Biochemistry

1607 Submissions

[17] viXra:1607.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:21:15

Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic and Physicochemical Properties of P-Nitroaniline

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Para nitroaniline (p-Nitroaniline) is an organic compound, used as an intermediate in the synthesis of pharmaceuticals drugs, gasoline and dyes. The present study was attempted to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on p-nitroaniline. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated samples of p-nitroaniline were characterized using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, Ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy, high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). FT-IR spectral analysis result suggested the alteration in wavenumber of some groups with respect to control. For instance, the C=C and C-C stretching were observed at 1570 cm-1 and 1430 cm-1, respectively in control sample that were shifted to 1585 cm-1 and 1445 cm-1, respectively after biofield treatment. UV spectral analysis revealed the similar pattern of absorbance maxima (λmax) in both control and treated samples. HPLC data showed an alteration in the retention time of p-nitroaniline peak in treated sample (3.25 min) with respect to control (2.75 min). GC-MS results showed a significant change in the isotopic abundance (δ) of 13C and 18O in treated sample as compared to control. DSC data showed that latent heat of fusion (∆H) of treated p-nitroaniline was substantially decreased by 10.66% as compared to control. However, the melting point remained same in both control and treated sample of p-nitroaniline. Overall, results obtained from different analytical techniques such as FT-IR, HPLC, GC-MS, and DSC suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral, physical and thermal properties of p-nitroaniline with respect to control sample.
Category: Biochemistry

[16] viXra:1607.0493 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:12:33

Phenotyping and 16S Rdna Analysis After Biofield Treatment on Citrobacter Braakii: a Urinary Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Citrobacter braakii (C. braakii) is widespread in nature, mainly found in human urinary tract. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, and biotype number. Lyophilized vial of ATCC strain of C. braakii was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analysed on day 10 while Gr. IIB was stored and analysed on day 159 (Study I). After retreatment on day 159, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was analysed on day 5, 10 and 15, respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of C. braakii with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed 39.29% and 15.63% alteration respectively in treated cells of C. braakii as compared to control. Tetracycline showed improved sensitivity pattern, i.e., from resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with support of decreased MIC value (>8 to ≤ 4 µg/mL) by two-fold in all the treated samples as compared to the control. Biochemical reactions also showed significant (42.42%) alteration in the treated samples with respect to the control. Biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (53131052, Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and in Gr. IIB, Study I (53111052; Citrobacter amalonaticus) on day 159 as compared to the control (77365776; Citrobacter braakii). Moreover, biotype numbers with species were substantially changed in Gr. IIB, Study II after retreatment on day 5 (53111042, Citrobacter amalonaticus) and (53131052; Citrobacter freundii complex) on day 10 and 15 as compared to the control. 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified microbe as Citrobacter freundii (GenBank Accession Number: DQ517285) with 95% identity. The nearest homolog genus-species of C. braakii was found to be Citrobacter werkmanii (Accession No. AF025373). The results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on C. braakii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[15] viXra:1607.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:00:55

Evaluation of Antibiogram, Genotype and Phylogenetic Analysis of Biofield Treated Nocardia Otitidis

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nocardiosis is a soil-borne aerobic infection caused by Nocardia species commonly affects the respiratory tract. Nocardia otitidis (N. otitidis) is the key organism for non-mycobacterial tuberculosis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on N. otitidis and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing. The strain of N. otitidis (ATCC 14630) was divided into two parts, control and treated. Antimicrobial susceptibility was studied using the broth microdilution technique. Overall, the MIC values of 16.67% antimicrobials were changed in the treated group of N. otitidis as compared to the control. Moreover, MIC value of trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole was reduced by two-fold (0.5/9.5 to 0.25/4.75 µg/mL) in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control without alteration in the sensitivity spectrum. The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the treated sample was detected as Enterobacter aerogenes strain NCTC10006T (GenBank Accession No: AJ251468) with 98% identity of gene sequencing data. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession No: AM184245). Using RAPD biomarkers, the sample showed an average range of 34 to 53% of polymorphism among treated samples as compared to the control. The 16S rDNA sequencing of treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of N. otitidis with other bacterial species. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on N. otitidis.
Category: Biochemistry

[14] viXra:1607.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 00:05:56

Antibiogram, Biochemical Reactions and Genotyping Characterization of Biofield Treated Staphylococcus Aureus

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is the key organism for food poisoning due to massive production of heat stable exotoxins. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on S. aureus. S. aureus (ATCC 25923) was divided into two parts, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treatment. After biofield treatment, Gr. II was further subdivided into two parts, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 159 after revival (Study I). The revived sample (Gr. IIB) were retreated on day 159 (Study II), and divided into three separate tubes. Tube 1 was analyzed on day 5, likewise, tube 2 and 3 were analyzed on day 10 and 15, respectively. All the experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out in Gr. IIA sample to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of S. aureus with other bacterial species. The antimicrobial susceptibility and minimum inhibitory concentration showed significant alteration i.e. 92.86% and 90.00% respectively in treated cells of S. aureus as compared to control. The biochemical reactions also showed the significant (35.71%) alteration in treated sample with respect to control. The biotype number and microbial species were substantially changed in Gr. IIA (767177; Staphylococcus cohnii subsp. urealyticum) on day 10, while only the biotype numbers were changed in rest of the treated samples as compared to control (307016; S. aureus). The 16S rDNA analysis showed that the identified strain in this experiment was S. aureus (GenBank Accession No.: L37597) after biofield treatment. However, the nearest homolog genus-species was found as Staphylococcus simiae (GenBank Accession No.: DQ127902). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on S. aureus in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[13] viXra:1607.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:18:06

Assessment of Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Enterobacter Aerogenes After Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been reported as the versatile opportunistic pathogen associated with the hospital infections worldwide. The aim of the study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. aerogenes. The MDR isolates of E. aerogenes (i.e., LS 45 and LS 54) were divided into two groups, i.e., control and treated. Samples were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study, and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system, on day 10 after the biofield treatment. The antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 14.28% alteration out of twenty eight tested antimicrobials with respect to the control. The cefotetan sensitivity changed from intermediate (I) to inducible β-lactamase (IB), while piperacillin/tazobactam changed from resistant to IB in the treated LS 45. Improved sensitivity was reported in tetracycline, i.e., from I to susceptible (S) in LS 45, while chloramphenicol and tetracycline sensitivity changed from R to I in treated LS 54. Four-fold decrease in MIC value was reported in piperacillin/tazobactam, and two-fold decrease in cefotetan and tetracycline in the biofield treated LS 45 as compared to the control. MIC results showed an overall decreased MIC values in 12.50% tested antimicrobials such as chloramphenicol (16 µg/mL) and tetracycline (8 µg/mL) in LS 54. The biochemical study showed an overall 45.45% negative reaction in the tested biochemical in both the treated isolates as compared to the control. A change in biotype number was reported in MDR isolates (LS 45 and LS 54), while in LS 54, altered biotype number, i.e., 0406 0374 as compared to the control (7770 4376), with identification of the new species as Stenotrophomonas maltophilia with brown color as special characteristic. The study findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on clinical MDR isolates of E. aerogenes has the significant effect on altering the sensitivity of antimicrobials, decreasing the MIC values, changed biochemical reactions, and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[12] viXra:1607.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 23:20:53

Antibiogram Typing of Biofield Treated Multidrug Resistant Strains of Staphylococcus Species

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Antimicrobial resistance is a global health issue in the developing countries. This study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on multidrug resistant (MDR) clinical lab isolates (LSs) of Staphylococcus species viz. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (LS 18), Staphylococcus epidermidis (LS 21), and Staphylococcus aureus (LS 30). Each strain was divided into the two groups i.e. control and treated. The control and treated groups were analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical analysis and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with the control group. The sensitivity of erythromycin was improved from resistant to susceptible, while levofloxacin sensitivity was also improved from intermediate to susceptible in LS 21 isolate. The MIC results showed a decrease in the concentrations of ceftriaxone, erythromycin, imipenem, and levofloxacin antimicrobials in LS 21 as compared to the control. Linezolid and vancomycin also showed decrease in MIC as compared to the control in LS 30. Overall, 20.69% antimicrobials showed decrease in MIC value out of the tested twenty-nine after biofield treatment in Staphylococcus species. The biochemical study showed a 25% alteration in biochemical reactions as compared to the control. A significant change was reported in biotype numbers for all the three strains of MDR Staphylococcus species after biofield treatment as compared to the respective control group. On the basis of changed biotype number (306366) after biofield treatment in LS 18, the new organism was identified as Staphylococcus simulans with respect to the control species i.e. Staphylococcus haemolyticus (302302). The control group of S. epidermidis and S. aureus showed biotype number as 303064 and 757153 respectively. After biofield treatment, LS 21 and LS 30 isolates showed altered biotype number as 307064 and 317153 respectively. Overall, results conclude that biofield treatment could be used as complementary and alternative treatment strategy against multidrug resistant strains of Staphylococcus species with improved sensitivity and reduced MIC values of antimicrobial.
Category: Biochemistry

[11] viXra:1607.0380 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-21 14:25:03

Wonderful Agricultural Powring Using Plant Microbial Fuel Cell (P-MFC)

Authors: Taha Abdelsallm Ashraf, Ayman Sayed Abdulrahman
Comments: 7 Pages.

Egypt is in the throes of an energy crisis. Both rising demand and falling gas (and oil) output have in recent years transformed the country from exporter to importer of both, a shift that poses a substantial threat to its economy [26]. Although all energy forms have been subjected to high growth, electricity consumption has increased substantially causing serious concerns over the power sector’s fuel mix, heavier reliance on fuel oil, and an unaffordable burden on the government budget. As a result, the government is determined to diversify the energy mix and to improve the efficiency of electricity consumption. It has also recognized that energy diversification and efficiency can impart other benefits such as cleaner environment, transfer of advanced technologies, and possible new areas of manufacturing and services. So the solution for this problem must be efficient, economic, sustainable and eco-friendly to overcome most of the troubles facing Egypt in this field. “Plant microbial fuel cell” is believed to be the ideal solution for the energy issue that can fit the previously mentioned requirements so we develop the anode and the cathode in the MFC and we found new material for making the proton exchange membrane which is “Nylon” so we made prototype for this idea and to make test plan on it to know its efficiency and its cost. And we get better results than we expected.
Category: Biochemistry

[10] viXra:1607.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:13:56

Antibiogram Pattern of Shigella Flexneri: Effect of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Shigellosis is a major public health burden in India and its neighboring countries due to infection of Shigella species. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on Shigella flexneri (S. flexneri) with respect of antimicrobial susceptibility assay, biochemical characteristics and biotyping. The American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 9199) strain of S. flexneri was used in this experiment. The study was conducted in revived and lyophilized state of S. flexneri. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strain of S. flexneri were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10, while Gr. III on day 10 after biofield treatment with respect to control (Gr. I). The antimicrobial susceptibility of S. flexneri showed 35% alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) values of biofield treated S. flexneri also showed significant (46.88%) alteration in Gr. II on day 10 while no alteration were observed on day 5 (Gr. II) and in Gr. III as compared to control. It was observed that overall 24.24% biochemical reactions were altered in which 21.21% alteration was found in Gr. II on day 10 with respect to control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II on day 10 with identification of new organism i.e. Edwardsiella tarda (40015042) as compared to untreated strain of Shigella species (40010000). The result suggested that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. flexneri in revived treated cells (Gr. II) on day 10 with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping.
Category: Biochemistry

[9] viXra:1607.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-17 23:16:47

Effect of Biofield Energy Treatment on Streptococcus group B: A Postpartum Pathogen

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Streptococcus agalactiae group B (S. agalactiae gr. B) is widespread in nature mainly causes bacterial septicemia and neonatal meningitis. The current study was attempted to investigate the effect of biofield treatment on S. agalactiae gr. B with respect of antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and bio typing. S. agalactiae gr. B strain was used in this experiment bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 12386) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocol. The revived and lyophilized state of ATCC strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were selected for the study. Gr. I was considered as control. Both revived (Group; Gr. II) and lyophilized (Gr. III) strains of S. agalactiae gr. B were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Gr. II was assessed on day 5 and day 10 while Gr. III on day 10 with respect to the control (Gr. I) using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Although biofield treatment did not show any change with respect to susceptibility pattern. However the minimum inhibitory concentration of S. agalactiae gr. B showed significant (70.37%) alteration, out of twenty-seven tested antimicrobials, among which in Gr. II i.e. 62.96% on day 5 and 66.67% on day 10 while no alteration was found in lyophilized group (Gr. III) as compared to the control. Moreover, the improvement of MIC value of norfloxacin was observed by two-fold (8 to ≤4 µg/mL) in Gr. II on day 10 after biofield energy treatment as compared to the control. It was observed that overall 48.28% biochemical reactions, out of twenty-nine were altered in Gr. II with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype numbers were changed in Gr. II on day 5 (777777615) and on day 10 (757677405) as compared to the control (237147047). The results suggest that biofield treatment has significant impact on S. agalactiae gr. B in revived treated cells (Gr. II) with respect to MIC values, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number.
Category: Biochemistry

[8] viXra:1607.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:09:35

In Vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Enterobacter Cloacae: Impact on Antimicrobial Susceptibility and Biotype

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

This research work investigated the influence of biofield treatment on Enterobacter cloacae (ATCC 13047) against antimicrobial susceptibility. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. ATCC A sample was revived and divided into two parts Gr. I (control) and Gr. II (revived); likewise, ATCC B was labeled as Gr. III (lyophilized). Group II and III were given with biofield treatment. The control and treatment groups of E. cloacae cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number. The result showed significant decrease in the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of aztreonam and ceftazidime (≤ 8 µg/mL), as compared to control group (≥ 16 µg/mL). It was observed that 9% reaction was altered in the treated groups with respect to control out of the 33 biochemical reactions. Moreover, biotype number of this organism was substantially changed in group II (7731 7376) and group III (7710 3176) on day 10 as compared to control (7710 3376). The result suggested that biofield treatment had an impact on E. cloacae with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, alteration of biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Biochemistry

[7] viXra:1607.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 23:11:49

The Potential Impact of Biofield Treatment on Human Brain Tumor Cells: A Time-Lapse Video Microscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 4 Pages.

Study background: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most common subtype of primary brain tumor in adults. The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment potential on human GBM and non-GBM brain cells using two time-lapse video microscopy technique. Methods: The human brain tumor, GBM cultured cells were divided into two groups viz. GBM control and GBM treatment. Similarly, human normal brain cultured cells (non-GBM) were taken and divided into two groups viz. nonGBM control and non-GBM treatment. The GBM and non-GBM treatment groups were given Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment for the assessment of its potential. Two time-lapse (10 hours prior; 10 hours after) video microscopy experiment was performed on tumor and non-tumor brain cells in six replicate (n=6). For each microscopic field, the total cell number was counted and each cell was tracked over the 20 hours period. The potential impact of biofield treatment was assessed by comparing cell death rate in both GBM and non-GBM cells before and after biofield treatment. Results: GBM control cells showed a basal level of cell death 10 hours prior and 10 hours after the biofield treatment, and the rate remained unchanged over the 20 hours period, while in treatment group of GBM, cell death rate was exponentially increased (41%) after biofield treatment as compared to control. The treated non-GBM cultured cells showed a significant reduction (64%) of cell death rate i.e. protective effects as compared to non-GBM control. Conclusion: Altogether, data suggests that biofield treatment has significantly increased the cell death rate of treated GBM cells and simultaneously boost the viability of normal brain cells. Therefore, biofield treatment could be a suitable alternate treatment strategy for cancer patients in near future.
Category: Biochemistry

[6] viXra:1607.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 08:38:47

Abiotic Polymerization of Nucleotides

Authors: Alexey I. Balabin
Comments: 407 Pages. Russian

The book concerns itself with a novel process of mononucleotide assembly into double-stranded polymers. This process, which I call stamping, can be organized either as synthesis of a random double-stranded polynucleotide from mononucleotides or as a reaction of copying a polynucleotide (replication of the DNA or RNA, transcription or reverse transcription). Stamping proceeds in five stages; its crucial step takes place on certain prism faces of apatite crystals. Nucleotides insert their phosphate groups into the positions of PO4 tetrahedra of the crystal lattice, and thereupon condensation of adjacent nucleotides takes place. Inherent in stamping is the constraint that certain bond lengths in the synthesized polymer be equal to certain interatomic distances P–P in the crystal, so that the width and length of each nucleotide pair are fixed. Geometric regularity of the synthesized polymer imparts a regularity to its bond structure—all nucleotides are joined with 3’,5’ phosphodiester linkages (and none with 2’,5’), and all base pairs are the same Watson-Crick type. Because of the geometric constraints, double-stranded RNA molecules could emerge via stamping from a primordial soup circumventing the combinatorial explosion issue (the multitude of nucleotide-type molecules present in the soup had different geometries hence could not join into the polymer). Furthermore, involvement of the crystal surface imparts stereoselectivity to stamping. Synthesis of a polynucleotide from a racemic mixture of the four possible types of nucleotides (L- and D- enantiomers, α- and β-anomers) will result in formation of four types of macromolecules, each consisting predominantly of similar nucleotides (α-L, α-D, β-L or β-D). Though stamping is a hypothetical process, its different stages have been carried out in practice separately. Outlining conditions, at which stamping can be implemented as a whole, constitutes the subject of the main part of the monograph. Remarkably, such conditions have been found, and ways to carry out polynucleotide copying (without enzymes) have been outlined, based upon the data available on apatite surface chemistry, apatite crystal chemistry, physical chemistry of nucleic acids along with certain results from enzymology. In a separate chapter a scenario is proposed for the early history of life, built on the assumption that life originated via stamping and that inheritance relied on stamping apatite crystals, first non-biogenic, supplied by hydrothermal vents, then biogenic ones, until the emergence of bona fide polymerases. This hypothesis clarifies the roles played by group I introns in the ancient world, explains how modern polymerases could emerge in the course of miniaturization of the apatite crystals, the ribozymes involved being replaced with enzymes one by one. (The catalytic center of the modern polymerase in its active state, the phosphate group positioned between two metal atoms, is nothing else then a fragment of the apatite structure.) Combining the idea of stamping with the available phylogenetic data, the Archaea come out as descendants of the organisms whose life cycle was based upon RNA replication, whereas the ancestors of Bacteria appear to be the “inventors” of DNA, whose life cycle was based on transcription alternated with reverse transcription. Drawing an analogy between introns and transposons, the latter appear to be likely descendents of single-stranded catalytically active forms of mobile DNA. The origin of translation can be explained next as a spin-off from stamping performed at elevated hydrostatic pressures. A model for the origin of Eukaryotes can also be proposed as further development of these ideas, accounting for their phylogenetic traits, meiosis, spliceosomal introns and inteins, mechanisms of intron mobility (the homing endonuclease, retrohoming), acidocalciosomes, links between transposons and regulatory sequences of genes, domesticated transposases (including convergent domestication), the nuclear membrane, emergence of the double-stranded DNA, mobilization of double-stranded transposons, gene migration from mitochondria, plastids and nucleomorphs into the nucleus, epigenetic regulation of gene expression, multicellularity. Also explained are nuclear dimorphism in the ciliates, genome rearrangements in their macronuclei and some other phenomena.
Category: Biochemistry

[5] viXra:1607.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:12:01

Characterization of Phenotype and Genotype of Biofield Treated Enterobacter Aerogenes

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Enterobacter aerogenes (E. aerogenes) has been commonly described as a versatile opportunistic pathogen in hospital infections. The aim of the present work was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on E. aerogenes for its phenotypic and genotypic characteristics. E. aerogenes bearing ATCC 13048 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment and analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. In addition, treated group of E. aerogenes was evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) and 16S rDNA sequencing to establish the phylogenetic relationship of E. aerogenes with different closely related bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an alteration of 14.28% among twenty-eight tested antimicrobials. Similarly, 15.65% tested antimicrobials showed an alteration in MIC values. Chloramphenicol showed improved sensitivity i.e. resistant to susceptible after biofield treatment, with the support of decreased MIC by two folds (i.e. >16 to ≤8 µg/mL). Norfloxacin also showed decrease MIC by two folds (i.e. 8 to ≤4 µg/mL) as compared to control. Biofield treatment showed an impact on biochemical reactions (9.09%) followed by a change in biotype number (7770 5272) in treated group with respect to control (7770 5372). Using RAPD analysis, sample showed an average range of 4 to 42% of polymorphism, while 16S rDNA study showed that treated sample was detected as Kluyvera cryocrescens (GenBank Accession Number: AM184245) with 97% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to Enterobacter aerogenes strain: C1111 (Accession No. AB244467). These results suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment can alter the antimicrobial sensitivity pattern, thus it can be used as alternate energy medicine in future.
Category: Biochemistry

[4] viXra:1607.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 23:29:49

Antibiogram and Genotypic Analysis Using 16S Rdna After Biofield Treatment on Morganella Morganii

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Morganella morganii (M. morganii) is one of the important nosocomial pathogen associated with the urinary tract infections and bacteremia. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on M. morganii in the lyophilized as well as revived state for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, biochemical characteristics, biotype number and genotype. M. morganii cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 25829) number and stored according to the recommended storage protocols until needed for experiments. M. morganii strain was divided into two groups, Group (Gr.) I: control and Gr. II: treated. Gr. II was further subdivided into two groups, Gr. IIA and Gr. IIB. Gr. IIA was analyzed on day 10, while Gr. IIB was stored and analyzed on day 142 (Study I). After retreatment on day 142, the sample (Study II) was divided into three separate tubes. First, second and third tube was further analyzed on day 5, 10 and 15 respectively. All experimental parameters were studied using the automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing of lyophilized treated sample was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of M. morganii with other bacterial species. Antimicrobial susceptibility results showed 32.14% alterations, while minimum inhibitory concentration results showed 18.75% alterations of the tested antimicrobials. Biochemical study also showed altered positive reactions in nitrofurantoin and indole with respect to control. Biotype study showed alteration in Gr. IIB, study II, on day 15 (4005 1446) as compared to the control (4004 1446). 16S rDNA sequencing analysis showed similar results with the identified microbe as M. morganii (GenBank accession number: AB210972) having 80% identity of the gene sequencing data. Total 1507 base nucleotide of 16S rDNA gene sequences were analyzed by multiple alignments, while nearest homolog genus-species of M. morganii was found as Providencia rettgeri (accession number: AM040492). These results suggested that biofield treatment has a significant impact on M. morganii in lyophilized as well as revived state.
Category: Biochemistry

[3] viXra:1607.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:30:48

Evaluation of Phenotyping and Genotyping Characterization of Serratia Marcescens After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Serratia marcescens (S. marcescens) is Gram-negative bacterium, associated with hospital-acquired infections (HAIs), especially urinary tract and wound infections. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on phenotyping and genotyping characteristics such as antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions, biotype, DNA polymorphism, and phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens (ATCC 13880). The lyophilized cells of S. marcescens were divided into three groups (G1, G2, and G3). Control group (G1) and treated groups (G2 and G3) of S. marcescens cells assessed with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, and biochemical reactions. In addition to that, samples from different groups of S. marcescens were evaluated for DNA polymorphism by Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD), and 16S rDNA sequencing in order to establish the phylogenetic relationship of S. marcescens with different bacterial species. The treated cells of S. marcescens showed an alteration of 10.34% and 34.48% antimicrobials in G2 and G3 on 10th day, respectively as compared to control. The significant changes of biochemical reactions were also observed in treated groups of S. marcescens. The RAPD data showed an average range of 16-49.2% of polymorphism in treated samples as compared to control. Based on nucleotide homology sequences and phylogenetic analysis, the nearest homolog genus-species was found to be Pseudomonas fluorescence. These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance to the useful antimicrobials against S. marcescens.
Category: Biochemistry

[2] viXra:1607.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-08 23:32:40

Characterization of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,4-Triazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Triazoles are an important class of compounds used as core molecule for the synthesis of many pharmaceutical drugs. The objective of the present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of 1,2,4-triazole. The study was performed in two groups, control and treatment. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 1,2,4-triazole were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermo Gravimetric analysis (TGA), Surface area analyzer, and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed a decrease in unit cell volume of treated 1,2,4-triazole (662.08 10-24 cm3 ) as compared to control sample (666.34 10-24 cm3 ). Similarly, a decrease in molecular weight of treated 1,2,4-triazole (69.78 g/mol) with respect to control (70.23 g/mol) was observed. Additionally, a substantial decrease in crystallite size (G) was observed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 16.34% with respect to control. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 1,2,4-triazole (124.22°C) as compared to control (123.76°C). Moreover, a significant increase in latent heat of fusion was noticed in treated 1,2,4-triazole by 21.16% as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed a significant increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 1,2,4-triazole (213.40°C) as compared to control (199.68°C). Surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial increase in surface area of the treated compound by 13.52% with respect to control. However, FT-IR analysis showed no structural changes in treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control. Overall, the result showed significant alteration of physical and thermal properties of the treated 1,2,4-triazole with respect to control.
Category: Biochemistry

[1] viXra:1607.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:34:34

Physical, Spectroscopic and Thermal Characterization of Biofield Treated Myristic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Myristic acid has been extensively used for fabrication of phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical and thermal properties of myristic acid. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated myristic acid were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Laser particle size analyzer. XRD results revealed alteration in intensity of peaks as well as significant increase in crystallite size (27.07%) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. DSC study showed increase in melting temperature of treated myristic acid as compared to control. Nevertheless, significant change (10.16%) in latent heat of fusion (∆H) was observed in treated myristic acid with respect to control. TGA analysis of treated myristic acid showed less weight loss (31.33%) as compared to control sample (60.49%). This may be due to increase in thermal stability of treated myristic acid in comparison with control. FT-IR results showed increase in frequency of –CH2 and C=O stretching vibrations, probably associated with enhanced bond strength and force constant of the respective bonds. The particle size analyzer showed significant decrease in average particle size (d50 and d99) of treated myristic acid with respect to control. Overall, the results showed significant alteration in physical, spectroscopic and thermal properties of myristic acid. The enhanced crystallite size, and thermal stability of treated myristic acid showed that treated myristic acid could be used as phase change material for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Biochemistry