause. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated distortion of the optic nerve by the ICA. The optic nerve was decompressed with resultant clinical improvement. Optic nerve compression by the ICA may be considered a diagnosis of exclusion. Here, microvascular decompression led to improvement in visual function. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[169] viXra:1708.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:00:45

From Biography to Theory: the Role of Anna Freud in the Emergence of the “adolescent Process”

Authors: Florian Houssier
Comments: 10 Pages.

Some aspects of Anna Freud’s life reveal the existence of specifically adolescent conflicts, which can be tied to some of her theoretical and clinical discoveries in the field of adolescent psychoanalysis. Her historical input in the gradual construction of a theoretical corpus on adolescence has often been ignored. These links between biography and theory gave rise to a movement of conceptualisation making it possible to develop a psychoanalytic metapsychology of adolescence: indeed, emerged such notions as asceticism, intellectualisation in relationship with anorexia and the struggle against the genitalisation of the adolescent body. Today, the Annafreudian school of thought has remained the main source of investigation and theoretical transmission of what is now called the adolescent process. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[168] viXra:1708.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:02:35

Primay Extraosseous Ewing’s Sarcoma Of The Lombar Epidural Space Presenting As Cauda Equina Syndrome

Authors: Hatim Belfquih, Brahim El mostarchid
Comments: 1 Page.

A 31-year-old woman complained of right sciatica for 2 months followed one month later by gait disturbance and weakness of right lower extremity. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) revealed a extradural mass extending from L4 to S1/S2 interspace. It appeared hypo-intense on T1-weighted and T2- weighted images and contrast enhancement after injection of gadolinium (Figure 1A, B and C). Axial MR images revealed a mass extention to the right neural foramen at the L5–S1 which is enlarged (Fig1D, E). The patient underwent laminectomy of L4 to S1, A highly vascular lesion was seen in the epidural space, extending from L4 root axilla down to the S1 root, could be excised totally. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[167] viXra:1708.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:06:12

Meningitis: Causes, Diagnosis, Symptoms, Treatment and Prevention

Authors: S vanisree reddy
Comments: 2 Pages.

Bacterial meningitis continues to be a significant source of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Neisseria meningitidis are the most ordinary and most violent pathogens of meningitis. Clinical and experimental studies have recognized a more detailed understanding of the mechanisms resulting in brain injure, squeal and neuropsychological deficit. Vaccination has really contributed to the current turn down in the number of cases for the three most usual meningeal pathogens. Genetic targeting and/or pharmacologic blockade of the implicated pathways possibly a potential strategy for therapeutic adjunctive measures to improve outcome and may hold substantial assure, in concert with antimicrobial agents, in human with delicate bacterial meningitis You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[166] viXra:1708.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:11:10

Association Between Both Self-Reported and Directly Observed Physical Function and Depressive Symptoms in a us Chinese Population: Findings from the Pine Study

Authors: Mengting Li, Xinqi Dong
Comments: 8 Pages.

Purpose: The association between physical function and depressive symptoms has been widely discussed in literature. However, the heterogeneity in measuring self-reported physical function has obfuscated the applicability of research findings while limited research investigated the association between performancebased physical function and depressive symptoms. This study aims to examine the association between both self-reported and performance-based physical function and depressive symptoms. Methods: Data were derived from the Population Study of Chinese Elderly (PINE), a community-engaged, population-based epidemiological study of U.S. Chinese older adults aged 60 and above in the Greater Chicago area. Self-reported physical function was measured by Katz activities of daily living (ADL), Lawton instrumental activities of daily living (IADL), Index of Basic Physical Activities scale and Index of Mobility scale. Performance-based physical function was measured by Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB). Depressive symptoms and depression were assessed by the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9). Results: Every one point higher in ADL (OR: 1.29, 1.14-1.45), IADL (OR: 1.17, 1.13-1.22), Index of Basic Physical Activities scale (OR: 1.22, 1.19-1.26), Index of Mobility scale (OR: 1.52, 1.39- 1.66), and SPPB (OR: 1.16, 1.12-1.19) was significantly associated with higher risk of depressive symptoms. In addition, both selfreported and performance-based physical function was significantly associated with depression. Discussion: This study initially examined the association between both self-reported and performance-based physical function and depressive symptoms and it further identified physical function impairment was not only associated with depressive symptoms, but also depression. Our study suggests that health professionals should be aware of the depressive symptoms or depression in older adults with physical function impairment. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[165] viXra:1708.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:13:42

Mental Health of Pneumoconiosis Patients in China: a Meta-Analysis

Authors: Ruixue Huang, Jian-An Hu
Comments: 4 Pages.

Objective: To compare the mental health status of pneumoconiosis patients with that of healthy individuals in China with the aim of providing a scientific basis for psychological intervention and mental health education. Methods: A computerized literature search was conducted using several databases, including CBM, Wan fang Data, VIP Information, CNKI, CMCI, and Pub Med, to collect articles published between 1999 and 2014 regarding the mental health of pneumoconiosis patients in China. The papers that met the selection criteria were subject to a meta-analysis, with RevMan 5.0 software used to process the data. Results: A total of five articles involving 1342 cases met the research criteria and were selected for analysis. The meta-analysis revealed that, relative to healthy individuals, pneumoconiosis patients showed significantly more pronounced tendencies toward experiencing anxiety, depression, somatization, horror, forced, paranoia, interpersonal sensitivity, enmity, psychosis. Conclusion: Serious mental health problems exist among pneumoconiosis patients in comparison with healthy individuals, particularly with regard to experiencing anxiety, depression. The mental health exhibited by pneumoconiosis patients appears to be worse than that of healthy individuals. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[164] viXra:1708.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:17:26

Spiritual Interventions in Iran: a Review Article

Authors: Nadereh Memaryan, Zeinab Ghaempanah, Ruohollah Seddigh
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objectives: Although many studies have examined the effects of spiritual interventions, ambiguity of the model of them causes bias. This study aimed to achieve a picture of spiritual interventions in Iran as a Shiite Muslim country. Method: An advanced search was conducted in main Iranian and international databases using both the English and Persian keywords of spiritual intervention, spiritual care, spiritual therapy, spiritual support, and spirituality. Iranian studies that indexed until May 2016 and were related to the effects of spiritual therapies in clinical trials were selected. Results: Out of the 31selected articles, 17 were in Persianlanguage journals, and 14 were in English-language journals. The interventions that have presented in these articles were classified into three main categories: research-based interventions, mixed interventions and arbitrary interventions. Conclusion: No clear model for spiritual interventions can be extracted from Iranian studies. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[163] viXra:1708.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:19:13

Cross-Cultural Assessments and Stakeholder Consultancy Towards Resource Waste Reduction and Climate Change Prevention

Authors: C. Hornsby, Nicholas Head, Evangelia Ploumistou, S. Ulgiati
Comments: 22 Pages.

Concerns are growing across the board about the increasing resource demand by society and the poor way in which society has been dealing with waste and recovery of natural resources. It is clear that the time of what seemed to be abundant and cheap natural resources is coming to an end with the growing needs of a ever increasing global population combined with concerns about the security of supply of many essential materials, energy and products. At the same time, there is a rise in interest in understanding coming from different stakeholder groups in the sustainable management of natural resources and protection of the environment, linked with civil society’s concerns about the continuing and growing practise of landfilling. Concerns are growing across the board about the increasing resource demand by society and the poor way in which society has been dealing with waste and recovery of natural resources. It is clear that the time of what seemed to be abundant and cheap natural resources is coming to an end with the growing needs of a ever increasing global population combined with concerns about the security of supply of many essential materials, energy and products. At the same time, there is a rise in interest in understanding coming from different stakeholder groups in the sustainable management of natural resources and protection of the environment, linked with civil society’s concerns about the continuing and growing practise of landfilling. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[162] viXra:1708.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:30:03

An Investigation on Substance Misuse Treatment, Mental Health Care Providers’ Perception on Relapse: A Cross Sectional Study

Authors: Charles Blessings Maloya, Omero Gonekani Mwale
Comments: 5 Pages.

Introduction: Relapse is a common treatment outcome for many substance misusers. How a relapse is perceived may decree how it can be responded to. This study aimed at investigating substance misuse treatment, mental health care providers’ perception of relapse. Methods: This study employed a cross sectional research design. The sample was drawn from two drug and alcohol treatment services in Glasgow City, Scotland. Data was collected using self-administered questionnaires which were analyzed by using SPSS. Results: The results indicated that n=25(92%) reported having a better understanding of their role legitimacy when caring for clients with relapses. Only n=4(15%) reported that there is little that can be done to help clients who have relapsed. Not surprisingly, n=1(4%) was a participant who was uncertain of his counselling skills and believed that clients with several relapses cannot be treated. Conclusion: In conclusion, there was inconsistency between providers’ knowledge and their reaction to relapse. Therefore, emotional reactions if left unchecked may constitute a barrier to provision of care and may negatively impact treatment outcomes. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[161] viXra:1708.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:41:23

Monitoring Surgical Performance: Current Models and Limitations

Authors: Agostino Pozzi, Laetitia F Colombo, Francesca De Stefano, Alessandra Sala, Marco Bartolucci, Fabio Villa
Comments: 3 Pages.

Purpose: The article aims to evaluate methods currently used to monitor surgical performance. Different model’s advantages and limitations are analyzed to possibly identify the best model of assessment. Design/Methodology/Approach: An extensive online research took place, looking in particular for articles containing terms such as ‘surgical performance monitoring’, ‘forced ranking’, and ‘surgical outcomes’. The search was independently carried out by three medical doctors. References were screened to find more articles on this particular topic. A conceptual review was then performed. Findings: Among the current available methods, the RiskAdjusted Bernoulli Cumulative Sum (RA-CUSUM), set on a real time prospective monitoring, is preferred and might improve surgical outcomes. This is especially true when the RA-CUSUM is compared with the Variable Life Adjusted Display (VLAD) retrospective model, although VLAD is easier to interpret and it is more frequently used by surgeons. Practical Implications: Applying a standardized surgical performance assessment model identifies and manages practice variations in the same institution and among hospitals. Originality/value: RA-CUSUM applied to surgical practice can be an effective tool to determine variations in performance. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[160] viXra:1708.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:43:26

Conservative Treatment for Subungal Hematoma with Tuft Fracture

Authors: Zohair Al Aseri
Comments: 2 Pages.

Management of simple nail bed lacerations and subungual hematomas has remained somewhat controversial. This article presents a 30-year-old case admitted to emergency department (ED) due to subungual hematoma with tuft fracture. The nail was partially loose, and the nail bed seemed more or the less intact. Rest of hand examination was normal. Plain radiographs showed fracture of the distal phalanx. Decision was made not to remove the nail bed and only to release the pressure by trephine technique under sterile condition. The patient was scheduled for ED follow up appointment after one week. During follow-up no complications were encountered. The nail bed recovered completely and the nail plate seemed to develop without any deformities. Eight months after the ED visit there are no complaints about pain, shape or loss of function during daily activities. Since there are no agreed upon protocol or algorithm for subungual hematoma and distal phalanx fracture, the author believe that conservative treatment is still an option for treating tuft fracture with subungual hematoma. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[159] viXra:1708.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:46:04

Laparoscopic Acute Care Surgery in Liver Disease: A Regression Analysis of the Nationwide Inpatient Sample

Authors: Sri Ram Pentakota, Punam Patel, Aziz M. Merchant
Comments: 11 Pages.

Introduction: Patients with liver disease are being more frequently undergoing urgent and emergent surgery. There is sparse literature comparing outcomes based on modality of surgery (laparoscopic versus open) in this important cohort of patients. Our study examines surgical outcomes by liver disease status and surgical modality in acute care surgery setting. Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of patients undergoing acute care abdominal surgery between 2006 and 2010 extracted from the National Inpatient Sample database. Surgical outcomes examined were in-hospital mortality, surgical, and medical complications, length of stay, and total hospital charges. Sequential multivariable generalized linear regression models were used to compare the outcomes across surgical modality and type of liver disease. Results: Unadjusted and adjusted analyses revealed that laparoscopic surgery was associated with marked reduction in mortality (92%) and surgical complications (86%) compared to open surgery, as well as a moderate yet significant reduction (60%) for medical complications, length of stay and total hospital charges. Patients with cirrhotic liver disease fared worse compared to those with non-cirrhotic and no liver disease, as expected. Conclusion: Laparoscopic surgery provides a feasible alternative for patients with liver disease undergoing acute care surgery. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[158] viXra:1708.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 02:48:29

Lvads: A Two-Sided Dilemma when Buying Time for Heart Transplantation

Authors: Binks M
Comments: 3 Pages.

Our ageing population is experiencing an unprecedented level of heart disease. Medical therapy is often inadequate in those with endstage heart failure. Mechanical cardiac support devices are becoming increasingly utilized as a means of both bridging these patients to heart transplant and as destination therapy. However, they are far from risk-free. This review encompasses the complications associated with left ventricular assist devices (LVADs), including their often-unpredictable effects on the right ventricle. You can submit your Manuscripts at: https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php
Category: Biochemistry

[157] viXra:1708.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:51:33

Outbreak of Kyasanur Forest Disease in Shivamogga, Karnataka State, India, During 2015

Authors: NB Thippeswamy, SK Kiran
Comments: 3 Pages.

KFD is a Tick born viral disease with seasonal outbreak between the months of December to May. The number of cases of Kyasanur Forest Disease was investigated in Karnataka state, India, during January to July 2015. Reported incidences in 2015 were relatively less with 124 suspected and 41 RT-PCR or IgM Elisa positive cases when compared to 400 suspected and 166 positive cases reported in 2014. Majority of suspected KFD cases (124) in 2015 were reported from Shivamogga District, with only few cases reported from remaining endemic districts of KFD and one death was recorded. The number of KFD cases reported every year even after regular vaccination program in its original endemic area. KFD spreads from the zone of first outbreak along the belt of Western Ghats continuously to the newer area. New diagnostic techniques for quick diagnosis and more effective and specific drug to treat KFD patients is the need of the hour in the light of available vaccine which is not so readily accepted by the people in the endemic area. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[156] viXra:1708.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:54:34

The Application of Acoustic Myography in Canine Muscle Function and Performance Testing

Authors: Christina Fenger, Adrian P. Harrison
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is generally known that muscles have the ability to store and convert energy making certain types of movement highly efficient with regard to muscle work. The principle behind this concept is summarized in what has become known as the “spring-mass” model. Whilst evidence of a change in gait from walk to trot has been documented for more than 35 years, quantitative measurements of comparable changes in muscle function remain elusive. In a study involving 11 Labrador dogs, looking at muscle function as assessed by acoustic myography, changes in muscle efficiency/coordination as well as both spatial-(fiber recruitment) and temporal-(firing rate) summation were made for both walk and trot for m.longissimus lumborum and m.gluteus superficialis. In m.gluteus superficialis a 35% decrease (P < 0.05) in efficiency was noted when dogs changed gait from walk to trot, and both muscles showed a slight yet significant increase in fiber recruitment. However, both muscles showed a significant decrease in firing rate (36% and 76% for m.gluteus superficialis and m.longissimus lumborum; P < 0.05 & P < 0.01, respectively) when changing pace from walk to trot. It is concluded that acoustic myography not only enables quantifiable assessment of gait changes with regard to the “spring-mass” model, but that the observed changes in the two muscles measured confirm, as well as advance our understanding of the mechanisms by which reductions in muscle work during steady level movements are achieved. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[155] viXra:1708.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:57:00

Seroprevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease in Backyard Chickens of Six Districts of North Shewa Zones of Oromia and Amhara Regions, Ethiopia

Authors: Mitike Girma, Bedaso Kebede, Bekele Megarsa
Comments: 9 Pages.

A cross-sectional study and questionnaire survey was carried from November 2009 up to April 2010 in North Shewa zone of Oromia and Amhara regions to determine prevalence of Infectious Bursal Disease (IBD) in unvaccinated backyard chickens using commercial ELISA kit. The study revealed that IBD was prevalent 84.2% (95% CI= 80.6 - 87.8, n=399) in the study areas. Seroprevalence distribution of IBD were 96.2% (95% CI= 93.5-99.0) and 73.8% (95% CI= 67.9-79.8) in Amhara and Oromia regions, respectively. Chickens in the Amhara region were nine times susceptible for IBD than Chickens of Oromia region. There is no significant difference among sex and age groups of study animals. The study revealed that IBD were common in district of Kewet 98.6% (95% CI= 95.7-101.4), Basena Werena 95.1% ( 95% CI= 88.4-101.8), Debre Brehan 94.7 %( 95% CI= 89.5-99.8), W\ Jarso 78.0% (95% CI= 69.4-86.6), Dagam 71.2% (95% CI= 58.7-83.6) and Kuyu 70.4% (95% CI= 59.7-81.1). It indicates that IBD virus is extensively circulating throughout the study areas. Questionnaire survey revealed that backyard poultry production was suffered from multifaceted diseases which contributed 61% death losses of the chickens at age of a day old to market age. Generally, IBD prevalence among the indigenous chicken was escalated with a possible devastated effect on the vulnerable population of backyard poultry. Therefore, it warrants the vaccine development and implementation for control mechanisms. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[154] viXra:1708.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-24 03:59:06

Bordetella Bronchiseptica Vaccines in Pet Guinea Pigs? A Review of the Literature

Authors: Gallego M
Comments: 3 Pages.

Bordetella bronchiseptica causes severe respiratory disease in guinea pigs and it has been associated with stillbirths, abortions, infertility and infections of the reproductive system and tympanic bullae. Disease caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in pet guinea pigs is mostly a poor understood disease; studies about this pathogen has been conducted mostly in laboratory guinea pigs. The objective of this review is to condense published information about the disease caused by Bordetella bronchiseptica in guinea pigs for the veterinarian who attends pet guinea pigs, with special emphasis on the prevention of this disease. The author concludes that vaccination in pet guinea pigs against Bordetella bronchiseptica needs to be considered for future studies. You can submit your Manuscripts at:  https://symbiosisonlinepublishing.com/submitManuscript.php 
Category: Biochemistry

[153] viXra:1708.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:05:26

Formulation and Evaluation of Misoprostal by Chronotherapeutic Drug Delivery System

Authors: Musfeera Adeel, Sana Begum, Shaik Gouse, Shanti Kumar
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this present study it has been aimed to develop Spray Coated tablets of Misoprostol with a view of minimizing the drug release in the physiological ecology of stomach and small intestine and to ensure maximum drug release in the colon. This study was conducted to develop colon targeted Misoprostal delivery for the treatment of Colonic Bacterial Infections and to study the influence of coating thickness and ratios of lag time polymers (Eudragit L 100 and Eudragit S 100) on drug release and lag time.
Category: Biochemistry

[152] viXra:1708.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:09:58

Development and Evaluation of Fast Disintegrating Tablets of Ondansetron with Natural and Synthetic SuperDisintegrating Agents

Authors: Latha Uppala1, Palle Pranusha
Comments: 7 Pages.

Ondansetron a widely prescribed anti-ulcer drug belongs to BCS class II and exhibit low and variable oral bioavailability due to its poor solubility and dissolution rate and having high permeation rate. In the present work, oral disintegrating tablets of Ondansetron were developed with a view to enhance the patient compliance and provide quick onset of action. Ondansetron is a serotonin 5-HT3 receptor antagonist used mainly as an anti-emetic (to treat nausea and vomiting). It affects both peripheral and central nerves. Ondansetron reduces the action of the vagus nerve, which deactivate the vomiting centre, and also block serotonin receptors in the chemoreceptor trigger zone. It has slight effect on vomiting caused by motion sickness, since drug is highly bitter. The drug solid dispersed coated granules showed no bitterness in the taste. Oral disintegrating tablets prepared by direct compression method using super disintegrants like cross povidone, cross carmellose sodium, sodium starch glycolate, in different concentrations and evaluated for the pre-compression parameters such as bulk density, compressibility and angle of repose. The arranged batches of tablets were evaluated for hardness, weight variation, thickness, friability, drug content, disintegration time and invitro dissolution profile and found satisfactory. Aim: The aim of the present study is to formulate and evaluate fast disintegrating tablets of Ondansetron by direct compression method employing super disintegrating agents. The objective of present study: • The purpose of this research was to mask the strongly bitter taste of Ondansetron HCL and to formulate a rapid - disintegrating tablet. • To formulate an orally disintegrating tablet so that it can be administered to paediatric and geriatric patients.
Category: Biochemistry

[151] viXra:1708.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:18:55

A Review on Active Ingredients from Marine Sources used in Cosmetics

Authors: Latha Uppala
Comments: 3 Pages.

The word cosmetic represents a specific product containing active ingredients. These cosmetics products with biologically active ingredients purporting to have medical benefit. They are formulated not only to improve the skin appearance but also to improve positive physiological effects at the cellular level. Simultaneously, it is necessary to discover new bioactive substances with resourceful, safe and stable properties from natural sources for cosmetic development. Recently marine resources have been demonstrated with great cosmetic prospective. It is a productive source of cosmetics.
Category: Biochemistry

[150] viXra:1708.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:42:25

Stafne’s Defect: Diagnosis with Cone Beam Computed Tomography: Case Report

Authors: Gisele Pavão Spaulonci, Emerson Eli Nunes Cunha, Luciano Lauria Dib, Elcio Magdalena Giovani
Comments: 3 Pages.

Stafne’s Defect is an asymptomatic bone lesion, most common in men between the fifth and seventh decade of life. It is characterized as radiolucent, delimited and well-defined image in the posterior region of the mandible and is usually discovered on routine radiographic examination. In this case, the patient is in the third decade of life and clinical and radiographic characteristics described were consistent with those found in academic literature. Cone beam computed tomography was used to diagnose the defect and enabled the differential diagnosis with other pathologies, avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures. Considering that it is a non-progressive change, its conservative therapy is based on the periodic control of the lesion. In this case report, it was possible to confirm that cone beam computed tomography acts as an important tool in the diagnosis of Stafne’sDefect, as it enabled the differential diagnosis in regards to other diseases, thus avoiding unnecessary surgical procedures.
Category: Biochemistry

[149] viXra:1708.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:54:40

Oral Health in a Cognitive and Behavioral Unit

Authors: Lucie Rapp, Pascal Saidlitz, Thierry Voisin, Marie-Hélène Lacoste-Ferré
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the 2000’s, there are approximately 860 000french persons affected by Alzheimer’s diseases and dementia (ADD). This number is increasing constant because of the ageing of the population and the progress of the diagnosis. Today, about 165 000 new patients a year are diagnosed. These diseases engender later an important physical, intellectual and social dependence which impacts on the social life of the patient and people around him. It is the main cause of heavy dependence of elderly and of admission in nursing homes; at present 40% of ADD-patients live there.
Category: Biochemistry

[148] viXra:1708.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:56:46

The Rehabilitation of Permanent Teeth with Complicated Crown Fracture by MTA Pulpotomy and Re-Attachment: Case Series Report Study and Literature Review

Authors: Mehmet Sinan Doğan, Anton Rahardjo, Yuniardini Septorini Wimardhani, Izzet Yavuz
Comments: 6 Pages.

Following dental trauma, dental injuries may be seen from cracked enamel to avulsion in the teeth. In this clinical study, are presented restoration of fractured dental fragments after the proper treatment of 5 pediatric patients aged 8, 9, 11, 11, and 11 years who occurred complicated crown fracture and exposure to dental trauma in the anterior group of teeth between 2009 and 2013. In the same session complicated crown fracture in the anterior group of teeth were amputated with mineral trioxide agent (MTA) and it was closed with glass ionomer cement. The restoration was completed by attaching the fractured dental fragment with composite resin. This emergency treatment has special importance. Because complicated crown fractures occurring after dental trauma to the anterior group of teeth can lead to pain and complications of functions, aesthetics and psychological problems.
Category: Biochemistry

[147] viXra:1708.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:58:15

Prevalence of Gum Disease in Preterm and Term Adolescents

Authors: Sergio Spezzia1, Rosa Maria Eid Weiler, Fernanda Malheiro Santos, Liliana A. M. V. Takaoka1, Stella M. C. P. A. C. Vieira, Maria Sylvia De Souza Vitalle, Benjamin I. Kopelman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Aim: Assess and compare the prevalence of gum disease in preterm and term-born adolescents. Materials and Methods: A cross section study was conducted involving adolescents between the ages of 10 and 19. One group of 120 preterm-born adolescents and a g roup of 149 term-born adolescents (control). Physicians conducted physical exams in these groups to measure pubertal stages, dividing the patients into 3 subgroups according to Tanner’s stages. The dental exam was conducted by four specialist dentist examiners. The community periodontal index of treatment need and measurements of plaque index were conducted. Results: Comparing the preterm-born adolescents to the termborn ones, it was verified that the term group presented a higher prevalence of gum disease than the preterm group and the difference was statistically significant (p < 0.01). There was no statistically significant difference in the prevalence of gum disease when comparing the preterm-born adolescents with weight at birth < 1500 to the ones weighing ≥ 1500 grams. The preterm-born adolescent group did not present significant difference in the prevalence of gum disease in relation to Tanner’s subgroups; however, when both groups were assessed together, it was verified that females, after the growth spurt, present a 3.7 times higher risk of gum disease. Conclusion: The ranges of weight upon birth, low weight and very low weight did not impact the prevalence of gum disease in premature adolescents. Growth spurt increases the risk of developing periodontal disease in the female gender. Girls, after the spurt, tend to have more gum disease than girls before the spurt.
Category: Biochemistry

[146] viXra:1708.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 05:59:40

Kabuki Syndrome: Case Study Report

Authors: Giovanna Franco Tini1, Amanda Caramel Juvino, Markus Algayer Atmanspacher, Carolina Algayer Atmanspacher, Caroline Berne Pereira, Rodolfo Georgevich Neto, Marina Struncova Fernandes, Ruth Andia-Merlin, Gilberto Araújo Noro Filho, Elcio Magdalena Giovan
Comments: 3 Pages.

Kabuki syndrome is a rare congenital anomaly, in which such (optional) patients present mild to moderate mental deficits and are characterized by unusual facial expressions. In addition, they may also manifest cardiac anomalies, urinary tract anomaly, hearing loss, hypotonia and also postnatal growth deficit. These fundamental characteristics are called “Pentad of Niikawa”, which correspond to dysmorphic face, skeletal anomalies, dermatoglyphic abnormalities, mild to moderate mental deficit, and postnatal growth deficiency. It also includes scoliosis, malformation of spinal column and ribs, delay in skeletal maturation, dislocation of the hip and patellar. The aim of this case study report is to present the diagnosis of a patient with this syndrome, evidencing, in the light of knowledge, to the Dental Surgeons of how to conduct dental treatment with effectiveness and safety. It also shows the need for an interdisciplinary and multidisciplinary approach for the treatment of these patients, highlighting all of the complexity of the syndrome, making it easier future diagnoses, with a purpose of promoting integral health and improvements in the quality of life.
Category: Biochemistry

[145] viXra:1708.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:03:08

Significance of CD30 Expression by Epidermotropic T Cells in Lymphomatoid Papulosis and Lymphomatoid Pityriasis Lichenoides

Authors: Eric C Vonderheid, Marshall E Kadin, Gladys H Telang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Background: The T cell activation antigen CD30 is widely used to differentiate lymphomatoid papulosis (LyP) from pityriasis lichenoides. However, CD30 has recently been reported to be expressed by CD8+ cells in the epidermis and dermis of some cases of pityiasis lichenoides et varioliformis acuta (PLEVA). Methods: This observation prompted us to review our experience with cases initially diagnosed as LyP or “lymphomatoid” pityriasis lichenoides for CD30 expression by epidermotropic T cells. Results: CD30 expression by more than 20% of the epidermotropic T cells was observed in a group of 10 cases characterized clinically by self-healing papulonodules (two cases also with infiltrated plaques) and pathologically by atypical lymphocytes with cerebriform nuclei within the epidermis and dermal infiltrate. Conclusions: CD30 can be expressed by either CD4+ or CD8+ cells in cases of LyP with epidermotropic T cells (so-called mixed LyP type A/B), but three of our cases appear to be examples of lymphomatoid CD30+ PLEVA. In addition, three cases had serologic manifestations suggestive of a lupus erythematosus-like autoimmune disorder. We hypothesize that CD30+ lymphocytes with cerebriform nuclei in some cases result in accumulation of benign activated CD8+ and CD4+ T cells rather than neoplastic cells.
Category: Biochemistry

[144] viXra:1708.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:04:56

The Effect of Smoking on Facial Aging Among Females in Saudi Arabia

Authors: Basem T Jamal, Alaa Bokhari, Bushra Aljahdali, Baraa Alsayed, Hanan Filemban, Razan Baabdullah, Mahmoud Fakiha
Comments: 4 Pages.

Background: Cigarettes smoking has been shown by several studies to be one of the significant causes of facial aging and wrinkling. Smoking also worsen the scores for upper eyelid skin redundancy, lower lid bags, malar bags, nasolabial folds, upper and lower lip wrinkles. The prevalence rate of smoking in Saudi Arabia ranges from 2.4-52.3% in the past two decades. Up to date, there is no study in Saudi Arabia regarding smoking and facial aging and so the aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between smoking and facial aging among females in Saudi Arabia. Methods: Analytical cross-sectional comparative study consisting of 107 female participants aged 30-60 years old was performed. A questionnaire was used to obtain a comprehensive medical and lifestyle histories. Also, clinical examination of the perioral and peri-orbital regions in relaxed and smiling positions was also charted using the Fitzpatrick scale. Results: 52.3% of the individuals surveyed were either smokers or past smokers with a mean smoking duration of 12.6 years. While there was no significant difference between the smoking status and its relation to the grade of peri-oral and peri-orbital wrinkles, it was noted that the length of smoking in years was correlated with advanced skin aging scores with higher peri-oral and peri-orbital wrinkles. Conclusion: The sample size is not sufficient to establish the comparison between smokers and nonsmokers in relation to facial aging, the length of smoking in years showed a statistical significant difference in correlation to peri-oral and peri-orbital wrinkles.
Category: Biochemistry

[143] viXra:1708.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:06:21

G-CSF Administration Accelerates Cutaneous Wound Healing Accompanied With Increased Pro-Hyp Production In db/db Mice

Authors: Shiro Jimi, Kenji Sato, Masahiko kimura, Junji Suzumiya, Shuuji Hara, Francesco De Francesco, Hiroyuki Ohjimi
Comments: 9 Pages.

Objective: Impaired wound healing in diabetic patients is a clinical concern. However, exacerbation factors in diabetic wounds are still not clear. Inflammatory cell infiltrates after skin wounding and subsequent healing responses were investigated using diabetic mice. Methods: Granulocyte colony-stimulating factor (G-CSF), neutrophil infiltration and peptides from degraded collagen in wounded tissue were examined using db/db and wild-type mice. Results: The collagen peptides Pro-Hyp and Hyp-Gly in wounded tissue were quantified. G-CSF was transiently secreted from wounded tissue immediately after excision and then appeared in peripheral blood. G-CSF levels were significantly lower in db/ db mice than in wild-type mice, and neutrophil infiltration into the granulation tissue was lower in db/db mice. In wound tissue, only Pro-Hyp increased during the 7-day study, and Pro-Hyp levels were significantly lower in db/db mice. Wound closure was severely impaired in db/db mice. However, topical recombinant human G-CSF (rhG-CSF) administration accelerated healing, accompanied with increased neutrophil infiltration and Pro-Hyp production. Conclusion: The results show that decreased G-CSF secretion in wound tissue may trigger delayed healing in diabetic mice and that topical rhG-CSF administration increased Pro-Hyp production and accelerated healing. Therefore, G-CSF-induced Pro-Hyp may play an important role in wound healing.
Category: Biochemistry

[142] viXra:1708.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:08:08

New Approaches to Melanoma Treatment: Checkpoint Inhibition with Novel Targeted Therapy

Authors: Suzie Chen, Ann Robinson
Comments: 4 Pages.

Melanoma is the most dangerous type of skin cancer, largely due to its propensity for recurrence and metastasis, even after removal of malignant tissue. When melanoma reaches advanced stages, the disease becomes refractory to many types of therapy, which has created a need for novel therapeutic strategies to combat the disease. Our group focuses on the oncogenic function of a neuronal receptor, metabotropic glutamate receptor 1 (mGluR1). When mGluR1 is aberrantly expressed in melanocytes, elevated levels of extracellular glutamate mediate the constitutive activation of the receptor to promote cell proliferation. We are exploring the potential synergistic efficacy when combining a glutamatergic signaling inhibitor with a checkpoint inhibitor antibody
Category: Biochemistry

[141] viXra:1708.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:09:12

The Treatment of Solar Lentigo Using Dr. Hoon Hur’s Optimal Melanocytic Suicide-2 Parameter with a High Fluence 1064nm Nd:yag Laser Without Postinflammatory Hyperpigmentation

Authors: Hoon Hur, Yu Ri Kim
Comments: 5 Pages.

A solar lentigo is a small, well-circumscribed, pigmented macule surrounded by normal-appearing skin. Histopathlogic findings may show epidermal hyperplasia and increased melanin pigmentation of the basal layer. A variable number of melanocytes are present; these melanocytes may be increased in number, but they do not form nests. In the most cases, treatment is not necessary for solar lentigo. However treating the solar lentigo without postinflammatory hyperpigmentation is very difficult and treatment for solar lentigo without side effects such as postinflammatory hyperpigmentation, scars and recurrences cannot be found in any literature yet. Therefore the authors introduce the new treatment of solar lentigo using optimal melanocytic suicide-2 parameter with a high fluence 1064nm Q-switched Nd:YAG laser without side effects or recurrences.
Category: Biochemistry

[140] viXra:1708.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:16:41

Long-Term Outcome Of Patients With Functional Dyspepsia Infected With A Cag-Positive Helicobacter Pylori Strain. A Descriptive Study

Authors: L Kemps, RJLF Loffeld
Comments: 6 Pages.

Introduction: An important virulence factor of H.pylori is the Cagpathogenicity island. The clinical sequel in patients with functional dyspepsia treated for H.pylori on the long-term is not known. Aim: Establish long-term outcome and relate this to the initial H.pylori status (CagA- positive or negative). Patients and Methods: In 1994/1995 a study on presence of H.pylori was done. IgG antibodies against cagA were determined. Three groups of patients were made: group 1: H.pylori + and CagA+; group 2: H.pylori + and CagA-; and group 3: H.pylori -patients. An extensive chart review and several questionnaires were used (a general questionnaire, the GerdQ, theSAI, and, the GSRS). Use of acid suppressive drugs was assessed. Results: 411 patients were included. New upper GI-endoscopies were significantly more often done in patients of group 1 (p<0.001). Reflux disease was significantly more often diagnosed in group 1 patients (p=0.02). After exclusions 239 patients (58.2%) received the questionnaires, 101 respondents were evaluable. Patients in group 1 reported significantly more often complaints. There was no significant difference in the overall presentation when patients of group 1 were compared with patients of group 2. However, there was a significant difference between the scores in H.pylori+ patients when compared with patients of group 3. Patients of group 1 significantly used more often acid suppressive therapy. Conclusion: functional dyspeptics with H.pylori CagA+strain, may develop more often complaints in the future necessitating a new endoscopic investigations. Signs of reflux disease are more often present.
Category: Biochemistry

[139] viXra:1708.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:21:38

Perturbation of Igf2bp1 Transcriptome Upon the Interplay Between Mir-486-5p and Let-7a

Authors: Mourad HA, Assal RA, Youness RA, El Tayebi HM, Abdelaziz AI
Comments: 4 Pages.

Background: Activation of IGF-1/IGF-1R signaling cascade is a hallmark in Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). In our previous work, we showed that miR-486-5p acts as a tumor suppressor miRNA in HCC mainly by vertically blocking IGF-1/IGF-1R axis and its downstream signaling mediators STAT3, mTOR and c-Myc. Recently, it was reported that the proto-oncogene c-Myc directly down-regulates the tumor suppressor miRNA, let-7a, especially in HCC and that let-7 directly targets the oncogenic RNA binding protein IGF2BP1. Aim: Therefore, the main aim of this study was to investigate the indirect interplay between microRNAs; miR-486-5p and miR-let- 7a through c-MYC thereby its effect on a vital member of IGF-axis, IGF2BP1, in HCC. Methods: Huh-7 cell lines were cultured and transfected using miR-486-5p mimics using lipofection technique. Forty-eight hours post transfection, total RNA was extracted, reverse transcribed into cDNA, and finally amplified and quantified using q-RT-PCR. Impact of miR-486-5p on cell cycle was assessed using cell cycle vectors carrying response elements for the cell cycle protein c-Myc. Results: Efficient delivery of miR-486-5p in Huh-7 cells was obtained, where mimicked cells showed more than 8000 folds increase in miR-486-5p expression level. Ectopic expression of miR- 486-5p in Huh-7 cells resulted in a significant decrease in c-Myc protein expression, an increase in the expression level of the tumor suppressor, let-7a and finally forcing the expression of miR-486-5p showed a significant repression of the oncogenic validated target of let-7a, IGF2BP1. Conclusions: This study shows a novel mechanism of action of the tumor suppressor miR-486-5p. MiR-486-5p was found to indirectly repress an essential member of IGF-axis, the oncogenic RNA binding protein IGF2BP1, mainly through decreasing c-MYC expression and up regulating let-7a expression.
Category: Biochemistry

[138] viXra:1708.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:23:04

Management Of Localised Postoperative Bile Collections

Authors: Hrbatý Boris, Shilova Nataliya1, Mižičková Magdaléna, Reis Richard1, Vrtík Luděk, Čambal Marek, Labaš Peter, Kostka Vladimír, Javorka Vladimír
Comments: 7 Pages.

The authors deal with their experience with conservative management of a rare compliction after laparoscopic cholecystectomy – formation of biloma. Biloma is to be expected, when a patient after uneventfull cholecystectomy starts to have mild temperatures, persisting upper abdominal pain and elevation of leukocytes number and level of CRP. It depends on the dynamics of the clinical picture and the size of bile collection, what kind of management would be the most appropriate in each specific case. Not always, the reoperation is necessary. It depends on the summary of all above mentioned results (CRP, Leukocytes count, temperature, evidence of peritoneal irritation or peritonitis, size of collection on US – CT imaging studies, interdisplinary cooperation and discussion with radiologists and endoscopists). Of course when necessary, the invasive therapy is indicated with following possibilities: US or CT guided suction drainage, endoscopic stent or surgical approach – i. e. reoperation.
Category: Biochemistry

[137] viXra:1708.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:26:47

Technical Challenges During Therapeutic Ercp in a Patient with Situs Inversus Totalis

Authors: Shruti Khurana, Hani Zamil, Erik Rahimi, Sushovan Guha, Nirav Thosani
Comments: 1 Page.

Situs inversus totalis is an extremely rare autosomal recessive disorder occurring in 0.01% of the population. The reversal of visceral organs poses technical difficulties for therapeutic intervention during endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP). We describe a unique case of a patient with situs inversus who underwent therapeutic ERCP for management of choledocholithiasis.
Category: Biochemistry

[136] viXra:1708.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:36:27

Emerging Insights into the Moonlighting Functions and Evolutionary Origins of Mitochondrial RNA Methyltransferases

Authors: Sam Manna, Ashley Harman
Comments: 2 Pages.

RNA methyltransferases mediate the addition of methyl groups to ribonucleotides. Such modifications have implications for the structure and function of RNA. While methylation is reported in mitochondrial RNAs, the enzymes that catalyze these reactions often remain elusive; however with advances in sequencing technologies, genomic analysis is beginning to uncover their identities. Due to the complex evolutionary history of mitochondria, little is known about the origin and function of methyltransferases. This article explores two emerging families of mitochondrial RNA methyltransferases. We discuss the evidence suggesting they possess diverse bacterial (endosymbiotic and non-endosymbiotic) origins and have acquired functions in addition to methylation
Category: Biochemistry

[135] viXra:1708.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:39:13

Increasing Breeding Without Breeding (BwB) Efficiency: Full Vs. Partial-Pedigree Reconstruction in Lodgepole Pine

Authors: Yousry A. El-Kassaby, Tomas Funda, Cherdsak Liewlaksaneeyanawin
Comments: 6 Pages.

The advantage of paternity assignment in assembling structured pedigree for breeding is investigated using two sampling methods; namely, family array (known maternal parent) and random offspring (unknown maternal and paternal parents) collected from an openpollinated lodgepole pine experimental population with known parents (N = 74) using nuclear and chloroplast microsatellite markers. Offspring of equivalent sample sizes representing the family array (n = 619) and random offspring (n = 635) were genotyped and subjected to partial and full pedigree reconstruction, respectively. The full pedigree reconstruction assembled substantially larger number of full-sib families than the partial (446 vs. 268) and interestingly the two methods detected equivalent amount of external gene flow to the experimental population. The superiority of the random offspring over the family array sampling in producing more full-sib families was attributed to its better representation of the parental population, as random sampling included offspring from most parents as compared to the parent-limited family array. Owing to the observed advantages, the full pedigree reconstruction could be employed as an alternative to the breeding phase commonly required in conventional breeding programs for the development of structured pedigree needed for genetic parameters estimation.
Category: Biochemistry

[134] viXra:1708.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:40:56

A Young Man Dying Of Fulminant Hepato-Renal Syndrome The Tagging To Alcohol Addiction Obscured the Diagnosis and Precluded the Treatment of Chronic Viral Hepatitis (HBV, HCV, HDV) As the Cause of His Liver Cirrhosis

Authors: Kari Syrjänen, Pentti Sipponen, Matti Härkönen, Hannes Tamm
Comments: 7 Pages.

Discourse: The present report describes a 47-year-old man who was referred to hospital due to liver cirrhosis and acute hepatorenal syndrome (HRS) that rapidly progressed, and of which he died within two months. As a result of a sequence of unfortunate events in his management, including an inaccurate and in part erroneous record of the patient’s past history, alcohol was considered as the sole cause of the liver failure (ALD), importantly, without taking a liver biopsy. The patient was ranked outside curative therapy, including renal replacement therapy (RRT) as the bridge to eventual liver transplantation. Instead, he received two courses of corticosteroids (for ALD). The negative serology for hepatitis viruses was not controlled, until in the other hospital during the final days before death, when the patient tested positive for HBV (HBsAb). Autopsy: At autopsy, the liver was large (2.800 g) with micronodular cirrhosis but no typical signs of ALD. When examined using immunohistochemistry (IHC), liver cells were extensively loaded with HBV, HCV and HDV, implicating an activation of a latent chronic viral hepatitis during the hospitalization, and massive replication of all three hepatotrophic viruses. This activation, remaining unnoticed by the clinicians, obviously resulted in acute-on-chronic fulminant viral hepatitis with rapid and fatal liver failure. Conclusions: By labeling the patient’s liver failure as ALD obscured adequate search for other potential causative factors for the patient´s HRS. This is most unfortunate, because standard curative medical treatments (DAA, direct acting antivirals) are available for viral hepatitis, and their diagnosis by biopsy should be straightforward. In contrast, treatment with steroids is contraindicated in viral hepatitis.
Category: Biochemistry

[133] viXra:1708.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:43:07

Elejalde Syndrome: The Silvery Hair Syndrom

Authors: Fehmida Najmuddin, Rajesh Rai, Keya Lahiri, Priya Patil Cholera
Comments: 2 Pages.

Elejalde Syndrome is a rare autosomal recessive disorder. The characteristic features are silvery hair and profound central nervous system dysfunction. Unevenly distributed melanin granules are observed on hair analysis. We hereby describe, a two and half year old female child with neuroregression, diffuse hypopigmentation and silvery hair who was diagnosed to have this syndrome.
Category: Biochemistry

[132] viXra:1708.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-23 06:46:17

Engineering or Biology?

Authors: Miguel Burgos
Comments: 2 Pages.

About ten thousand years ago, after the climate change at the end of the last glacial period, humans started producing their own food by farming instead of being nomadic hunters. This was the beginning of a long period in which artificial selection led to the domestication of many animal, vegetal, and even microbial species by indirectly manipulating their genotypes through phenotypic selection of traits of interest. Thus, we unconsciously started to genetically modify other species at the “neolithic revolution”.
Category: Biochemistry

[131] viXra:1708.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-21 02:45:44

Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory

Authors: Edward J Steele
Comments: 13 Pages.

The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
Category: Biochemistry

[130] viXra:1707.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 14:35:06

The Role of Vaginal Acidity: the Production of Glycogen and It's Role on Determining the Gender of the Fetus

Authors: Mohamed Atef Aly, I.A. Aly
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper describes the important role of the vaginal acidity not only in the health of the vagina, but also in determining the gender of the fetus, we have put in mind that where there is vaginal acidity, so we should connect this to the production of oestrogen hormones, putting in mind the cases that lead to high oestrogen level.
Category: Biochemistry

[129] viXra:1705.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-26 07:13:42

Water Around DNA

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

Living cells must constantly process information to keep track of the changing world around them and arrive at an appropriate response. [26] A research team led by Professor YongKeun Park of the Physics Department at KAIST has developed an optical manipulation technique that can freely control the position, orientation, and shape of microscopic samples having complex shapes. [25] Rutgers researchers have developed a new way to analyze hundreds of thousands of cells at once, which could lead to faster and more accurate diagnoses of illnesses, including tuberculosis and cancers. [24] An international team including researchers from MIPT has shown that iodide phasing—a long-established technique in structural biology—is universally applicable to membrane protein structure determination. [23] Scientists in Greece have devised a new form of biometric identification that relies on humans' ability to see flashes of light containing just a handful of photons. [22] A research team led by Professor CheolGi Kim has developed a biosensor platform using magnetic patterns resembling a spider web with detection capability 20 times faster than existing biosensors. [21] Researchers at Columbia University have made a significant step toward breaking the so-called "color barrier" of light microscopy for biological systems, allowing for much more comprehensive, system-wide labeling and imaging of a greater number of biomolecules in living cells and tissues than is currently attainable. [20] Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18]
Category: Biochemistry

[128] viXra:1702.0309 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-24 16:25:29

Mechanism of Strand-Biased and Codon-Contexted Somatic Hypermutation in Immunity and Cancer: Implications of the Finding that Adar-Deaminases Can Directly Mediate a-to-I Editing on Both the DNA and Rna Moieties of Rna:dna Hybrids.

Authors: Edward J Steele, Robyn A Lindley
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper simply links the recent findings of Zheng, Lorenzo and Beal on ADAR-mediated DNA and RNA deamination at RNA:DNA hybrids, to our previous work on strand-biased and codon-context mutation signatures in B lymphocytes (Ig SHM) and codon-contexted exome-wide point mutation patterns in cancer genomes. We conclude that in vivo the A-to-I DNA editing component at RNA: DNA hybrids occurring in Transcription Bubbles, while important, is of far lower A-to-I editing efficiency than in dsRNA substrates (as shown in Zheng et al). Indeed the RNA moiety of RNA:DNA hybrids is also edited at similar lower frequency (relative to dsRNA substrates). Further if the A-to-I DNA editing at RNA:DNA hybrids were the sole cause of A-to-I (read as A-to-G) mutation events in vivo then the exact opposite strand biases at A:T base pairs (T>>>A) of what is actually observed (A>>>T) would be predicted. Thus we conclude that the extreme strand-biased somatic mutation patterns documented by us in vivo should be logically interpreted by the predicted sequential steps of the RNA/RT-based mechanism.
Category: Biochemistry

[127] viXra:1702.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-20 20:17:59

Photosynthesis Without Organization in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that the simplest biological reactions occur without organization in the atmosphere of a star first, as the star evolves. Organization comes after the chemical reactions take place, and they become biological as organization occurs randomly. Explanation is provided of these simple reactions and predictions are made concerning the formation of glucose, a simple sugar and its oxygen by-product.
Category: Biochemistry

[126] viXra:1702.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-12 13:29:14

The Formose Reaction in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

It is hypothesized that the first sugars for prebiotic life are formed during stellar evolution according to the general theory of stellar metamorphosis. They are created by formaldehyde being polymerized by iron/nickel meteors, which serve as catalysts, entering the atmospheres of middle aged stars such as Jupiter and Saturn. Explanation is provided.
Category: Biochemistry

[125] viXra:1702.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-01 01:18:48

Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation in Immunity and Cancer: Critical Analysis of "DNA Editing in Dna/rna Hybrids by Adenosine Deaminases that Act on RNA" by Zheng y, Lorenzo C and Beal pa (2017) Nucl Acids Research 2017 in Press Doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx050

Authors: Edward J Steele, Robyn A Lindley
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper simply links the findings of Zheng, Lorenzo and Beal (2017) to our previous work on strand biased and codon-context mutation signatures in B lymphocytes (Ig SHM) and codon-contexted exome-wide point mutation patterns in cancer genomes. We conclude that in vivo the A-to-I DNA editing component at RNA: DNA hybrids in Transcription Bubbles, while important is of far lower A-to-I editing efficiency than in dsRNA substrates ( as shown in Zheng et al 2017), and that the extreme strand biased mutation patterns documented by us in vivo should be understood and logically rationalized by the predicted sequential steps of the RNA/RT-based mechanism.
Category: Biochemistry

[124] viXra:1701.0691 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 18:17:02

The Time Principle of Life Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

For a star to form life in the general theory of stellar metamorphosis, a star needs to evolve over very long periods of time. If the star evolves too fast, life will not form. Explanation and a few examples are provided to explain this principle.
Category: Biochemistry

[123] viXra:1701.0342 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 00:56:43

Modulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expression of the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Based Herbomineral Formulation in Mouse Splenocytes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, William Dean Plikerd, Peter L. Surguy, Robert John Kock, Rolando Baptista Piedad, Russell Phillip Callas, Sakina A. Ansari, Sandra Lee Barrett, Sara Friedman, Steven Lee Christie
Comments: 10 Pages.

With the increasing popularity of herbomineral preparations in healthcare, a new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with ashwagandha root extract and three minerals viz. zinc, magnesium, and selenium. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the herbomineral formulation using murine splenocyte cells. The test formulation was divided into two parts. One was the control without the Biofield Energy Treatment. The other part was labelled the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers. Through MTT assay, all the test formulation concentrations from 0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL were found to be safe with cell viability ranging from 102.61% to 194.57% using splenocyte cells. The Biofield Treated test formulation showed a significant (p≤0.01) inhibition of TNF-α expression by 15.87%, 20.64%, 18.65%, and 20.34% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.01053, and 0.1053, µg/mL, respectively as compared to the vehicle control (VC) group. The level of TNF-α was reduced by 8.73%, 19.54%, and 14.19% at 0.001053, 0.01053, and 0.1053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the untreated test formulation. The expression of IL-1β reduced by 22.08%, 23.69%, 23.00%, 16.33%, 25.76%, 16.10%, and 23.69% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, 1.053 and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively compared to the VC. Additionally, the expression of MIP-1α significantly (p≤0.001) reduced by 13.35%, 22.96%, 25.11%, 22.71%, and 21.83% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.01053, 1.053, and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the VC. The Biofield Treated test formulation significantly down-regulated the MIP-1α expression by 10.75%, 9.53%, 9.57%, and 10.87% at 0.00001053, 0.01053, 0.1053 and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated test formulation. The results showed the IFN-γ expression was also significantly (p≤0.001) reduced by 39.16%, 40.34%, 27.57%, 26.06%, 42.53%, and 48.91% at 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, 1.053, and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the VC. The Biofield Treated test formulation showed better suppression of IFN-γ expression by 15.46%, 13.78%, 17.14%, and 13.11% at concentrations 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated test formulation. Overall, the results demonstrated that The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing (TEBEH) has the capacity to potentiate the immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory activity of the test formulation. Biofield Energy may also be useful in organ transplants, anti-aging, and stress management by improving overall health and quality of life.
Category: Biochemistry

[122] viXra:1701.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 01:26:13

Effect of Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Biofield Treated Mouse Splenocyte Cells: Impact of the Trivedi Effect®

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Barry Dean Wellborn, Deborah Lea Smith, Dezi Ann Koster, Elizabeth Patric, Jagdish Singh, Kathleen Starr Vagt, Krista Joanne Callas, Olga Mirgalijeva
Comments: 10 Pages.

A proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with four ingredients; a mixture of the minerals (zinc, magnesium, and selenium) and the herbal root extract ashwagandha. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the herbomineral formulation in splenocyte cells, which were isolated from Biofield Treated mice. The test formulation was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The splenocyte cells were treated with the test formulation at concentrations ranges from 0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL and analyzed after 48 hours of treatment by MTT assay. The cell viability data showed safe concentrations up to 1.053 µg/mL with viability ranges from 69.22% to 123.88% in the test formulation groups. The expression of TNF-α was decreased by 4.82% at 1.053 µg/mL in the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation compared with the vehicle control. The level of TNF-α was significantly decreased by 2.02%, 4.92%, and 18.78% at 0.00001053, 0.001053, and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation group as compared to the untreated test formulation. The expression of IL-1β was significantly reduced by 83.65%, 92.15%, 27.30%, and 41.88% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation compared with the vehicle control. The Biofield Treated test formulation showed significant reduction of IL-1β by 17.26%, 92.61% (p≤0.001), 34.62% (p≤0.05), and 16.13% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively compared with the untreated test formulation. Additionally, the expression of chemokine MIP-1α was significantly reduced by 17.03%, 10.99%, 22.33%, 24.21%, 21.61%, and 30.67% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared with the vehicle control. The MIP-1α expression was significantly reduced by 19.32% and 12.56% at 0.01053 and 0.1053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. The overall results demonstrated that the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation significantly down-regulated the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α in the Biofield Treated mice splenocyte cells compared to the untreated test formulation. These data suggest that the Biofield Treated test formulation can be used for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[121] viXra:1701.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-02 04:09:13

Evaluation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocyte Cells After Incubation with the Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation: Influence of the Trivedi Effect®

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Barry Dean Wellborn, Deborah Lea Smith, Dezi Ann Koster, Elizabeth Patric, Jagdish Singh, Kathleen Starr Vagt, Krista Joanne Callas, Olga Mirgalijeva
Comments: 10 Pages.

The use of herbomineral formulations in the healthcare sector has increased due to their high safety and better therapeutic action. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with a combination of the herbal root extract ashwagandha and minerals viz. zinc, magnesium, and selenium. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test formulation in splenocytes. The test formulation was divided into two parts; one was the control without the Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The MTT assay showed that the test formulation exhibited safe concentrations up to 1.053 µg/mL with cell viability ranging from 88.19% to 110.30% in the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The Biofield Energy Healing significantly enhanced the cell viability as compared with the untreated test formulation. The expression of TNF-α was significantly inhibited by 7.23% at 1.053 µg/mL in the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation compared with the vehicle control. The level of TNF-α was significantly decreased by 3.90%, 11.74%, 3.12%, and 9.17% at 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053 and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. Additionally, the expression of IL-1β was significantly reduced by 28.98%, 51.23%, 53.06%, 48.98%, 55.71%, and 59.10% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation compared with the vehicle control. Further, the Biofield Treated test formulation showed significant reduction of IL-1β by 35.07% (p≤0.05), 47.46% (p≤0.05), and 57.51% (p≤0.01) at 0.001053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively compared with the untreated test formulation. Similarly, the MIP-1α expression was inhibited by the Biofield Energy Treated formulation and showed immunosuppressive activity at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, and 0.01053 µg/mL by 19.38%, 24.97%, 31.23%, and 25.41%, respectively compared with the vehicle control group. The Biofield Treated test formulation significantly (p<0.001) reduced the MIP-1α expression by 19.33%, 22.57%, and 30.50% at 0.0001053, 0.001053, and 0.01053 µg/mL, respectively compared with the untreated test formulation. Overall, The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing (TEBEH) significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines and potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation, which can be better utilized for organ transplants, autoimmune diseases, inflammatory disorders, anti-aging, stress management, overall health and quality of life, etc.
Category: Biochemistry

[120] viXra:1701.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-02 04:10:25

Evaluation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocytes After Co-Incubation with the Biofield Energy Treated Formulation: Impact of the Trivedi Effect®

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Michael Peter Ellis, James Jeffery Peoples, James Joseph Meuer, Johanne Dodon, John Lawrence Griffin, John Suzuki, Joseph Michael Foty, Judy Weber, Julia Grace McCammon
Comments: 10 Pages.

With the increasing popularity of herbomineral preparations in healthcare, a new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with ashwagandha root extract and minerals viz. zinc, magnesium, and selenium. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the herbomineral test formulation using mice splenocytes. The test formulation was divided into two parts. One part was the control without the Biofield Treatment. The other part was labelled the Biofield Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The splenocyte cells were exposed with the test formulation at ranges of 0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL for cell viability by MTT assay, with cell viability ranging from 77.50% to 176.52%. TNF-α was significantly inhibited by 15.88%, 15.28%, 12.30%, 12.60%, and 22.72% at 0.00001053, 0.001053, 0.1053, 1.053, and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the vehicle control (VC). TNF-α was significantly reduced by 2.33% and 8.35% at 1.053 and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated test formulation. IL-1β was significantly reduced by 30.81%, 27.36%, 23.92%, 18.40%, 11.27%, and 21.16% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the VC. IL-1β was significantly reduced by 48.63% (p≤0.001) and 15.28% at 0.00001053 and 0.0001053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the untreated test formulation. MIP-1α expression was inhibited by the Biofield Treated test formulation and showed immunosuppressive activity at 0.01053, 0.1053, 1.053, and 10.53 µg/mL by 22.33%, 16.25%, 15.58%, and 21.83%, respectively compared to the VC. The Biofield Treated test formulation significantly reduced the MIP-1α expression by 13.27% and 15.67% (p<0.05) at 0.01053 and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated test formulation. The results showed the expression of IFN-γ was significantly reduced by 33.45%, 25.38%, 37.15%, 27.74%, 32.44%, 23.03%, and 44.21% at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, 1.053, and 10.53 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the VC. Further, the IFN-γ level was significantly decreased by 19.02% at 10.53 µg/mL in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the untreated test formulation. Overall, the results demonstrate that The Trivedi Effect® Biofield Energy Healing (TEBEH) significantly enhanced the anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of the treated formulation, and may also be useful in organ transplants, anti-aging, and stress management by improving overall health and quality of life.
Category: Biochemistry

[119] viXra:1612.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:04:21

Evaluation of Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocytes After Incubation with Biofield Treated Herbomineral Formulation: Effect of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment - The Trivedi Effect®

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Alan Joseph Balmer, Dimitrius Anagnos, Janice Patricia Kinney, Joni Marie Holling, Joy Angevin Balmer, Lauree Ann Duprey-Reed, Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar
Comments: 11 Pages.

The use of herbomineral formulations in the healthcare sector has increased due to their high safety and better therapeutic action. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with a mixture of the herbal root extract of ashwagandha and three minerals viz. zinc chloride, magnesium gluconate, and sodium selenate. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the formulation when applied to splenocyte cells isolated from mice spleen. The formulation was divided into two parts; one was the control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The test formulation was evaluated to find the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, MIP-1α, and IL-1β along with non-cytotoxic concentrations by MTT assay. The splenocytes were given the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated sample at concentrations range (0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL) for 48 hours and was reported with safe concentration up to 1.053 µg/mL with percentage viability range from 76.7% to 109.2% in both samples. Biofield Energy Healing significantly enhanced the cell viability as compared with the untreated formulation. The expression of TNF-α was significantly inhibited in the Biofield Treated formulation at 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL by 1.77%, 1.93%, and 3.55%, respectively compared with the untreated formulation. The rest of the tested concentrations of the Biofield Treated formulation showed an increase in TNF-α expression at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, and 0.001053 µg/mL by 7.26%, 8.50%, and 8.50%, respectively compared to the vehicle control group. Similarly, the MIP-1α expression was inhibited by the Biofield Energy Treated formulation and showed immunosuppression activity at 0.01053 µg/mL by 18.47% (p≤0.001) compared to the untreated formulation. MIP-1α expression was reported as 628.94 ± 13.0 pg/mL in the untreated formulation, while it decreased to 512.74 ± 1.9 pg/mL in the Biofield Treated formulation at 0.01053 µg/mL. In addition, the IL-1β secretion was also significantly inhibited by the Biofield Treated formulation at concentrations 0.001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL by 72.02%, 50.16%, 30.68%, and 22.11%, respectively as compared with the untreated formulation. Overall, The Trivedi Effect® significantly down-regulated the pro-inflammatory cytokines and potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the treated formulation, which can be better utilized in organ transplants, anti-aging, stress management, autoimmune disorders, and inflammatory disorders, etc. to modulate the immune system by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[118] viXra:1612.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:05:44

Impact of Biofield Energy Treated Herbomineral Formulation (The Trivedi Effect®) on Mouse Dendritic and Splenocyte Cells for Modulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Aileen Carol Lee, Aksana Hancharuk, Carola Marina Sand, Debra Jane Schnitzer, Rudina Thanasi, Eileen Mary Meagher, Faith Ann Pyka, Gary Richard Gerber, Johanna Catharina Stromsnas, Judith Marian Shapiro, Laura Nelson Streicher, Lorraine Marie Hachfeld, Matthew Charles Hornung, Patricia M. Rowe, Sally Jean Henderson, Sheila Maureen Benson, Shirley Theresa Holmlund, Stephen P. Salters, Mayank Gangwar, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 11 Pages.

The use of herbomineral formulation in the healthcare sector for different chronic diseases is gaining popularity due to its fewer side effects, high safety profile, and cost effectiveness. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated, consisting of four essential ingredients viz. herbal root extract (ashwagandha), and minerals (zinc, magnesium, and selenium). The study aims to evaluate the in vitro effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test formulation using murine dendritic (DCs) and splenocyte cells. The herbomineral formulation was divided into two parts; one was represented as control, while the other part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers (The Trivedi Effect®) and defined as the Biofield Treated formulation. The effect of the test formulation on these cells were monitored by an estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokines level such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein (MIP-1α), and interleukin (IL-1β) in cell culture supernatants at the non-cytotoxic concentrations of the test formulation using MTT assay. The DCs were treated with the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation at different concentrations (i.e. 1.05 to 1052.5 µg/mL) for 24 hours, and the results showed significant (p≤0.001) suppression of TNF-α levels at all the tested concentrations with a maximum percentage decrease by 43.64% at 5.2 µg/mL concentration in the Biofield Treated formulation as compared with the untreated test formulation. Further, the Biofield Treated formulation also demonstrated inhibition of MIP-1α and IL-1β at a concentration range of 0.0000105 to 10.5 µg/mL in LPS stimulated splenocyte cells. There was a significant (p≤0.001) inhibition of MIP-1α (26.52%) and IL-1β (35.28%) in the Biofield Treated test formulation at concentration 0.000105 µg/mL and 0.0000105 µg/mL, respectively in comparison to the untreated test formulation. Overall, these results suggest that the Biofield Energy Healing based herbomineral formulation (The Trivedi Effect®) significantly down-regulated the tested cytokines expression in DCs and splenocyte cells as compared to the untreated formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Healing based formulation might be useful as a better anti-inflammatory product for many chronic and acute inflammatory disease conditions and autoimmune disorders. The Biofield Energy Treatment based formulation can also be effectively applied in cases of organ transplants, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[117] viXra:1612.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:06:26

Effect of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Murine Dendritic and Splenocyte Cells

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Cathryn Dawn Nykvist, Celine Lavelle, Daniel Paul Przybylski, Dianne Heather Vincent, Dorothy Felger, Douglas Jay Konersman, Elizabeth Ann Feeney, Jay Anthony Prague, Joanne Lydia Starodu
Comments: 10 Pages.

The utilization and demand of self-medication with herbomineral-based formulations have increased day-by-day across the globe over the last decade. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was prepared with the mixture of minerals (zinc, magnesium, and selenium) and the herbal root extract of ashwagandha. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test herbomineral formulation using murine dendritic cells (DCs) and splenocytes in vitro. The formulation was divided into two parts, one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The effect of the Biofield Energy Treated formulation in murine cells was monitored with an estimation of pro-inflammatory cytokines levels such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α), macrophage inflammatory protein-1α (MIP-1α) and interleukin (IL-1β) in cell culture supernatants along with estimations of non-cytotoxic concentrations of the test formulation by MTT assay. The Biofield Treated formulation showed 114.2%, 122.6%, 141.2%, 127.8%, and 114.1% cell viability at concentrations 1.05, 5.2, 10.5, 25.6, and 51.2 µg/mL, respectively in DCs. Similarly, the Biofield Energy Treated and untreated formulations showed more than 100% cell viability in mice splenocytes at 5 µg/mL. The level of TNF-α in DCs was significantly (p≤0.05) inhibited by 19.21% in the Biofield Treated formulation at concentration 5.2 µg/mL as compared to the untreated test formulation. The level of MIP-1α in LPS induced mice splenocyte cells was reduced by 15.35% in the Biofield Energy Treated formulation at 0.0105 µg/mL as compared to the untreated formulation. Similarly, the level of IL-1β in LPS induced mice splenocyte cells was significantly (p≤0.05) reduced by 31.59% in the Biofield Treated formulation at 1.05 µg/mL as compared to the untreated formulation. Altogether, the results suggest that The Trivedi Effect® (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) showed significant down-regulation of the tested pro-inflammatory cytokines expression and potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the treated formulation to modulate the immune system. These data also suggest that the Biofield Treated test formulation can be used for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[116] viXra:1612.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:07:45

An Impact of the Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocytes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Ariadne Esmene Afaganis, Barbara Marie Bader, Brian A. Weekes, Daphne Luisa Dumas, Denise Marie Fiedler, Dennille Mellesia Smith, Desi Pano, Donna Felice Galla, Donna Maria Alija, Elaine
Comments: 11 Pages.

Due to the increased popularity of herbomineral preparations in the healthcare sector, a new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated consisting of ashwagandha root extract and three minerals viz. zinc chloride, magnesium gluconate, and sodium selenate. The objective of the study was to evaluate the in vitro effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test formulation using murine splenocyte cells. The herbomineral formulation was divided into two parts; one defined as the control, while the other part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment performed from a remote distance by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers (The Trivedi Effect®) and defined as the Biofield Treated formulation. The splenocyte cells were exposed to test formulations at concentration from 0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL and were analyzed after 48 hours for cell viability using MTT assay. The expression of the cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-1β, and MIP-1α) was determined using ELISA assay. The cell viability data showed that all the tested concentration ranges were found to be safe with percentage cell viability at more than 80%. Further, TNF-α expression was significantly inhibited in the Biofield Treated test formulation group with respect to the vehicle control, while at 0.001053 and 0.1053 µg/mL, the expression was suppressed by 1.70% and 8.16%, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared to the untreated formulation. However, a significant immunosuppression was reported in IFN-γ expression at 0.00001053, 0.0001053, 0.01053, 0.1053, and 1.053 µg/mL by 12.63%, 2.31%, 8.31%, 9.15%, and 7.86%, respectively in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. The MIP-1α expression was inhibited by 8.31%, 21.53%, and 8.70% at 0.0001053, 0.01053, and 0.1053 µg/mL, respectively in the Biofield Treated formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. However, IL-1β expression was significantly suppressed by 19.72% at concentration 0.00001053 µg/mL in the Biofield Treated test formulation compared with the untreated test formulation. Thus, the down-regulation of tested cytokines and chemokines in the Biofield Energy Healing test formulation might be applicable for controlling acute and chronic inflammation in many clinical diseases. Overall, the results demonstrated that The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing (TEBEH) has the capacity to potentiate the immunomodulatory activity of the test formulation, which can be useful against autoimmune disorders. Biofield Treated Test formulation may also be useful in anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, stress management and in preventing immune-mediated tissue damage in organ transplants by improving overall health and quality of life.
Category: Biochemistry

[115] viXra:1612.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:08:24

An Impact of the Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing on Herbomineral Formulation for Immunomodulation of Pro-inflammatory Cytokines in Biofield Treated Mouse Splenocytes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Alan Joseph Balmer, Dimitrius Anagnos, Janice Patricia Kinney, Joni Marie Holling, Joy Angevin Balmer, Lauree Ann Duprey-Reed, Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar
Comments: 10 Pages.

Herbomineral formulations have increased in recognition and popularity due to their high safety and better therapeutic action. A new proprietary herbomineral formulation was formulated with a mixture of the herbal root extract of ashwagandha and three minerals viz. zinc, magnesium, and selenium. The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunomodulatory potential of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) on the test formulation when applied to splenocyte cells isolated from the Biofield Treated mice. The test formulation was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Treatment. The other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers. A wide concentration range (0.00001053 to 10.53 µg/mL) of the test formulation was used to determine non-cytotoxic concentrations using MTT assay. Further, the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, MIP-1α, and IL-1β) was determined by ELISA method. The test formulation was evaluated and found to be safe up to 1.053 µg/mL with a percentage cell viability range of 73% to 97% using MTT assay. The Biofield Treated formulation improved the cell viability up to 6.61% compared with the untreated test formulation. TNF-α expression was significantly inhibited by 16.72% at 0.1053 µg/mL compared with the untreated test formulation, however expression was significantly altered by 53.67% and 25.62% at 0.01053 and 1.053 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated test formulation. TNF-α expression was also suppressed in the Biofield Treated test formulation at 0.001053 and 0.1053 µg/mL by 4.0% and 8.56%, respectively as compared with the vehicle control. MIP-1α suppression was reported in the Biofield Treated test formulation at 0.00001053 to 1.053 µg/mL by 8.43%, 22.02%, 21.92%, 20.54%, 5.40%, and 19.82%, respectively compared with the vehicle control. However, the Biofield Treated formulation further exhibited substantial suppression of MIP-1α at 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, and 0.1053 µg/mL by 13.50%, 7.38%, 36.83% (p≤0.001), and 2.53%, respectively compared with the untreated test formulation. In addition, significant inhibition of IL-1β secretion was reported in the Biofield Treated formulation at 0.0001053, 0.001053, 0.01053, and 0.01053 µg/mL by 32.40%, 14.99%, 60.42%, and 15.15%, respectively compared with the untreated test formulation. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly potentiated the immunosuppressive effect of the test formulation in Biofield Treated mouse splenocytes, which can be used for autoimmune and inflammatory diseases, stress management and anti-aging by improving overall health.
Category: Biochemistry

[114] viXra:1611.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 03:58:02

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions, and Genotypic Pattern of Biofield Treated Pseudomonas Aeruginosa

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Introduction: Complementary and alternative medicine such as biofield energy therapies are highly popular in biomedical health care. The study evaluates the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) to evaluate its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. Methods: P. aeruginosa ATCC 10145 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to biofield treatment and analyzed for antibiogram, biochemical reactions, and biotype number using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system on day 10. The treated sample was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship, the epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. Results: Data showed altered sensitivity pattern in antibiotic cefotaxime from intermediate to decreased β-lactamases activity, with four-fold decreased minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), i.e. 32 to ≤8 µg/mL as compared to control. Similarly, cefotetan and extended-spectrum-β-lactamases (ESBL-b Scrn) showed decrease in MIC values as compared to the control group. Nitrate reported for negative biochemical reaction i.e. positive (+) to negative (-) after biofield treatment on P. aeruginosa. The biotyping showed a change in biotype number (02063722) as compared to the control (02063726), without altering the microorganism. RAPD analysis showed an average range of 30 to 50% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA sequencing analyzed treated sample as Pseudomonas aeruginosa (GenBank Accession Number: EU090892) with 99% identity of gene sequencing data. Conclusion: These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment on P. aeruginosa has an impact to alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern and MIC values, thus it can be used as an alternate integrative approach of energy medicine in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[113] viXra:1610.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 06:22:29

Cystic Fibrosis: Computing the World's First Cure for a Genetic Disease

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 80 Pages.

Cystic fibrosis (CF) affects millions of people worldwide. In this book we discuss both the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for inherited diseases such as CF, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through medicinal gene therapy. A new computational approach, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with their own further studies. All computer code in the book is written in the Mathematica language.
Category: Biochemistry

[112] viXra:1610.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 23:59:46

Evaluation of Biochemical Marker Glutathione and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Oryza Sativa

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Food production needs to increase to satisfy the demand due to increasing human population worldwide. To minimize this food crisis, an increase in the rice production is necessary in many countries. The current study was undertaken to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on rice (Oryza sativa) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in seedling and mature plants, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). The sample of O. sativa cv, 644 was divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi for biofield energy treatment and denoted as treated sample. The growth-germination of O. sativa seedling data exhibited that the biofield treated seeds was germinated faster on day 3 as compared to control (on day 5). The shoot and root length of seedling was slightly increased in the treated seeds of 10 days old with respect to untreated seeds. Moreover, the plant antioxidant i.e. GSH content in seedling and in mature plants was significantly increased by 639.26% and 56.24%, respectively as compared to untreated sample. Additionally, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA level in root and shoot was significantly (p<0.05) increased by 106.90% and 20.35%, respectively with respect to control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD, revealed that the treated sample showed an average range of 5 to 46% of DNA polymorphism as compared to control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on rice seeds showed a significant improvement in germination, growth of roots and shoots, GSH and IAA content in the treated sample. In conclusion, the treatment of biofield energy on rice seeds could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of rice.
Category: Biochemistry

[111] viXra:1609.0428 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 23:33:55

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Antimicrobials Susceptibility Pattern of Acinetobacter Baumannii an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Global emergence of Acinetobacter baumannii (A. baumannii) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions and biotype number of A. baumannii. A. baumannii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 19606) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two parts i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived) analyzed on day 5 and 10, respectively; likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized) and was assessed on day 10. Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield and were analyzed for its antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC value, biochemical reactions and biotype number with respect to control. Experimental results showed the impact of biofield treatment directly onto the revived and lyophilized form of A. baumannii and found alteration both in qualitative and quantitative aspect as compared with untreated groups. These results showed altered sensitivity pattern of antimicrobials in biofield treated group as compared to control. Apart from altered MIC values, changes were also observed in biotype number of revived treated group as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to A. baumannii.
Category: Biochemistry

[110] viXra:1609.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 23:35:08

Antimicrobial Susceptibility of Proteus Mirabilis: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Proteus mirabilis (P. mirabilis) is widespread in nature, mainly found in soil, water, and the flora of human gastrointestinal tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effects of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on P. mirabilis both in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical characteristics, and biotype. P. mirabilis cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA, in a sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25933) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol until needed for experiments. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. The ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, the ATCC B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The result of antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 6.67% and 9.38% alteration, respectively in treated cells of P. mirabilis as compared to the control. In addition, the overall biochemical reactions were significantly altered (42.42%) in the treated groups with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in the treated cells, Gr. II, day 5 (40061546) and day 10 (77365764), while without alteration of organism as compared to the control (40061544; Proteus mirabilis). The results suggested that biofield treatment has an impact on P. mirabilis in revived state predominately.
Category: Biochemistry

[109] viXra:1609.0413 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 02:24:59

In Vitro Evaluation of Antifungal Sensitivity Assay of Biofield Energy Treated Fungi

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Fungi are the group of eukaryotic organisms such as yeast, mold, and mushrooms. The present work investigated the impact of biofield treatment on different pathogenic species of fungi in relation to antifungal sensitivity pattern. Each fungal sample was divided into three parts: C, control; T1, treatment (revived); T2 treatment (lyophilized). Treatment groups received the biofield treatment, and control group was remained as untreated. Mini-API ID32C strip employed for evaluation of antifungal sensitivity and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC). The results showed that sensitivity of Candida albicans in T1 cells was changed against itraconazole from intermediate (I) to resistance (R) on day 10. The Candida kefyr exhibited a change in susceptibility against itraconazole in T2 cell from S→I, on day 10. Likewise, Candida krusei showed the alterations in sensitivity against two antifungal drugs: fluconazole from S→I (T1 on day 10) and itraconazole S→I (T1 and T2 on all assessment days). The Cryptococcus neoformans changed from S→I in T1 cell on day 5 and 10, against itraconazole. Sensitivity of Candida tropicalis was also altered from I→R against flucytosine (T1 and T2, on all assessment days). Similarly, Saccharomyces cerevisae altered from S→I (T1) and S→R (T2) on day 10. The MIC values of antifungal drugs were altered in the range of 2-8 folds, as compared to the control. Fungal identification data showed the significant changes in species similarity of few tested fungi as C. albicans changed from 91.9% to 98.5 and 99.9% in T1 and T2 cells, respectively on day 10. C. krusei was changed from 97.9% to 85.9% (T2 day 10), and C. tropicalis was altered from 88.7% to 99.6% (T1 day 5) and 99.0% (T2). These findings suggest that biofield treatment could be applied to alter the susceptibility pattern of antifungal drug therapy in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[108] viXra:1609.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-27 07:36:35

Worlds in Collision and the Origin of Life

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 8 Pages. Published in: Proceedings of the Conference "On the Origin of Life", 7 August 2015, London, United Kingdom

Earth and Moon were formed 4.6 billion years ago by the collision of the two protoplanets Gaia and Theia. Afterwards the Earth formed a crust where colliding comets provided the water of the oceans. This Hadean Eon was terminated 3.9 billion years ago during the Late Heavy Bombardment when an eccentric orbit of Jupiter caused a bombardment of the Earth by asteroids. Soon thereafter, 3.8 billion years ago, there is geochemical evidence of terrestrial life which performed photosynthesis. The terrestrial life witnessed and survived several cataclysms including the snowball Earth 760 to 580 million years ago, an ice age 440 million years ago which was possibly caused by a gamma-ray burst, and an asteroid impact 65 million years ago which generated the Chicxulub crater and contributed to the extinction of the dinosaurs. The 1908 Tunguska explosion was caused by a small stony asteroid. Amino acids, purines, pyrimidines and sugars, but no proteins, nucleotides or extraterrestrial unicellular organisms were detected in meteorites. This argues against the hypothesis of panspermia. The synthesis of amino acids, small peptides, purines and pyrimidine ribonucleotides under conditions of the primitive Earth (Stanley Miller experiments) and the polymerization of RNA nucleotides on clay minerals suggests that viroids and an RNA world could have existed during the Hadean Eon.
Category: Biochemistry

[107] viXra:1609.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:36:31

Antimicrobial Sensitivity Pattern of Pseudomonas Fluorescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Global emergence of Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) displays a mechanism of resistance to all existing antimicrobials. Due to its strong ability to acquire resistance, there is a need of some alternative treatment strategy. Objective of this study was to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial sensitivity pattern of P. fluorescens. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC-A sample was revived and divided into two groups (Gr) i.e. Gr.I (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, ATCC-B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr.II and III were given biofield treatment and were measured by MicroScan Walk-Away® system before and after treatment. Parameters studied in experiment were antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number of both control and treatment groups using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Experimental results showed antimicrobials such as cefepime, cefotaxime, ceftazidime, ceftriaxone, ciprofloxacin, piperacillin, tetracycline, and tobramycin showed altered sensitivity and MIC values in treated group as compared to control. Biochemical reactions showed positive reaction in malonate, melibiose, nitrate, galactosidase, ornithine, raffinose, sorbitol, sucrose, tobramycin and Voges-Proskauer in Gr.II. Arabinose, colistin, glucose, and rhaminose also showed positive reactions in Gr.II on day 10 while arginine and cetrimide showed negative reaction in Gr.III as compared to control. Biochemical tests results revealed a change in biotype number in Gr.II (34101173, day 5), (77103177, a very rare biotype on day 10) and Gr.III (40000043) as compared to control (02041722). Organism was identified as Enterobacter cloacae (GrII, day 10) and Vibrio fluvialis (Gr.III, day 10) with respect to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment made significant alteration in sensitivity pattern, MIC values, and biotype number of P. fluorescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[106] viXra:1609.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:37:48

An Effect of Biofield Treatment on Multidrug-resistant Burkholderia Cepacia: A Multihost Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Burkholderia cepacia (B. cepacia) is an opportunistic, Gram negative pathogen which causes infection mainly in immunocompromised population and associated with high rate of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis patients. Aim of the present study was to analyze the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant B. cepacia. Clinical sample of B. cepacia was divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. The analysis was done after 10 days of treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated group were analyzed for susceptibility pattern, MIC value, biochemical studies and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system.Sensitivity assay results showed a change in pattern from resistant to intermediate in aztreonam, intermediate to resistant in ceftazidime, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, and levofloxacin while sensitive to resistant in meropenem and piperacillin/ tazobactam.The biofield treatment showed an alteration in MIC values of aztreonam, ceftazidime, chloramphenicol, ciprofloxacin, imipenem, levofloxacin, meropenem, piperacillin/tazobactam and tetracycline. Biochemical reactions of treated group showed negative reaction in colistin, lysine, and ornithine while positive reactions to acetamide,arginine, and malonate as compared to control. Overall results showed an alteration of 38.9% in susceptibility pattern, 30% in MIC values of tested antimicrobials and 18.2% change in biochemical reaction after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number (02063736) was reported with green pigment as special characteristics after biofield treatment as compared to control (05041776) group with yellow pigment. In treated group, a new species was identified as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, as compared to control. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect on the phenotypic character and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of B. cepacia.
Category: Biochemistry

[105] viXra:1609.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:39:13

Evaluation of Biofield Modality on Viral Load of Hepatitis B and C Viruses

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Study background: Nowadays, hepatitis is a major challenge for clinical research, regulatory bodies, and clinicians who are trying to assess the more effectiveness of antiviral therapy against patients. Viral load count is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of hepatitis. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield modality on hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) in terms of viral load as surrogate marker. Method: The viral load assay was performed on stock human plasma samples of HBV and HCV before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer according to manufacturer’s instructions. Viremia (viral DNA for HBV, RNA for HCV) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Result: The viral load of HBV DNA in infected plasma samples showed a significant alteration in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load count of HCV RNA in infected plasma samples was significantly reduced by 67% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. As the biofield treatment has significantly reduced HCV RNA, it could be beneficial for particularly HCV infected populations. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly alteration in HBV and reduced the viral load count in HCV infected plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for hepatitis patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[104] viXra:1609.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 23:40:30

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Yield, Quality and Control of Nematode in Carrots

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of biofield treatment when used for control of nematode on carrot crops, Daucus carota , under typical growing conditions in year 2012 at Guadalupe, California, USA. Following biofield treatment, carrot seeds were planted in replicate plots with mechanical seeder and their development was recorded compared to control seed growth from untreated plots and plots treated with the commercial standard nematicide, further Vydate L was applied three times at rates of 1 and 0.5 gal/A, at 1, 18 and 35 days after seeding, respectively. At 70 and 109 days after the first application root galling severity in biofield treated crops was reduced by 54% and 22% respectively as compared to untreated while the Vydate response showed 0% and 25% control, respectively. Plots planted with biofield treated seeds resulted in the greatest number and weight of marketable carrot roots. Total yield and gross return were greatest in biofield treated group producing an approximately 33% increase over the untreated controls and 15% increase over those treated with the commercial standard, Vydate L. Vitamin A (beta carotene) was significantly greater (6512 IU/100 g) in biofield treated carrots compared with both the untreated controls (4941) and the commercial standard (5143). The results concluded that, Biofield treatment caused the numerical improvement in yield along with nematode control in carrots however, caused statistically significant increase in Vitamin A content.
Category: Biochemistry

[103] viXra:1609.0289 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:09:49

Impact of an External Energy on Yersinia Enterocolitica [atcc "23715] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions: an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Background : While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Yersinia enterocolitica [ATCC -23715], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mr. Mahendrakumar Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Yersinia enterocolitica strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi's energy has changed 20 of 33 biochemical characteristics of Yersinia enterocolitica along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 15 of 32 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through an automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi's energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Category: Biochemistry

[102] viXra:1609.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 00:26:28

Impact of an External Energy on Enterococcus Faecalis [atcc – 51299] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions – an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 14 Pages.

Background: While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiments on Enterococcus faecalis [ATCC –51299], report the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner. Methods: Enterococcus faecalis strains in revived and lyophilized state were subjected to spiritual energy transmitted through thought intervention and/or physical touch of Mr. Trivedi to the sealed tubes containing strain, the process taking about 3 minutes and were analyzed within 10 days after incubation. All tests were performed with the help of automation on the Microscan Walkaway System in Microbiology Laboratory – accredited by The College of American Pathologists. Results: The results indicated that Mr.Trivedi’s energy has changed 9 of 27 biochemical characteristics of Enterococcus faecalis along with significant changes in susceptibility pattern in 5 of 31 antibiotics. The Biotype number has changed from the original control strain giving rise to 2 different biotypes in treated samples while the external energy /treatment given was the same for all treated samples suggestive of random polymorphism as analyzed through the automated machine. Conclusions: These results cannot be explained by current theories of science, and indicate a potency in Mr.Trivedi’s energy, providing a model for science to be able to investigate the impact of spiritual energy in a rigorous manner. In lyophilized state, biochemical and enzymatic characteristics could be altered.
Category: Biochemistry

[101] viXra:1609.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:12:07

Effect of a Biofield Treatment on Plant Growth and Adaptation (Benth.)

Authors: Gopal Nayak, Trivedi Science
Comments: 9 Pages.

Quantum mechanics was developed when human energies of consciousness were found to influence observations at the scale of elementary particles, here referred as non-contact biofield treatment or biofield energies . Quantum mechanics has also proved efficacious in biological processes. The present experiments found an enhanced and significant impact of the biofield treatment on adaptive micropropagation response and callus induction of two plant species, Withania somnifera and Amaranthus dubius. The enhancement was perhaps due to greater focus on adaptation rather than specific mechanisms, showing high potential including at biochemical and genetic levels. Possible reasons for the enhancement are discussed and a possible model is presented, consistent with current scientific theory.
Category: Biochemistry

[100] viXra:1609.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 01:16:55

Impact of an External Energy on Staphylococcus Epidermis [atcc –13518] in Relation to Antibiotic Susceptibility and Biochemical Reactions – an Experimental Study

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 10 Pages.

While spiritual and mental energies are known to man, their impact has never been scientifically measurable in the material world and they remain outside the domain of science. The present experiment on Staphylococcus epidermis [ATCC –13518], validate the effects of such energy transmitted through a person, Mahendra Trivedi, which has produced an impact measurable in scientifically rigorous manner.
Category: Biochemistry

[99] viXra:1609.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:52:25

Biofield and Fungicide Seed Treatment Influences on Soybean Productivity, Seed Quality and Weed Community

Authors: Trivedi Science
Comments: 6 Pages.

Soybean production in Iowa USA is among the most productive for raínfed regions in the world. Despite generally having excellent soils, growing season temperatures and rainfall, soybean yields are decreased by weed interference and inadequate available soil water at key stages of crop development. A field study was conducted at two locations in lowa in 2012 to determine if seed-applied fungicide or biofield treatments influenced weed community, soil volumetric water concentration and soybean yield and quality. Application of biofield treatment resulted in lower density of tall waterhemp density, greater soybean stand density at R8 stage and greater seed pod-1 compared to the absence of seed fungicide and biofield­ Soil volumetric water content varied by seed fungicide x biofield x date interaction but differences were not consistent among treatment combinations. Overall, seed fungicide and biofield treatments had similar effects on soybean productivity, however additional research is necessary to determine if biofield treatment is a suitable replacement for seed fungicide application.
Category: Biochemistry

[98] viXra:1609.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 04:56:55

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Ginseng and Organic Blueberry Yield

Authors: Frank Sances, Eric Flora, Shrikant Patil, Amy Spence, Vishal Shinde, Mahendra Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

This study tested the Null Hypothesis for the effect of BioField Energy applied to two separate crops under typical growing conditions, namely ginseng and organic blueberry in commercial plantings in Wisconsin and California, respectively. Following treatment to replicated plots in standard experimental design, data were collected at harvest for yield quantity and quality. Ginseng plants treated both pre-harvest and a combination of pre- and post-harvest showed market grade increases of 33.3% and 40.0%, respectively. Point of sale gross return for this crop is dependent upon tuber quality, and from these data the economics of these treatments were calculated. Based on stand adjusted yields and quality values, a combination of pre- and post-harvest treatment increased gross income by 57.4%. The second crop showed similar trends in positive responses. In the two blueberry varieties studied, Emerald treated plants showed 96% statistical increase in yield, while Jewel showed 31% increase. At the time of treatment, each variety was in a different stage of flowering. The Emerald variety was in the flowering stage, and Jewel was predominately in the fruiting stage. Both treated cultivars however demonstrated increased yield quantity and quality. The specific mechanisms that lead to these preliminary results need further investigation.
Category: Biochemistry

[97] viXra:1609.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 05:05:15

Effect of Biofield Treatment on the Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Aluminium Powders

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Aluminium powders are used in a wide range from propelling rockets to improving personal hygiene. More popular industrial applications include manufacture of silver metallic pigments, paints, inks, plastics, packaging, textiles and aerospace industry. As thick film pastes used in the manufacture of silicon solar cells, and as reducing agent and sources of heat, used in alumina thermic and exothermic applications. In the present investigation, Aluminium powders were exposed to non-contact Biofield treatment. Both the exposed and unexposed powders were later characterized by various techniques. The average particle size, after a slight initial decrease was found to increase after 80 days of treatment substantially, which suggested the operation of competing mechanisms fracture and sintering (micro welding). The BET surface area monotonically decreased which was consistent with increase in particle size. SEM photographs showed that samples exposed to Biofield after 38 days showed growth in particle size and particles joined at inter and intra particle boundaries. X-ray diffraction of the powder samples indicated both increase and decrease in crystallite size, unit cell volume, change in nuclear charge per unit volume of atom and atomic weight of samples exposed to Biofield even after 106 days. These results indicated that properties of Aluminium powders could be changed even up to atomic level by exposure to Biofield.
Category: Biochemistry

[96] viXra:1609.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 05:22:30

Biofield Treatment: An Effective Strategy for Modulating the Physical and Thermal Properties of O-Nitrophenol, M-Nitrophenol and P-Tertiary Butyl Phenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Phenolic compounds are commonly used for diverse applications such as in pharmaceuticals, chemicals, rubber, dyes and pigments. The objective of present research was to study the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of phenol derivatives such as o-nitrophenol (ONP), m-nitrophenol (MNP) and p-tertiary butyl phenol (TBP). The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control and treated compounds were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and surface area analysis. XRD analysis showed increase in crystallite size by 16.05% in treated ONP as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed decrease in crystallite size by 16.17% as compared to control. The treated TBP showed increase in crystallite size by 5.20% as compared to control. DSC of treated MNP exhibited increase in melting temperature with respect to control, which may be correlated to higher thermal stability of treated sample. However, the treated TBP exhibited no significant change in melting temperature with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated ONP and TBP showed an increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) as compared to control. However, the treated MNP showed slight decrease in Tmax in comparison with control sample. Surface area analysis of treated ONP showed decrease in surface area by 65.5%. However, surface area was increased by 40.7% in treated MNP as compared to control. These results suggest that biofield treatment has significant effect on physical and thermal properties of ONP, MNP and TBP.
Category: Biochemistry

[95] viXra:1609.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 04:43:35

Antimicrobial Susceptibility Pattern and Biochemical Characteristics of Staphylococcus Aureus: Impact of Bio Field Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 4 Pages.

Study background: Staphylococci are widespread in nature, mainly found on the skin and mucous membranes. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on antimicrobial susceptibility pattern and biochemical characteristics of S. aureus (ATCC 25923). Methods: S. aureus cells were procured from MicroBioLogics in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25923) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. Revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. aureus were selected for the study. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. aureus were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Revived treated cells were assessed on day 5 and day 10 while lyophilized treated cells on day 10 only. After biofield treatment both treated cells were analysed for its antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration value, biochemical reactions and biotype number with respect to control (Gr. I). Results: The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration of S. aureus showed significant (86.67%) alteration in lyophilized cells while no alteration was found in revived treated cells as compared to control. It was observed that overall 37.93% (eleven out of twenty nine) biochemical reactions were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were substantially changed in revived treated cells, Gr. II (303137, Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ureolyticus) on day 5 and in lyophilized treated cells, Gr. III (767177, S. cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10 as compared to control (307016, S. aureus). Conclusion: The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized treated cells with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC values and biochemical reactions pattern. Apart from these, biotype numbers with new species were observed in revived treated group on day 5 as Staphylococcus capitis subsp. ureolyticus and in lyophilized cells as Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum with respect to control, i.e., S. aureus.
Category: Biochemistry

[94] viXra:1609.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-11 23:45:15

Physicochemical and Atomic Characterization of Silver Powder After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Silver is widely utilized as antimicrobial agent and wound dressing, where its shape, size, surface area, and surface charge play an important role. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physicochemical and atomic properties of silver powder. The silver powder was divided into two groups, coded as control and treatment. The treatment group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated samples were characterized using particle size analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and surface area analyser. Particle size data exhibited that particle sizes d10, d50, d90, and d99 (Size, below which 10, 50, 90, and 99% particle are present, respectively) of treated silver powder were substantially reduced up to 95.8, 89.9, 83.2, and 79.0% on day 84 as compared to control. XRD results showed that lattice parameter, unit cell volume, and atomic weight were reduced, whereas density and nuclear charge per unit volume were found to be increased as compared to control. In addition, the crystallite size was significantly reduced up to 70% after biofield treatment on day 105 as compared to control. Furthermore, the surface area of treated silver powder was substantially enhanced by 49.41% on day 68 as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic and physicochemical properties which could make silver more useful in antimicrobial applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[93] viXra:1609.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 02:53:24

Extraterrestrial Microfossils in Meteorites and the Panspermia Hypothesis

Authors: Rainer W. Kühne
Comments: 3 Pages. published in: Proceedings of the Conference "On the Origin of Life", London, United Kingdom, 7 August 2015

I review the experiments by Stanley Miller and Sidney Fox on the production of amino acids and unicellular forms under primitive terrestrial atmosphere conditions. I continue with a review of the evidence for and against unicellular organisms in the Orgueil meteorite and the ALH84001 martian meteorite. I conclude that the evidence argues against the panspermia hypothesis of Fred Hoyle and Nalin Chandra Wickramasinghe.
Category: Biochemistry

[92] viXra:1609.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 04:11:29

Molecular Analysis of Biofield Treated Eggplant and Watermelon Crops

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Eggplant and watermelon, as one of the important vegetative crops have grown worldwide. The aim of the present study was to analyze the overall growth of the two inbreed crops varieties after the biofield energy treatment. The plots were selected for the study, and divided into two parts, control and treated. The control plots were left as untreated, while the treated plots were exposed with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both the crops were cultivated in different fields and were analyzed for the growth contributing parameters as compared with their respective control. To study the genetic variability in both plants after biofield energy treatment, DNA fingerprinting was performed using RAPD method. The eggplants were reported to have uniform colored, glossy, and greener leaves, which are bigger in size. The canopy of the eggplant was larger with early fruiting, while the fruits have uniform shape and the texture as compared with the control. However, the watermelon plants after the biofield treatment showed higher survival rate, with larger canopy, bright and dark green leaves compared with the untreated plants. The percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of eggplant and watermelon seed samples were an average value of 18% and 17%, respectively. Overall, the data suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate, and can be utilized in better way as compared with the existing agricultural crop improvement techniques to improve the overall crop yield.
Category: Biochemistry

[91] viXra:1609.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 23:37:05

Assessment of Antibiogram of Biofield Energy Treated Serratia Marcescens

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) has become an important nosocomial pathogens and increased resistant isolates were reported. The current study evaluates the impact of an alternate energy medicine i.e. Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on S. marcescens for changes in sensitivity pattern of antimicrobial, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. S. marcescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 13880) number and divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two sub-groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes as first, second and third tube, which were analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed that 42.85% of tested antimicrobials results in altered sensitivity pattern, while decreased minimum inhibitory concentration values in 40.62% tested antimicrobials as compared to the control after biofield treatment on S. marcescens. The biochemical study showed that 12 out of 33 tested biochemicals (36.36%) were reported for alteration of biochemical reactions pattern as compared to the control. Biotype study showed an alteration in biotype number in all the experimental treated groups as compared to the control. These results suggested that biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on S. marcescens. Overall, it is expected that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment as an integrative medicine could be better therapy approach in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[90] viXra:1609.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 04:36:55

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Chlorophyll Content, Pathological Study, and Molecular Analysis of Cashew Plant (Anacardium Occidentale L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

In the world scenario, India occupies a premier position contributing to about 43 per cent production of the cashew nut (Anacardium occidentale L.) along with export and processing. The aim is to study the impact of biofield energy treatment on selected farms for cashew farming. The control and biofield treated farms were divided as control and treated farms, and Mr. Trivedi provided the biofield energy treatment to the treated farms. Further, the plants and fruits were analyzed for overall growth of plants, chlorophyll content, productivity, pathological study, and shelf life using UN specifications for International Trade, biophoton emission study, and DNA fingerprinting using RAPD method. No chemicals, fertilizers, were used on the treated plot, although regular practices were followed on control farms such as fertilizers, pesticides and fungicides due to the high incidence of disease and the requirement of nutritional supplements in the region. The analysis showed that biofield treated farm plants have thicker and stronger branches with more secondary and tertiary branches, flowering pattern, and canopy of plants was improved than trees of the same variety along with height of the plants, as compared with the control. The results showed that chlorophyll a and b content in biofield treated lands plants were increased by approximately 30% and 93% respectively, while total chlorophyll content by 45% as compared with the control. The pathological examination showed the presence of fungi namely Colletotrichum gloeosporioides and Botryodiplodia theobromae in control, which were absent in treated plants. Biophoton study suggested that the cashew fruits were bigger in size with high density, strength, and vitality as compared with the control. The shelf life analysis reflected that the biofield treated cashews showed sweet taste, and can be stored for longer duration due to less moisture, and altered minerals content, such as high iodine, and low p-anisidine level. RAPD analysis showed a high level of polymorphism among control and treated samples, while level of true polymorphism among V4 variety of cashew was ranges from 0 to 100%, and in V7 variety, it ranged from 25 to 91% using different set of RAPD primers. Overall, study results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on land planted with cashew could be an alternative approach to improve the overall growth of plant, and fruit yield.
Category: Biochemistry

[89] viXra:1609.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 01:25:23

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Calcium Carbonate Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Calcium carbonate (CaCO3) is widely used in pharmaceutical industries and as a supplement in probiotics. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the CaCO3. The CaCO3 powder was divided into two parts and referred as control and treated. The control part was remained untreated, whereas treated part was subjected to Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and biofield treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR).
Category: Biochemistry

[88] viXra:1608.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-31 00:43:48

Morphological and Molecular Analysis Using RAPD in Biofield Treated Sponge and Bitter Gourd

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Plants are known to have sense and ca respond to touch, electric and magnetic field. The present study was designed on the sponge gourd (Luffa cylindrica) and bitter gourd (Momordica charantia) seeds with respect to biofield energy treatment. The seeds of each crop were divided into two groups, one was kept control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’ biofield energy treatment. The variabilities in growth contributing parameters were studied and compared with their control. To study the genetic variability after biofield energy treatment, both the seeds were analyzed for DNA fingerprinting using RAPD method. After germination, the plants of sponge gourd were reported to have uniform colored leaves and strong stem. The leaves and fruits of sponge gourd showed no infection, with anti-gravity properties during early stage of fruiting as compared with the control group. Similarly, treated bitter gourd showed uniform color of leaves, strong stem, with disease free fruits in biofield treated seeds as compared with the control. The true polymorphism (%) observed between control and treated samples of sponge and bottle gourd seed sample was an average value of 7.8% and 66% respectively. In conclusion, Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the ability to alter the plant growth rate that may by interacting with plant genome, which resulted in high yield of crops.
Category: Biochemistry

[87] viXra:1608.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 02:02:10

Comparative Physicochemical Evaluation of Biofield Treated Phosphate Buffer Saline and Hanks Balanced Salt Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Phosphate buffer saline (PBS) has numerous biological and pharmaceutical applications. Hank buffer salt (HBS) has been used as a medium for tissue culture applications. This research study was aimed to investigate the influence of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physicochemical properties of the PBS and HBS. The study was executed in two group’s i.e. control and treated. The control group was kept aside as control and treated group had received the biofield energy treatment. The control and treated samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD analysis indicated the increase in crystallite size by 5.20% in treated PBS as compared to the control. Similarly, the treated HBS also showed increase in crystallite size by 3.20% with respect to the control. Additionally, the treated PBS showed an increase in Bragg’s angle (2θ) as compared to the control sample. However, a decrease in Bragg’s angle of XRD peaks of the treated sample was noticed in the treated HBS. The DSC analysis of the control PBS showed melting temperature at 224.84°C; however melting temperature was not observed in the treated sample. However, DSC analysis of the treated HBS showed an increase in melting temperature (152.83°C) in comparison with the control (150.60°C). Additionally, the latent heat of fusion of the treated HBS was increased substantially by 108.83% as compared to the control. The TGA thermogram of the treated PBS showed an increase in onset of thermal degradation (212°C) as compared to the control (199°C). Whereas, the treated HBS showed less weight loss comparing with the control sample. This indicated the increase in thermal stability of the both the treated PBS and HBS samples. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis of treated PBS showed alterations in the frequency of the functional groups such as O-H, C-H, P=O, O=P-OH, and P-OH as compared to the control. Additionally, the FT-IR spectrum of the treated HBS showed increase in frequency of calcium chloride phase (1444→1448 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. Altogether, it was observed that biofield energy treatment had caused physical, thermal and spectral changes in the treated samples as compared to the control. It is assumed that biofield energy treated PBS and HBS could be a good prospect for biological and tissue culture applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[86] viXra:1608.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 23:31:27

Morphological Characterization, Quality, Yield and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Alphonso Mango(mangifera Indica L.)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Alphonso is the most delicious variety of mango (Mangifera indica L.) known for its excellent texture, taste, and richness with vitamins and minerals. The present study was attempted to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on morphological characteristics, quality, yield and molecular assessment of mango. A plot of 16 acres lands used for this study with already grown mango trees. This plot was divided into two parts. One part was considered as control, while another part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment without physically touching and referred as treated. The treated mango trees showed new straight leaves, without any distortion and infection, whereas the control trees showed very few, distorted, infected, and curly leaves. Moreover, the flowering pattern of control trees did not alter; it was on average 8 to 10 inches with more male flowers. However, the flowering pattern of treated trees was completely transformed into compact one being 4 to 5 inches in length and having more female flowers. Additionally, the weight of matured ripened mango was found on an average 275 gm, medium sized with 50% lesser pulp in the control fruits, while the fruits of biofield energy treated trees showed on average weight of 400 gm, large sized and having 75% higher pulp as compared to the control. Apart from morphology, the quality and nutritional components of mango fruits such as acidity content was increased by 65.63% in the treated sample. Vitamin C content in the treated Alphonso mango pulp was 43.75% higher than the pulp obtained from the control mango farm. The spongy tissue content in pulp of the matured ripened mangoes was decreased by 100% for two consecutive years as compared to the control. Moreover, the yield of flowers and fruits in the treated trees were increased about 95.45 and 47.37%, respectively as compared to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample did not show any true polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on the mango trees showed a significant improvement in the morphology, quality and overall productivity along with 100% reduction in the spongy tissue disorder. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of quality mangoes.
Category: Biochemistry

[85] viXra:1608.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-22 23:28:57

Evaluation of Biofield Energy Treatment on Physical and Thermal Characteristics of Selenium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Selenium (Se) is an essential trace element, and its deficiency in the humans leads to increase the risk of various diseases, such as cancer and heart diseases. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of the selenium powder. The selenium powder was divided into two parts denoted as control and treated. The Control part was remained as untreated and treated part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Both control and treated selenium samples were characterized using x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis – differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The XRD data showed that biofield energy treatment has slightly altered the lattice parameter (0.07%), unit cell volume (0.15%), density (-0.14%), atomic weight (0.15%), and nuclear charge per unit volume (-0.21%) in the treated selenium powder as compared to the control. The crystallite size of the treated selenium powder was reduced considerably from 106.98 nm (control) to 47.55 nm. The thermal analysis study showed that the latent heat of fusion was 64.61 J/g in the control, which changed to 68.98, 52.70, 49.71 and 72.47 J/g in the treated T1, T2, T3, and T4 samples respectively. However, the melting temperature did not show any considerable change in the treated selenium samples as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectra showed the absorption peak at 526 and 461 cm-1, which corresponding to metal oxide bonding vibration in the control and treated selenium powder respectively. Hence, overall data suggest that, the biofield energy treatment considerably altered the physical and thermal properties of selenium powder. Therefore, biofield energy treatment could make selenium even more useful nutrient in human body.
Category: Biochemistry

[84] viXra:1608.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:30:26

Agronomic Characteristics, Growth Analysis, and Yield Response of Biofield Treated Mustard, Cowpea, Horse Gram, and Groundnuts

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts are the seasonal pulse crops used as food and fodder in many regions of the world. In the present study, the impact of biofield energy treatment on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts were studied with respect to overall growth, yield, and its related yield attributes. Seeds of each crop was selected and divided in two groups, i.e. control and treated. The treated group of each seed crops was subjected to Mr. Trivedi biofield energy treatment, and were plotted in the separate fields. The plot with untreated seeds were provided with all the precautionary measures such as pesticides, fungicides and organic additives, while no such measures were taken in the plot with treated seeds. Both group of crops were further analyzed and compared for growth, yield, and yield attributes. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated on horse gram using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) analysis in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics. The results suggest that the percentage increase in yield was maximum in mustard (500%), followed by horse gram (105%), cow pea (52%), and groundnut (44%) as compared with their control. However, improved plant height, overall growth, yield of seeds, plants were free from any diseases and pest were observed in treated group as compared with its respective control. RAPD analysis using eight primers results in polymorphism and the percentage of true polymorphism observed between control and treated samples of horse gram seed sample with an average value of 53%. The overall results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on mustard, cowpea, horse gram, and groundnuts, which might be used as a better alternative approach to increase the yield of crop as compared with the synthetic chemicals.
Category: Biochemistry

[83] viXra:1608.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-21 23:33:48

Physical, Atomic and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Lithium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Lithium has gained extensive attention in medical science due to mood stabilizing activity. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, atomic, and thermal properties of lithium powder. The lithium powder was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained as untreated and treatment part received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, control and treated lithium powder samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis-differential thermal analysis (TGA-DTA), Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD data showed that lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight, and nuclear charge per unit volume of lithium were altered after biofield treatment. The crystallite size of treated lithium was increased by 75% as compared to control. DSC analysis exhibited an increase in melting temperature of treated lithium powder upto 11.2% as compared to control. TGA-DTA analysis result showed that oxidation temperature, which found after melting point, was reduced upto 285.21°C in treated lithium as compared to control (358.96°C). Besides, SEM images of control and treated lithium samples showed the agglomerated micro particles. Moreover, FT-IR analysis data showed an alteration in absorption band (416→449 cm-1) in treated lithium sample after biofield treatment as compared to control. Overall, data suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical, atomic, and thermal properties of lithium powder.
Category: Biochemistry

[82] viXra:1608.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-20 04:35:36

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Energy Treated Protose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Protose is the enzyme digest of mixed proteins that is recommended for culture media, bulk production of enzymes, antibiotics, toxins, veterinary preparations, etc. This study was proposed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of protose. The study was achieved in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the control and treated samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques. The X-ray diffractograms (XRD) of control and treated samples showed the halo patterns peak that suggested the amorphous nature of both the samples of protose. The particle size analysis showed about 12.68% and 90.94 increase in the average particle size (d50) and d99 (particle size below which 99% particles are present) of treated protose with respect to the control. The surface area analysis revealed the 4.96% decrease in the surface area of treated sample as compared to the control sample. The differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis revealed the 22.49% increase in the latent heat of fusion of treated sample as compared to the control. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) analysis showed increase in maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) by 5.02% in treated sample as compared to the control. The increase in Tmax might be correlated with increased thermal stability of treated sample as compared to the control. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) study showed the alteration in the vibrational frequency of functional groups like N-H, C-H, and S=O of treated protose as compared to the control sample. Based on the overall analytical results, it is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on the physicochemical and spectral properties of protose. As a result, the treated protose might be more effective as a culture medium than the corresponding control.
Category: Biochemistry

[81] viXra:1608.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:15:20

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characteristics of Biofield Treated P-Chlorobenzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

p-Chlorobenzophenone (p-CBP) is the important chemical intermediate used for the synthesis of several pharmaceutical drugs like fenofibrate, cetirizine, alprazolam, and benzodiazepine. The aim of this study was set to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBP. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples of p-CBP were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the increase in average crystallite size (25.93%) as well as the intensity of XRD peaks of treated p-CBP, as compared to the control. The particle size analysis showed the reduction in particle size of fine particles (≤51.49 μm) by 21.6% (d10), whereas, increase in particle size of large particles (≥433.59 μm) by 12.82% (d90) and 17.71% (d99), respectively after biofield treatment, as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited the surface area as 0.7005 m2/g in control and 0.7020 m2/g in treated sample of p-CBP. The DSC thermogram of treated p-CBP exhibited the slight decrease in melting temperature. However, the latent heat of fusion was significantly altered (24.90%) after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. TGA analysis showed the weight loss by 57.36% in control and 58.51% in treated sample. In addition, the onset temperature of thermal degradation was also decreased by 6.32% after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control p- CBP. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic study did not show the alteration in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated p-CBP as compared to the control. Altogether, the XRD, particle size and thermal analysis suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant impact on physical and thermal properties of treated p-CBP.
Category: Biochemistry

[80] viXra:1608.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:19:59

Characterization of Antimicrobial Susceptibility Profile of Biofield Treated Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella Oxytoca

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Klebsiella are opportunistic pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of severe diseases. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca with respect to antibiogram pattern along with biochemical study and biotype number. Clinical lab isolate of K. oxytoca was divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. Control group remain untreated and treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with control group. Control and treated groups were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® automated system. Experimental results showed the impact of biofield treatment on K. oxytoca and found alteration in both antimicrobial sensitivity and MIC values as compared with untreated group. Antimicrobial sensitivity of about 26.67% tested antimicrobials out of thirty was altered with respect to control. MIC results showed about 12.50% alterations in tested antimicrobials as compared to control. Biochemical study showed 24.24% alteration in tested biochemical reactions after biofield treatment. A significant change in biotype number (7713 5272) was identified after biofield treatment as compared to control (7775 4332). In treated group, a new species was identified as Kluyvera ascorbata, as compared to control, K. oxytoca. Study findings suggest that biofield treatment has a significant effect in altering the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number of multidrug resistant strain of K. oxytoca. Biofield treatment could be applied to alter the antibiogram-resistogram pattern of antimicrobials.
Category: Biochemistry

[79] viXra:1608.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:21:11

Evaluation of Atomic, Physical and Thermal Properties of Tellurium Powder: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Tellurium has gained significant attention due to its photoconductivity, piezoelectricity, and thermo conductivity properties. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on thermal, physical and atomic properties of tellurium powder. The tellurium powder was equally divided in two parts: control and treated (T). The treated part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment, whereas the control part was remained untreated. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion was decreased by 14.13, 21.90, and 5.55% in treated samples T1, T2, and T3, respectively as compared to the control. However, the melting temperature did not show any change in treated samples as compared to the control. The TGA data showed that the peak width (difference in onset and endset) was increased from 213.67°C (control) to 234.82°C in treated tellurium sample. Besides, XRD results exhibited an alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, density, atomic weight and nuclear charge volume of the treated tellurium powder as compared to the control. In addition, the crystallite sizes were significantly changed on crystalline plane (102) and (110) as 146.05→48.67 nm and 63.01→88.21 nm, respectively in the treated tellurium. The FT-IR spectra did not show any significant change in absorption frequencies in treated sample as compared to the control. Therefore, DSC, TGA and XRD data suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the thermal and physical properties of tellurium powder. Thus, biofield energy treatment could be applied to modulate the thermal and physical properties in semiconductor and chalcogenide glass industries.
Category: Biochemistry

[78] viXra:1608.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:21:37

Thermal, Spectroscopic and Chromatographic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Benzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of benzophenone. The study was done using various analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The benzophenone sample was divided into two parts, one part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment, called as treated and the other part was remained as untreated, called as control. Mass spectra showed the molecular ion peak at m/z = 182 in control and all the treated benzophenone samples with different intensities (treated samples further divided in to three parts, T1, T2, and T3 for GC-MS study). The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, 13C/12C (PM+1)/PM and in treated sample was decreased by 44.87% in T2 and slightly increased upto 5.79% in case of T1 as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H]. Moreover, isotopic abundance ratio of 18O/16O (PM+2)/PM in the treated sample was increased up to 22.64% in T3. The retention time of treated benzophenone was slightly increased (0.88 min) as compared to the control in HPLC chromatogram. The DSC data exhibited that the heat of degradation of treated benzophenone was increased by 674.16% as compared to the control. While, C=O stretching frequency of treated sample was shifted by 6 cm-1 to low energy region in FT-IR spectroscopy. Further, the UV-Vis spectra of control sample showed characteristic absorption peaks at 210 nm and 257 nm that was blue shifted to 205 nm and 252 nm, respectively in the treated sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of benzophenone, which could make them more useful as reaction intermediate in industrial applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[77] viXra:1608.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:28:08

Antibiogram of Biofield-Treated Shigella Boydii: Global Burden of Infections

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Bacillary dysentery and acute gastroenteritis caused by infection of Shigella species are major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries. Emergence of antimicrobial resistance threatens to render current treatments ineffective. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella boydii (S. boydii) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9207) strain of S. boydii was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. boydii. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. boydii were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to control (Gr. I). Sensitivity pattern of amoxicillin/k-clavulanate was improved from intermediate (I) to susceptible (S) with correspond to MIC value was also reduced by two folds (16/8 to ≤ 8/4 μg/mL) in both the treated groups as compared to control. The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. boydii showed 15% alteration in Gr. II on day 5, while significant (40%) alteration was found on day 10 as compared to control. The MIC values of antimicrobials for S. boydii also showed 12.50% alteration in Gr. II on day 5 while, significant alteration (59.38%) of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value was found in Gr. II on day 10 as compared to control. It was observed that overall 69.70% biochemical reactions were changed in which 66.67% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in all the treated groups without alteration of organism as compared to control. These results suggested that biofield treatment had significant impact on S. boydii in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC and biochemical reactions pattern.
Category: Biochemistry

[76] viXra:1608.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:30:37

Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Proteus Vulgaris After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Proteus vulgaris (P. vulgaris) is widespread in nature, mainly found in flora of human gastrointestinal tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effects of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on lyophilized as well as revived state of P. vulgaris for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype. P. vulgaris cells were procured from Micro BioLogics Inc., USA, in sealed pack bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 33420) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol until needed for experiments. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of P. vulgaris were divided in two parts, Gr. I: control and Gr. II: treatment. Group II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10. Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 143. After retreatment on day 143, the sample was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tubes were analysed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated Micro Scan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. vulgaris with other bacterial species after treatment. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 10.71% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of P. vulgaris as compared to control. It was observed that few biochemical reactions (6%) were altered in the treated groups with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was substantially changed in treated cells, Gr. IIA (62060406, Proteus penneri) on day 10 as compared to control (62070406; Proteus vulgaris). 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified sample in this experiment was Proteus vulgaris after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Proteus hauseri. The results suggested that biofield treatment has impact on P. vulgaris in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[75] viXra:1608.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:14:35

Improved Susceptibility Pattern of Antimicrobials Using Vital Energy Treatment on Shigella Sonnei

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) has become increasingly popular and reported for countless benefits in biomedical health care systems. The study assessed the potential impact of The Trivedi Effect® (biofield energy) on Shigella sonnei for changes in antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The cells were obtained from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9290) number, and divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and further subdivided into two sub-groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 160 (Study I). The Gr. IIB sample was retreated on day 160 (Study II), and was divided into three separate tubes as first, second and third tube, which were analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. Results showed that 35% (7 out of 20) antimicrobials were reported with improved sensitivity profile. Moreover, the minimum inhibitory concentration study showed that 56.25% (18 out of 32) tested antimicrobials were reported with decreased concentration by two to four-fold as compared with the control after biofield treatment. The effect was further analyzed and sustained in the biochemical study, where 57.57% (19 out of 33) tested biochemicals showed altered reaction pattern as compared with the control. The biotype study showed an alteration in the biotype number in all the experimental treated groups as compared to the control. Encouraging results suggests that bioenergy healing treatment as an integrative medicine against S. sonnei would be a better and safe treatment approach in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[74] viXra:1608.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:22:10

Chromatographic, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated N,N-Dimethylformamide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 08 Pages.

N,N-Dimethylformamide (DMF) is a ‘universal’ solvent and has wide variety of applications in organic synthesis, purification, crystallization, and as cross-linking agent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of DMF after the biofield energy treatment using various analytical techniques. DMF sample was divided into two parts, one part (control) remained as untreated, while the other (treated) part was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The treated sample was subdivided into three parts named as T1, T2, and T3 for gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. Five relatively intense peaks were observed in the mass spectrum of both control and treated samples of DMF. The GC-MS data revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+1)/PM in DMF was slightly decreased by 5.76% in T1, and increased by 48.73%, and 30.17% in T2, and T3 samples, respectively as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)- isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H or 15N]. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of (PM+2)/PM was decreased by 10.34% in T1 and then increased upto 43.67% (T2) as compared to the control [where, (PM+2)- isotopic molecule for 18O]. In high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), the treated DMF showed similar retention time (TR) as compared to the control with an additional small peak at 2.26 min appeared in the treated sample. In DSC thermogram the heat change in a sharp endothermic transition at around 61°C of treated DMF was increased by 152.56% as compared to the control. Further, C=O and C-N stretching frequencies of treated sample were shifted by 7 cm-1 and 3 cm-1, respectively towards low energy region in Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. These results suggested that biofield energy treatment has significantly altered the physical and spectroscopic properties of DMF, which could make them more stable solvent in organic synthesis and as a suitable formulation agent in polymer/paint industry.
Category: Biochemistry

[73] viXra:1608.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 04:21:36

Biofield Energy Treatment: A Potential Strategy for Modulating Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of 3-Chloro-4-fluoroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

3-Chloro-4-fluoroaniline (CFA) is used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of CFA. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated CFA samples were further characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis of treated CFA showed significant changes in the intensity of peaks as compared to the control. However, the average crystallite size (G) was significantly decreased by 22.08% in the treated CFA with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed slight decrease in the melting temperature of treated CFA (47.56°C) as compared to the control (48.05°C). However, the latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was considerably changed by 4.28% with respect to the control. TGA analysis showed increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated sample (163.34°C) as compared to the control sample (159.97°C). Moreover the onset temperature of treated CFA (148 °C) was also increased as compared to the control sample (140°C). Additionally, the weight loss of the treated sample was reduced (42.22%) with respect to the control (56.04%) that may be associated with increase in thermal stability. The FT-IR spectroscopic evaluation showed emergence of one new peak at 3639 cm-1 and alteration of the N-H (stretching and bending) peak in the treated sample as compared to the control. Overall, the result demonstrated that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has paramount influence on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of CFA.
Category: Biochemistry

[72] viXra:1608.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 15:04:08

The Complexity Principle of Microbiology in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple principle of microbiology is presented in light of the general theory of stellar metamorphosis.
Category: Biochemistry

[71] viXra:1608.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-04 05:06:20

Effect of Biofield Treated Energized Water on the Growth and Health Status in Chicken (Gallus Gallus Domesticus)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treated energized water on chicken. The total 4200 chicks were equally divided into two groups i.e. control and treated. The biofield treated energized water was provided to the treated chicks, while the control chicks were drunk with standard drinking water. During the experiment the parameters such as mortality, body weight, food intake etc. were assessed in both control and energized water treated birds. The mortality rate was reduced in the energized water treated chicks as 54.55% in week 1, 42.11% in week 6, and 39.13% in week 4, as compared to the control chicks. Moreover, the average body weight was increased by 12.50% in week 1 as compared to the control chicks. The feed conversion ratio was gradually decreased which indicated that the energized water treated chicks took less feeds while the body weight was increased in comparison to the control chicks. Besides, the energized water treated birds showed statistically significant (p<0.007) with 15.47% increase in the edible meat weight as compared to the control chicks. Moreover, the feather, skin and internal organ weight were significantly reduced by 21.22% (p<0.001) of energized water treated chicks as compared to the untreated chicks. The protein content was increased by 10.11% and cholesterol was decreased by 4.64% in birds of the treated group as compared to the control. The European efficiency factor was also increased by 10.67% in the energized water treated birds as compared to the control chicks. The European efficiency factor was also increased by 10.67% in the energized water treated birds as compared to the control chicks. Altogether, the results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treated energized water could be a cost-effective feeding approach in chicken production.
Category: Biochemistry

[70] viXra:1608.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-01 23:19:08

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Triphenyl Phosphate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triphenyl phosphate (TPP) is a triester of phosphoric acid and phenol. It is commonly used as a fire-retarding agent and plasticizer for nitrocellulose and cellulose acetate. The present study was an attempt to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of TPP. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of TPP were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size (6.13%) of treated TPP that might be due to presence of strains and increase in atomic displacement from their ideal lattice positions as compared to control sample. DSC thermogram of treated TPP showed the increase in melting temperature (1.5%) and latent heat of fusion (66.34%) with respect to control. TGA analysis showed the loss in weight by 66.79% in control and 47.96% in treated sample. This reduction in percent weight loss suggests the increase of thermal stability in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR and UV spectroscopic results did not show the alteration in the wavenumber and wavelength of FT-IR and UV spectra, respectively in treated TPP with respect to control. Altogether, the XRD and DSC/TGA results suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of treated TPP.
Category: Biochemistry

[69] viXra:1607.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:21:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Properties of P-Nitroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Para nitroaniline (p-Nitroaniline) is an organic compound, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals drugs, gasoline and dyes. The present study was attempted to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on p-nitroaniline. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of p-nitroaniline were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR spectral analysis result suggested the alteration in wavenumber of some groups with respect to control. For instance, the C=C and C-C stretching were observed at 1570 cm-1 and 1430 cm-1, respectively in control sample that were shifted to 1585 cm-1 and 1445 cm-1, respectively after biofield treatment. UV spectral analysis revealed the similar pattern of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both control and treated samples. HPLC data showed an alteration in the retention time of p-nitroaniline peak in treated sample (3.25 min) with respect to control (2.75 min). GC-MS results showed a significant change in the isotopic abundance (δ) of 13C and 18O in treated sample as compared to control. DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion (∆H) of treated p-nitroaniline was substantially decreased by 10.66% as compared to control. However, the melting point remained same in both control and treated sample of p-nitroaniline. Overall, results obtained from different analytical techniques such as FT-IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and DSC suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral, physical and thermal properties of p-nitroaniline with respect to control sample.
Category: Biochemistry

[68] viXra:1607.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:12:33

Phenotyping and 16S Rdna Analysis After Biofield Treatment on Citrobacter Braakii: a Urinary Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Citrobacter braakii (C. braakii) is widespread in nature, mainly found in human urinary tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of C. braakii was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10 while Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was analysed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of C. braakii with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 39.29% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of C. braakii as compared to control. Tetracycline showed improved sensitivity pattern, i.e., from resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with support of decreased MIC value (>8 to ≤ 4 µg/mL) by two-fold in all the treated samples as compared to the control. Biochemical reactions also showed significant (42.42%) alteration in the treated samples with respect to the control. Biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (53131052, Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and in Gr. IIB, Study I (53111052; Citrobacter amalonaticus) on day 159 as compared to the control (77365776; Citrobacter braakii). Moreover, biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIB, Study II after retreatment on day 5 (53111042, Citrobacter amalonaticus) and (53131052; Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and 15 as compared to the control. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified microbe as Citrobacter freundii (GenBank Accession Number: DQ517285) with 95% identity. The nearest homolog genus-species of C. braakii was found to be Citrobacter werkmanii (Accession No. AF025373). The results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[67] viXra:1607.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:00:55

Evaluation of Antibiogram, Genotype and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofield Treated Nocardia Otitidis

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nocardiosis is a soil-borne aerobic infection caused by Nocardia species commonly affects the respiratory tract. Nocardia otitidis (N. otitidis) is the key organism for non-mycobacterial tuberculosis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on N. otitidis and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain of N. otitidis (ATCC 14630) was divided into two parts, control and treated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied using the broth microdilution technique. Overall, the MIC values of 16.67% antimicrobials were changed in the treated group of N. otitidis as compared to the control. Moreover, MIC value of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was reduced by two-fold (0.5/9.5 to 0.25/4.75 µg/mL) in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control without alteration in the sensitivity spectrum. The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the treated sample was detected as Enterobacter aerogenes strain NCTC10006T (GenBank Accession No: AJ251468) with 98% identity of gene sequencing data. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession No: AM184245). Using RAPD biomarkers, the sample showed an average range of 34 to 53% of polymorphism among treated samples as compared to the control. The 16S rDNA sequencing of treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of N. otitidis with other bacterial species. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on N. otitidis.
Category: Biochemistry

[66] viXra:1607.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:05:56

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions and Genotyping Characterization of Biofield Treated Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on S. aureus. S. aureus (ATCC 25923) was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treatment. After biofield treatment, Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 after revival (Study I). The revived sample (Gr. IIB) were retreated on day 159 (Study II), and divided into three separate tubes. Tube 1 was analyzed on day 5, likewise, tube 2 and 3 were analyzed on day 10 and 15, respectively. All the experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out in Gr. IIA sample to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of S. aureus with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed significant alteration i.e. 92.86% and 90.00% respectively in treated cells of S. aureus as compared to control. The biochemical reactions also showed the significant (35.71%) alteration in treated sample with respect to control. The biotype number and microbial species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (767177; Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10, while only the biotype numbers were changed in rest of the treated samples as compared to control (307016; S. aureus). The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified strain in this experiment was S. aureus (GenBank Accession No.: L37597) after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Staphylococcus simiae (GenBank Accession No.: DQ127902). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[65] viXra:1607.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:18:06

Assessment of Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Enterobacter Aerogenes After Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been reported as the versatile opportunistic pathogen associated with the hospital infections worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. aerogenes. The MDR isolates of E. aerogenes (i.e., LS 45 and LS 54) were divided into two groups, i.e., control and treated. Samples were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system, on day 10 after the biofield treatment. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 14.28% alteration out of twenty eight tested antimicrobials with respect to the control. The cefotetan sensitivity changed from intermediate (I) to inducible β-lactamase (IB), while piperacillin/tazobactam changed from resistant to IB in the treated LS 45. Improved sensitivity was reported in tetracycline, i.e., from I to susceptible (S) in LS 45, while chloramphenicol and tetracycline sensitivity changed from R to I in treated LS 54. Four-fold decrease in MIC value was reported in piperacillin/tazobactam, and two-fold decrease in cefotetan and tetracycline in the biofield treated LS 45 as compared to the control. MIC results showed an overall decreased MIC values in 12.50% tested antimicrobials such as chloramphenicol (16 µg/mL) and tetracycline (8 µg/mL) in LS 54. The biochemical study showed an overall 45.45% negative reaction in the tested biochemical in both the treated isolates as compared to the control. A change in biotype number was reported in MDR isolates (LS 45 and LS 54), while in LS 54, altered biotype number, i.e., 0406 0374 as compared to the control (7770 4376), with identification of the new species as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with brown color as special characteristic. The study findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on clinical MDR isolates of E. aerogenes has the significant effect on altering the sensitivity of antimicrobials, decreasing the MIC values, changed biochemical reactions, and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[64] viXra:1607.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:20:53

Antibiogram Typing of Biofield Treated Multidrug Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue in the developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of Staphylococcus species viz. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (LS 18), Staphylococcus epidermidis (LS 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (LS 30). Each strain was divided into the two groups i.e. control and treated. The control and treated groups were analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical analysis and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with the control group. The sensitivity of erythromycin was improved from resistant to susceptible, while levofloxacin sensitivity was also improved from intermediate to susceptible in LS 21 isolate. The MIC results showed a decrease in the concentrations of ceftriaxone, erythromycin, imipenem, and levofloxacin antimicrobials in LS 21 as compared to the control. Linezolid and vancomycin also showed decrease in MIC as compared to the control in LS 30. Overall, 20.69% antimicrobials showed decrease in MIC value out of the tested twenty-nine after biofield treatment in Staphylococcus species. The biochemical study showed a 25% alteration in biochemical reactions as compared to the control. A significant change was reported in biotype numbers for all the three strains of MDR Staphylococcus species after biofield treatment as compared to the respective control group. On the basis of changed biotype number (306366) after biofield treatment in LS 18, the new organism was identified as Staphylococcus simulans with respect to the control species i.e. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (302302). The control group of S. epidermidis and S. aureus showed biotype number as 303064 and 757153 respectively. After biofield treatment, LS 21 and LS 30 isolates showed altered biotype number as 307064 and 317153 respectively. Overall, results conclude that biofield treatment could be used as complementary and alternative treatment strategy against multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus species with improved sensitivity and reduced MIC values of antimicrobial.
Category: Biochemistry

[63] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 07:14:25

Plant-Microbial Fuel cell

Authors: Taha Abdelsallm Ashraf, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Once an exporter of oil and gas, Egypt is now struggling to meet its own needs. The growth in energy consumption is a response to the country’s economic expansion, industrialization, and change in people’s lifestyle. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget. As a result, the government is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing Egypt in this field. “Plant microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[62] viXra:1607.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:13:56

Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella Flexneri: Effect of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. flexneri. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. flexneri were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of biofield treated S. flexneri also showed significant (46.88%) alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. It was observed that overall 24.24% biochemical reactions were altered in which 21.21% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II on day 10 with identification of new organism i.e. Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping.
Category: Biochemistry

[61] viXra:1607.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:16:47

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Streptococcus group B: A Postpartum Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Streptococcus agalactiae group B (S. agalactiae gr. B) is widespread in nature mainly causes bacterial septicemia and neonatal meningitis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on S. agalactiae gr. B with respect of antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and bio typing. S. agalactiae gr. B strain was used in this experiment bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 12386) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol. The revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were selected for the study. Gr. I was considered as control. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10 while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to the control (Gr. I) using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Although biofield treatment did not show any change with respect to susceptibility pattern. However the minimum inhibitory concentration of S. agalactiae gr. B showed significant (70.37%) alteration, out of twenty-seven tested antimicrobials, among which in Gr. II i.e. 62.96% on day 5 and 66.67% on day 10 while no alteration was found in lyophilized group (Gr. III) as compared to the control. Moreover, the improvement of MIC value of norfloxacin was observed by two-fold (8 to ≤4 µg/mL) in Gr. II on day 10 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. It was observed that overall 48.28% biochemical reactions, out of twenty-nine were altered in Gr. II with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in Gr. II on day 5 (777777615) and on day 10 (757677405) as compared to the control (237147047). The results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. agalactiae gr. B in revived treated cells (Gr. II) with respect to MIC values, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[60] viXra:1607.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:09:35

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Enterobacter Cloacae: Impact on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biotype

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 µg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 µg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) on day 10 as compared to control (7710 3376). The result suggested that biofield treatment had an impact on E. cloacae with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, alteration of biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Biochemistry

[59] viXra:1607.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:11:49

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. nonGBM control and non-GBM treatment. The GBM and non-GBM treatment groups were given Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment for the assessment of its potential. Two time-lapse (10 hours prior; 10 hours after) video microscopy experiment was performed on tumor and non-tumor brain cells in six replicate (n=6). For each microscopic field, the total cell number was counted and each cell was tracked over the 20 hours period. The potential impact of biofield treatment was assessed by comparing cell death rate in both GBM and non-GBM cells before and after biofield treatment. Results: GBM control cells showed a basal level of cell death 10 hours prior and 10 hours after the biofield treatment, and the rate remained unchanged over the 20 hours period, while in treatment group of GBM, cell death rate was exponentially increased (41%) after biofield treatment as compared to control. The treated non-GBM cultured cells showed a significant reduction (64%) of cell death rate i.e. protective effects as compared to non-GBM control. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggests that biofield treatment has significantly increased the cell death rate of treated GBM cells and simultaneously boost the viability of normal brain cells. Therefore, biofield treatment could be a suitable alternate treatment strategy for cancer patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[58] viXra:1607.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 08:38:47

Abiotic Polymerization of Nucleotides

Authors: Alexey I. Balabin
Comments: 407 Pages. Russian

The book concerns itself with a novel process of mononucleotide assembly into double-stranded polymers. This process, which I call stamping, can be organized either as synthesis of a random double-stranded polynucleotide from mononucleotides or as a reaction of copying a polynucleotide (replication of the DNA or RNA, transcription or reverse transcription). Stamping proceeds in five stages; its crucial step takes place on certain prism faces of apatite crystals. Nucleotides insert their phosphate groups into the positions of PO4 tetrahedra of the crystal lattice, and thereupon condensation of adjacent nucleotides takes place. Inherent in stamping is the constraint that certain bond lengths in the synthesized polymer be equal to certain interatomic distances P–P in the crystal, so that the width and length of each nucleotide pair are fixed. Geometric regularity of the synthesized polymer imparts a regularity to its bond structure—all nucleotides are joined with 3’,5’ phosphodiester linkages (and none with 2’,5’), and all base pairs are the same Watson-Crick type. Because of the geometric constraints, double-stranded RNA molecules could emerge via stamping from a primordial soup circumventing the combinatorial explosion issue (the multitude of nucleotide-type molecules present in the soup had different geometries hence could not join into the polymer). Furthermore, involvement of the crystal surface imparts stereoselectivity to stamping. Synthesis of a polynucleotide from a racemic mixture of the four possible types of nucleotides (L- and D- enantiomers, α- and β-anomers) will result in formation of four types of macromolecules, each consisting predominantly of similar nucleotides (α-L, α-D, β-L or β-D). Though stamping is a hypothetical process, its different stages have been carried out in practice separately. Outlining conditions, at which stamping can be implemented as a whole, constitutes the subject of the main part of the monograph. Remarkably, such conditions have been found, and ways to carry out polynucleotide copying (without enzymes) have been outlined, based upon the data available on apatite surface chemistry, apatite crystal chemistry, physical chemistry of nucleic acids along with certain results from enzymology. In a separate chapter a scenario is proposed for the early history of life, built on the assumption that life originated via stamping and that inheritance relied on stamping apatite crystals, first non-biogenic, supplied by hydrothermal vents, then biogenic ones, until the emergence of bona fide polymerases. This hypothesis clarifies the roles played by group I introns in the ancient world, explains how modern polymerases could emerge in the course of miniaturization of the apatite crystals, the ribozymes involved being replaced with enzymes one by one. (The catalytic center of the modern polymerase in its active state, the phosphate group positioned between two metal atoms, is nothing else then a fragment of the apatite structure.) Combining the idea of stamping with the available phylogenetic data, the Archaea come out as descendants of the organisms whose life cycle was based upon RNA replication, whereas the ancestors of Bacteria appear to be the “inventors” of DNA, whose life cycle was based on transcription alternated with reverse transcription. Drawing an analogy between introns and transposons, the latter appear to be likely descendents of single-stranded catalytically active forms of mobile DNA. The origin of translation can be explained next as a spin-off from stamping performed at elevated hydrostatic pressures. A model for the origin of Eukaryotes can also be proposed as further development of these ideas, accounting for their phylogenetic traits, meiosis, spliceosomal introns and inteins, mechanisms of intron mobility (the homing endonuclease, retrohoming), acidocalciosomes, links between transposons and regulatory sequences of genes, domesticated transposases (including convergent domestication), the nuclear membrane, emergence of the double-stranded DNA, mobilization of double-stranded transposons, gene migration from mitochondria, plastids and nucleomorphs into the nucleus, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, multicellularity. Also explained are nuclear dimorphism in the ciliates, genome rearrangements in their macronuclei and some other phenomena.
Category: Biochemistry

[57] viXra:1607.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:12:01

Characterization of Phenotype and Genotype of Biofield Treated Enterobacter Aerogenes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been commonly described as a versatile opportunistic pathogen in hospital infections. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on E. aerogenes for its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. E. aerogenes bearing ATCC 13048 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. In addition, treated group of E. aerogenes was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship of E. aerogenes with different closely related bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an alteration of 14.28% among twenty-eight tested antimicrobials. Similarly, 15.65% tested antimicrobials showed an alteration in MIC values. Chloramphenicol showed improved sensitivity i.e. resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with the support of decreased MIC by two folds (i.e. >16 to ≤8 µg/mL). Norfloxacin also showed decrease MIC by two folds (i.e. 8 to ≤4 µg/mL) as compared to control. Biofield treatment showed an impact on biochemical reactions (9.09%) followed by a change in biotype number (7770 5272) in treated group with respect to control (7770 5372). Using RAPD analysis, sample showed an average range of 4 to 42% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA study showed that treated sample was detected as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession Number: AM184245) with 97% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to Enterobacter aerogenes strain: C1111 (Accession No. AB244467). These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment can alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, thus it can be used as alternate energy medicine in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[56] viXra:1607.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 23:29:49

Antibiogram and Genotypic Analysis Using 16S Rdna After Biofield Treatment on Morganella Morganii

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Morganella morganii (M. morganii) is one of the important nosocomial pathogen associated with the urinary tract infections and bacteremia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on M. morganii in the lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, biotype number and genotype. M. morganii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25829) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. M. morganii strain was divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment on day 142, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was further analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of M. morganii with other bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed 32.14% alterations, while minimum inhibitory concentration results showed 18.75% alterations of the tested antimicrobials. Biochemical study also showed altered positive reactions in nitrofurantoin and indole with respect to control. Biotype study showed alteration in Gr. IIB, study II, on day 15 (4005 1446) as compared to the control (4004 1446). 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed similar results with the identified microbe as M. morganii (GenBank accession number: AB210972) having 80% identity of the gene sequencing data. Total 1507 base nucleotide of 16S rDNA gene sequences were analyzed by multiple alignments, while nearest homolog genus-species of M. morganii was found as Providencia rettgeri (accession number: AM040492). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on M. morganii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[55] viXra:1607.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:30:48

Evaluation of Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Serratia Marcescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) is Gram-negative bacterium, associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), especially urinary tract and wound infections. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on phenotyping and genotyping characteristics such as antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, biotype, DNA polymorphism, and phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens (ATCC 13880). The lyophilized cells of S. marcescens were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). Control group (G1) and treated groups (G2 and G3) of S. marcescens cells assessed with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, and biochemical reactions. In addition to that, samples from different groups of S. marcescens were evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and 16S rDNA sequencing in order to establish the phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens with different bacterial species. The treated cells of S. marcescens showed an alteration of 10.34% and 34.48% antimicrobials in G2 and G3 on 10th day, respectively as compared to control. The significant changes of biochemical reactions were also observed in treated groups of S. marcescens. The RAPD data showed an average range of 16-49.2% of polymorphism in treated samples as compared to control. Based on nucleotide homology sequences and phylogenetic analysis, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Pseudomonas fluorescence. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance to the useful antimicrobials against S. marcescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[54] viXra:1607.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:32:40

Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,4-Triazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3 ) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3 ). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
Category: Biochemistry

[53] viXra:1607.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:34:34

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Myristic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Myristic acid has been extensively used for fabrication of phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of myristic acid. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated myristic acid were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Laser particle size analyzer. XRD results revealed alteration in intensity of peaks as well as significant increase in crystallite size (27.07%) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. DSC study showed increase in melting temperature of treated myristic acid as compared to control. Nevertheless, significant change (10.16%) in latent heat of fusion (∆H) was observed in treated myristic acid with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated myristic acid showed less weight loss (31.33%) as compared to control sample (60.49%). This may be due to increase in thermal stability of treated myristic acid in comparison with control. FT-IR results showed increase in frequency of –CH2 and C=O stretching vibrations, probably associated with enhanced bond strength and force constant of the respective bonds. The particle size analyzer showed significant decrease in average particle size (d50 and d99) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. Overall, the results showed significant alteration in physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of myristic acid. The enhanced crystallite size, and thermal stability of treated myristic acid showed that treated myristic acid could be used as phase change material for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Biochemistry

[52] viXra:1606.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-28 23:26:41

An Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Thermal, Physical and Structural Properties of Cadmium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 5 Pages.

Cadmium is widely utilized in nickel-cadmium batteries, stabilizers, and coating applications due to its versatile physico-chemical properties. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on atomic, thermal, and physical properties of cadmium powder. The cadmium powder was divided into two groups, one group as control and another group as treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). XRD results showed significant alteration in lattice parameter, unit cell volume, densities, nuclear charge per unit volume, and atomic weight in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. Furthermore, crystallite size was significantly reduced upto 66.69% in treated cadmium as compared to control. DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated cadmium powder was considerably reduced by 16.45% as compared to control. Particle size data revealed that average particle size (d50) of treated cadmium powder was significantly reduced by 47.79 % as compared to the control. In addition, the surface area of treated cadmium powder was substantially enhanced by 156.36% as compared to control. Surface morphology observed by SEM showed the more facets and fractured surface with satellite boundaries in treated cadmium powder as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the atomic, thermal and physical properties of cadmium.
Category: Biochemistry

[51] viXra:1606.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-14 04:22:21

Zinc Deficiency Induces Apoptosis Via Mitochondrial P53 and Caspase-Dependent Pathways in Human Neuronal Precursor Cells

Authors: Rohit seth
Comments: 5 Pages.

Previous studies have shown that zinc deficiency leads to apoptosis of neuronal precursor cells in vivo and in vitro. In addition to the role of p53 as a nuclear transcription factor in zinc deficient cultured human neuronal precursors (NT-2), we have now identified the translocation of phosphorylated p53 to the mitochondria and p53-dependent increases in the pro-apoptotic mitochondrial protein BAX leading to a loss of mitochondrial membrane potential as demonstrated by a 25% decrease in JC-1 red:green fluorescence ratio. Disruption of mitochondrial membrane integrity was accompanied by efflux of the apoptosis inducing factor (AIF) from the mitochondria and translocation to the nucleus with a significant increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) after 24 h of zinc deficiency. Measurement of caspase cleavage, mRNA, and treatment with caspase inhibitors revealed the involvement of caspases 2, 3, 6, and 7 in zinc deficiency-mediated apoptosis. Down-stream targets of caspase activation, including the nuclear structure protein lamin and polyADP ribose polymerase (PARP), which participates in DNA repair, were also cleaved. Transfection with a dominant-negative p53 construct and use of the p53 inhibitor, pifithrin- ␮, established that these alterations were largely dependent on p53. Together these data identify a cascade of events involving mitochondrial p53 as well as p53-dependent caspase-mediated mechanisms leading to apoptosis during zinc deficiency.
Category: Biochemistry

[50] viXra:1605.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 15:42:23

¿Por Qué se Produce la Bioluminiscencia Del Mar de Ardora?

Authors: José Fernández Caballero
Comments: 4 Pages.

For many centuries, a lot of sailors have insured sight luminous waters. In 1995, a boat registered on his logbook one of these sightings in the northwest Indian Ocean. After check it, some scientists have analyzed photographs taken by a satellite about the area where the luminescence was registered. Indeed, in the photographs they could see a large area of water with light. Applying appropriate filters, they managed to get a picture where the bright is more prominent. This was the first sighting of the so called milky sea from the space. The reason why this luminescence happens has been a mystery for sailors. To try to explain it, they related it to a phenomenon produced by influence of the Moon on the sea water. In this article I pretend to give the lie to this mistaken idea and expose the causes of this luminous water.
Category: Biochemistry

[49] viXra:1605.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 10:15:25

Cancer as Genetic Memory?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 1 Page.

Broad occurrence of hypoxia- inducable factor in human body may suggest genetic memory to life in oxygen- low atmosphere.
Category: Biochemistry

[48] viXra:1604.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-17 18:13:27

Giving Alexander Oparin’s Origin of Life Postulates a Future

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

Alexander Oparin was a Soviet scientist working behind the Iron Curtain. Many of his ideas are true and can be further developed by utilizing the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis. Explanation is with author’s writing in dark green.
Category: Biochemistry

[47] viXra:1604.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-03 16:36:01

Triosephosphate Isomerase (Tpi) Combines the Effects of His95 and Lys13 for Glu165 Three Crucial Catalytic Residues Which Form the Enediol Intermediate Necessary for the Interconversion Reaction Catalyzed by Tpi.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 12 Pages.

The K13M mutations involvement in the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family...P60174
Category: Biochemistry

[46] viXra:1601.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-23 15:50:19

Causal Attribution, Perceived Benefits and Morbidity After a Heart Attack: Modification of a New Medicine and Detection Communicational Smart System

Authors: Ahmed E. Gado, Abdel-Rahman M. Mousa, Mohamed A. Hussein
Comments: 6 Pages.

The beat was stifled in a state of trauma; the flow was snarled in a narrow tube; and the heart was completely dysfunctional. Until that moment, 1.6 million people in Egypt were suffering from heart diseases. Trying to raise our level of consciousness and visualize that problem from various perspectives, we came up with the solution. Firstly, leave the room to explain the problem itself. Clearly, we tried to perceive communication by considering the molecular interactions in the vital biological activities. Indeed, heart disorders have become an exacerbating grand challenge for Egypt. According to the Fig.1, heart disorders represents 51.75% of the notable disorders in Egypt .One of the predominant heart diseases is heart attack. The danger of the disorder underlies in the ensuing strokes and the total dysfunction of lungs. As enacted by the GMC, the death toll emanated from heart attack has reached 25% and the odds are increasingly hiking. Furthermore, 40% of the total deaths by the disease took place due to the considerable delay time till an effective treatment. All these facts triggered our minds to establish their own solution that will destroy such tragedies. Goring through the project, you will find how we could implement our test plan to prove our scientific hypothesis, and test the design requirements associated with it in order to obtain a reasonable bunch of findings. By setting the tests, we proved the rightness of the hypothesis, measured the accuracy and the different factors affecting it. As a result, we managed to exploit ECG readings to detect heart attack before erupting by error percent of 7.1%, provide a reasonable heart status for the patient, and even maintain their heart function in 67 seconds using intravenous oxygen. In addition, we have utilized the drugs verapamil and nifedipine to vasodilate the coronary artery as a treatment. Simply, we have emancipated the previous chocked flow to fix its stifled state!
Category: Biochemistry

[45] viXra:1512.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 07:23:23

A Fully Automatic Breast Ultrasound Image Segmentation Approach Based On Neutro-Connectedness

Authors: Min Xian, H.D. Cheng, Yingtao Zhang
Comments: 6 Pages.

Breast tumor segmentation is an important step of breast ultrasound computer aided diagnosis systems.
Category: Biochemistry

[44] viXra:1510.0509 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-30 12:21:19

Gapdh Using a Structure-Based Design Modulates and Amplifies a Mechanistic Insight Into a Crystal Structures Photochemical Reaction.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages.

GAPDH-catalyzed glycolysis reaction involved in cellular and human intracellular nuclei events, in addition to the cytoplasm relating to the extraglycolytic functions of GAPDH “recruited” from the three molecular axes translocation roles insight into a crystal structures photochemical reaction.
Category: Biochemistry

[43] viXra:1510.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:11:17

Hysteresis and Negative Resistance Regimes in Membrane Perturbations by Chrysin

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

The growing concerns about pro-oxidant nature and toxicity during interaction of flavonoids such as chrysin and associated metal complexes with the cell membrane has led to investigations on membrane perturbations by the same. However, the Cyclic Voltammetry (CV) results show signs indicative of a hysteesis behavior. Taking cue from this, the present work is directed at a nonlinear analysis and characterization of the CV results of membrane perturbations by Chrysin and its copper and iron complexes. Plots of the Voltage-Resistance (V-R) and Voltage-Capacitance (V-C) relations show that while the capacitance is constant independent of voltage, the V-R behavior shows an interesting Hysteresis pattern with negative resistance peaks being seen. Presence of dosage-independent chaos is ascertained using the Lyapunov Exponent. The present work offers an insight into the nonlinear behavior underlying the mechanics of flavonoid-cell membrane interaction and might be the first step in a series of studies focused on the role of nonlinearity and chaos on toxicity.
Category: Biochemistry

[42] viXra:1510.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:12:45

DNA Molar Masses - Unsung Heroes of the Code of Life?

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 5 Pages.

While the revolutionary field of Genetics along with its immense applications needs no introduction, recent models of the Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) reading process have proposed a complex system of mechanical oscillators giving rise to a solitonic transmission wave, dependent largely on the ‘context’, which consists of the structures and masses of the DNA Nucleotides. This observation logically raises the question of whether the masses of nucleotides in particular, contribute to the well-known high informational efficiency and capacity of the DNA. In this context, the present work purports to a simple experiment, where the genome sequences of three virus species are used to derive a sequence of the corresponding nucleotide molar masses. Along with the original nucleotide-molar mass associations, three fictitious associations are proposed, and for each of the four associations, the histograms of molar mass occurrences are plotted. It is seen that the original association alone leads to a distribution resembling the normal probability distribution, leading to the hypothesis that this preference affects choice of molar mass by nature, which then results in the efficiency of the solitonic transmissions and thus ultimately, the observed informational efficiency of the genetic codes.
Category: Biochemistry

[41] viXra:1510.0330 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-19 10:38:49

Study the Regulation of the “nos” Genes of Bradyrhizobium Japonicum

Authors: Alicia Abarca Cifuentes, Maria Jesus Delgado
Comments: Alicia Abarca Cifuentes as Final project student, 26 Pages.

The goal of this Project is to study the regulation of the “nos” genes of Bradyrhizobium japonicum, which encodes the nitrous oxide reductase enzyme responsible for the reduction of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide (N2O). To achieve this goal, I am using transcriptional fusions of the promoter regions of “nos” genes to lacZ reporter gene I have transferred by conjugation a nosRlacZ fusion into the parental strain USDA110 and a-mutant strain lacking the regulatory protein RegR. The transconjugants obtained were grown in minima media with different concentrations of oxygen. Cells have been obtained by centrifugation and I have measured the beta-Galactosidase activity of cells.
Category: Biochemistry

[40] viXra:1510.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-17 20:15:54

The Beginnings of Photosynthesis in Atmospheres of Late Evolution Stars According to Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 diagram

A simple reasoning is presented why chlorophyll is synthesized in the high atmospheres of late evolution stars according to stellar metamorphosis theory.
Category: Biochemistry

[39] viXra:1507.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-25 05:35:16

On the Newly Discovered Properties of Malus Domestica

Authors: S. Chandra, S. Chandra, G. Lat, P. Par
Comments: 5 Pages. Published in Annals of Food Research © 2015, Vol. 42, (12)

Malus domestica, commonly known as the apple, has recently been analyzed with the new stroboscopic techniques to reveal new and unknown properties of this species. We present the results here which may demonstrate novel health benefits from consuming and digesting produce from this fruit.
Category: Biochemistry

[38] viXra:1507.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-16 12:03:53

Spallation as the Catalyst for the Origin of Living Cells

Authors: Eddie Maalouf
Comments: 9 Pages.

This abstract introduces the by-products of cosmic "spallation" (high energy gamma rays and neutrinos) as the prime instigators of living cells in the cosmos. And, posits that asteroids do not necessarily transport the raw ingredients of life but instead serve specific purpose (provide high energy impacts that produce spallation) onto planets in favorable orbits.
Category: Biochemistry

[37] viXra:1506.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-13 12:50:51

Changes in Glutathione and Glutathione Reductase Positioning Glutathione-S-Transferase as a Function of Cell Concentration with Enzyme Activities Found to Influence Behavior.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Glutathione reductase (GR) utilizes NADPH produced by G6PDH (glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase) enzyme activities, and enzyme glutathione reductase (GR) represents the erythrocyte glutathione-reducing system (GRS), of the GSH pathway to oxidation and inactivation in the activity of GSH peroxidase and GSH reductase.
Category: Biochemistry

[36] viXra:1504.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-17 01:53:05

Have Scientists Already Been Able to Surpass the Capabilities of Evolution?

Authors: Branko Kozulic, Matti Leisola
Comments: 21 Pages.

Over two millennia ago Socrates was pondering whether our Universe and all things in it are governed by randomness or by a regulating intelligence. This philosophical question has been alive till the present day, since the proponents of neither side have been able to convince their opponents. Scientists seldom express or recognize clearly their philosophical presuppositions and many think that there is no room for philosophy in science. Our view is that although science cannot determine which philosophical view is correct, it can show which one is wrong. Here we critically review the experimental results obtained during the past twenty years by Jack W. Szostak and his co-workers relating to functional information among random RNA and protein sequences. We explain in detail why their experiments with random or partially randomized protein sequences do not mimic the processes that take place in natural populations. Simple calculations show that in the laboratory scientists have searched much larger sequence space than could have been searched by random natural processes. We further argue that the discovery of singletons and of protein-protein-interaction networks has removed the randomness concept from biochemistry, and that neo-Darwinian view of the living world is false. We see faulty Hegelian logic as a major reason for the survival of the illusion that evolution is true, and the same logic is misleading many scientists into accepting empty phrases like “intrinsically disordered proteins” as existentially meaningful.
Category: Biochemistry

[35] viXra:1411.0559 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 13:36:22

Characterization of Human Thioredoxin System and the Potential Cellular Responses Encoded to Observe the Thioredoxin-Trx1 Reversibly Regulated Redox Sites.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 19 Pages.

Txn1 is a pleiotropic cellular causative gene factor which has numerous functions. Here the following reaction is the possible mechanisms of the thioredoxin-catalyzed reduction and re-oxidation of its characteristic cystine residues.
Category: Biochemistry

[34] viXra:1411.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-24 14:08:40

Catalase, the Antioxidant Heme Enzyme One of Three Subgroups Related to Catalase Deficiency in Humans Modulating the Normal Catalase Reaction Dependent on Nadph-Binding Catalases for Function.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Catalase protects the cell from oxidative damage by the accumulation of cellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation systems, those peroxisomal enzymes that breaks down hydrogen peroxide after H(2)O(2) exposure, and thereby mitigates* (some contradictory* results) the toxic effects of hydrogen peroxide.
Category: Biochemistry

[33] viXra:1411.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-07 05:18:31

Study of the Effects Due to Eutrophication and a Chemical Pesticides in Jamuaari River Samastipur North Bihar India

Authors: Ghooran Mahto
Comments: 10 Pages. Jamuaaririver is an old route of Budhi Gandak of samastipur,It made oldtributary at Indravara(named after Indradyumn Paal) where Ganga,Jamuaari, Balan(Kamla),Baya(with Noon),Bagmati were meeting eachtogether.Now day it is a big reservoir known as Gang Moh

Main objective of this research is to observe and discuss the change carried out by both speedy eutrophication and pesticidal phosphate on a part of JAMUAARI river bio system.This is an important aquatic biota which has great environmental and historical value .It is tributary where Bagmati,Kamla,Balan,Baya,Noon along with JAMUAARI river put water into Ganga. It is known as GANG MOHAN GHAT of INDRAWARA. The word INDRAWARA derived from INDRAPAAL a great king of Bengal in 11th century .This tributary makes a wide lea where so many kinds of birds are migrated from China,Nepal and Tibet during winter season
Category: Biochemistry

[32] viXra:1410.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-27 22:01:01

Contamination of Food Chain by Lead from Bone Processing Industry in India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Amaranth grown using the solid waste from a gelatine factory as manure in an experiment conducted by the Kerala Agricultural University had 1085 mg/kg of Pb, 200,000 times the benchmark dose level for developmental neuro-toxicity. The sludge has since been approved and is being marketed as organic manure. This has serious implications for the food safety and public health at a national level.
Category: Biochemistry

[31] viXra:1410.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-22 12:01:43

Combinatorics, Homology and Symmetry of Codons

Authors: Vladimir Komarov
Comments: 7 Pages.

In nuclear physics and elementary particle theory concept of unitary symmetry and the related idea of the hierarchy of interactions play a fundamental role [1, 2]. So the relative smallness of the electromagnetic and weak interactions as compared to the strong interaction of the nucleons in the nucleus can be considered a model of the nucleus in the limit of exact symmetry of the strong interactions. In this model, protons and neutrons are physically indistinguishable states of the nucleon, and the properties of the nucleus are invariant under isotopic transformations. In the case of molecules, we can also talk about the hierarchy of interactions involved in their formation. As an example of a "strong" interaction here we can point to energy of chemical bonds, which is 1-2 orders of magnitude more energy non-bonded interactions. Another example - when the energy of valence interactions is much greater than the energy of intermolecular bonds in the condensed medium. Usually accounting of weak interactions in 'chemistry is performed by introducing a physical model of various perturbations. These perturbations typically are unmeasured parameters that; are essentially the fitting values. However, in the preferred class of molecules can try to find such values of the parameter in the ratio in which the contributions of the "weak" interactions are compensated or negligible. Symmetry approach is important in estimation of reliability of experimental data and to predict new values of a parameter. The same, from the standpoint of finding a unitary symmetry, the approach would be interesting to extend to more complex molecules and molecular systems. Up until genetic. The application of the previously developed concepts of symmetry to the codon is the purpose of this work. Keywords: Codons, Combinatory, Homology, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry.
Category: Biochemistry

[30] viXra:1409.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-09-13 21:45:39

Epigenetic Effects of Cytosine Derivatives Are Caused by Their Tautomers in Hoogsteen Base Pairs

Authors: Denis A. Semyonov
Comments: 6 Pages.

Deoxycitidine in solution exists as two tautomers one of which is an “uncanonical” imino one. The latter can dominate with such derivatives as 5-methyl, 5-hydroxymethyl- and 5-formylcytosine. The imino tautomer potentially is able to form a hoosteen GC base pair. To detect such pair, it is suggested to use 1H15N NMR. Formation of GC-Hoogsteen base pair with imino tautomer of cytosine can be a reason for epigenetic effects of 5-methyl- and , 5-hydroxymethylcytosine.
Category: Biochemistry

[29] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2014-07-07 11:13:40

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 3 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[28] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2014-06-22 13:06:03

Bugs and Chills: Seasonality and the Effect of Temperature Fluctuations on the Replication and Transmission of Respiratory Viruses

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 46 Pages.

Overdue weight may have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical understanding may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Several mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered.
Category: Biochemistry

[27] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-04-13 23:13:17

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages.

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[26] viXra:1402.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-14 19:42:43

Are Herbal Remedies Safe for Cancer Treatment?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 3 Pages. This article is not yet submitted to any journal. Comments are welcome

There are various herbal medicines for cancer treatment in the market nowadays, therefore it seems worth to discuss their safety and effectiveness.
Category: Biochemistry

[25] viXra:1312.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2013-12-30 19:08:02

G6PD, Exon 12 is an Exonic Splicing Silencer Containing/substituted Define Codon Regions Involved in the G6PD MRNA¹

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 5 Pages.

An exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12 Using the G6PD model and exon 12, may define Exon 12 an exonic splicing silencer containing other-(exons II, III-IV, V, VI-VII, VIII, IX, X, and XI-XIII)-spliced exons regions and an exonic splicing enhancer (ESE) in exon 12. Using the G6PD model.
Category: Biochemistry

[24] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-17 12:38:06

Bugs and Chills; the Impact of Temperature Shifts on Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D Shaw Stewart
Comments: 45 Pages.

Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer experiments with viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that may have used recycled viral strains that had accidentally lost their temperature-sensitive character. Perhaps for this reason, science has closed its eyes to detailed and clear-cut evidence that epidemics of VRTIs are closely correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. Moreover, the seasonality of colds and influenza is unexplained. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs may frequently be underestimated, and that colds and influenza frequently infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Biochemical analysis may have been hindered by the use of laboratory respiratory viruses that were propagated in conditions that reduce temperature sensitivity. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. I propose here the hypothesis that viruses may locate the upper respiratory tract by its lower temperature, that temperature changes are often used by viruses to synchronize their development at one or more steps in their life cycles, that temperature changes can allow temporary increases in the level of virulence of viruses, and that temperature changes provide a mechanism whereby a subset of susceptible individuals can become infected.
Category: Biochemistry

[23] viXra:1310.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2013-10-16 19:41:09

Are there Alternatives to Dopamine Hypothesis in Order to Explain Schizophrenia?

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to any journal. Comments and suggestions are welcome.

This paper discusses a number of answers to the question posed in researchgate.net: http://www.researchgate.net/post/Are_there_alternatives_to_dopamine_hypothesis_in_order_to_explain_schizophrenia?. Hopefully the readers will find some clues for further investigation.
Category: Biochemistry

[22] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 21:30:58

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. Includes 4 Figures with description requires the introduction.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[21] viXra:1308.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:26:52

The Role of Bioinformatics as Auxilliary Tools for Molecular Biology

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 7 Pages. Proceeding of World-Wide Indonesian Student Association Scientific Writing Olympic. Pp:23-29. (The Ianguage of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is an emerging science, which has an active role in supplementing the field of medicine, agriculture, and environment. The data gathered from the wet experiment was already submitted to on line database. Bioinformatics is a new science, based upon the combination between biology and computer science. It has sucessfully managing those on line database as a source of genome and proteome data. The available genome and proteome database are GenBank from United States, DDBJ from Japan, and EBI from European Union. Molecular biology experiment needs biochemical regent, and they are very expensive. A certain breakthrogh is necessary, to reduce the cost of wet laboratory experiment. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the cost. The task of Bioinformatician is to convert those online data, into a useful biomedics information. It has been applied for drug, vaccine, and PCR primer synthesis. Pharmaceutical industry has utilized bioinformatics tools extensively. Bioinformatics could help to reduce the wet experiment cost. However, bioinformatics could not replace wet experiment totally.
Category: Biochemistry

[20] viXra:1308.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2013-08-21 20:31:16

The Role of Bioinformatics in Protein-Protein Interaction Study

Authors: Arli Aditya Parikesit
Comments: 9 Pages. 2010. Sigma Journal of Science and Technology Vol: 13. No: 1.p:1-7 . University of Sanata Dharma Press, Yogyakarta, Indonesia (The language of this manuscript is in Indonesian)

Molecular Biology is advancing through the protein-protein interaction studies. Its wet experiment has generated a massive amount of data. Bioinformatics was set up for converting those data into useful information. Protein-protein interaction wet experiment was a long and expensive labors. Bioinformatics are here to remedy those labors. Online experimentations at protein-protein interaction database are possible. The available databases are InterPare, ClusPro, and PROTORP. InterPare is an open and public database server for protein interaction interface information. ClusPro is an algorithm for filtering docked protein conformations, and rank them. While PROTORP is a database to calculates a series of physical and chemical parameters of the protein interaction sites that contribute to the binding energy of the association. The online databases are useful tools for aiding the wet laboratory protein-protein interaction experiment.
Category: Biochemistry

[19] viXra:1304.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2013-04-11 03:52:39

Analytical Results on Systems Arising in Enzymatic Reactions with Application to Phosphofructokinase Model

Authors: Jean-Paul MORILLON
Comments: 8 Pages.

A reaction-diffusion system based on some biological systems, arising in enzymatic reactions, has been considered. The iterative method by means of a fixed point theorem has been applied in order to solve this system of coupled nonlinear partial differential equations. The existence, uniqueness and positiveness of the solution to system with Robin-type boundary condition have been obtained. A biochemical system has been extended and solved analytically. Quasi-steady states and linear stability analysis have been proved.
Category: Biochemistry

[18] viXra:1303.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-07 13:30:18

Spectrin Alpha, Erythrocytic 1 Isoform Gata1 Strand B Cdna Containing the ef Hand Domain of P17678 Gata3 and a Heterodimer Assembly Complexed with Transmembrane SCF Neural Cell (Slc4a1) Band 3 Aspect of the Alpha Complex Analogue Spna1.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 2 Pages.

Spectrin alpha, erythrocytic 1 [ Mus musculus ] suggested the following scheme, which supports up or downstream of this site the study of numerous molecular regulating mechanisms the characterize the alpha-chain that mediates the binding of the EF-hand complex SPNA1-protein/P17687.
Category: Biochemistry

[17] viXra:1303.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2013-03-05 11:46:11

A Brief History of the Ford Rouge

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 3 Pages. Source: Green Rouge Factory Tour 2012

Well, you may be wondering what a green roof is? A green roof is a roof that is filled with plants that created vegetation, an inexpensive sewage system which can use heat from the sun to power up energy. A green roof is very urgent efficient. It can insulate the plants while helping vegetate crops. In some corners of green roofs there can be solar panels that also have water inside them for vegetation.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1301.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-17 11:04:54

Methods in Treating Acid Reflux

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

A paper on the symptoms of acid reflux as well as a guide to comforting it. This will provide an informative biochemical and organic description on the chemicals that can be used to treat acid reflux disease.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1301.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-15 12:59:57

A Guide of the Alternatives in Biomedical Research

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

This is a guide to alternatives in biomedical technology as well as biochemistry. This includes using skin cells to replace nervous tissue, using artificial blood cells, and alternatives to stem cell research as well as possibly cures for aids or cancer.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1301.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-08 10:46:36

Fluoridation of Water, Good or Bad?

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 5 Pages.

Water Fluoridation is the process of adding fluoride to public water supplies in order to reduce the possibility of tooth decay. Its use began in 1945, as a study of children and the effects of them drinking fluoride in their water. The experiment remained a success, however the use of fluoride in water didn't increase dramatically until 1994 when a world health committee brought the idea of adding .8ml of fluoride/liter of water. The idea then went to congress and passed. Today, over 400 million houses have fluoride in their water.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1209.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-21 12:08:34

Composition, Structure of Mangroves in Gamui Estuary, Chudamani, Orissa, India

Authors: G. M. Narasimha Rao, P. Prayaga Murty
Comments: 8 Pages.

Mangroves and halophytic vegetation of Chudamani region and Dhamara mouth region of Gamui estuary, Orissa was studied by using the transect with 4x4m quadrate. In each station, 5 transect samples were collected and total samples analyzed for getting relative density, relative dominance and relative frequency of individual species in the studied area. Maximum Important Value Index (IVI) was obtained for the species Suaeda maritima and minimum value for Sonneratia apetala. A total of 11 plant species were reported, out of them 3 were true mangroves species, remaining 8 were halophytes. Along with data on plant populations hydrographical and sediment analysis was gathered to correlate with distribution and abundance of mangrove species. Maximum density was reported Suaeda maritima and minimum density for Prosophis juliflora. Maximum height of forest is only 2 to M 2.5 meters with diameter of plant species is not more than 26cm. Sediment analysis and low input of fresh water may be responsible for degraded mangroves with stunted growth.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1209.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-19 12:28:24

A Comparative Study of Physico-Chemical and Biological Analysis of Sewage Water

Authors: Mohit Kumar
Comments: 12 Pages.

When sewage is untreated and is discharged into any water course will be effected severely. Sewage which has many pathogens and is rich in organic matter and high BOD when released into water course the dissolved oxygen of the stream decreases drastically which effects flora and fauna of the stream and also makes the water unfit for any purpose. Visakhapatnam is a city where nearly 18 lakh (384 per km2) (Eenadu, dated on 1st April) people resides. The day – to – day sewage which generates in the city has been collected and treated in the municipal sewage treatment plants at Appugar, Port area, Old town and Mudarsalova. Where Appugar plant holds 25 MLD, Port area plant holds 10 MLD, Old town plant holds 38MLD and Mudarsalova plant holds 13MLD of sewage of Visakhapatnam. The sewage treatment plants are not enough to hold the existing huge volume of sewage that is generated in the city. People and tourists are attracted more towards locations like Lumbini Park, Tenneti Park, Tourists Resorts located along the Beach and make frequent visits to those places. Aim of this study is to estimate physico-chemical and biological parameters of the sewage samples from different sewage disposal points along the coast of Visakhapatnam and to identify that objectionable parameters of the sewage ,which should be minimized before it is being disposed off.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1209.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-15 13:56:57

Parasite Stress Predicts Offspring Sex Ratio

Authors: Madhukar Shivajirao Dama
Comments: 18 Pages. This article is accepted for publication in PLOS ONE (August 30, 2012)

In this study, I predict that the global variation of offspring sex ratio might be influenced in part by the level of parasite stress. From an energetic standpoint, higher gestational costs of producing a male offspring could decrease male births in a population with limited resources. This implies that, any factor that limits the parental resources could be expected to favor female offspring production. Human sex ratio at birth (SRB) is believed to be influenced by numerous socioeconomic, biological, and environmental factors. Here, I test a prediction that parasite stress, by virtue of its effects on the general health condition, may limit the parental investment ability and therefore could influence the SRB at the population level. The statistical analysis supports this prediction, and show that the level of parasite stress has a significant inverse relation with population SRB across the world. Further, this relation is many-folds stronger than the association of SRB with other factors, like; polygyny, fertility, latitude, and son-preference. Hence, I propose that condition affecting ability of parasites (but not adaptive significance) could be a likely causal basis for the striking variation of SRB across populations.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1209.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2012-09-04 05:55:45

Towards Personalised Drug Ranking in Clinical Decision Support

Authors: David W. Wright, Shunzhou Wan, S. Kashif Sadiq, Stefan J. Zasada, Peter V. Coveney
Comments: 23 Pages.

Many infectious diseases as well as cancers are strongly influenced by molecular level processes. In several cases, the advent of rapid genetic sequencing, already available in the case of HIV, means that patient-specific treatment based on genetic data becomes conceivable. Targeted therapies use drugs to interfere with specific biomacromolecules involved in disease development. Given the complexity of emergent mutations in such biomacromolecules and in the disease itself, clinicians need to resort to decision support software for patient-specific treatment. Incorporating model based molecular level information into such decision support systems offers the potential to substantially enhance personalised drug treatment by providing first principles based ranking of drug efficacy on a specific patient. Patient specific molecular models of targeted macromolecules are constructed and molecular dynamics simulations are used to rank drug binding affinities. Here we present results from clinically relevant protein variants that arise from two distinct pathologies: HIV and lung carcinoma. Our findings demonstrate the potential for molecular simulations to achieve an accurate ranking of drug binding affinities on clinically relevant time scales and represent the first steps towards the eventual goal of providing data derived from patient specific simulation to enhance clinical decision support systems. The approach gives rapid, robust, and accurate computational results and is dependent on an automated workflow for building, simulating and analysing models distributed over petascale computing resources which are comprised of tens to hundreds of thousands of compute cores.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1204.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2012-04-03 09:09:40

Seed Treatment Effects on Emergence of Luffa Aegyptiaca

Authors: Glen Gilchrist
Comments: 5 Pages.

Luffa aegyptiaca (Luffa sponge gourd) is increasingly seen as both a source of vegetative nutrition and as a source of the “luffa” used as to exfoliate during bathing. As such, the commercial growing of Luffa aegyptiaca is increasingly being investigated using more intensive farming methods. Two factors traditionally used to promote / speed germination and emergence of vegetable seeds is investigated. It is concluded that temperature pre-treatment of the seeds (-12°C,24 hours) yields a p=0.004 significance in promoting emergence, whilst pre soaking (water, 18°C, 24hrs) yields p=0.821
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1110.0058 [pdf] submitted on 19 Oct 2011

What is Life?

Authors: Minas Sakellakis
Comments: 6 pages

This article deals with the phenomenon of life,and shows how can a different approach change all that we know about it.Making the simpliest and most objective assumption that the difference between earth and other planets is just that there is a huge number of chemical reactions near the surface of earth(even a stone travelling in the universe can admitt that, because life means nothing for the stone).These chemical reactions , although partially(organism per organism) they seem to have self sustaining and self organizing properties that violate the laws of thermodynamics,when they are seen as a whole, they seem to be more random ,and not violating the laws of thermodynamics.This is very difficult for a person to realize(especially if you are living in big cities), because we see things from inside the whole system, and so it is very difficult to judje objectively what is life.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1105.0025 [pdf] submitted on 16 May 2011

Proteins and Genes, Singletons and Species

Authors: Branko Kozulic
Comments: 41 pages

Recent experimental data from proteomics and genomics are interpreted here in ways that challenge the predominant viewpoint in biology according to which the four evolutionary processes, including mutation, recombination, natural selection and genetic drift, are sufficient to explain the origination of species. The predominant viewpoint appears incompatible with the finding that the sequenced genome of each species contains hundreds, or even thousands, of unique genes - the genes that are not shared with any other species. These unique genes and proteins, singletons, define the very character of every species. Moreover, the distribution of protein families from the sequenced genomes indicates that the complexity of genomes grows in a manner different from that of self-organizing networks: the dominance of singletons leads to the conclusion that in living organisms a most unlikely phenomenon can be the most common one. In order to provide proper rationale for these conclusions related to the singletons, the paper first treats the frequency of functional proteins among random sequences, followed by a discussion on the protein structure space, and it ends by questioning the idea that protein domains represent conserved units of evolution.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1011.0014 [pdf] submitted on 8 Nov 2010

Identity Charge and the Origin of Life

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 pages

"Identity" charge (also known as "number" charge) is the fundamental charge of the weak force and the most important of the particle charges. Identity charge is the symmetry debt of light's anonymity, or complete lack of identity. One photon cannot be distinguished from another, but the elementary leptonic particles are distinct from photons and from each other, and hence carry identity charges. Neutrinos are the explicit or "bare" form of identity charge, which is also carried in a "hidden" or implicit form by the massive leptonic elementary particles - electrons and their heavier kin. Single elementary particles cannot enter or leave the 4-dimensional realm of manifest reality without a conserving identity charge - the functional equivalent of a human "soul" or a citizen's passport. The utility of identity charge (in terms of symmetry conservation) is to facilitate particle-antiparticle annihilations by helping particles identify their appropriate "anti-mates" in a timely fashion - ensuring a conserved pathway for elementary particles returning to their original state of symmetry (light). For more on the function of identity charge see: "Identity Charge and the Weak Force", and "The Origin of Matter and Information".
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] submitted on 1 Oct 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] submitted on 13 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:0911.0026 [pdf] submitted on 9 Nov 2009

Origin of Life: Newton, Darwin, and the Abundance of Life in the Universe

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Two giants of British science, Newton and Darwin, developed theories of negentropic force in physics and biology. The two scientists are adjacently interred in Westminster Abby, and their theories of gravity and evolution likewise share common ground and a fractal resonance with DNA. Because DNA/RNA is both a replicating molecule and part of the universal 4x3 fractal pattern, the implications for the abundance of life in the Cosmos are enormous.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:0910.0056 [pdf] submitted on 28 Oct 2009

Theory of Originating Protolife on the Earth

Authors: Vladislav Konovalov
Comments: 2 pages

This theory concerns to systems, which one yet not living, but already and not dead. The solution of a problem of an origin of life lies through a solution of a problem of a genesis protolife, being a link between the living and not living nature.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:0907.0028 [pdf] submitted on 22 Jul 2009

Evolution of a Replicating Protocell

Authors: Terrance Cameron Stewart
Comments: 18 pages. e-mail: TC_STEWART20 (at) YAHOO (dot) COM

This model proposes a minimally constructed replicating protocell that exploits only a positive, a negative and a neutral amino acid to build membranes, genes and ion channels. This transition from chemical to biological evolution would result from a charged peptide that can function as a template to fuse peptide fragments, and act as a membrane gate. The nucleic genetic code may have originated as a single base codon that recognized three types of amino acid residue. A two base codon with three base types could code for nine types of residue. An increase to four base types would produce 16 residue possibilities. The modern code now utilizes a three base codon and four base types to yield 20 types of amino acid. tRNA synthetases and the genetic code appear to be linked together by mutual evolution. The evolving transition to a nucleic code would support a greater variety of amino acids and proteins, and thus complete the creation of life.
Category: Biochemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[27] viXra:1708.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 07:35:07

Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory

Authors: Edward J Steele
Comments: 13 Pages.

The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
Category: Biochemistry

[26] viXra:1708.0242 [pdf] replaced on 2017-08-21 04:47:39

Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory

Authors: Reverse Transcriptase Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation: Sixty years of Clonal Selection Theory
Comments: 13 Pages.

The evidence for the reverse transcriptase mechanism of somatic hypermutation is substantial. In this 60th anniversary year of the publication of Burnet's Clonal Selection Theory the evidence is briefly reviewed and updated.
Category: Biochemistry

[25] viXra:1702.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-01 15:44:58

Mechanism of Somatic Hypermutation in Immunity and Cancer: Critical Analysis of "DNA Editing in Dna/rna Hybrids by Adenosine Deaminases that Act on RNA" by Zheng y, Lorenzo C and Beal pa (2017) Nucl Acids Research 2017 in Press Doi: 10.1093/nar/gkx050

Authors: Edward J Steele, Robyn A Lindley
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper simply links the findings of Zheng, Lorenzo and Beal (2017) to our previous work on strand biased and codon-context mutation signatures in B lymphocytes (Ig SHM) and codon-contexted exome-wide point mutation patterns in cancer genomes. We conclude that in vivo the A-to-I DNA editing component at RNA: DNA hybrids occurring in Transcription Bubbles, while important, is of far lower A-to-I editing efficiency than in dsRNA substrates (as shown in Zheng et al 2017). The extreme strand biased mutation patterns documented by us in vivo should be logically rationalized by the predicted sequential steps of the RNA/RT-based mechanism.
Category: Biochemistry

[24] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-21 14:25:03

Wonderful Agricultural Powring Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC)

Authors: Taha Abdelsallm Ashraf, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Egypt is in the throes of an energy crisis. Both rising demand and falling gas (and oil) output have in recent years transformed the country from exporter to importer of both, a shift that poses a substantial threat to its economy [26]. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget. As a result, the government is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing Egypt in this field. “Plant microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[23] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-28 14:23:34

Plant-Microbial Fuel cell

Authors: Taha Abdelsalam Ashraf Taha, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Once an exporter of oil and gas, the whole world is now struggling to meet its own needs. The growth in energy consumption is a response to the the countries’ economic expansion, industrialization, and change in people’s life style. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget in each country especially those in Africa. As a result, the world is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing the world in this field. “Plant-microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[22] viXra:1604.0025 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-06 12:23:49

Triosephosphate Isomerase (Tpi) a Dimeric Glycolytic Enzyme as a Model of Tim-Barrel Active-Site Structural and Chemical Aspects in the Monomer Loop Region's Reversible Catalytic Reaction.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 12 Pages.

The K13M mutations involvement in the human triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene family...P60174
Category: Biochemistry

[21] viXra:1407.0049 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-08 01:58:49

The Whole Clear Picture of the Discovered Host Immunological Pathways

Authors: Wanchung Hu
Comments: 7 Pages.

The host immunological pathways are re-organized to get a clear picture. There are four acute immune responses: TH1/TH2/TH22/THαβ which are corresponding to four chronic immune responses: THfh/TH9/TH17/TH3. Then, the four branches of immune reactions can link to four types of hypersensitivities or allergies. Another inhibitory pathway Treg secreting TGF beta is the key player to shift the above acute immune responses to chronic immune responses for generating milder cytokines and other immune mediators to avoid severe destruction of organ during chronic and large scale of pathogen infection of tissue-organ. This 4x2+1 is the new paradigm of host immunological pathways.
Category: Biochemistry

[20] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-13 15:56:03

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 33 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza A and B, and many unrelated viruses including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, metapneumovirus and coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the abundant scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical, and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, as well as studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that ambient temperature dips and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible mechanisms, M1 – 4, that can explain this link; M1: increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; M2: lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; M3: chilling may increase host susceptibility; M4: lower temperatures or host chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for M1 or M2, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations. M3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the repeated simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with M4, but not M3 (at least not in its simple form). M4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory virus strains, and the frequent recovery of ts mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that M4 is the main driver of seasonality, but M3 may also play an important role.
Category: Biochemistry

[19] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-08 09:01:05

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 36 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the abundant scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, as well as studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that ambient temperature dips and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible mechanisms that can explain this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) chilling may increase host susceptibility; (4) lower temperatures or host chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two mechanisms, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Mechanism 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the repeated simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with mechanism 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Mechanism 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of ts mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that mechanism 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but mechansism 3 may also play an important role.
Category: Biochemistry

[18] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-23 15:39:48

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 34 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[17] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-07 13:35:29

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 34 Pages. Key index phrases: Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus etc. share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections, because seasonality may be a consequence of natural temperature sensitivity, which is (presumably) essential to viral tropism. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-26 15:18:09

Seasonality and Selective Trends in Viral Acute Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 33 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Abstract Influenza and many unrelated viruses, including rhinovirus, RSV, adenovirus, coronavirus etc. share the same seasonality, since these viral acute respiratory tract infections (vARIs) are much more common in winter than summer. The lack of a viable explanation is a major problem for microbiology. Unfortunately, early investigations that used recycled “pedigree” virus strains seem to have led microbiologists to dismiss the common folk belief that vARIs often follow chilling, together with the scientific evidence that supports this idea. Today, incontrovertible evidence from polar, tropical and island-based studies, PCR-based surveys, and studies of the effects of outdoor dress and activities, shows that low ambient temperature and host chilling increase the incidence and severity of vARIs. This review considers four possible explanations of this link: (1) increased crowding in winter may enhance viral transmission; (2) lower temperatures may increase the stability of virions outside the body; (3) lower temperatures may increase host susceptibility; (4) chilling may activate dormant virions. There is little evidence for the first two explanations, the second of which is incompatible with tropical observations of vARIs. Explanation 3 is supported by a recent study that found that the immune response of chilled mouse airway cells was diminished. However, tropical observations and epidemiological anomalies such as the simultaneous arrival of vARIs over wide geographical areas, the rapid cessation of influenza epidemics in midwinter, and the low attack rate of influenza within families are compatible with explanation 4, but not 3 (at least not in its simple form). Explanation 4 is also compatible the natural temperature sensitivity of many wild and laboratory strains, and the frequent recovery of temperature-sensitive mutants from persistent infections. The evidence suggests that explanation 4 is the main driver of seasonality, but explanation 3 may also have an important role in seasonality.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2015-01-04 04:35:25

A Survey of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 22 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs), which often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling have often been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have been underestimated, that influenza virus may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-25 13:46:51

A Survey of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 21 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, temperature sensitivity, seasonality of the common cold, influenza seasonality, epidemiology of viruses.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested (refs?)/I suggest that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1406.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:10:35

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1404.0112 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-04 15:47:54

Gluathione Peroxidase (GSH-Px1-GPX1) a Extracellular Selenoenzyme Expression Modulates Xenobiotic Metabolising Enzymes.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 3 Pages. Corrected syntax in several sentences to translate the subject adequately into English by the addition of several requisite words in relation to or dependent on the phrase, and changed an image (figure 4).

GPx1 is a small pericentric inversion, incorporating the co-translational selenocysteine which may be unique to the insertion sequence elements as between GPX1 and the glutathione peroxidase content, and components system defense at the active GPX site.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-23 15:21:05

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. [These “pedigree” strains were established by collecting nasal secretions from volunteers with colds, and inoculating subsequent batches of volunteers with the secretions.] Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-07 13:39:17

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. [These “pedigree” strains were established by collecting nasal secretions from volunteers with colds, and inoculating subsequent batches of volunteers with the secretions.] Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-10-25 13:43:20

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 41 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. Many or most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) and it has been suggested (refs?)/I suggest that this prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost very rapidly in laboratory cultures. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains. Clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling may therefore have been overlooked. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneously-generated temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at a low temperature (33°C) in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-09-28 15:48:51

An Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 40 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Abstract Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity seems to be finely balanced, and to be continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be lost rapidly in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost some of their natural temperature-sensitivity. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, that influenza A and B may be shed by asymptomatic patients who have not seroconverted, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-28 13:30:52

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-10 14:02:39

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 38 Pages. Key index phrases: respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds and influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1310.0166 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-08 21:33:04

Bugs and Chills: an Exploration of Selective Trends and Seasonality in Viral Respiratory Tract Infections

Authors: Patrick D. Shaw Stewart
Comments: 47 Pages. Key index phrases Respiratory tract infections, viral infections, temperature changes, influenza seasonality, viral epidemiology.

Current explanations of the seasonality of colds influenza are incompatible with observations of the incidence of these diseases in the tropics. I suggest that most wild respiratory viruses possess temperature sensitivity (with less activity at higher temperatures) that prevents them from moving down the respiratory tract and infecting the lungs and internal organs of birds and mammals. This reduces the likelihood of death or immobilization of the host, which would reduce transmission of the virus. [Referees, I’m sure this is not a completely new idea; can you help me with references – thx!] This temperature sensitivity is finely balanced, and continuously adjusted by natural selection, but it may be rapidly lost in the conditions typically used for the propagation of laboratory viruses. Nevertheless, many biochemical studies show decreased viral activity at elevated temperatures. Overdue weight seems to have been given to early volunteer investigations into viral respiratory tract infections (VRTIs) that often used recycled viral strains that might have accidentally lost their natural temperature-sensitive character. This may have reduced scientific interest in clear-cut evidence that outbreaks of VRTIs are closely (and inversely) correlated with ambient temperature, and that individuals are more likely to develop VRTIs after chilling. In the laboratory, the following unexpected observations need to be explained: (1) persistent viral infections of cell cultures often yield spontaneous temperature-sensitive (ts) viral strains, and, (2) on at least two occasions, temperature-sensitivity was lost when ts influenza A strains were incubated at 33°C in conditions that allowed rapid replication. In this review I note that diverse viral species cause very similar VRTIs, that the incubation periods of VRTIs have frequently been underestimated, and that colds and influenza often infect only a subset of the susceptible individuals who are exposed to them. Mechanisms where temperature fluctuations can increase viral replication and transmission are considered, and explanations of VRTI seasonality in both temperate and tropical regions are discussed.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1309.0067 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-13 00:31:00

Intra and Interchromosomal Interactions of Point Mutations Occurring in the Vicinity of the Normal 5-and 3 Ends Via Low and High O(2)-Affinities on the Beta-Globin Complex.

Authors: Mark R. Brenneman
Comments: 4 Pages. 5 cartoons with description required the article fis a retrospective report.

Comparison's of the normal 5-and 3 ends that contributes to the abnormal expression, or as RNA stability, maturation and transcriptional termination both in cis and in trans intra-(genic SNPs) and interchromosomal interactions of point mutations occurring in the vicinity of the beta-globin complex coincidental of site mutants that are turned on and off ( H3 acetylation-(H4/R3* in the R state having T/R** low and high O(2)-affinities)-K4 demethylation), the mechanism subunits assembly composed of two α-hemoglobin chains and two β-hemoglobin chains with two alleles with both intron and exon 1 and 2 denoted.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:1010.0001 [pdf] replaced on 10 Nov 2010

The Ecopoesis Model: Did Free Oxygen Fuel the Origin of Life?

Authors: Raul A. Félix de Sousa
Comments: 39 pages. KEYWORDS: origin of life, geochemical cycles, biogenic elements, oxygen, palaeoatmosphere, homochirality

A model for biopoesis is proposed where a complex, dynamic ecosphere, characterised by steep redox potentials, precedes and conditions the gradual formation of organismal life. A flow of electrons across the Archean hydrosphere, proceeding from the reducing constituents of the lithosphere and pumped by the photolytic production of oxygen in the Earth's atmosphere is the central feature of this protobiological environment. The available range of electrochemical potentials allows for the geochemical cycling of biogenic elements. In the case of carbon, carboxylation and decarboxylation reactions are essential steps, as in today's organisms. Geochemical evidence for high levels of carbon dioxide in the Earth's early atmosphere and the biological relevance of carboxylations are the basis for a hypercarbonic conception of the primitive metabolic pathways. Conversion of prochiral chemical species into chiral molecules, inherent to hypercarbonic transformations, suggests a mechanistic method for the generation of homochirality through propagation. The solubility of oxygen in lipid materials points to an aerobic course for the evolution of cellularity.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 28 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:1001.0018 [pdf] replaced on 23 Jan 2010

Non-Commutative Theory of Nonequilibrium Reveals Cantor Triadic Set in a Rich Ensemble of Coalescing Distributions

Authors: Jérôme Chauvet
Comments: 24 pages. Keywords: nonequilibrium, non-commutativity, chronon, Planck's time, Cantor set, Poisson process, coalescence, nuclear magnetic resonance

Mathematics of non-commutative spaces is a rapidly growing research field, which has to date found convincing proof of its legitimacy in the nature, precisely, in quantum systems. In this paper, I evaluate the extension of fundamental non-commutativity to the theory of chemical equilibrium in reactions, of which little is known about its phenomenological implication. To do so, I assume time to be fundamentally discrete, with time values taken at integer multiples of a time quantum, or chronon. By integrating chemical ordinary differential equations (ODE) over the latter, two non-commutative maps are derived. The first map allows excluding some hypothetical link between chemical Poisson process and uncertainty due to non-commutativity, while the second map shows that, in first-order reversible schemes, orbits generate a rich collection of non-equilibrium statistics, some of which have their support close to the Cantor triadic set, a feature never reported for the Poisson process alone. This study points out the need for upgrading the current chemical reaction theory with noncommutativity-dependent properties.
Category: Biochemistry