Analytical methods comparison for the determination of packed cell volume(PCV) are essential in clinical laboratory practice as it improves the quality of health care through accurate and reliable clinical decision making from diagnostic results of suitable alternatives. Comparison is necessary because each method is expected to serve as a quality control measure for the other. This study was done to assess the analytical performance between the Microhematocrit and automated methods for PCV determination. In this study carried out at the heamatology laboratory of the Benue State University Teaching Hospital, Makurdi, Nigeria, the Microhematocrit method determined by using the HC 702, (ApelCo. Ltd, Korea) was compared with the Automated hematology Analyzer method (KX-21N sysmex, USA) using paired data of blood samples analyzed respectively from 206 patients in the hospital. Data analysis was performed using Analyse-it ® Version 4.6 method validation software. The results showed that similar overall mean values of PCV were obtained by both microhematocrit (34.5±7.3%) and automated (34.3±6.8%) methods. Result of t-test analysis was not statistically significant (p= 0.135) between the overall measurements by both methods.
Venous thromboembolism is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality especially in the elderly. Arrays of risk factors altering the blood flow, endothelial function and coagulability have been identified. However, the precise mechanisms that trigger clotting in major veins have not been fully elucidated. Activation of endothelial cells by hypoxia or inflammatory stimuli results in surface expression of adhesion molecules that facilitate the binding of circulating leukocytes and microvesicles. Subsequent leukocyte activation induces the release of potent procoagulant tissue factor that triggers thrombosis. Aging, immobility, smoking, surgery, OCP intake, cancer etc predispose to stasis, increased coagulation factor levels, impaired function of the venous valves, decreases in the efficacy of natural anticoagulants associated with the vessel wall, increased risk of immobilization and increased risk of severe infection. Prophylaxis is both mechanical and pharmacological with anticoagulation being the mainstay of treatment. Thus, better understanding the mechanisms of venous thrombosis may lead to the development of new therapeutic / preventive modalities. Recently, vitamin D, the sunshine hormone, has been in the limelight due to some experimental and epidemiological evidences showing its antithrombotic actions by various mechanisms. With emerging data about the potential association of vitamin D as an antithrombotic agent, our review has dissected the recent evidences of vitamin D having any beneficial effect on the markers of thrombosis or improvement among patients with deep vein thrombosis/pulmonary embolidm(DVT/PE).
Authors: Lavanya B
Comments: 1 Page.
Sickle Cell Disease (SCD) is a hereditary constant disorder.
Peoples with the disease turn out abnormal hemoglobin, a protein
in red blood cells affix to oxygen in the lungs and carries it to all
parts of the body. This irregular hemoglobin causes the red blood
cells to become inflexible and sickle- cell shaped, which causes
them to fix together and hunk the flow of blood and oxygen to
the body. The disease results from a single mutation in the gene
that codes one of the protein chains that make up the hemoglobin
molecule. Hemoglobin is the main constituent of red blood cells
and allows the cells to raise up oxygen from the lungs and drop it
off in tissues throughout the body, from the brain to the muscles.
The sickle alteration causes the red blood cells to make a tainted
version of the hemoglobin that forces the red cell into a sickle
shape when oxygen levels drop. The sickled red blood cells tangle
together, overcrowding blood vessels throughout the body and
causing severe pain and unfortunate health consequences.
Cytokines are important for playing a major role in several inflammatory reactions resulting in development of several diseases as well as Coal Worker’s Pneumoconiosis (CWP). Coal dust exposure stimulates inflammatory response leading to enhanced cytokine release from monocytes such as TNF-alpha and IL1. These released cytokines are the key points in the pathogenesis of CWP. The present study aimed to seek the cytokine gene profiles of Turkish coal workers by genotyping and phenotyping analysis of important CWP-related proinflammatory cytokines; TNF-alpha, IL1-alpha and IL1-beta. According to the genotyping results, TNFA –238 gene polymorphism was appeared to be a risk factor in development of CWP (OR=3.79) and regarding to the phenotyping analysis, both TNF-alpha and IL1 cytokine releases from the monocytes in CWP patients were enhanced significantly compared to the healthy workers. Therewithal, LPS and coal dust stimulated TNF-alpha release were higher significantly in allele 2 carriers than allele 1 carriers in both of the groups. These data propose that coal dust-induced TNF-alpha release from monocytes may be a valuable biomarker of CWP.
Following antigen stimulation, the net outcomes of a T cell response are shaped by integrated signals from both positive co-stimulatory and negative regulatory molecules. Recently, the blockade of negative regulatory molecules (i.e. immune checkpoint signals) demonstrates promising therapeutic effects in treatment of human cancers, but only in a fraction of cancer patients. Since this therapy is aimed to enhance T cell responses to cancers, here we devised a conceptual model by integrating both positive and negative signals in addition to antigen stimulation that can evaluate strategies to enhance T cell responses. A digital range of adjustment of each signal is formulated in our model for prediction of a final T cell response. Our model provides a rational combination strategy for maximizing the therapeutic effects of cancer immunotherapy.
AutoImmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) is a rare disease characterized by premature destruction of the red blood cells due to autoantibodies produced against erythrocyte antigens. Early destruction shortens the lifespan of the erythrocytes and causes anemia, the hallmark of the disease. It is a heterogeneous disease so the clinical presentation is diverse from a mild asymptomatic anemia to a refractory disease associated with mortality and morbidity. The different classifications are constituted to determine the prognosis and appropriate treatment strategy. It can be classified according the absence or presence of an underlying cause as primary or secondary. Another classification in AIHA is according to the type and thermal activity of the antibody as Cold Agglutinin Disease (CAD) or warm AIHA. In CAD, rituximab monotherapy or combinations is the treatment of choice. In the warm AIHA, the steroid should be preferred as a first line therapy. In the steroid refractory or relapsed patients, rituximab or splenectomy can be chosen according to the patient’s characteristics and the experience of the doctor. Since treatment mainly depends on the subtype of the disease differential diagnosis between the subtypes becomes important. This review will be focused on the classification and the treatment of AIHAs according to subtypes.
In this case report authors wanted to draw attention, to extraintestinal disorders of Crohn’s disease; an old disease known for more than a century, and to an emerging infectious pathogen Nocardia; a recently emphasized challanging species. A case of Crohn’s disease with complicated skin disorders, and acute compartment syndrome and cervical epidural abscess evolving due to Nocardia bacterium, has been discussed. The two medical entities, the Crohn’s disease with its extraintestinal involvements and nocardial infection with potential risk to cause disseminated infection especially in the immune compromised host, are the main subjects of this manuscript. In this respect, it is concluded that the patients with Crohn’s disease should be monitored closely for their extraintestinal involvements, and emerging and fastidious infections, so that the role of those infectious pathogens in the etiology of Crohn’s disease can be further investigated.
Chronic Lymphocytic Leukemia (CLL) is a clonal proliferation of B cells in bone marrow, lymph nodes, peripheral blood, spleen and other lymphoid tissues. CLL is mostly associated with dysregulated immune system. Intrinsic immune dysfunction results in increased frequency of autoimmune disorders and susceptibility to infections at the time of diagnosis or during course of the disease. Autoimmune cytopenias especially Autoimmune Hemolytic Anemia (AIHA) is observed frequently. AIHA is the most common immune cytopenia ranging between 5-10 % and it is followed by less frequent Immune Thrombocytopenia (IT) (1-5%). Autoimmune Neutropenia (AIN) and Pure Red Cell Aplasia (PRCA) are rare entities (<1%). In CLL patients, the differential diagnosis of autoimmune cytopenias is important since there are many confounding factors which may cause cytopenia in CLL patients such as infiltration of bone marrow by malignant cells, chemotherapy and infections. A careful diagnostic workup should be performed including history taking, physical examination, laboratory tests and bone marrow aspiration and biopsy. The treatment of AIHA and IT is similar to their counter parts primary AIHA and IT where the steroids are the treatment of choice. In PRCA, steroids are mostly ineffective and immunosuppressive agents should be tried. AIN is a very rare entity in CLL patients. Granulocyte stimulating factors, immunosuppressive therapies may be options in symptomatic patients.
The purpose was to systematically review the effect of platelet rich fibrin (PRF) in the treatment of Miller class I and II recession defects in comparison to conventional surgical procedures. Three electronic databases were searched, and hand search was performed for relevant articles, up to October 2015. All relevant articles were independently screened to specific inclusion criteria. Primary outcomes were Recession Depth (RD), Keratinized Tissue Width (KTW), and Percentage of Root Coverage (%RC). Secondary outcomes were Clinical Attachment Level (CAL), Probing Depth (PD), Healing Index (HI), and Pain. Ten randomized clinical trials met the inclusion criteria and seven were included in the meta-analysis. No statistically significant difference was found in %RC between Coronally Advanced Flap (CAF) and CAF + PRF or between CAF + Connective Tissue Graft (CAF + CTG) and CAF + PRF (p = 0.17 and p = 0.56) respectively. A borderline statistical difference was observed between CAF and CAF + PRF (p = 0.05), and no statistically significance difference between CAF + CTG and CAF + PRF (p = 0.23) in KTW. In regards to pain and healing, a significant reduction in pain during the first 5-7 days and faster healing observed in the PRF intervention when compared to the use of CTG or Enamel Matrix Derivative (EMD). In conclusion, there was no statistical or clinical difference present between PRF and CAF, CAF + CTG, or CAF + EMD for RD, %RC and KTW when treating Miller class I and II gingival recession. Significant improvement of postoperative pain and healing can be achieved, which may indicate PRF use as an alternative to conventional surgical approaches.
Authors: Svitlana Koval
Comments: 4 Pages.
The probable mechanism of the orthodontic relapse was described in the article. T-scan III occlusal analysis system was used to examine occlusal contacts in post-orthodontic patient according to the author’s protocol.
Saliva and dental biofilm of children with orthodontic treatment may be associated with high risk factors that increase incidence of caries development in this population.
Aim:To assess the dental biofilm and saliva biochemical composition of young fixed orthodontic patients.
Design:The sample comprised 64 participants between 12 to 18 years of age, of whom 32 had fixed orthodontic treatment as study group and 32 did not as a control group. Supragingival biofilm samples were collected from all teeth of all participants by using sterile curettes. The level of insoluble extracellular polysaccharide (IEPS)Calcium (Ca), and phosphorus (Pi) concentrations in dental biofilm was measured using phenol sulphuric acid colorimetric method. The estimated unstimulated salivary flow, pH, buffering capacity and count of Streptococcal Mutants were determined on selective media of all participants.
A tooth is said to be impacted when it is obstructed on its path of eruption with the most commonly impacted tooth being the third molar. Various factors have been reported to cause obstruction in the path of eruption of the third molar and these include adjacent tooth, bone as well as soft tissue. Lack of space in the dental arch for the third molar to emerge as well as pathological lesions, stunted growth of tooth germ following nutritional deficiency, irradiation and physical trauma have been implicated in the etiology of third molar impaction . There are varying reports regarding the prevalence of impacted third molars. Impacted third molars are more likely to occur in the mandible than in the maxilla [2,3].However, studies have consistently shown that mesioangular impaction is the most common angulations of impaction of mandibular third molars [1,2,4-6]. A few studies [4,6-8] tried to determine if there are any gender variations in mandibular third molar impaction with varying reports about the association of gender with third molar impaction. Previous studies [2,4] reported no statistically significant difference between gender and mandibular third molar impaction while another study  reported significant association between gender and number of impacted teeth as well as the presence of impacted mandibular teeth. With the varying reports regarding the association of gender to third molar impaction, this study was designed to determine the gender variation in mandibular third molar impaction among a group of Nigerian dental patients.
Authors: Robert L. Karlinsey
Comments: 3 Pages.
In the spirit of National Children’s Dental Health Month, this
paper highlights a few strategies that can be used to promote
effective management of dental care for children, including fluoride
modalities, effective dentist-patient communication, and minimally
invasive recommendations for handling enamel lesions; in short,
these strategies may serve to provide the child with a more patientcentered
approach to improved oral care. At the same time, such
management may potentially save the child’s tooth structure from
potentially counter-productive solutions involving ‘drill and fill’.
Uterine perforation is a serious complication which can happen after intrauterine device (IUD) insertion. Following the uterine rupture, an IUD may migrate into gynecologic, urinary or gastro-intestinal system organs. There are many reports of migrated iuds but fewer report of iuds embedded in the abdominal wall. Laparoscopic removal of a migrated IUD wasn’t yet described in our country
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Background: Current preliminary data is advocating cfDNA testing in twin pregnancies since both increasing use of ART and higher maternal ages have raised the incidence of (discordant) aneuploidies.
Procedures and findings:This report is raising ethical implications deriving from a twin pregnancy discordant for trisomy 21 conceived from egg donation and diagnosed by cfDNA testing after low risk conventional first-trimester screening.
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With the advent of IVF technology, the terms normal and abnormal oocytes have been defined and one type of abnormal oocyte is the “giant oocyte”. Giant oocytes are defined to have a 30% larger diameter and twice the volume of normal oocytes[1,2]. Giant oocyte is a rarery observed phenomenon among humans and embryos may develop from these oocytes [2,3].The first hypothesis for the mechanism of their formation is cytoplasmic fusion of two oogonia and the second one is the lack of cytokinesis during mitotic divisions in an oogonium . Fertilization and progression of a giant oocyte is suspected to be the cause of digynic triploidy, which is defined as triploidy with two maternal and one paternal complements . In this case report, we present two giant oocytes, each shown to have two meiotic spindles via visualization by polarization microscope. Because giant oocytes can develop into embryos that are morphologically normal, but genetically abnormal, an embryologist has to be aware of this phenomenon. For this reason, the scientific aim of this report is to present the polarization microscopic properties of giant oocytes and increase the awareness of such oocytes among embryologists.
Background: Preterm birth is the leading cause of infant morbidity and mortality globally. Infants who are born preterm suffer long term health consequences. There only few studies done on risk factors for prematurity in Tanzania. This study aimed to determine the risk factors for preterm birth among women who delivered preterm babies at Bugando Medical Centre in Mwanza, Tanzania.
Methods:A matched case-control study was conducted at the Bugando Medical Centre from May to June 2015. A total of 50 women with preterm birth (cases) were matched with 50 women who had term births (controls). Cases were matched with controls by date of delivery. We excluded mothers with multiple gestations and those who were sick and unsuitable for the interview. A structured questionnaire was used to collected relevant information from all participants. Data analysis was performed using SPSS version 20.0. Odds ratios with 95% confidence interval were estimated in a multivariate regression model to determine factors associated with preterm delivery.
Authors: Jana Pařízková
Comments: 6 Pages.
Maternal exercise during pregnancy as one of the critical periods can have significant delayed effect in the offsprring’s fetal imprinting of future development until adult age; adequate and voluntary exercise is provided, not a forced one as a stress. Spontaneous physical activity of the offspring until adult age can be increased, and body composition, cardiac micro structure and reactibility (greater resistance to noxi), vasomotor function, glucose metabolism, insulin sensitivity along with related diseases (diabetes) can be positively influenced. Bone development and also the enhancement of brain function and learning sensitivity can be improved as revealed in a number of experimental model animal studies. Exercise during pregnancy was also shown to compensate in the offspring the detrimental effect of inadequate, e.g. high fat diets. Possibility of introducing significant modifications of the programming of the offspring’s desirable development and health status by adequate and physiological maternal exercise during pregnancy was supported also by some observations in humans.
In recent years, interest in the care of elderly dogs has increased in the United States. Advances in veterinary medicine have prolonged the life spans of the animals that it supports. The needs of elderly dogs have generated interest among many specialties within veterinary medicine. These include internal medicine, surgery, anesthesiology, neurology, orthopedics, dermatology, and ophthalmology. This process has occurred in university teaching hospitals and private practices. This evolution of clinical practice has been supported by funding from veterinary providers and dog owners. Unlike in the case of human health care, this has not been accompanied by the development of large third party payers. As a result, a number of relatively small insurance plans and private organizations have emerged to address these needs.
An experiment was conducted with 30 mixed bred rabbits (6 to 8 weeks old) averaging 592g to assess the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry, carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits fed graded levels of dried Moringa oleifera Leaf Meal (MOLM) of 0%, 25%, and 50%, as a replacement of Soya Bean Meal (SBM) and groundnut cake in 8-week feeding trial. Feed consumption and weight gain were monitored. Blood samples were collected from the animals through the ear vein for haematology and serum biochemistry, while weight of cut parts and visceral organs were collected from the animals after they were stunned and sacrificed after the 8-week feeding trials and weighed. Results showed that there were significant differences (p < 0.05) in the value obtained for weight gain, feed conversion ratio, total protein and White Blood Cell (WBC). While the results of carcass and organ weight showed significant (P < 0.05) difference in values obtained for live weight, dress weight spleen, head and kidney. While there was no significant difference among the blood constants (VGM and MCHC). Among the leukocyte differential counts examined, lymphocytes, monocytes and eosinophils were not significantly different among the dietary treatments. The results suggest that MOLM possess good dietary protein quality for optimal growth of rabbits and be incorporated in the rabbit’s diets up to 25% inclusion levels without any detrimental effects on the performance, haematology, serum biochemistry and carcass and organ weights of growing rabbits.
AEffect of calving month and season on productive traits of Holstein dairy cows.
In Kabul Bini Hisar Dairy farm.
Productive data on 305 days lactation period for 49 Holstein dairy cows, which were collected during one month from dairy cattle in Beni Hisar Farm in Kabul province using recorded data from 1389 to 1392 years, were used to estimate the effect of calving month and season for the purpose of estimating the correlation between milk yield, fat production and fat percentage of the Holstein dairy cows. General linear model (GLM) procedure and SPSS software were used for the estimation of the effect calving month and seasons. The results showed calving month influenced significantly on productive traits (P < 0.05). The greatest milk and fat production (kg) were observed in dairy cows that calved in December. In addition, dairy cows that calved in October had the greatest fat percentage totally, the results showed, animals that calved in fall season had greater performance than the others. Naturally, milk production of these animals reached production peak in winter when the weather and nutritional conditions are suitable for production.
Authors: Jens Arnbjerg
Comments: 5 Pages.
Background: The prevalence of coxofemoral osteoarthritis being very high, > 40 %, in some large dog breeds. The aim of the study was to estimate the prevalence of osteoarthritic changes in the hip joints in small dog breeds and study the clinical relevance of Hip Dysplasia scoring in Cairn Terries in Denmark. Methods: In a five-year-period study of 2423 small dog breeds (< 15 kg) at the University Hospital, Copenhagen the prevalence of osteoarthritis in the hip joints was calculated A full clinical examination was performed and hip joint radiographs taken in 18 Cairn Terriers, earlier officially scored for hip dysplasia by The Danish Kennel Club, 13 of them with a score of C, D or E respectively
This study was conducted to detect the effect of natural gastrointestinal parasitic infection along with age and level of energy on the carcass yield and characteristics of Sudan Desert sheep. Forty-eight lambs were divided into eight groups of 6 animals each and fattened for 60 days. A total of twenty four animals (3 from each group) were selected for slaughter at the end of the fattening process. The study revealed significant differences in slaughter weights (P < 0.05), carcass weights (P < 0.05) and carcass characteristics. Both hot and cold empty body weights and dressing percentages were significantly (P < 0.01) affected by internal parasitic infection and dietary energy level. Wholesale cuts yields and loin composition were not significantly affected by infection except for muscle percentage (P < 0.05).
Pancreatic cancer usually has high morbidity and mortality and rests one of the most challenging cancers to treat. 5 years survival rate is less than 6 percent overall for people with pancreatic cancer, because of very late diagnosis and absence of effective treatment. In a western world, pancreatic tumor is the fourth most common cause of death in a western world. The pancreatic tumor needs selective delivery of drugs to target cells, with no side effects is major goals of the recent investigations for the real treatment of the pancreatic tumor. Medication which targets pancreatic tumor cells specially and carriers which deliver medications to specific cells which are quickly dividing, development of these kind drugs is considered as magic for the management of pancreatic cancer. In latest years, liposomes and nanotechnology can show a vital character in the treatment of pancreatic tumor. Liposomes contain multiple characteristics, such as the ability to protect the material from degradation, the capacity for encapsulating many materials and capability for delivering materials intracellularly fusion with plasma membrane. Nanoparticles as a carrier offer a new style of delivery of the medications to target cells of a tumor and allow drugs for the binding to tumor cell membrane, to cytoplasmic and to nuclear receptor sites. It delivers high medication concentrations to specific cells with few side effects to other normal tissues. The general importance of this evaluation is to increase overall understanding of development of the therapeutic nanomedicine for the treatment of pancreatic tumors, agents delivered by nanoliposomes, liposomal nanomedicine in targeting cancer and safety issues.
Background/Objective: Although often called a “silent disease”, HBV entails a significant disease and financial burden for the health system. An attempt to provide detailed estimates of the direct cost of this – rather neglected – disease in Greece comprised the objective of this study. Methods: The medical records of 254 patients diagnosed with HBV and monitored in the Hepatology Unit of the ‘Attikon’ university hospital provided the basis for the analysis. Detailed resource use data (physician visits, medications, labwork, and hospitalizations) were derived from the patients’ records for a retrospective 12month period, before their most recent visit to the clinic. Calculations followed a third-party payer perspective, according to official prices and tariffs, and are expressed in year 2015 Euros.
Authors: Muayad A Merza
Comments: 5 Pages.
Background: Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) related to liver cirrhosis is an advanced liver fibrosis that is usually progressive, irreversible, and the only option for the treatment is liver transplantation in selected patients Objectives: to examine the demographic, clinical, and laboratory characteristics of patients with the chronic HBV related to cirrhosis. Methods: The viral hepatitis clinic in Azadi Teaching Hospital is dealing with all viral hepatitis cases. All patients with liver cirrhosis caused by chronic HBV infection were studied. Demographic, clinical and laboratory information of the patients were retrieved by interviewing and from the case notes of September in 2014 until December in 2016. Child–Turcotte–Pugh (CTP) classification was used to evaluate the prognosis of liver cirrhosis. The results obtained were analyzed by entering the data into a Microsoft Excel spreadsheet. A value of less than 0.05 was considered as statistically significant.
Aims: Resection margin status impacts on survival after resection of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. This study aims to assess the incidence and association between aberrant hepatic arterial anatomy and resection margin status. Methodology: This is a retrospective cohort study of all patients undergoing pancreaticoduodenectomy for pancreatic adenocarcinoma between 2007 and 2012. Patient demographics, pathology data, and resection margin status (R) were analysed. Arterial anatomy based on contrast enhanced computed tomography as per Michels classification was delineated.
Primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma are rare soft tissue sarcomas with about only about 60 cases reported in the English literature . Due to its rare existence and less studied, the diagnostic algorithms and standards of care have not been adequately defined. This has led to a delayed diagnosis and subsequently a poor prognosis and survival of such patients. We herein present a 72 year old lady with primary hepatic leiomyosarcoma treated with chemotherapy and attempt to delineate the line of management after reviewing the medical literature. Primary Hepatic Leiomyosarcoma is a rare primary hepatic malignancy which is usually a diagnosis of exclusion. The standard treatment guidelines are yet to be established; large cohort database is needed for better understanding of disease behaviour and management.
In this study, electrospun nanofibers were prepared for the first time, from aqueous blends of guar gum (GG) and corn starch with amylose contents of 27.8% (CS28) and 50% (CS50). The fiber morphology and fiber diameter sizes (FDS) were correlated with solution rheology. The spinning solutions were prepared with 3 wt% total concentration and mass ratios ranging from 4:1 to 1:4 GG/CS. The GG alone (3 wt%) was highly viscous and predominantly elastic (G’>G’’) over the range of tested frequencies. Both CS were effective rheological modifiers that facilitated the electrospinning process. Partial substitution of GG by CS decreased solution viscosity and moved the elastic plateau (G’=G’’) to higher frequencies resulting in improved fiber morphology and defectfree nanofibers with uniform FDS at an optimal GG/CS ratio of 2:1 for CS28 and of 1:1 for CS50. The sonication of CS50 prior to blending with GG was important to eliminate nanofiber defects. GG and CS are costattractive options to produce 100% food-grade electrospun nanofibers with potential to encapsulate active food ingredients and be used to develop functional foods and other active food systems.
Fertilizer is one of the priorities for the agricultural industry and it contributes about 15 to 30% in the cost structure of rice farming. Capacity of national urea production in Indonesia is about 8 million tons per year while the needs are about 9 million tons per year. According to the Ministry of Industry in 2015 urea production can be increased by 6% from the previous national urea production capacity. On the use of fertilizers in the field, however, lost of nutrients during fertilization in the field (paddy) occurs a lot, so the efficiency of fertilizer use is reduced partly due to nitrification and urease. Therefore, it needs innovation and technological development of efficient agricultural fertilizer currently need to modify fertilizers with coating technology of nitrification inhibitor on the surface of the fertilizer granules. In this study the nature polymers (latex and chitosan) are used as a raw material nitrification inhibitors, several studies have shown that chitosan has a performance as anti bacteria that can be applied in agriculture. The study of a material generally involves the characterization by SEM and FT-IR to determine the characteristics micrographics and molecular bonding group of materials including latex-chitosan. The results of the study nitrification inhibitor made from latex-derived chitosan found that optimum formula of latex-chitosan mixture is sample with the mixture of latex 20% and chitosan 80% and be compatible with the surface of agricultural fertilizer granule, and a layer of latex-chitosan capable of strengthening the structure of fertilizer granules when tested in water for 3 months. This latex-chitosan based fertilizer shown as slow release fertilizer (urea and NPK) and resistant to moisture.
Poly (p-phenylene vinylene) is one of the most important classes of
conjugated polymers, with a wide range of applications, such as lightemitting
diodes, optoelectronic devices etc. Electroluminescence from
OLEDs arises from the radioactive decay of excitation generated by
the recombination of electrons and holes injection from two opposite
electrodes into the emissive polymer layer. Quinoxaline is a useful
n-type building block with high electron affinity and good thermal
stability. It has been successfully incorporating small molecules
to find utility as electron transport materials in multilayer OLEDs
based on PPV. Hence, vinyl benzaldehyde containing quinoxaline
derivatives was synthesized using 6-methyl-2, 3-diphenylquinoxaline
with terephthaldicarboxaldehyde via Wittig reaction. The structures
of synthesised compounds were confirmed by FT-IR, 1
H, 13C, 31P-NMR,
and MASS spectral data. The result of photoluminescence studies
showed that vinyl benzaldehyde capped quinoxaline exhibited green
emission maxima at shorter wavelengths of 454nm.
Authors: Gupta M
Comments: 2 Pages.
Nature has various ways to inspire humans through a lot
of its creations that researchers in different disciplines are trying
to understand and mimic in order to enhance current state of
technology and quality of life. From materials perspective, nature
uses composites in its creations involving plants and animals with
bone as a classical example.
Drug delivery research today is an advanced and
important area in pharmaceutical research and application
of nanotechnology includes enhancement of the
solubility and permeability of the drugs so as to improve
their bioavailability including delivery to the targeted
site. Hydroxyapatite (HAP) based bioceramic nanoparticles
composed of biodegradable polymers have been
used in the present work to develop an amoxicillin based
delivery systems. The synthesized n-HAP powders were
estimated for the Ca/p ratio. This ratio indicates the
presence of HAP as a single phase. The nano structure,
morphology and presence of vibrational groups are con-
firmed using instrumental analysis. The SEM images
show the spherical shaped particles of nano hydroxyapatite
are confirmed. The loading and unloading characteristics
of the drug were recorded spectro photometrically.
Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 2 Pages. 1 MS paint diagram
Establishment dogma has a false worldview, which compounds into hundreds of false smaller theories, models and guesses. They accept that hydrocarbons found in oil and natural gas form as a by-product of decaying life. This is false. Oil and natural gas formed alongside the beginning formation of life itself. It can even be argued that oil/natural gas formed even slightly before life began. This would render the accepted decaying organic material dogma false. Explanation is provided.