Chemistry

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[251] viXra:1710.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-18 06:19:34

Role of Main Components in the Rheology of Heavy Oil (In Russian)

Authors: S. O. Ilyin
Comments: 34 Pages. in Russian

A series of rheological properties of the main components (saturated compounds, light and heavy aromatic compounds, resins and asphaltenes), extracted from a typical sample of heavy oil extracted in tatarstan (russia), were consistently investigated. The viscosity and viscoelastic characteristics of these components are measured in a wide range of temperatures and deformation conditions, as well as their solutions in tetralin. Saturated hydrocarbons behave in a manner similar to paraffin oil, i. E. Demonstrate viscous-plastic behavior at low temperatures. For light aromatic compounds, non-newtonian behavior is characteristic, and heavy aromatic compounds, as well as resins and asphaltenes, behave like newtonian fluids. In their totality, the anomalous-rheological effects practically do not affect the rheology of heavy oil, which can be regarded as a newtonian fluid over a wide range of temperatures. The most significant value for the viscosity of heavy oil is the interaction of resins and asphaltenes. Concentration dependences of the viscosity of these components are qualitatively similar, but the viscosity of solutions of asphaltenes at high concentrations is much higher than the viscosity of equicomponent resin solutions. This reflects a lower critical concentration of asphaltenes, at which their formation occurs (up to the formation of graphene), compared to resins. An investigation of the rheology of the model "artificial" oil, from which the resins were removed, but contained a different amount of asphaltenes, showed that in this case the viscosity was higher than in the original oil. This indicates a stabilizing effect of the resins, which most likely contribute to the formation of emulsions, preventing further structure formation of the asphaltenes.
Category: Chemistry

[250] viXra:1710.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-08 12:03:48

Рhаsе Stаtе аnd Rhеоlоgу оf оrgаnоsiliсоn Nаnоpаrtiсlе Miхturеs with Linеаr роlymеrs (In Russiаn)

Authors: S.O. Iluin, V.V. Makarοva, M.Y. Roluakοva
Comments: 17 Pages. in Russiаn

Thе phаsе stаtе аnd thе rhеоlоgу оf соmpоsitiоns fоrmеd by linеаr pоlymеrs аnd funсtiоnаlizеd siliса nаnоpаrtiсlеs hаvе bееn studiеd. Thе study оf sоlubility shоwеd limitеd misсibility оf thе соmpоnеnts. Аs а rеsult, dеpеnding оn tеmpеrаturе аnd соmpоsitiоn, bоth hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms аnd hоmоgеnеоus соmpоsitiоns wеrе fоrmеd. Thе phаsе stаtе оf thе systеms dеtеrminеd thеir rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs, whеrеаs thе соntеnt оf thе linеаr pоlymеr influеnсеd thеir visсоеlаstiсity. Thе hоmоgеnеоus sоlutiоns аnd thе dispеrsiоns with а lоw соntеnt оf еmulsifiеd phаsе wеrе Nеwtоniаn fluids, but thе соnсеntrаtеd hеtеrоgеnеоus systеms wеrе struсturеd аnd visсоplаstiс. If thе соmpоsitiоn оf thе mixturеs соrrеspоnds tо thе binоdаl сurvе, thеy еxhibit аn аnоmаly оf rhеоlоgiсаl prоpеrtiеs.
Category: Chemistry

[249] viXra:1710.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:04

Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Copper (II) Chloride Using PXRD, DSC, and TGA/DTG

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 9 Pages.

Copper (II) chloride is an inorganic compound used as a source of copper ions for the treatment of several diseases like cancer, inflammation, hematological and neurological disorders. This article was aimed to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of copper (II) chloride using PXRD, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Copper chloride was divided into two parts, one part of copper chloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative intensities of the characteristic diffraction peak in Alice’s treated sample were significantly changed from -77.37% to 205.56% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peak in the treated sample was altered from -14.29% to 40.01% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the treated copper chloride was significantly increased by 2.91% with a reduced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 28.73% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature of the 2nd peak in the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.08% with a significant enhancement of ∆H by 77.37% compared with the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated sample was increased by 2.36% with a significant reduction of the enthalpy of decomposition by 18.46% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed the three steps of thermal degradation. The percentage weight loss in the treated sample was decreased by 0.47% and 9.63% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively, while the weight loss in the 3rd step was increased by 2.45% compared with the control sample. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.32% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis showed that the maximum thermal degradation temperature (Tmax) in the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd peaks of the Biofield Treated sample were increased by 1.20%, 2.00%, and 4.61% compared with the control sample. Briefly, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a polymorphic form of copper (II) chloride that could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated copper chloride would provide better therapeutic response against cancer, inflammation, wound healing, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[248] viXra:1710.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 23:20:39

The Influence of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Low Bioavailable Resveratrol in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 7 Pages.

Resveratrol is a natural dietary antioxidant polyphenol that believed to be effective in improving overall health. The biological activity of resveratrol is limited by its poor absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations following oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton on resveratrol and rats through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration of resveratrol. The test item, resveratrol was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. Additionally, one group of animals also received Biofield Energy Treatment under similar conditions. Resveratrol oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg/kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated resveratrol), G2 (Biofield Treated resveratrol) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated resveratrol) group. The results showed that resveratrol had a very low oral plasma exposure of 91.71 ng/mL in control group. The Biofield Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of resveratrol by 23.35% in G2 group compared to the control group. The Biofield Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of resveratrol by 125% and 28.5% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared with the control group. Plasma concentrations of resveratrol in G1 was declined with a rapid elimination half-life (T1/2, 1.48 hours), followed by sudden increases in plasma concentrations 12 to 24 hours after the test item administration. These plasma concentrations resulted in a significant prolongation of the terminal elimination half-life of resveratrol. The oral elimination T1/2 of resveratrol in G2 and G3 were 4.67 and 9.0 hours, respectively as compared to the G1. The apparent oral plasma clearance of resveratrol decreased significantly by 54%, and 17.5% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The mean residence time (MRTlast) of resveratrol significantly increased in G2 group (6.45 hours) and G3 group (7.70 hours), as compared to the control group. These data demonstrates greater bioavailability and total plasma level of resveratrol in rats which might be translated into better in vivo biological activity. Hence, The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[247] viXra:1710.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:05:23

The Use of Novel and Unique Biofield Energy Healing Treatment for the Improvement of Poorly Bioavailable Compound, Berberine in Male Sprague Dawley Rats

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 7 Pages.

Berberine, an isoquinoline alkaloid based herbal medicine, is widely used as nutraceutical supplement for the prevention and treatment of various diseases viz. hypolipidemic, hypoglycemic, antiarrhythmic, antineoplastic, etc. The intestinal absorption and oral bioavailability of berberine is very low and almost negligible in humans. In this study, the relative oral bioavailability of berberine was studied, and the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on animals and berberine were investigated through the measurement of plasma concentrations after oral administration in rats. The test item, berberine chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by Alice under similar conditions. Berberine oral formulations were made and administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 150 mg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated berberine), G2 (Biofield Treated berberine) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals were received untreated berberine) group. The results showed that berberine had a very low oral plasma exposure of 179.92 ng/mL in the control group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly enhanced the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of berberine by 233.40% and 35.62% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The Biofield Energy Treatment also improved plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of berberine by 37.7 and 1.4 times, in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. The absorption rate constant (Ka) of berberine in Biofield Energy Treatment group significantly increased by 100% (p < 0.05) in G2 group as compared to the control group (G1). The apparent oral plasma clearance of berberine decreased significantly (p < 0.01) by 81%, and 50% in G2 group and G3 group, respectively as compared to the control group. The enhanced bioavailability of berberine might be due to the alteration its physicochemical properties and thermal properties by Biofield Energy Treatment. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment is considered as an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed drug/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can also improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules. Thereby, the Biofield Energy Treated berberine chloride having improved bioavailability can significantly increase in antibacterial, anticancer, antidiabetic, anti-obesity, anti-ischemia, memory and cognition, inhibition of metabolic syndrome and neurodegenerative diseases.
Category: Chemistry

[246] viXra:1710.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:06:15

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is usually used as a dietary supplement for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia as well as to maintain the overall quality of life. The present study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the relative peak intensities and crystallite sizes of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -73.55% to 17.21% and from -14.28% to 125.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 19.29% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) of the treated sample was significantly increased by 2.03%, 70.92%, 142.25%, and 95.42%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of treated sample was significantly decreased by 21.34% compared to the control sample. The melting point of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (170.16°C) was decreased by 0.19% compared the control sample (170.48°C). The latent heat of fusion in the treated sample was increased by 3.11% compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis exhibited three steps thermal degradation and the total weight loss of the treated sample was increased by 0.29% compared to the control sample. The maximum thermal degradation temperatures (Tmax) of the 1st and 2nd peaks were decreased by 2.86% and 1.97%, respectively, while 2nd and 3rd peaks were increased by 1.14% and 0.94% respectively, in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The thermal analysis revealed that the thermodynamic stability of the treated sample was changed compared with the control sample. The Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a crystalline polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could show better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the untreated sample. Hence, Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be advantageous in designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, cancer, diabetes mellitus, stress, aging, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[245] viXra:1710.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:00

Evaluation of the Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Pyridoxine Hydrochloride

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Pyridoxine hydrochloride is water-soluble B vitamin widely used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin B6 deficiency and other several diseases. The aim of this study was to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of pyridoxine hydrochloride using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Pyridoxine hydrochloride was divided into two parts, one part of pyridoxine hydrochloride was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities and crystallite sizes of the most characteristic diffraction peaks in the Alice’s treated pyridoxine hydrochloride were significantly decreased from 1.59% to 44.47% and 6.31% to 28.28%, respectively compared with the control sample. Overall, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 5.55% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) (average mass-volume diameter) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 13.87%, 9.95%, 7.87%, and 6.59%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated sample was significantly increased by 13.67% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the treated sample was lower by 0.20% with a significant reduction of the latent heat of fusion by 24.52% compared with the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 1.76% compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample was reduced by 0.88% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated pyridoxine hydrochloride was declined compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of pyridoxine hydrochloride which would be more soluble, absorbable, have a higher dissolution rate and be more bioavailable compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated pyridoxine hydrochloride would be beneficial in the design of better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations which might provide better therapeutic responses against vitamin B6 deficiency, sideroblastic anemia, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, Alzheimer’s disease, pyridoxine-dependency seizures, metabolic disorders, pulmonary tuberculosis, hyperhomocysteinemia, cancer, anxiety, asthma, depression, dysmenorrhea, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[244] viXra:1710.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:07:39

Effect of The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on the Pharmacokinetics of 25-Hydroxyvitamin D3 [25(OH)D3] in Rats After a Single Oral Dose of Vitamin D3

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 8 Pages.

There are numerous scientific studies on vitamin D3 reported to have many important roles viz. in bone metabolism, osteoporosis, immunity, and useful in several diseases, e.g., cancers, cardio-vascular, and neurodegenerative diseases. Surprisingly, there is little information available about the concentration of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the blood, which is the best indicator of vitamin D3 status after its oral absorption. However, the biological activity of vit-D3 is mediated via the formation of the active metabolite, 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3. There are several factors which affect its absorption and first-pass metabolism that lead to have very low plasma concentrations of both the metabolites (25-hydroxyvitamin D3 and 1-α, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3) following an oral administration. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine the effects of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on vit-D3 and rats through the measurement of plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 concentrations after the oral administration of vit-D3 in rats. The test item, vit-D3 was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control (without Biofield Energy Healing Treatment), while the other part was defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment by renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. Additionally, one group of animals also received Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment per se by the Healer under similar conditions. Vitamin D3 oral formulations were administrated by oral gavage at a dose of 500 µg per kg in groups viz. G1 (untreated Vitamin D3), G2 (Biofield Treated Vitamin D3) and G3 (Biofield Treated animals received untreated Vitamin D3) group. The Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly altered the relative oral exposure (AUC0–t) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 54.62% in G2 group compared to the control group, G1. The Biofield Energy Treatment also altered plasma peak concentration (Cmax) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 by 53.8% and 7.6% in G2 and G3 groups, respectively compared to the control group. After oral administration, plasma concentrations of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in control group (G1) declined with slow excretion rate and the elimination half-life (T1/2) was 100.59 hours. The oral elimination half-life (T1/2) of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in G2 and G3 were 69.09 hours and 55.76 hours, respectively. The mean residence time (MRTlast) and elimination rate constant (Kel) remained unaltered in all three groups. The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be an innovative strategy which opens new avenues to overcome poorly absorbed pharmaceuticals/nutraceuticals/herbal extracts and can improve the therapeutic performance of orally active molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[243] viXra:1710.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-06 05:08:19

A Study on the Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Vitamin D3 (Cholecalciferol)

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Vitamin D3 or cholecalciferol is a secosteroid nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of vitamin D deficiency. The objective of this study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of cholecalciferol using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Cholecalciferol was divided into two parts, one part of cholecalciferol was considered as control (no Biofield Treatment was provided), while second part received The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by a renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the relative intensities of characteristic diffraction peak in the Alice’s treated cholecalciferol were significantly altered from -28.21% to 54.16% compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was altered from -40.02% to 83.20% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90, and D(4, 3) in Alice’s treated sample were significantly reduced by 33.48%, 23.82%, 18.61%, and 22.08%, respectively compared to the control sample. The specific surface area of treated cholecalciferol was significantly increased by 32.72% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting point of the treated sample was higher by 0.24% with an enhanced latent heat of fusion (∆H) by 3.54% compared to the control sample. The decomposition temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 0.12% with a significant increase of the enthalpy of decomposition by 5.85% compared to the control sample. The melting temperature and ∆H of a second broad endothermic peak in the treated sample were increased by 0.18% and 73.87%, respectively compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss in the treated sample was decreased compared with the control sample. The DTG analysis indicated that the maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated cholecalciferol was increased by 3.23% compared to the control sample. Overall, the thermal analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated cholecalciferol was improved compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to produce a polymorphic form of cholecalciferol which might have the improved solubility, bioavailability, and thermally stability as compared with the untreated sample. The Biofield Energy Treated cholecalciferol would be beneficial to design better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against vitamin D deficiency i.e. rickets, osteoporosis, cancer, diabetes mellitus, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[242] viXra:1709.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-06 09:58:56

Bohr Radius as the Sum of Golden Sections Pertaining to the Electron and Proton, Covalent Bond Lengths Between Same Two Atoms as Exact Sums of Their Cationic and Anionic Radii and Additivity of Atomic and or Ionic Radii in Bond Lengths – Collected work

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages.

The author has shown over a decade ago that the energy of the hydrogen atom is actually positive (not negative as per Bohr). In Bohr’s treatment, the energy amounts to half the Coulombic energy between an electron and a proton, and hence is negative. The present author considered an alternate approach: the ionization potential as the difference in the potentials of the electron and proton at a distance of the Bohr radius. This makes the energy positive and it has the same magnitude as given by Bohr’s equation. Moreover, Bohr radius was found to be divided into two Golden sections pertaining to the proton and electron. Further, all covalent bond lengths amounted to exact sums of the Golden ratio based cationic and anionic radii. Bond lengths were shown to be simple sums of atomic and or ionic radii. This article is a collection of the author’s work.
Category: Chemistry

[241] viXra:1708.0128 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-12 00:14:14

Assessment of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Ferrous Sulphate Using PXRD, PSD, DSC, and TGA/DTG Analysis

Authors: Alice Branton
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ferrous sulphate is an inorganic salt of iron used to treat iron deficiency anaemia and maintain the overall health in our body. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical and thermal properties of ferrous sulphate using PXRD, PSA, DSC, and TGA/DTG analysis. Ferrous sulphate test item was divided into two parts, one part was considered as control (without Biofield Energy Treatment), whereas the second part received The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treatment remotely by the renowned Biofield Energy Healer, Alice Branton. The PXRD data revealed that the relative intensities and crystallite size of the characteristic diffraction peaks in the treated sample were significantly altered from -26.74% to 421.23% and from -24.93% to 42.91%, respectively compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6.39% compared to the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, d90 and D(4, 3) values were significantly increased by 30.43%, 35.94%, 19.49%, and 26.26%, respectively and the surface area was significantly decreased by 53.26% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the treated sample in the 1st and 3rd peaks was increased by 1.61% and 1.04% respectively, whereas decreased by 5.71% and 1.04% in the 2nd and 4th peaks, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the total latent heat of fusion to transition from FeSO4•7H2O to FeSO4 was decreased by 0.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA thermograms of both the samples exhibited four steps of thermal degradation. The total weight loss in the treated sample was increased by 0.62% compared with the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample was increased by 5.81% and 0.26% in the 1st and 4th peak respectively, but the Tmax of 2nd and 3rd peaks were decreased by 2.58% and 2.38%, respectively compared to the control sample. Overall, DSC and TGA/DTG of the treated sample showed that the thermal stability was changed compared with the control sample. The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to the production of a polymorphic form of ferrous sulphate, which would have better powder flowability and appearance with altered thermal stability compared to the control sample. Alice’s Biofield Energy Treated ferrous sulphate would be useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations, which could provide better therapeutic response against iron deficiency anaemia.
Category: Chemistry

[240] viXra:1708.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-08 02:28:31

Analogies of Genetic and Chemical Code

Authors: Miloje M. Rakocevic
Comments: 33 Pages. This is a preprint paper about the unity of genetic and chemical code.

Starting from the previously established hypothesis on the existence of the coherence of the chemical and genetic code, new facts and new insights on the existence of essential analogies between the genetic and chemical code are presented, whereby the chemical code is derived from the original Mendeleev work on the periodic system of chemical elements. When, namely, all elements are scheduled into adequate groups of Periodic system of chemical elements, in accordance to Mendeleev original manuscript tables, then are revealed some very specific mathematical and chemical regularities; among others, Periodic system appears to be a code – the chemical code – in an entity analogy with the terrestrial genetic code. These regularities correspond to the mathematical regularities within the genetic code. Between others relations, it appears also a correspondence between the distribution of codons in the Genetic Code Table and the distribution of chemical elements in the Periodic system with respect to their even/odd parity and stability/instability of the isotopes.
Category: Chemistry

[239] viXra:1708.0059 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-06 07:40:55

Symmetry and Asymmetry in the MENDELEEV’s Periodic Table Predictive EQUATION

Authors: Jean Claude Perez
Comments: 4 Pages.

This article demonstrates that: -1- Structure of the periodic table of Elements is predictable. It is structured by a numerical structure of whole numbers. -2- This structure is deterministic and predictive, then, for any period p, it can be calculated by applying "the generic equation of Mendeleev" which we discovered. -3- The generic equation is completely controlled by the four quantum Numbers. -4- This generic equation makes it possible to check the regularity of the common table of Mendeleev, but it can also "predict" and anticipate the existence of hypothetical Elements now unknown, of which it makes it possible to determine the quantum properties, then electronic and chemical hypothetical properties.
Category: Chemistry

[238] viXra:1707.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-19 00:46:58

A Comprehensive Physicochemical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Zinc (Ii) Chloride Using X-Ray Diffraction, Psd, Dsc, Thermogravimetric Analysis/dta, Ultraviolet-Visible, and Fourier Transform-Infrared Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Objective: Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc and has other numerous industrial applications. Unfortunately, it lacks reliable and accurate physicochemical, thermal, and spectral characterization information altogether. Hence, the authors tried to explore in-depth characterization of zinc chloride using the modern analytical technique. Materials and Methods: The analysis of zinc chloride was performed using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/differential thermogravimetric analysis (TGA/DTG), ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis), and Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) analytical techniques. Results: The PXRD patterns showed well-defined, narrow, sharp, and the significant peaks. The crystallite size was found in the range of 14.70–55.40 nm and showed average crystallite size of 41.34 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 1.123 (d10), 3.025 (d50), and 6.712 (d90) μm and average surface area of 2.71 m2/g. The span and relative span values were 5.849 μm and 1.93, respectively. The DSC thermogram showed a small endothermic inflation at 308.10°C with the latent heat (ΔH) of fusion 28.52 J/g. An exothermic reaction was observed at 449.32°C with the ΔH of decomposition 66.10 J/g. The TGA revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and lost 8.207 and 89.72% of weight in the first and second step of degradation, respectively. Similarly, the DTG analysis disclosed Tmaxat 508.21°C. The UV-vis spectrum showed absorbance maxima at 197.60 nm (λmax), and FT-IR spectrum showed a peak at 511/cm might be due to the Zn–Cl stretching. Conclusions: These in-depth, comprehensive data would be very much useful in all stages of nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals formulation research and development and other industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[237] viXra:1707.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:24:00

Physicochemical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of Sodium Selenate Using XRD, PSD, DSC, TGA/DTG, UV-vis, and FT-IR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an important inorganic compound but lacks reliable and accurate physico-chemical and spectral characterization information. The study was carried out for the in-depth physicochemical, thermal, and spectroscopic characterization of sodium selenate using various analytical techniques. The powder X-ray diffraction spectroscopy analysis showed well-defined and sharp peaks indicated sodium selenate is crystalline in nature. The crystallite size was found to be in the range of 28.75 to 49.97 nm. The average particle size was found to be of 3.93 (d10), 14.44 (d50), and 40.648 (d90) µm with an average surface area of 0.676 m2/g. The differential scanning calorimetry showed the endothermic inflation at 588.81 °C with the latent heat of fusion 103 J/g. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed two steps of the thermal degradation process. Similarly, the differential thermogravimetric analysis exhibited the major peaks in the thermogram and disclosed Tmax at 852.65 °C. The UV-visible spectrum showed maximum absorbance at 205.1 nm (λmax). The Fourier transform infrared spectrum showed a peak at 888 cm-1 due to the Se-O stretching. This information would be very much useful in the field of nutraceuticals/ pharmaceuticals and other industries using sodium selenate as an ingredient.
Category: Chemistry

[236] viXra:1707.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-13 07:25:03

Effect of a Novel Ashwagandha-Based Herbomineral Formulation on Pro-Inflammatory Cytokines Expression in Mouse Splenocyte Cells: a Potential Immunomodulator

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Background: Herbomineral formulations are momentous in an audience of worldwide by virtue of their holistic approach to life. These formulations are widely used as complementary therapies in immunocompromised patients including cancer. Still, there is the need of cost-effective and safe herbomineral-based formulation that can modulate immune response by the regulation of cytokines cascades. Objective: Current study, we investigated immunomodulatory effect of TEBEH in LPS-induced cytokines expression levels in mouse splenocytes in vitro. Materials and Methods: The most effective and safe concentrations of TEBEH were chosen by determining the cell viability of splenocytes using MTT assay. The pro-inflammatory cytokines such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α, and IFN-γ were measured in cell supernatants using ELISA. Results: MTT data showed TEBEH formulation was found safe up to 10.53 µg/mL. At noncytotoxic concentrations (0.00001053–10.53 µg/mL), TEBEH significantly (P ≤ 0.001) inhibited the expressions of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α in mouse splenocytes as compared with vehicle control. Conclusion: In summary, TEBEH may indeed promote an anti-inflammatory environment by suppression of pro-inflammatory cytokines. These observations indicated that TEBEH has potential effects in downregulating the immune system and might be developed as a useful anti-inflammatory product for various inflammatory disorders. Summary: The present study was undertaken to evaluate an immunomodulatory effect of the herbomineral formulation in LPS-induced mouse splenocytes with the measurement of cytokines expression such as TNF-α, IL-1β, MIP-1α and IFN-γ. The results showed that the expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, and MIP-1α was significantly down-regulated while, IFN-γ was significantly up-regulated in mouse splenocytes. It is hypothesized that modulation of the proinflammatory cytokines might occur via NF-kB pathway. Therefore, the herbomineral test formulation might act as an effective anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory product, and this can be used as a complementary and alternative treatment for the prevention of various types of inflammatory and auto-immune disorders.
Category: Chemistry

[235] viXra:1707.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:14

Overall Skin Health Potential of the Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation Using Various Skin Parameters

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Janice Patricia Kinney
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters using three cell lines i.e., HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10. The various study parameters viz. collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, melanin, cell viability against UV-B induced stress, and wound healing were evaluated. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of the test formulation and one part of the DMEM received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Janice Patricia Kinney and were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test samples. Cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 22.42% and 17.48% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.63 and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 28.41% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid at 0.63 µg/mL was increased significantly by 15.90% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was reduced significantly by 9.25% and 7.26% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.013 and 0.063 µg/mL, respectively in relation to the untreated group. Protection of skin cells after UV-B exposure data displayed that the cell viability was increased significantly by 17.88%, 20.10%, and 25.77% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Wound healing data exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration activities in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation. Overall, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation demonstrated better responses compared to the untreated medium and test formulation with respect to the tested skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Healing and the Treated test formulation could be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat the various skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, erythema, contact dermatitis, seborrheic dermatitis, athlete's foot, psoriasis, erythema, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[234] viXra:1707.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:43:59

The Study of Biofield Energy Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation in Skin Health and Function

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Johanne Dodon
Comments: 12 Pages.

The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of the The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based new proprietary herbomineral formulation and cell medium (DMEM) on various skin health parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10 cell lines. It contained minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts each, one part of each was coded as untreated (UT), while the second part of each was treated with the Biofield Treatment by Johanne Dodon and denoted as the Biofield Energy Treated (BT) test items. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic up to 80 µg/mL concentration. The fibroblast cell proliferation assay using BrdU method showed a significant increased cell proliferation at 2.13, 8.75, and 17.53 µg/mL by 3.90%, 14.68% and 29.54%, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The collagen data showed an increased synthesis by 7.42% and 3.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Similarly, the elastin synthesis was increased by 19.8% and 25.8% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 5 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. However, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation showed an increased level of hyaluronic acid by 1.7% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. Melanin synthesis inhibition was observed by 15.21% and 11.43% in UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling effects showed an improved cell viability by 7.65% at 1.25 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation experimental group compared with the untreated test group. In addition, the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation/DMEM showed a significant wound healing activity and high cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells, respectively. Overall, the data suggested that Biofield Treated formulation/DMEM could be helpful for skin healing, improvement the skin health, elasticity, and tightness, as well as, improving skin health issues such as wrinkling, pigmentation disorders, redness, swelling, skin cancer, aging, rashes, and skin sagging.
Category: Chemistry

[233] viXra:1707.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:44:56

Skin Nourishing Effects of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Shirley Theresa Holmlund
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of the present study was undertaken to evaluate the effects of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation on skin health. The test formulation and DMEM were separated into two parts. One part of each received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Shirley Theresa Holmlund and were termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were considered as the untreated test samples. MTT assay showed more than 70% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines and that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The percent cell proliferation using BrdU assay was significantly increased by 343.57%, 100.29%, and 132.6% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The collagen synthesis was significantly increased by 5.94% and 10.84% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Elastin level was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 15.95%, 58.31%, and 47.18% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared to the untreated group. The level of hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 15.13% and 68.56% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The level of melanin was significantly reduced by 17.06%, 6.94%, and 13.07% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.063 µg/mL compared to untreated group. The effect of skin protection upon exposure with UV-B rays displayed some alteration of the percent cell viability in all the tested groups. The wound healing activity by scratch assay exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in the test formulation and DMEM in HFF-1 cells compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the data suggests that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated DMEM and test formulation exhibited better skin protective responses compared to the untreated DMEM and test formulation group with respect to the skin health parameters. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation could be developed as a potential cosmetic product against various skin problems viz. eczema, vitiligo, psoriasis, acne, hives, rosacea, ichthyosis, seborrheic dermatitis, erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[232] viXra:1707.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:47:41

The Use of Consciousness Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation for Skin Anti-Aging Strategies

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar
Comments: 11 Pages.

The present study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against skin health parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F10 cells. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of the test formulation and one part of the DMEM received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Vaibhav Rajan Parulkar and were defined as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test samples. Cell viability using MTT assay showed more than 75% cells were viable in all the tested concentrations in three cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was significantly increased by 434.14%, 244.77%, and 268.53% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased 93.52% and 75.81% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 100.07% (p≤0.05), 41.60%, and 50.10% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL in relation to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Melanin was decreased by 10.09% and 6.51% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Protection of skin cells after UV-B exposure data displayed that the cell viability was increased by 7.22%, 5.75%, and 8.15% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test Formulation at 0.625%, 1.25%, and 2.5% µg/mL, respectively compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. Wound healing data exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration activities in the HFF-1 cells compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Overall, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation demonstrated better skin protection action compared to the untreated DMEM and test formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated test herbomineral formulation could be useful for the development of effective cosmetic products for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[231] viXra:1707.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 01:48:10

An in Vitro Study of Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation for Skin Protection

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Eileen Mary Meagher
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research work deals with the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) based herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters. The test formulation is the combination of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts, i.e. one part received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Eileen Mary Meagher and was labeled as the Biofield Treated (BT) samples, while other represented was defined as the untreated test (UT) samples. The MTT assay showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability. Cell proliferation assay using BrdU method showed an improved proliferation rate by 343.23%, 316.13%, and 512.75% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL, compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 15.70% and 13.52% at 2.5 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The level of elastin was increased by 47.0% and 64.1% at 2.5 and 1.25 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, group compared with the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid synthesis was increased by 4.37%, 41.47%, and 19.74% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group with respect to the untreated group. Melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 8.83%, 5.78%, and 12.68% at 0.0125, 0.0625, and 0.125 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Anti-wrinkling effect showed an improved cell viability by 4.32% and 2.47% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT- Test formulation groups, respectively in HFF-1 cells compared with the untreated group. Wound healing activity using scratch assay exhibited improved a healing rate up to 6% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines in the Biofield Energy Treated Test formulation. In conclusion, results suggest that The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based test formulation and medium have the ability to improve the skin health and can be used as skincare products cosmetics for anti-ageing, anti-wrinkling action and for the treatment of many skin diseases such as Eczema, diaper rash, chickenpox, measles, warts, acne, hives, wrinkles, ringworm, Rosacea, psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[230] viXra:1707.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:19:34

Skin Protective Activity of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Dennille Mellesia Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The current study was attempted to evaluate the impact of the Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against skin health. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One of each part was received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by Dennille Mellesia Smith and was termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other parts were denoted as the untreated test items. MTT showed >78% viable cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was significantly increased by 238.30%, 192.06%, and 43.96% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL with respect to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 55.55%, 32.65%, and 52.48% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 1.25 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 6.30%, 105.04%, and 29.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid was increased by 4.78%, 29.71%, and 58.29% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.63 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test Formulation group. The level of melanin was reduced by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin protection against UV-B data displayed that cell proliferation was increased by 17.88%, 20.14%, and 9.89% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation at 0.63, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. Wound healing activity exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in all the tested groups compared to the untreated group. Overall, result suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation exhibited better responses compared to the untreated medium and test formulation. Therefore, the Biofield Energy Treated herbomineral formulation could be useful for the development of an effective cosmetic product for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[229] viXra:1707.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:20:14

Biofield Energy Healing Based Herbomineral Formulation: An Emerging Frontier in Cosmetic Medicine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Dezi Ann Koster
Comments: 11 Pages.

The application of the herbomineral formulations in general skin health are increasing day-by-day due to the excellent outcomes without any adverse effects. This study was designed to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on an herbomineral formulation and cell medium against various skin health parameters. The test formulation consists of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate) and L-ascorbic acid along with herbal extracts, Centella asiatica, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with a Biofield Treatment (BT) by Dezi Ann Koster and denoted as treated, while the other part was coded as the untreated (UT) groups. MTT assay results showed that test formulation was safe and nontoxic with more than 89% cell viability in the tested cell lines. BrdU assay showed an improved cell proliferation by 2.82% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 32.42%, 33.64%, and 29.13% at 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, while34.17%, 26.73%, and 17.56% increased at 2.5, 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Elastin level was increased by 408.6% at concentration of 0.625 µg/mL in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with untreated group. However, hyaluronic acid (HA) level was increased by 31.88%, 15.52%, and 58.29% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with untreated group. Besides, melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 16.09% and 18.93% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.125 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed an improved cell viability by 5.49% and 11.26% at 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Wound healing scratch assay results showed a significant healing rate by 5% and 10% in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively with high cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes. Overall, it can be concluded that the Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and cell medium could be helpful against various skin disorders and can be used in psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating agent.
Category: Chemistry

[228] viXra:1707.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:20:56

Evaluation of Skin Protective Effect Using in Vitro Cell Line Models of Biofield Energy-Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Herbomineral Formula

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, William Dean Plikerd
Comments: 11 Pages.

Alternative or natural systems of medicine are practiced worldwide that mostly emphasize research of herbal formulations, which might be helpful against various disorders. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on an herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) for the skin health. The formulation contained minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two equal parts. One part received Biofield Energy Treatment (BT) by William Dean Plikerd and other part was denoted as the untreated test items (UT). MTT assay showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability against various tested concentrations. The cell proliferation using BrdU method showed improved cell proliferation by 43.63% and 10.97% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group, respectively at 17.5 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 2.65% and 23.56% at 2.5 and 1.25 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The elastin level was increased by 8.34% at a concentrations of 2.5 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. However, the hyaluronic acid (HA) level was increased by 2.60% at 0.625 µg/mL in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Moreover, melanin synthesis was decreased by 14.22% and 17.61% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at a concentration of 0.125 µg/mL. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed improve cell viability by 14.54% and 11.32% at 1.25 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group. Wound healing scratch assay results showed significantly increased healing rates by 10.5% and 8.3% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively in the Biofield Energy Healing based test formulation. In conclusion, The Trivedi Effect® based test formulation and DMEM could be useful to improve the skin ECM components, along with protection against UV-B rays, which could be useful for the development of an effective cosmetic product for the prevention and treatment of several skin problems such as erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in the skin color, etc. as an anti-ageing, skin-whitening, and anti-wrinkling.
Category: Chemistry

[227] viXra:1707.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:21:33

Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation: A Safe and Effective Approach for Skin Health

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Jagdish Singh
Comments: 10 Pages.

Oxidative stress causes serious skin damage that is characterized by ageing, wrinkling, roughness, laxity and pigmentation. In the present work, the impact of Biofield Energy (The Trivedi Effect®-Consciousness Energy Healing) Treatment on the herbomineral test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) was evaluated for skin health parameters. The test formulation was consisted of minerals (zinc chloride, sodium selenate, and sodium molybdate), L-ascorbic acid, herbal (Centella asiatica) extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM media were divided into two parts. One part received the Biofield Energy Treatment by Jagdish Singh and was termed as the Biofield Treated (BT) sample, while other was denoted as the untreated (UT) samples. MTT assay showed that test formulation was found safe and nontoxic with greater than 75% cell viability against various tested concentrations. Cell proliferation data using BrdU method showed an improved cell proliferation by 149.13% and 118.80% at 8.75 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group. The collagen level was significantly increased by 28.14% and 44.45% at 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared with the untreated group. The elastin level was increased by 10.38%, 14.66%, and 48.24% at 2.5, 1.25, and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group, compared with the untreated group. Moreover, melanin synthesis was significantly inhibited by 5.93%, 1.43%, and 1.43% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.0625 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. However, melanin synthesis was decreased by 11.71% and 15.75% at 0.125 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively. Anti-wrinkling effects exhibited improved cell viability by 17.19% and 28.68% at 2.5 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively in HFF-1 cells compared with the untreated group. Wound healing activity using scratch assay showed a significantly improved healing rate upto 5% in the HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines in the Biofield Energy Healing based test formulation. Overall, the data suggests that The Trivedi Effect® treated test formulation and DMEM has the capacity to improve the skin health and suggests its use in psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections, and many more skin diseases.
Category: Chemistry

[226] viXra:1707.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-06 02:22:12

Skin Rejuvenating Effect of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, James Jeffery Peoples
Comments: 11 Pages.

Currently in today’s world, herbomineral based cosmetic formulations are continuously gaining popularity globally because they have a high safety profile and skin protection effects. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of a Consciousness Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment based test formulation and medium (DMEM) against different skin health parameters. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part of each received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment by James Jeffery Peoples and were termed as the Biofield Energy Treated samples, while the other samples were denoted as the untreated test items. MTT assay showed more than 70% viable cells, indicating that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in all the tested concentrations in three cell lines. The percent cell proliferation by BrdU assay was increased by 251.30%, 373.36%, and 722.48% at 8.75, 17.5, and 35 µg/mL, respectively in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Collagen synthesis was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 32.96% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 2.5 µg/mL with respect to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly (p≤0.001) increased by 69.49% and 17.13% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The level of hyaluronic acid was increased remarkably by 14.78% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group at 1.25 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Melanin was suppressed significantly by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin cells protection against UV-B exposure revealed that the percent cell viability was increased by 4.23% in the BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group at 2.5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. The wound healing activity by scratch assay showed significant wound closure and cell migration activity in the test formulation and DMEM group in both HFF-1 and HaCaT cells compared to the untreated group. Altogether, the data suggests that the Biofield Energy Treated DMEM and test formulation showed better responses compared to the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation could be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat various skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, cutis rhomboidalis nuchae, erythema, contact dermatitis, behcet's disease, blepharitis, boil, bowen's disease, skin aging, wrinkles and/or change in skin colour, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[225] viXra:1707.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 06:01:28

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Herbomineral Formulation in Different Skin Health Parameters

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak, Deborah Lea Smith
Comments: 10 Pages.

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of the Consciousness Energy Healing based test formulation and cell medium (DMEM) against various skin health parameters. The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts. One part received the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) by Deborah Lea Smith and termed as the Biofield Energy Treated sample, while other part denoted as untreated test item. The study was assessed for the measurement of collagen, elastin, hyaluronic acid, melanin synthesis, cell viability against UV-B induced stress, and wound healing activity. MTT assay showed that the test formulation was safe and nontoxic in three cell lines. Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) assay data showed that the percent cell proliferation was increased significantly by 22.69% and 34.99% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 8.75 µg/mL compared to the UT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group. Collagen was increased by 15.12% and 15.26% in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was significantly increased by 9.10%, 13.71%, and 12.41% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 5 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Elastin was also increased significantly by 17.78% and 6.01% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 10 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Hyaluronic acid was significantly increased by 3.90%, 5.37%, and 6.82% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. Melanin level was reduced by 14.64% and 18.25% in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 0.13 µg/mL compared to the untreated group. Skin cells protection was significantly increased by 21.32%, 23.81%, and 7.20% at 0.625, 1.25, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation compared to the untreated group. Wound healing assay exhibited significant wound closure and cell migration in all the tested groups compared to the untreated group. Overall, the Biofield Energy Treated test formulation and DMEM (The Trivedi Effect®) were found to be safe and can be developed as an effective cosmetic product to protect and treat the skin problems including infection, photosensitivity, acne, hives, chickenpox, eczema, rosacea, seborrheic dermatitis, psoriasis, erythema, contact dermatitis, skin aging, wrinkles, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[224] viXra:1707.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:05:04

Solid State Characterization of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract After Treatment with Consciousness Energy Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ashwagandha root extract is useful as an herbal medicine and nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the influence of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the physico-chemical, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using powder X-ray diffraction (PXRD), particle size distribution analysis (PSD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, UV-Vis spectroscopy, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis concluded that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 36.78%, 15.18%, and 5.06%, respectively compared with the control sample. Likewise, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 85.14% compared to the control sample. FT-IR results showed a small impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the phytoconstituents of ashwagandha root extract to reduce the force constant of O-H (str.) bond. UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the samples was at 206.4 in methanol. TGA revealed the three steps of thermal degradation and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.73% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature was found at 272.53°C and 393.35°C for two broad peaks in the treated sample was increased by 0.05% and 0.08%, respectively compared to the control the sample (272.67°C and 393.66°C). The DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization were lowered significantly by 4.98% and 35.67%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current outcomes suggested that the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the amazing capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, bioavailability and thermal stability of ashwagandha root extract in the various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the Biofield Energy Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, sexual disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, ageing, diabetes, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[223] viXra:1707.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:06:42

Chromatographic and Spectroscopic Characterization of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is a popular health supplement, with purported health benefits including prevention and treatment of various diseases, i.e. anxiety, stress, etc. The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The liquid chromatographic data of the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples revealed that the retention time of the 25 chromatographic peaks remained same, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents was altered significantly. The peak area% of the treated ashwagandha root extract representing the phytoconstituents was significantly decreased in the range of 6.02% to 39.74% at Rt of 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 5.7, 6.9, 7.1, 7.3, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, and 8.5 minutes compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of the other phytoconstituents present in the treated sample was significantly increased in the range of 4.12% to 82.32% at Rt of 5.1, 6.4, 6.6, 6.8, 8.1, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.8, 8.9, 9.0, 9.1, and 9.2 minutes, respectively compared to the control sample. A total of 16 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, viscosa lactone B, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed from the molecular mass at m/z 605, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at the retention times of 6.9, 7.1, 7.8, 8.2, 8.5, and 9.2 minutes with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the samples. Subsequently, the mass peak intensities of the treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -61.24% to 106.61% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be advantageous for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[222] viXra:1707.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:07:25

A Systematic Study of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a source of magnesium ion. The recent study described the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on magnesium gluconate for the variation in physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably altered from -70% to 130% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly decreased by 23.74% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. Biofield Energy Healing Treatment significantly reduced the particle size of magnesium gluconate at d10, d50, and d90 values by 12.15%, 8.98% and 15.35%, respectively compared to the control sample. The surface area analysis showed that surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 11.76% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis displayed that structure of the magnesium gluconate persisted identical in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis exhibited four steps thermal degradation in both samples and the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was reduced by 0.19% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (171.25ºC) was slightly (0.16%) higher from the control sample (170.97ºC). The latent heat of fusion was significantly decreased by 7.76% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The TGA and DSC analysis revealed that the thermal stability of the treated sample was enhanced compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated compound. The Biofield Treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[221] viXra:1707.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:09:38

Photo-Protective Effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation Against Various Skin Health Parameters

Authors: Aksana Hancharuk, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current study aimed to evaluate the effect of Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based herbomineral formulation on various skin health parameters. The test formulation consisted of minerals (zinc, selenate, and molybdenum), L-ascorbic acid, along with Centella asiatica extract, and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). The test formulation and DMEM were divided into two parts, one part of each was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment by Aksana Hancharuk and denoted as treated group, while other part was coded as the untreated groups. Skin parameters against various cell lines such as HFF-1, HaCaT and B16-F10 were examined with the combination of Biofield Treated (BT) and untreated test formulation (UT) with DMEM. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was found to be safe and nontoxic at tested concentrations. Human fibroblast cell proliferation using BrdU method showed a significant increased cell proliferation by 91.51% and 201.14% in different Biofield Energy Treated groups. UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group showed an increased level of collagen by 64.58% (2.5 µg/mL) and 55.55% (1.25 µg/mL), respectively compared with the untreated group. Similarly, elastin synthesis was increased in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 21.96% and 11.42% at concentration 10 and 5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. However, hyaluronic acid level was increased by 14.02% and 6.57% at concentrations 1.25 and 0.625 µg/mL, respectively in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Moreover, inhibition of melanin synthesis was observed by 12.95% and 17.86% (0.125 µg/mL) in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed a notable cell viability in all the groups at various concentrations, i.e. in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 15.68%, 36.47%, and 29.64%, respectively at 2.5 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. The significant wound healing activity was reported in scratch assay in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells due to the significantly higher cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes. Therefore, Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and cell medium might be a suitable approach for the development for herbal cosmetics and formulations as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating action. It can improve the overall skin health care against many skin disorders such as Eczema, diaper rash, seborrheic dermatitis, chickenpox, measles, warts, acne, hives, ringworm, Rosacea, psoriasis, skin cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[220] viXra:1707.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-05 01:10:26

Skin Photo-Protective and Anti-ageing Activity of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment Based Herbomineral Formulation

Authors: Bonnie P. Hegarty-Diaz, Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment based herbomineral formulation on various skin parameters using HFF-1, HaCaT, and B16-F1 cell lines. The test formulation was composed of minerals (zinc, selenium, and molybdenum), and L-ascorbic acid along with the mixture of Centella asiatica extract and tetrahydrocurcumin (THC). Test formulation and DMEM were divided into two equal parts, one was treated with the Biofield Energy Treatment by Bonnie P. Hegarty-Diaz and denoted as treated, while other part was coded as untreated groups. MTT assay result showed that the test formulation was found safe and nontoxic at tested concentration 40 µg/mL. Fibroblast cell proliferation assay showed significant increased cell proliferation by 26.83% at 8.75 µg/mL in BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared to the untreated group. The level of collagen was significantly increased by 22.05% and 22.24% (at 2.5 µg/mL) in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively. However, collagen amount was increased by 11.08% and 9.52% in BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation groups, respectively at 1.25 µg/mL, compared to untreated group. Similarly, elastin synthesis was increased in the BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation group by 19.98%, 72.54% and 105.04% at the concentrations 10, 5, and 2.5 µg/mL, respectively compared to the untreated group. However, level of hyaluronic acid was increased by 5.19% at 0.625 µg/mL in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group compared with the untreated group. Besides, melanin synthesis inhibition was found to be inhibited by 14.80% and 17.40% at 0.125 µg/mL in the UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation and BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation groups, respectively compared with the untreated group in B16-F10 melanoma cell line. Anti-wrinkling activity in HFF-1 cells showed improve cell viability in all the groups at various concentrations, i.e. in UT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation, BT-DMEM + UT-Test formulation, and BT-DMEM + BT-Test formulation group by 10.69%, 6.9%3, and 11.86%, respectively at 0.625 µg/mL compared with the untreated group. In addition, wound healing scratch assay data suggest significantly higher cellular migration of fibroblast and keratinocytes cells in HFF-1 and HaCaT cells lines, respectively. In conclusion, Biofield Energy Healing (The Trivedi Effect®) based test formulation and DMEM could be beneficial against various skin disorders such psoriasis, seborrheic dermatitis, skin cancer, rashes from bacterial or fungal infections and can be significantly used as anti-wrinkling, skin-whitening, anti-ageing, and rejuvenating action.
Category: Chemistry

[219] viXra:1707.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:02:37

Assessment of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is an important herbal medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time (Rt) of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area% was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.06, 5.24, 5.49, 5.68, 6.78, 6.87, 8.12, 8.22, 8.36, 8.55, 9.02, and 10.13 minutes were significantly increased in the range of 0.27% to 146.94% compared to the control sample. In addition, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.29, 5.36, 6.40, 6.49, 6.56, 6.67, 7.08, 7.37, 7.76, 7.87, 8.02, 8.43, 8.85, 8.97, and 9.12 minutes were significantly decreased in the range of 1.83% to 23.53% compared with the control sample. A total of 18 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, viscosa lactone B, 24, 25-dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withanone, withaferin A, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 650, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.87, 7.10, 7.87, 8.22, 8.54, and 9.11 minutes with the help of GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. The mass peak intensity values of the Biofield Energy Treated sample at the same retention time in was significantly decreased in the range of 3.99% to 52.28% compared with the control sample. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha root extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[218] viXra:1707.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:04:40

Evaluation of the Physico-chemical, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha Root Extract: Effects of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract has a broad range of pharmacological activities due to the presence of many biologically active metabolites. The current study was designed to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were increased significantly by 8.69%, 7.32%, and 6.50%, respectively compared with the control sample. Similarly, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 12.69% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated no significant alteration of the force constant for the functional groups in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 207.5 and 205.2 nm, respectively. The TGA revealed the two major thermal degradation steps and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.86% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature at 273.53°C and 389.39°C for two broad peaks in treated sample was increased by 0.78% and 0.31%, respectively compared to the control the sample (271.40°C and 388.48°C). The DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature was significantly increased by 10.95% in the Biofield Energy Treated sample with a 5.34% reduced the latent heat of vaporization compared with the control sample. The overall thermal analysis indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, ageing, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[217] viXra:1707.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:05:10

LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy Based Evaluation of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Withania somnifera root extract which contains withanolides as major active constituent and it is used traditionally for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the structural properties of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while other part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% at Rt of 5.6, 6.8, 6.9, 7.2, 7.9, 8.4, 8.5, 8.6, and 9.2 minutes of the treated sample were increased significantly in the range of 1.46% to 253.06% compared to the control sample. In the contrary, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 6.4 and 8.2 minutes were significantly decreased by 12.72% and 17.35%, respectively with respect to the control sample. A total of 16 withanolides such as withanoside IV, coagulin Q, viscosa lactone B, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, withanolide B, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 783, 621, 489, 473, 767, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.4, 6.8, 7.2, 7.9, 8.2, 8.4, and 9.1 minutes, respectively with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. The mass peak intensities of the Biofield Energy Treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -81.36% to 1720.90% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[216] viXra:1707.0025 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:05:44

Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on Withania Somnifera Root Extract and Its Effects on the Physical, Spectroscopic, Thermal and Behavioral Properties

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) is useful as an herbal medicine and nutraceuticals for the prevention and treatment of anxiety, insomnia, tuberculosis, tumors, menstrual problems, etc. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis demonstrated that both the control and treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were decreased significantly by 18.88%, 8.60%, and 4.00%, respectively compared with the control sample. Similarly, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 102.63% compared to the control sample. FT-IR results suggest that there was a small impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on ashwagandha root extract at the atomic level to reduce the force constant of O-H (str.) bond. UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 207.4 and 207.7 nm, respectively. TGA revealed the three steps of thermal degradation steps and the total weight loss was decreased by 0.13% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Consequently, the maximum thermal degradation temperature at 272.73°C and 393.14°C for two broad peaks in treated sample was increased by 1.13% and 0.85%, respectively compared to the control the sample (269.68°C and 389.83°C). DSC analysis indicated that the evaporation temperature and latent heat of vaporization was increased by 1.35% and 5.52%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current findings suggested that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, bioavailability and thermal stability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, sexual disorders, stress, cancer, diabetes, ageing, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[215] viXra:1707.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-03 02:06:14

Study of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treated Ashwagandha Root Extract by LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) contains many biologically active constituents used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the characteristic properties of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while another part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. LC-MS data revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples, whereas the peak area% i.e. the relative amount of the phytoconstituents was significantly altered. The peak area% at Rt of 5.1, 5.7, 6.4, 6.6, 6.9, 7.1, 7.4, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.2, 8.5, and 8.9 minutes of the treated sample were increased in the range of 0.92% to 14.67% compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.2, 5.3, 5.4, 5.6, 6.8, 8.1, 8.4, 8.6, 9.0, 9.1, and 9.2 minutes were decreased by 1.59% to 36.69% with respect to the control sample. A total of 14 withanolides such as sitoindoside IX, dihydrowithanolide D, withanolide A, withaferin A, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, withanolide sulfoxide, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 605, 489, 473, 471, 505, and 992 at retention times of 6.9, 7.1, 7.9, 8.2, 8.5, and 9.3 minutes with the help of LC-MS, GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. Consequently, the mass peak intensities of the treated sample were significantly changed in the range of -36.67% to 106% compared with the control sample at the same retention time. These findings suggest that Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be advantageous for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of ashwagandha extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, arthritis, stress, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[214] viXra:1707.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 08:25:08

Standing Waves

Authors: John Atwell Moody
Comments: Pages.

Contents

Part I
O(j) is not fully equivariant if j is odd
Representations of SO3
Eigenfunctions of the Laplacian
Attempts to explain the periodic table
Attempts to explain atomic spectra

Part II
Three corrections to the fine structure
A discussion of perturbation theory
Half-integer values of l – first explanation
Generalities about the Hamiltonian formulation
Schroedinger’s function W
Half-integer values of l – other explanations
The atom
Schroedinger’s choice of solutions
Residues
The canonical divisor and j quantum number
Intuitive description of polarization
Relation between smooth and holomorphic Laplacian operators
A coincidence about the periodic table
Linear systems of wave forms
Hodge theory
The Levi-Civita action is not Lagrangian for its Riemann metric
Foundations
Unification of the various coupling schemes
Discussion of the problem of non-convergent integrals
The ethics of science
First concepts of the Lamb shift
A question about Pauli exclusion
The notion of probability
Concluding remark
False fine structure
Electron spin and Pauli exclusion
It was not the right conclusion

Category: Chemistry

[213] viXra:1707.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 04:51:48

Atomistic Description of the Hydration Process of Graphene Oxide

Authors: Antenor Neto, Vitaly V. Chaban, Eudes E. Fileti
Comments: 18 Pages.

Hydration of graphene oxide (GO) is an important process for most of areas planning to use it in practical applications. This process is described in this work by molecular dynamics atomistic simulations for seven different models for GO at different levels of oxygenation. Two charge models for GO were considered: a simplified one, where sp2 carbons were treated as LJ uncharged sites and another with charges at all sites obtained by the CHELPG scheme. We observed that the structural properties suffer little or no effect in relation to the charge model, on the other hand the energetics is much more sensitive. Our model employing CHELPG charges shows that the simplified model tends to overestimate the GO/water interaction energy. For all of the investigated systems, hydration free energy values are in the range of -5 to -45 kJ mol-1 indicating that hydration is a favorable process for all investigated systems. The results presented here is relevant in the context of several applications, such as the use of GOs as electrodes in supercapacitors or inhibitors in processes involving biological molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[212] viXra:1706.0556 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:02:24

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is a source of zinc used in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 23.18% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly decreased by 3.70%, 4.13%, and 6.13%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was increased by 4.21% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control sample was found at 512 cm-1, whereas it was significantly shifted upward to 520 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 197.6 nm and 197.1 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting temperature was decreased by 0.22%, while decomposition temperature was increased by 2.56% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (320.44 J/g) was significantly decreased by 16.70% compared with the control sample (284.67 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (952.53 J/g) was significantly increased by 122.61% compared with the control sample (427.90 J/g). Thus, the results indicated that the thermal stability of the treated zinc chloride was improved compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a thermally stable new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[211] viXra:1706.0555 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:03:04

Influence of the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment on Physicochemical, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha (Withania Somnifera) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Ashwagandha (Withania somnifera) is a well-known traditional medicinal herb and its root extract have a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physicochemical, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size distribution values of the treated sample at d10, and d50 were increased by 16.94% and 8.01%, respectively, whereas at d90 particle size value was decreased by 7.02% compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was decreased by 4.17% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.2 nm. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 1.13% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. Similarly, the DTG analysis revealed that the maximum thermal degradation temperature in the treated sample was increased by 0.14% compared to the control the sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the vaporization temperature and the latent heat of vaporization of the treated sample were increased by 1.45% and 11.30%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, onset, peak, endset melting temperature and the latent heat of fusion of the treated sample were significantly increased by 18.90%, 18.86%, 20.18%, and 511.11%, respectively compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[210] viXra:1706.0554 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:03:57

Influence of the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an important nutraceutical/pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed a significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -34.41% to 33.27% compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 7.85% compared with the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly reduced by 4.72%, 8.40%, and 32.33%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6.25% compared to the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 886 cm-1 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 204.6 and 204.9 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced significantly by 5.64% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (94.63°C) had very close vaporization temperature than the control sample (94.97°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was increased significantly in the treated sample by 7.06% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[209] viXra:1706.0553 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-30 01:04:31

Evaluation of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very useful herbal medicine since from ancient time. The current study designed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural properties of the ashwagandha root hydroalcoholic extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control (without treatment), while other part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis revealed that the retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area % at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.3, 5.5, 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 6.9, 7.1, 7.3, 7.8, 7.9, 8.0, 8.2, 8.4, 8.6, 8.8, 9.0, 9.1, and 10.1 minutes were significantly reduced by 0.57% to 38.10% compared to the control sample. In addition, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.7, 6.7, and 8.1 minutes were significantly increased by 16.00%, 244.44% and 19.62%, respectively compared with the control sample. A total of 21 withanolides such as withanoside IV, coagulin Q, viscosa lactone B, withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A and withanolide sulfoxide, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide sulfoxide, withanolide B, etc. were proposed with their structure from the molecular mass at m/z 783, 569, 621, 489, 473, 767, 471, 505, 992, and 455 at retention times of 6.4, 6.5, 6.8, 7.1, 7.9, 8.1, 8.4, 9.1, and 10.1 minutes with the help of GC-MS and NMR data of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples. There were significant changes observed in the peak intensity values at the same retention time in the Biofield Energy Treated sample in the range of -75.32% to 108.51% compared with the control sample. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[208] viXra:1706.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:37:08

Impact on the Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of Zinc Chloride after Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important inorganic compound used as a source of zinc in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 16.31% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 were significantly decreased by 11.54%, 7.75%, and 1.34%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 8.36% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in both the control and treated samples were found at 516 cm-1. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 196.6 nm and 196.4 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were increased by 1.25% and 0.21%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (434.97 J/g) was significantly increased by 84.74% compared with the control sample (235.45 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (1241.86 J/g) was significantly increased by 307.21% compared with the control sample (304.97 J/g). So, the treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a thermally more stable new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[207] viXra:1706.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:37:52

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate After the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate was considered for the current study, which is an important nutrient used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, inflammatory diseases, diabetes, etc. The objective of the current study was to examine the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on the physico-chemical, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate sample was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and termed as the treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed that the crystallite size of the treated sample significantly altered in the range of -50.01% to 59.97% compared to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.32% compared with the control sample. The PSD analysis indicated that the particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were increased by 6.84%, 8.04%, and 3.04%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly decreased by 7.41% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 887 and 888 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching in the control and treated sample, respectively. The wavelength of maximum absorbance from the UV-vis spectroscopic analysis of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (205.2 nm) was increased by 0.39% compared to the control sample (204.4 nm). The TGA analysis revealed the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly reduced by 12.63% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the vaporization temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (95.14°C) was increased compared to the control sample (94.28°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was decreased significantly in the treated sample by 43.67% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate would be helpful for designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations against immunological disorders, inflammatory diseases, aging, stress, infectious diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[206] viXra:1706.0535 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:38:34

Characterization of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate: An Effect of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is a source of an essential nutrient selenium used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, heart diseases, viral diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, etc. The aim of the study was to investigate the impact of Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the physico-chemical, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control/untreated sample, while another part was treated with Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the treated sample. The PXRD diffractograms showed sharp and intense peaks in both the samples, indicated both the samples were crystalline in nature. The crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly altered in the range of -16.66% to 50.07% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 9.57% compared to the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly increased by 9.47%, 19.06%, and 27.81%, respectively compared with the control sample. Thus, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.16% compared to the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 888 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching. The wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the control and Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate were at 206.3 nm and 205.9 nm, respectively in UV-vis spectroscopy. TGA analysis indicated that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 0.71% compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the vaporization temperature of the treated sample (94.97°C) was slightly decreased compared to the control sample (95.30°C). But, the latent heat of vaporization was significantly increased in the treated sample by 45.31% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate, which would have better powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. The Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations which might offer a better therapeutic response against cancer, inflammatory diseases, infectious diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, Alzheimer’s disease, heart diseases, viral diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[205] viXra:1706.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:39:26

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Sodium Selenate: Influence of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is an inorganic nutraceutical/pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The current research article was aimed to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, spectral, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample which was received The Trivedi Effect® remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers. A significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample was observed in the range of -42.87% to 39.99% compared to the control sample. Consequently, the average crystallite size was significantly enhanced in the treated sample by 5.07% compared with the control sample. The particle size distribution of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly reduced by 7.68%, 9.49%, and 4.08%, respectively compared with the control sample. Subsequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 8.16% compared with the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra exhibited the sharp and strong vibration bands at 889 cm-1 and 888 cm-1, respectively for Se=O stretching. The control and treated samples displayed the maximum absorbance at 204.9 nm and 204.5 nm, respectively. A significant reduction of total weight loss by 6.11% in the treated sample indicated the improvement of the thermal stability of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The vaporization temperature of the treated sample (95.68°C) was higher with a significant reduced latent heat of vaporization by 60.80% compared to the control sample (95.29°C). Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, dissolution rate, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very suitable to design improved nutraceutical and pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic response against several diseases such as stress, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, infectious diseases, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[204] viXra:1706.0533 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 04:40:06

Characterization of the Physicochemical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride After the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is used as a source of zinc in various pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 16.43% compared with the control sample. The particles size values of the treated sample at d10 was decreased by 2.42%, whereas at d50, and d90 it was increased slightly by 0.43%, and 0.57%, respectively compared to the control sample. Therefore, the surface area of the treated sample was increased by 1.63% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control sample was found at 511 cm-1, whereas it was shifted downward to 508 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of the control and treated samples were at 196.4 nm and 196.2 nm, respectively. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting temperature was not altered significantly, while the decomposition temperature was increased by 0.45% in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (402.09 J/g) was significantly increased by 29.78% compared with the control sample (309.83 J/g). Similarly, the enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample (243.13 J/g) was significantly decreased by 61.18% compared with the control sample (626.37 J/g). This indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample might be improved compared to the control sample. The current study anticipated that the Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally more stable compared with the control sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against immunological disorders, inflammatory diseases, stress, aging, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[203] viXra:1706.0516 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:36:21

LC-MS and NMR Based Structural Characterization and Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with the Consciousness Energy Healing

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is widely used pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The present study was designed to explore the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and Biofield Energy Treated samples indicated the presence of mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min and fragmentation pattern of both samples were almost identical. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions were significantly altered in the treated sample compared to the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra of the control and treated samples were found same. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 48.87% compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 29.18% compared with the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its altered physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[202] viXra:1706.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:37:05

Study of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important pharmaceutical/nutraceutical mineral for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks were observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample with respect to the control sample. A sharp peak at 2θ equal to 51.45°, which was observed in the control sample was disappeared in the treated sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 2.13% compared with the control sample. The size of the particles at d10, d50, and d90 was decreased by 3.36%, 7.97%, and 11.51%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.69% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control was 646 cm-1, whereas it was significantly shifted downward to 505 cm-1 in the treated sample. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the control and treated samples was at 196.4 nm. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were increased by 0.93% and 0.56%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The enthalpy of fusion of the treated sample (338.27 J/g) was increased significantly by 33.84% compared with the control sample (252.75 J/g). The enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample was increased by 3.78% compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[201] viXra:1706.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:38:01

Evaluation of Physicochemical, Spectral, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of the Biofield Energy Healing Treated Sodium Selenate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is used for the prevention and treatment of cancer, diabetes, inflammatory diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of sodium selenate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -49.99% to 50.01% compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 0.72% compared with the control sample. Overall, the crystal morphology of the treated sample was different from the control sample. The particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 values were significantly decreased by 3.71%, 6.72%, and 26.17%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 6% from the control sample. The control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 886 cm-1 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 204.8 and 204.9 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 4.93% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (95.10°C) had higher vaporization temperature than the control sample (94.80°C). The latent heat of vaporization was increased significantly in the treated sample by 14.68% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[200] viXra:1706.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:38:47

Effects of the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on Physical, Spectroscopic, Thermal and Behavioral Properties of Ashwagandha Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract contains lot of biologically active metabolites, which have a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study was designed to evaluate the effects of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, thermal and behavioral properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment and another part was treated with the Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 of the treated sample were decreased by 8.41%, 0.51%, and 7.88%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.3 and 205.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.65% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the onset, peak, and endset vaporization temperature of the treated sample were significantly increased by 41.97%, 23.51%, and 8.82%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The latent heat of vaporization (∆H) of the treated (239.96 J/g) sample was significantly increased by 39.84% compared with the control (171.60 J/g) sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The current findings suggested that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[199] viXra:1706.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-28 01:39:34

Characterization of Physical, Structural, Thermal, and Behavioral Properties of the Consciousness Healing Treated Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride is an important pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a source of zinc. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, thermal, and behavioral properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant alteration of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample compared with the control sample. A sharp peak at 2θ equal to 16.58° was observed in the control sample, but it was disappeared in the treated sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 21.31% compared with the control sample. The particle size values at d10, d50, and d90 were significantly decreased by 8.15%, 6.28%, and 5.26%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 7.14% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample were found at 510 cm-1 and 511 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance (λmax) of both the control and treated samples was at 196 nm. The DSC analysis exhibited that the melting and decomposition temperature were decreased by 0.29% and 0.28%, respectively in the treated zinc chloride compared to the control sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample (370.48 J/g) was increased significantly by 97.71% compared with the control sample (187.39 J/g). This results indicated that zinc chloride need more heat energy to undergo the process of melting after Biofield Energy Treatment. The enthalpy of decomposition of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 15.40% compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, bioavailable and latent heat of fusion compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[198] viXra:1706.0504 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:34:12

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate has the wide application for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The objective of the current study was to investigate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 minutes with almost similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were observed almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the percentage of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly increased in treated sample by 80.38%, compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly increased compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[197] viXra:1706.0503 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:35:20

An Impact of Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 13 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a potent antioxidant used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesia. The current research was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -37.52% to 180.14% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was reduced in the treated sample by 0.11% compared with the control sample. PSD analysis revealed that the particle sizes in the treated sample at d10 and d50 values were significantly decreased by 11.36% and 8.25%, respectively, while the particle size at d90 was increased in the treated sample by 2.43% compared with the control sample. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly increased by 9.54% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed the four steps thermal degradation of the both samples and the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 2.32% compared with the control sample. This result indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was improved compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting temperature of the treated sample (171.05°C) was decreased by 0.17% compared with the control sample (171.34°C). The latent heat of fusion was decreased by 1.16% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[196] viXra:1706.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:36:28

Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min with almost similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) were significantly decreased in the treated sample by 35.97% and 66.77%, respectively compared with the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly reduced compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[195] viXra:1706.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:37:27

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is an organometallic pharmaceutical compound used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The objective of the current research work was to examine the influence of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the alteration in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably altered from -63.63% to 80.14% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly reduced by 22.14% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The particle size values in the treated sample at d10 and d50 values were significantly decreased by 4.41% and 8.67% respectively, whereas at d90 value was increased by 3.99% compared to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.21% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that structure of the magnesium gluconate remained identical in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis shown four steps thermal degradation of both the samples and the total weight loss of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 4.29% compared with the control sample. The melting temperature of the control and treated samples were 171.02°C and 170.93°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 32.33% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The TGA and DSC analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was significantly improved compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might produce a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable along with improved thermal stability compared with the untreated compound. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[194] viXra:1706.0500 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 00:38:58

Evaluation of the Impact of the Trivedi Effect® -Energy of Consciousness on the Structure and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical pharmaceutical/nutraceutical compound used as a magnesium ion source for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesemia. The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by twenty renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of both the control and treated samples indicated the presence of mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.52 min and fragmentation pattern of the both sample were almost similar. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions were significantly changed in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were observed almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 17.51% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 79.44% compared to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in treated sample were significantly altered compared with the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors using its kinetic isotope effects. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[193] viXra:1706.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:39:13

Evaluation of the Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sodium selenate is a common ingredient in nutraceuticals/pharmaceuticals as a source of selenium. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect® Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, DSC, and TGA. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis of the treated sample showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size in the range of -16.63% to 42.9% compared with the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sodium selenate was increased by 1.01% compared with the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 6.14%, 16.56%, and 18.82%, respectively compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 10.52% compared with the control sample. Both control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 888 and 887 cm-1, respectively due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated sodium selenate were at 204.8 and 204.9 nm, respectively. The TGA of the control and treated samples exhibited two steps of thermal degradation, and the total weight loss was slightly increased by 1.16% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The DSC thermograms showed the latent heat of fusion (ΔH) was significantly elevated by 6.37% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness (Biofield Energy Healing) might generate a new polymorphic form of sodium selenate which could be more soluble, thermally more stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and/or pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against heart disease (i. e. Atherosclerosis), viral diseases (i. e. Hepatitis), infectious diseases (i. e. Dermatitis, Psoriasis), Parkinson’s Disease, Alzheimer’s Disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[192] viXra:1706.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:40:09

A Comprehensive Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Characterization of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract possesses a broad range of pharmacological activities. The aim of current study was to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the control and The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated samples were amorphous in nature. The particle size values at d10 and d50 of the treated sample were decreased by 4.66% and 6.02% and at d90 slightly increased by 0.99% compared with the control sample. The average surface area of the treated (0.130 m2/g) sample was increased by 4.84% compared with the control (0.124 m2/g) sample. The FT-IR results suggested that the force constant of O-H (stretching), and C-O (stretching) functional groups of the treated sample were reduced compared with the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.4 nm and 205.6 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms exhibited three steps of the degradation process, and the total weight loss of the treated (86.45%) sample was increased by 1.44% compared with the control (85.22%) sample. The DSC analysis revealed that melting point of the treated (201.67°C) sample was reduced by 0.87% compared with the control (203.43°C) sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated (6.77 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 21.82% compared to the control (8.67 J/g) sample. Hence, the treated sample would be more advantageous for the better therapeutic responses compared to the control sample. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, dissolution, absorption, and bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various forms of pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[191] viXra:1706.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:41:51

Liquid Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry (LC-MS) Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract Treated with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (Energy of Consciousness) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The LC-MS analysis of the control and treated samples showed a very close retention time (Rt), indicated that the polarity of the phytoconstituents present in the root extract are same. The numbers of peaks observed in the total ion chromatograms were 28 and 29 in the control and treated samples, respectively. The change in the peak height% of the phytoconstituents in the treated sample was altered significantly within the range of -50.91% to 118.12% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the change in the peak area% of most of the phytoconstituents in the treated ashwagandha was significantly altered within the range of -54.95% to 66.95% compared with the control sample. An additional peak was appeared in the treated sample at Rt of 5.72 minutes, which was not found in the control sample. The LC-MS spectra indicated the presence of possible withanolides like -hydroxy-2,3-dihydro-withanolide F, withanolide A, withaferine A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A, withanolide S, thiowithanolide, etc. in both the samples. The peak are percentage (%) was altered in the identified withanolides, but withanolide sulfoxide was increased significantly by 12.44% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. These results indicated that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have an impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract. This could be the probable cause of alteration in the peak height, peak area, and appearance of a new peak in the treated sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better pharmaceutical/nutraceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, ulcer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[190] viXra:1706.0475 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:43:06

Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) on Withania Somnifera Root Extract Using Gas Chromatography – Mass Spectrometry and Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The objective of the study was to characterize and evaluate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract using GC-MS and NMR. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the other part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treated sample, which received The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The GC-MS data indicated that the peak height and peak area of The Trivedi Effect® treated sample were found to be altered compared with the control sample. The peak height of the phytoconstituents present in the treated ashwagandha sample was altered significantly in the range of -8.32% to 89.25% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the peak area of the treated sample was altered significantly in the range of -4.28% to 216.30% compared with the control sample. Overall, the change in the peak area% of the treated sample was significantly altered in the range of -18.29% to 170.18% compared with the control sample. The GC-MS and NMR analysis results identified the presence of withanolides such as glyco-withanolides, alkaloids, and sugars in the root extract in both the sample. The peak area of 2,3,4,5-tetrahydropyridazine (1), methyl ethyl sulfoxide (2), 5,6-dihydro-2-methyl-4(H)pyran-3,4-dione (4), diethoxy-2-methyl-propane (5), 2,3,4,5-tetrahydroxy-tetrahydro-pyran (6), and 3,4-dimethyl-2(3H)-furanone (7) were significantly increased by 170.18%, 58.21%, 7.74%, 139.50%, 23.16%, and 45.63%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. On the contrary, the peak area% of 2-hydroxy--butyrolactone (3) was decreased by -14.96% in the treated ashwagandha compared with the control sample. From the results, it can be hypothesized that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Treatment might have the impact on the intrinsic physicochemical properties of the phytoconstituents present in the ashwagandha root extract and responsible for the alteration in the relative peak height/area of treated sample compared with the control sample. As a result, the concentrations of the phytoconstituents assumed to be increased in treated sample compared with the control sample. This treated ashwagandha root extract would be helpful for designing better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations which might be providing a better therapeutic response against autoimmune diseases, nervous and sexual disorders, infectious diseases, antiaging, diabetes, cancer, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[189] viXra:1706.0474 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 01:44:10

Characterization of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a potent antioxidant and widely used for the prevention and treatment of hypomagnesia. The current research was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that the crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from -24.96% to 99.98% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly increased by 7.79% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. PSD analysis revealed that the particle sizes in The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample at d10, d50/ and d90 values were decreased by 5.36%, 11.35% and 0.90%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that surface area of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was significantly increased by 7.48% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed four steps thermal degradation of both the samples and the total weight loss of Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.12% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis demonstrated that the melting temperature of the Biofield Energy Treated sample (171.29°C) was increased by 0.18% compared with the control sample (170.99°C). The latent heat of fusion was significantly increased by 27.09% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study revealed that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. The Biofield Treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, The Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[188] viXra:1706.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:33:11

Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties Analysis in Magnesium Gluconate: An Effect of the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is an organometallic pharmaceutical/nutraceutical used for the prevention and treatment of various diseases caused by the low level of magnesium. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physicochemical, thermal, structural, and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using powder PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-visible, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as the control, while the another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited the significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly altered from -39.99% to 62.57% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was decreased by 9.71% compared with the control sample. Particle size of the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly increased by 5.36%, 23.10% and 11.11%, respectively compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 9.76% compared to the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structural characteristic of the magnesium gluconate remained same in the treated sample compared with control sample. The TGA data revealed that the weight loss of the treated sample in the first and third steps of degradation was increased by 31.58% and 5.94%, respectively, whereas in the second step of degradation, the weight loss was decreased by 7.57% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were at 170.29°C and 169.76°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion of the treated sample was increased by 4.18% compared with the control sample. The current study evaluated that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of the magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble, powder flowability and long-term storage stability compared with the control sample. Hence, the Trivedi Effect® Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[187] viXra:1706.0454 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:34:14

Evaluation of Structural Properties and Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated (The Trivedi Effect®) Magnesium Gluconate Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The current research work was designed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) by using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®- Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The LC-MS analysis of the both control and treated samples revealed the presence of the mass of the protonated magnesium gluconate at m/z 415 at the retention time of 1.53 min with similar fragmentation pattern. The relative peak intensities of the fragment ions of the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated sample was significantly increased by 34.33% compared with the control sample. Subsequently, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 64.08% as compared to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O, and 25Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 416; 18O and 26Mg contributions from (C12H23MgO14)+ to m/z 417 in the treated sample were significantly changed compared with the control sample. Thus, the treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate might be supportive to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[186] viXra:1706.0453 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:35:18

Evaluation of Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 13 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on magnesium gluconate for the change in the physicochemical, structural, thermal and behavioral properties using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, while another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by seven renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -69.99% to 71.40% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was significantly decreased in the treated sample by 13.61% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size in the treated sample at d10, d50, and d90 value was significantly decreased by 5.19%, 26.77%, and 18.22%, respectively compared with the control sample. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (12.82%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of the magnesium gluconate remained the same in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed the four steps thermal degradation of the both samples and the total weight loss of the Biofield Energy Treated sample was increased by 0.55% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting temperature of the treated sample (171.72°C) was increased by 0.21% compared with the control sample (171.36°C). The latent heat of fusion was increased by 4.66% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. This result indicated that the thermal stability of treated sample was improved compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Biofield Energy Healing might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical/pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[185] viXra:1706.0452 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:36:45

Investigation of Physicochemical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Sodium Selenate Treated with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Sodium selenate is used for the prevention and treatment of various disorders like cancer, diabetes, inflammation diseases, etc. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physicochemical, spectral, and thermal properties of The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Treated sodium selenate using various analytical methods such as PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Sodium selenate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any treatment and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated sample. The PXRD analysis showed the significant alteration of the crystallite size of the treated sample in the range of -36.36% to 133.24% as compared to the control sample. However, the average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly decreased by 8.31% as compared to the control sample. Overall, the crystal morphology of the treated sample was different from the control sample. The particle sizes d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 3.40%, 9.75%, and 8.52%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 5.26% from the control sample. Both the control and treated FT-IR spectra indicated the presence of sharp and strong absorption bands at 887 cm-1 due to the Se=O stretching. The UV-vis spectroscopic analysis displayed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 204.1 and 204.0 nm, respectively. TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 1.24% as compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the treated sample (588.77°C) had higher melting point than the control sample (588.60°C). The latent heat of fusion was reduced in the treated sample by 8.01% compared to the control sample. Thus, The Trivedi Effect®-Biofield Energy Healing might lead to generate a new polymorphic (enantiotropic) form of sodium selenate which would be more soluble, bioavailable, and thermally stable compared with the untreated sample. The Trivedi Effect treated sodium selenate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging, infectious diseases, cancer, diabetes, heart diseases, Alzheimer’s disease, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[184] viXra:1706.0451 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:41:51

Impact of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on Physical, Spectroscopic, and Thermal Properties of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract and their active metabolites possess a broad range of pharmacological activities. The current study aimed to explore the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the physical, spectroscopic, and thermal properties of ashwagandha root extract using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control without any and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited that both the treated and control samples were amorphous in nature. The particle sizes at d10, d50, and d90 values of the treated sample were significantly decreased by 12.23%, 10.97%, and 1.25%, respectively with respect to the control sample. The surface area analysis revealed that the surface area of the treated sample was significantly increased by 14.29% as compared to the control sample. The FT-IR analysis indicated the alteration of the force constant for the functional groups of the treated sample in comparison to the control sample. The UV-vis analysis revealed that the wavelength for the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples were at 205.8 and 206.0 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis revealed that the total weight loss was decreased by 0.70% in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. This indicated that the treated sample was thermally more stable as compared to the control sample. The DSC analysis indicated that the melting point of the treated sample (190.48°C) was decreased by 4.91% than the control sample (203.45°C). The latent heat of fusion of the treated (4.94 J/g) sample was significantly decreased by 42.96% compared with the control (8.66 J/g) sample. The current findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) might have the astounding capacity to enhance the solubility, absorption, dissolution, and finally, bioavailability of ashwagandha root extract in various form of pharmaceutical and nutraceutical formulation by modifying its particle size and surface area. Thus, the treated ashwagandha root extract might provide better therapeutic response against against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[183] viXra:1706.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-24 01:42:50

LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR Spectroscopic Analysis of Withania Somnifera (Ashwagandha) Root Extract After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

Withania somnifera (Ashwagandha) root extract is very popular ancient herbal medicine. The current study was designed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural characterization of the ashwagandha root extract using LC-MS, GC-MS, and NMR spectroscopy. Ashwagandha root extract was divided into two parts – one part was control, without any Biofield Energy Healing Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The retention time of the phytoconstituents remained same in both the control and treated samples, whereas the peak area% at respective retention time was significantly altered. The peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 5.35, 5.55, 5.94, 6.25, 6.63, 6.76, 7.92, 8.04, 8.60, 8.73, and 9.31 min were significantly reduced by 6.15% to 60.67% compared with the control sample at Rt of 5.43, 5.65, 5.95, 6.29, 6.76, 6.85, 8.03, 8.14, 8.68, 8.78, and 9.30 min. Consequently, the peak area% of the treated sample at Rt of 7.25, 7.30, 8.27, and 8.47 min were significantly increased by 26.32%, 7.99%, 16.93% and 7.97% compared with the control sample at Rt of 7.37, 7.41, 8.36, and 8.55 min, respectively. A total of 13 withanolides were proposed with their structure from the deduced molecular mass at m/z 470, 472, 488, 504, 782, and 991 through LC-MS, GC-MS, 1H and 13C NMR analysis of both the control and treated samples. Viscosa lactone B, 27-hydroxy withanolide A, (20S, 22R)-α, 6α-epoxy-β, 5β, 27-trihydroxy-1-oxowitha-24-enolide, (20S, 22R)-4β, 5β, 6α, 27-tetrahydroxy-1-oxo-with-2, 24-dienolide were proposed in the control and treated samples at Rt of 6.85 and 7.30 min, respectively. Dihydrowithanolide D was only identified in the control sample at Rt of 7.41 min, whereas withanoside IV or withanoside VI was only present in the Biofield Treated sample at Rt of 6.76 min. Withanolide A, withaferin A, withanone, withanolide D, ixocarpalactone A and withanolide sulfoxide were found in both the control and treated samples. These findings suggest that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment could be beneficial for altering the concentration of the phytoconstituents in the ashwagandha root extract by modifying their intrinsic physicochemical properties, which might be helpful to improve the bioavailability of active constituents of W. somnifera extract that might provide better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, arthritis, cancer, diabetes, sexual disorders, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[182] viXra:1706.0442 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-22 23:58:44

Evaluation of the Impact of Biofield Energy Healing Treatment (The Trivedi Effect®) on the Physicochemical, Thermal, Structural, and Behavioral Properties of Magnesium Gluconate

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Magnesium gluconate is a classical organometallic salt used for the prevention and treatment of magnesium deficiency diseases. The objective of the current research was to explore the influence of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the physicochemical, thermal and behavioral properties of magnesium gluconate using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis spectroscopy, TGA, and DSC analysis. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control without any Biofield Energy Treatment, while another part was treated with the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Biofield Energy Treated sample. The PXRD analysis exhibited significant alteration of the crystal morphology of the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of the treated sample was remarkably changed from range -33.33% to 66.65% compared with the control sample. The average crystallite size was increased in the treated sample by 6.13% compared with the control sample. Particle size analysis revealed that the particle size at d10 value was significantly reduced in the treated sample by 13.20% compared with the control sample, although the particle size at d50 and d90 values were increased in the treated sample by 2.75% and 3.72%, respectively. The treated sample’s surface area was significantly enhanced (6.96%) compared with the control sample. The FT-IR and UV-vis analysis showed that the structure of magnesium gluconate remained similar in both the treated and control samples. The TGA analysis revealed that the weight loss of the first and second degradation steps in the treated sample was significantly decreased by 2.89% and 8.43%, respectively compared with the control sample, whereas at the third degradation step, the weight loss was enhanced by 14.80% compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis revealed that the melting point of the control and treated samples were 170.23°C and 170.25°C, respectively. The latent heat of fusion was significantly decreased by 6.15% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The current study infers that The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to a new polymorphic form of magnesium gluconate, which could be more soluble and bioavailable compared with the untreated compound. Hence, the Biofield Energy Treated magnesium gluconate would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic responses against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, stress, aging and other chronic infections.
Category: Chemistry

[181] viXra:1706.0441 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:00:41

Structural and Natural Isotopic Abundance Analysis of Magnesium Gluconate Treated with Energy of Consciousness (The Trivedi Effect®) Using LC-MS and NMR

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research article was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts – one part was control, and another part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. The liquid chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample displayed these peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.03 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the Trivedi Effect® Treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered as compared to the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and the treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in two magnesium gluconate ion forms at m/z 447 and 415 in treated sample was significantly decreased by 59.82% and 55.44%, respectively compared with the control sample. The percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM (18O/16O or 26Mg/24Mg) was remarkably decreased in the magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 447 in the treated sample by 78.26% compared with the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in gluconate ion in the treated sample was significantly increased by 37.35% with respect to the control sample. Thus, the Trivedi Effect® treated magnesium gluconate could be valuable for designing better pharmaceutical and/or nutraceutical formulations through its changed physicochemical and thermal properties, which might be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergies, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. The treated magnesium gluconate might be helpful to design the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[180] viXra:1706.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 00:02:16

A Comprehensive Analytical Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment on the Physical, Structural, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 12 Pages.

Zinc chloride has an importance in pharmaceutical and nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts – one part was control, while other part was treated with The Trivedi Effect® remotely by eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers and defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample. A significant change of the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks was observed in The Trivedi Effect® treated sample with respect to the control sample. The average crystallite size of the treated sample was significantly increased by 41.22% compared with the control sample. The size of the particles at d10, d50, and d90 was increased by 8.33%, 6.27%, and 1.83%, respectively in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The surface area of the treated sample was decreased by 5.90% compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample were at 511 and 507 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that wavelength of the maximum absorbance of both the control and treated samples were at 196.4 and 196.3 nm, respectively. The TGA analysis exhibited that weight loss of the treated sample was reduced by 13.98% and 2.43% in the 1st and 2nd steps of degradation, respectively. Consequently, the DSC analysis revealed that the maximum thermal decomposition temperature of the treated sample (489.06°C) was significantly increased by 15.75% compared with the control sample (422.50°C). Moreover, a significant increase in the enthalpy of decomposition was noticed in the treated sample (ΔHdecomp = 131.40 J/g) by 137.10% compared with the control sample (ΔHdecomp = 55.42 J/g). The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect® Treatment might lead to produce a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which could have better powder flowability and thermal stability. The treated sample could be more stable during manufacturing, delivery or storage conditions than the untreated sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride would be very useful to design better nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical formulations that might offer better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[179] viXra:1706.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:18:06

Evaluation of the Trivedi Effect®- Energy of Consciousness Energy Healing Treatment on the Physical, Spectral, and Thermal Properties of Zinc Chloride

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Zinc chloride has the importance in pharmaceutical/nutraceutical industries for the prevention and treatment of several diseases. The objective of the current study was to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing Treatment) on physical, structural, and thermal properties of zinc chloride using PXRD, PSD, FT-IR, UV-vis, TGA, and DSC analysis. Zinc chloride was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control without any, while the other part was defined as the Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Trivedi Effect® Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The PXRD analysis revealed that the crystallite size and relative intensities of the PXRD peaks significantly altered in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The crystallite size of treated sample was decreased by 4.19% compared with the control sample. The particle size at d10 and d50 of the Biofield Energy Treated sample decreased by 4.72% and 2.70%, respectively compared with the control sample. But, the particle size of the treated sample increased at d90 by 0.83 compared with the control sample. Consequently, the surface area was increased by 3.22% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The FT-IR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Zn-Cl stretching in the control and treated sample was at 520 cm-1 and 521 cm-1, respectively. The UV-vis analysis exhibited that the wavelength of the maximum absorbance of the control and treated samples was at 196.4 and 196.2 nm, respectively. The TGA thermograms revealed two steps of the thermal degradation and the weight loss of the treated sample was significantly reduced by 22.54% in the 1st step of degradation compared with the control sample. The DSC analysis showed that the enthalpy of decomposition was significantly increased by 34.9% in the treated sample (89.17 J/g) compared with the control sample (66.10 J/g). Overall, DSC and TGA analysis indicated that the thermal stability of the treated sample was increased compared with the control sample. The current study anticipated that The Trivedi Effect®-Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment might lead to generate a new polymorphic form of zinc chloride, which would be more soluble, stable, and higher absorption rate compared with the control sample. Hence, the treated zinc chloride could be very useful to design the various forms of nutraceuticals and pharmaceutical formulation which might be providing a better therapeutic response against inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, aging, stress, cancer, etc.
Category: Chemistry

[178] viXra:1706.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-23 01:19:12

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio and Structural Properties of Magnesium Gluconate After Treatment with the Energy of Consciousness Using LC-MS and NMR Spectroscopy

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 11 Pages.

The current research work was aimed to investigate the impact of The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treatment (Biofield Energy Healing) on the structural properties and isotopic abundance ratio (PM+1/PM) of magnesium gluconate using LC-MS and NMR spectroscopy. Magnesium gluconate was divided into two parts. One part was denoted as the control, while the another part was defined as The Trivedi Effect® Treated sample, which received the Biofield Energy Healing Treatment remotely from eighteen renowned Biofield Energy Healers. The total ion chromatogram of the control sample showed two peaks at Rt of 1.81 and 2.06 min, whereas the treated sample displayed peaks at Rt of 1.79 and 2.04 min. The ESI-MS spectra of the control and the treated samples revealed the presence of the mass for magnesium gluconate ion in two forms at m/z 447 (adduct form with methanol) and 415 (protonated ion) in positive ionization mode. But, it showed the mass for the gluconate ion at m/z 195 in the negative ionization mode. The fragmentation pattern of magnesium gluconate in the treated sample was notably altered compared with the control sample. The proton and carbon signals for CH, CH2 and CO groups in the proton and carbon NMR spectra were found almost similar for the control and treated samples. The LC-MS based isotopic abundance ratio analysis indicated that the PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O or 25Mg/24Mg) in the treated magnesium gluconate ion at m/z 415 was significantly decreased by 79.24% compared with the control sample. Similarly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) in the gluconate ion was decreased by 6.62% in the treated sample compared with the control sample. The treated magnesium gluconate might be beneficial in the nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical industries for designing various forms of formulations, which could be providing better therapeutic response against various diseases such as diabetes mellitus, allergy, aging, inflammatory diseases, immunological disorders, and other chronic infections. Consequently, The Trivedi Effect® - Energy of Consciousness Healing Treated magnesium gluconate would be more helpful for understanding the enzymatic reactions as well as assist in the designing of the novel potent enzyme inhibitors by applying its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[177] viXra:1706.0019 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-03 02:58:58

Isomerism in Quantum Dots: Geometries, Band Gaps, Dipole Moments, Ionization Energies and Heats of Formation

Authors: ssor Vitaly V. Chaban
Comments: 6 Pages.

Quantum dots (QDs) are applied in a variety of fields ranging from photovoltaics to biomedical imaging. Even the smallest QDs present a complicated potential energy surface characterized by a large set of stationary points. Each local minimum is an isomer of QD of given composition. An established theoretical methodology is hereby employed to obtain geometries of the QD isomers (Cd16S16, Cd16Se16, Zn16S16, Zn16Se16) and predict their fundamental electronic and thermodynamic properties. Significantly scattered heats of formation, with a difference of up to 1304 kcal mol-1 between the most and least thermodynamically stable isomers (Cd16S16), were found. The most shallow transition points can unlikely be observed in the experiments at finite temperature, since they are able to transform into more stable isomers upon thermal motion. Dipole moment is the most sensitive property to the QD isomer geometry. A global energy search technique was demonstrated to be an efficient tool to systematically identify isomers of QDs.
Category: Chemistry

[176] viXra:1705.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-28 11:49:57

Anaerobic Peat Moss Water Treatment (A.p.w.t)

Authors: Ahmed Ibrahim Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 7 Pages, E-mail: 15004@stemegypt.edu.eg

Clear water and food supply are the base of a chain of issues that face the whole world. Hunger, malnutrition and high rate of death are all consequences of the main challenge, as 1.2 billion person suffer from hunger all over the world. The main challenge of the project is improving irrigation process by providing clear water suitable for irrigation, modifying both the irrigation system and the plants to increase the production. Purifying Sewage water by Down flow Anaerobic Peat moss Blanket (DAPB), using a modified drip irrigation system and inserting “Gibberellin” hormone for increasing the rate of the plant growth are believed to be useful solutions to achieve the main challenge. The project produces more amount of crops with higher efficiency and a little cost, so it meets the design requirements of any project (Production, efficiency and cost). The prototype of the project represents the water treatment process (Anaerobic Treatment) and tests the percentage of the purification of water (The efficiency). The results showed that the treated water TDS was less than 1000 mg/l (ppm) when it was measured by TDS Meter, so it is suitable for irrigation. In conclusion, test results showed that this project is the perfect solution to the challenge addressed.
Category: Chemistry

[175] viXra:1705.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 18:02:58

Banana Peels Based Bio-Plastic

Authors: Ahmed Ibrahim Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 7 Pages, E-mail: 15004@stemegypt.edu.eg

Every developed country depends on the industry as the main factor of its economy. Lack of exports, depression in both the general economy and the value of the currency are consequences of neglecting the industry. All countries work on increasing the efficiency of their industries by whether working on the input, the output, the cost or the time of the process. Plastic industry is considered one of the most important industries because plastic is an important factor in the making of many useful products such as sheets, tubes, rods, slabs, building blocks and domestic products. Making bio-plastic from banana peels instead of the traditional petroleum-based plastic is believed to be a successful solution to increase the efficiency of plastic industry. The solution produces the same amount of plastic with higher efficiency and durability and with a little cost in less time than normal plastic, so it meets the design requirements of any successful solution which are production, efficiency, and cost. The prototype of this project represents the process of manufacturing bio-plastic from banana peels and tests the durability and the efficiency of the plastic produced. The results showed that the plastic produced could bear the weight one and a half time more than petroleum-based plastic so it is suitable for being used in the making of traditional plastic products. In conclusion, test results showed that this project is the perfect solution to develop the plastic industry process.
Category: Chemistry

[174] viXra:1704.0345 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-26 05:16:15

A Reassessment of Nucleic Acid Melting

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 13 Pages.

A brief critique of DNA and RNA melting, particularly from a physico-chemical perspective, is presented. These melting phenomena have been employed to obtain quantitative estimates of the stability of putative base pairs, thus apparently bolstering the double helical structure of DNA. It is argued herein that the titled phenomena may not be what they seem: in particular, the strategy based on the van’t Hoff equation may not be valid, and alternative interpretations of the results merit serious consideration. These arguments cast a shadow on current views about nucleic acid structure and stability.
Category: Chemistry

[173] viXra:1703.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-11 18:44:23

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sodium Tantalate Nanocubes

Authors: Priya Karna, M. Ghimire, S. Mishra, S. Karna
Comments: 1 Page.

Experiments were conducted to optimize the growth parameters of perovskite structure of alkali tantalate in energy efficient and environment-friendly hydrothermal process. Here, we are presenting Sodium tantalates out of Lithium, Sodium, and Potassium Tantalates perovskites, which were grown at 140 degrees Centigrade for 15 hours in rich alkaline atmosphere. Sodium tantalate contains monoclinic crystal phase of perovskite structure with an average size of 70 nm. The morphological, compositional, structural, and thermal properties of as synthesized nanocubes were characterized by using scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[172] viXra:1702.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-24 08:30:24

Pharmacological Gene Therapy

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 81 Pages.

In this paper we elucidate a computational technique called the Omega Algorithm to automatically design genetically-active pharmaceuticals for the permanent correction of faulty DNA.
Category: Chemistry

[171] viXra:1702.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 17:57:09

Perovskite Tracking Solar Cell (PTSC)

Authors: Hossam Moustafa Moawad, Mohamed Khaled Ibrahim
Comments: 7 Pages. 9251289

The world’s needs for energy have been growing sharply, so Egypt is struggling to meet its own needs especially concerning fossil fuels. Solar energy plays an important role to reduce energy consumption. Based on Organolead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) show great promise as a new large scale and cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) have achieved over 15% within 18 months of development, and thus perovskite materials have attracted great attention in photovoltaic research. However, the manufacture of PSCs raises environmental concerns regarding the overproduction of raw lead ore, which has harmful health and ecological effects. Herein, we report an environmentally-responsible process to fabricate efficient PSCs by reusing car batteries to simultaneously avoid the disposal of toxic battery materials and provide an alternative, readily-available lead sources for PSCs. Moreover, we made tracking system by using electronics to make our PSC follow the sun like so the sun radiation always perpendicular on the cell. Overheat, dust and humidity impact negatively on PSC because it changes the chemical structure of perovskite film, hence we coated Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which makes our cell hydrophobic, has excellent temperature resistance and good resistance to certain acids and solvents so energy crisis can be solved by what is considered as (PTSC).
Category: Chemistry

[170] viXra:1702.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-13 00:48:16

Atrp – Polarizing / Depolarizing Functional Mechanism

Authors: Stefko B. Iliev
Comments: 24 Pages.

The Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) in the conventional – copper mediated variant is the main representative case of the controlled radical polymerizations (CRP). That’s why, the discussions of the new notions about the complex formation, polymer chains initiation, growth and termination are oriented to comparison with the reactions included in the conventional ATRP mechanism. The basic postulate of this mechanism is the opinion for reversible haloid atom transfer at every chain growth elementary act. This mechanism however, can not to explain the effect of the ATRP acceleration observed at the vinyl monomers polymerization under of magnetic field influence. That’s why, it is proposed a new functional mechanism named: ATRP – Polarizing / Depolarizing Functional Mechanism. The proposed theory submit that the monovalent copper complex chemical activity is a consequence from the complex brief-living molecular structure physical asymmetry. Because of this, the resulting effect is double electrostatic and electrochemical polarization of the complex molecules and following biphase depolarization at the chain grouth and the termination steps. This mechanism throw additional light not only on the ATRP reversible equilibrium and the haloid atom transfer effects, but also on the motive forces essence at all of the cases by transition metals mediated radical polymerizations with identical complex formation.
Category: Chemistry

[169] viXra:1701.0663 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 16:00:15

Urine Hydrogen Power (U.H.P)

Authors: Ahmed Ibrahim Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 7 Pages. E-mail: 15004@stemegypt.edu.eg

The whole world suffers from a huge problem which is the lack of energy whether it’s because the insufficient production or the increasing consumption and there are consequences for this problem such as increasing the percent of pollutants and harmful gases in the environment because of using use fossil fuel as a source of energy to compensate the lack of energy, so the whole tries to exploit alternative energies such as renewable energy because they’re clean, cheap and will solve the problem of energy. (Urine Hydrogen Power) is believed to be a huge factor in solving the energy problem as urine is going to be used to generate electricity. It’s an efficient, sustainable and economic solution since urine is produced everywhere, as humans alone are estimated to produce 6.4 trillion liters per year. The project will meet our grand challenge as we will work on renewable energy resources. This project is estimated to produce about 3 moles of Hydrogen with a weight of 6 grams from the electrolysis of one liter of urine, then the fuel cell is used to convert this hydrogen into energy to produce electricity by combining it with oxygen. A solution like that will not cost so much and would be efficient, so it meets the design requirements of any successful solution. In conclusion, the results of our tests which were much better than we expected showed that this project is a perfect solution to solve the problem of one of the world’s largest demands which is energy.
Category: Chemistry

[168] viXra:1701.0548 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 01:16:07

Nano Bubble Technology: A New Way to Sustainable Jeans Finishing

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 2 Pages.

A new technology based on nano bubbles developed and patented by a Spanish company, Jeanologia, is known as e-flow. The e-flow ‘breaks up’ the surface of the garment, achieving soft hand feel and controlling shrinkage. A minimal quantity of water is needed and there is zero discharge from the process. Air from the atmosphere is introduced into an electro flow reactor and subjected to an electromechanical shock creating nano bubbles and a flow of wet air. The nano bubble mix is then transported into a rotating tumbler containing the denim garments, and when it comes into contact with them produces a soft and natural hand feel. The garments are then dried in the same tumbler. When treating indigo dyed garments with this technology, some indigo cross contamination may occur that can be eliminated by a dry ozone treatment.
Category: Chemistry

[167] viXra:1612.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-27 02:01:39

Law of Stoichiometry - The Law of Nature

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 12 Pages.

The fundamental law of chemistry – the law of stoichiometry - is not properly understood even after two centuries of existence. The significance of the pivotal concept of ‘equivalent of a reaction’ is not recognized. This led to several misconceptions that include ‘what a chemical reaction is’. The origin of the problems lies with lack of understanding of the distinction between a mixture of chemical reactions represented by the equation: ∑αi Xi = 0, and a chemical reaction represented by the equation: ∑νi Xi = 0. νi ≠ αi; (νi is the stoichiometric coefficient of species Xi and αi is a rational number),. These problems are easily identified in the decomposition and combination of chemical reactions (that includes half cell reactions), specifically in case of disproportionation reactions. In these cases we find multiple values of zcell (equivalents per mol of reaction) and properties such as E0 (standard potential) for a given reaction. This is a paradox. It is impossible a for reaction under given conditions to have multiple values of a property (a thermodynamic state function). We critically analyze these issues and highlight in this paper the crucial aspects of a chemical reaction: That it must have a unique number of equivalents per mol, must be decomposable uniquely into two partial or half cell reactions, must be obtainable from combination of two partial or half cell reactions in a unique way; and, the distinction between a chemical reaction and a mixture of chemical reactions. Our analysis leads to: a new definition of chemical reaction; a new definition of linearly independent reactions, a new relation between the number of equivalents per mol of the partial or half cell reactions and the resultant chemical reaction; specify the two necessary and sufficient conditions to be satisfied in combining reactions to get resultant reactions. We apply the criteria to a few examples to show their applicability. We also comment on Avogadro number and the terminology - ‘kJ per mol of reaction as written’. Chemistry must play an active role to bring back the preeminent role of chemistry in furtherance of natural sciences.
Category: Chemistry

[166] viXra:1612.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-23 16:28:23

Comparative Studies of Laws of Conservation of Mass, Energy, and Elecctric Charge, and Multiform Laws of Conservation of Energy and the like — No.2 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 7 Pages.

As No.2 of comparative chemistry series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of mass, law of conservation of energy, and law of conservation of elecctric charge. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern chemistry; and they are all widely used in chemistry. The different points: the law of conservation of energy and the law of conservation of elecctric charge are also correct in physics, while the law of conservation of mass is not correct in physics, because mass and energy can be converted mutually; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. By using the comparative method, and referring to the concept of Comparative Sciences Clusters, these three laws of conservation can be dealed with the unified method, and the concept of Multiform Laws of Conservation of Energy may be proposed, namely these three laws of conservation can be unified as sets of multiform laws of conservation of energy taking energy as the core. Finally, comparing with and referring to “partial and temporary unified theory of natural science” and “partial and temporary unified variational principle of natural science”, these three laws of conservation are dealed with the unified method of variational principle.
Category: Chemistry

[165] viXra:1612.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 01:22:28

Coulomb’s Law is Not Violated in Anion Dimers as Reported by Fatila et al

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: One page; sent to Angew. Chem.

This is a short note to dispel the idea that in some anionic dimers, Coulomb’s law is violated. The author points out that the two negatively charged oxygens are connected through a positively charged hydrogen provided by the hydrogen bond.
Category: Chemistry

[164] viXra:1612.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-18 15:00:49

New Simple Relations Connecting Bond Lengths, Lattice Parameters and Bohr Radii for the Biologically Important Elements, C, N, O, P and S

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Eq. 1, please change 2.84 to 1.42

This paper presents some new simple relations connecting bond lengths between two same atoms, their Bohr radii obtained from first ionization potentials and their lattice parameters. The biologically important elements, C, N, O, P and S are chosen as examples.
Category: Chemistry

[163] viXra:1612.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 07:31:14

Silver Nanoparticles as Antibiotics: Bactericidal Effect, Medical Applications and Environmental Risks.

Authors: Enrique Marcet, Manuel Medell, Marcelo Marcet
Comments: 19 Pages.

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most medical applications nanomaterials mainly due to its antimicrobial effect, plasmon resonance and its capacity to impregnate polymeric materials. Recently Ag-NPs have been used in water treatment systems, central venous catheters, burn dressing, as well as in biosensors for detecting levels of p53 protein associated with cancer development. Moreover, the Ag-NPs have been studied for being potentially dangerous to humans and environment. Ag-NPs are transformed under the ecosystems conditions and may even increase their aggressiveness. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of knowledge about the bactericidal effect of Ag-NPs, the main synthesis methods, its application based on antibiotic capacity, Ag-NPs environmental transformations and their impact on the human.
Category: Chemistry

[162] viXra:1612.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:57:56

New Program with New Approach for Spectral Data Analysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 20 Pages.

This article presents a high-throughput computer program, called EasyDD, for batch processing, analyzing and visualizing of spectral data; particularly those related to the new generation of synchrotron detectors and X-ray powder diffraction applications. This computing tool is designed for the treatment of large volumes of data in reasonable time with affordable computational resources. A case study in which this program was used to process and analyze powder diffraction data obtained from the ESRF synchrotron on an alumina-based nickel nanoparticle catalysis system is also presented for demonstration. The development of this computing tool, with the associated protocols, is inspired by a novel approach in spectral data analysis.
Category: Chemistry

[161] viXra:1612.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 11:06:17

Linear Dependence on Covalent Radii of Atomic and Ionic Radii of Elements Calculated by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 2 Tables and 3 Figures

The radii of free atoms calculated recently using DFT by Rahm, Hoffmann and Ashcroft have been correlated here with the covalent radii of elements of the Periodic Table. The linear dependences found are in accordance with the previous results obtained by the author between various types of radii of atoms. In particular, the comparison of the atomic radii and the Golden ratio based ionic radii of the alkali metal and halogen atoms with those presented by Rahm et al. shows that the latter also involve the Golden ratio.
Category: Chemistry

[160] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 18:42:37

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[159] viXra:1611.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 17:26:04

Hydrogenation During Stellar Evolution/Planet Formation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis it is theorized that star evolution is planet formation itself. This being said, much of the hydrogen of the star combines with other elements and molecules. This can happen even more effectively through hydrogenation.
Category: Chemistry

[158] viXra:1610.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 14:53:34

Computational Genetic Chemistry Ver. 2.0

Authors: James Bonnar
Comments: 79 Pages.

In this book we discuss the technical and non-technical reasons science has been unable to find cures for heritable diseases, despite the exponential increase in knowledge of disease mechanisms we currently witness. New directions in scientific research and protocols are suggested that may help bring about actual cures for genetic diseases through pharmacological gene therapy. A computational paradigm, called the omega algorithm, is developed, implemented and applied to find compounds that could potentially correct the delta F508 mutation responsible for cystic fibrosis. Links to downloadable files, including an extensive chemical reaction database, are given in an appendix to assist the reader with further studies.
Category: Chemistry

[157] viXra:1610.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 11:04:08

Comparative Studies on the Use of Palm Kernel and Coconut Oil as Biodiesel Fuel Sources

Authors: I.H Ifijen, E.U. Ikhuoria, S.O Omorogbe, O.G Agbonlahor
Comments: 8 Pages.

This research work focuses on the production of biodiesel from palm kernel oil and coconut oil. The biodiesel was prepared by trans-esterification of the oils (unsaturated fatty acid) with an alcohol in the presence of a catalyst to give mono alkyl ester. The biodiesel produced was characterized and analyzed, the properties and the results obtained for biodiesel made from palm kernel oil and coco nut oil include API gravity (21.92 0 C, 25.580C) , Specific gravity (0.9223, 0.9030), Flash point (640 C, 620 C) Carbon residue (0.04%, 0.03%), Sediment and Water content (<0.1), sulphur content (0.17%, 0.16%), and iodine value (13.5mg, 12.6mg). Biodiesel made from palm kernel oil was compared with biodiesel made from coconut oil using these properties. The result shows that biodiesel is a good alternative fuel to the conventional fossil diesel since it is more environmentally friendly.
Category: Chemistry

[156] viXra:1610.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:30:47

High Throughput Software for Powder Diffraction and its Application to Heterogeneous Catalysis

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 205 Pages.

In this thesis we investigate high throughput computational methods for processing large quantities of data collected from synchrotrons and their application to spectral analysis of powder diffraction data. We also present the main product of this PhD programme, specifically a software called 'EasyDD' developed by the author. This software was created to meet the increasing demand on data processing and analysis capabilities as required by modern detectors which produce huge quantities of data. Modern detectors coupled with the high intensity X-ray sources available at synchrotrons have led to the situation where datasets can be collected in ever shorter time scales and in ever larger numbers. Such large volumes of datasets pose a data processing bottleneck which augments with current and future instrument development. EasyDD has achieved its objectives and made significant contributions to scientific research. It can also be used as a model for more mature attempts in the future. EasyDD is currently in use by a number of researchers in a number of academic and research institutions to process high-energy diffraction data. These include data collected by different techniques such as Energy Dispersive Diffraction, Angle Dispersive Diffraction and Computer Aided Tomography. EasyDD has already been used in a number of published studies, and is currently in use by the High Energy X-Ray Imaging Technology project. The software was also used by the author to process and analyse datasets collected from synchrotron radiation facilities. In this regard, the thesis presents novel scientific research involving the use of EasyDD to handle large diffraction datasets in the study of alumina-supported metal oxide catalyst bodies. These data were collected using Tomographic Energy Dispersive Diffraction Imaging and Computer Aided Tomography techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[155] viXra:1609.0417 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:31:30

Evaluation of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Parameters of Biofield Energy Treated Methylsulfonylmethane

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

The methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) is an organosulfur compound having sulfonyl functional group. It is occurred naturally in some primitive plants and used in disease related to chronic pain, inflammation, and arthritis. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectral properties of MSM. The study was performed in two groups viz. the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. After that, both the control and treated samples were analyzed using surface area analyzer, X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysisderivative thermogravimetry (TGA-DTG), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The surface area analysis exhibited a significant decrease in the surface area of treated sample by 22.96% as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the significant increase in average crystallite size by 49.20% in the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC analysis showed the significant increase (67.20%) in latent heat of fusion of treated sample with respect to the control. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 170°C in the control sample that was slightly decreased to 168.05°C after biofield treatment. Moreover, the Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was also decreased slightly from 186.66°C (control) to 183.38°C (treated). This indicated the early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectroscopic study exhibited the alteration in wavenumber of S=O group that suggests the effect of biofield treatment on force constant and bond strength of MSM molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[154] viXra:1609.0416 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 05:32:47

Physical and Structural Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Carbazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Carbazole is a class of phytochemical associated with cancer prevention. It attracted a significant interest in recent time for their usefulness in synthetic heterocyclic chemistry, analytical chemistry and pharmacology. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on carbazole by various analytical methods. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treatment. The treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, both the samples were characterized with respect to physical and structural properties using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR), gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), laser particle size analyzer, and surface area analyzer. The XRD study revealed that the crystallite size of treated carbazole was decreased significantly with 37.5% as compared to the control. In addition, the intensity of XRD peaks was slightly decreased as compared to the control. The latent heat of fusion (ΔH) of treated carbazole was substantially increased by 253.6% as compared to the control. Maximum degradation temperature (Tmax) of treated carbazole was increased by 41.46°C as compared to the control (211.93°C to 253.39°C). FT-IR spectra showed similar stretching frequencies in both control and treated carbazole samples. GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance ratio of either 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 2H/1H (PM+1/PM) of treated carbazole was significantly increased up to 278.59%. Particle size analysis showed substantial decrease in average particle size (d50) and d90 of the treated carbazole by 25.24% and 4.31%, respectively as compared to the control. The surface area analysis exhibited an increase in the surface area of treated sample by 4.8% as compared to the control. Overall, the experimental results suggest that biofield energy treatment has significant effect on physical, spectral and thermal properties of carbazole.
Category: Chemistry

[153] viXra:1609.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 05:14:06

Comparative Studies of Element Periodic Table and Tables in Element Periodic Table —No.1 of Comparative Chemistry Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 5 Pages.

As No.1 of comparative chemistry series papers, running the comparative studies between the element periodic table and the concepts of “fractal in fractal”, “sub-library in library”, and the like, and reaching the concept of “tables in element periodic table”. Then, some special forms of “tables in element periodic table” are discussed. Also pointing out that in the big data analysis of chemical elements, “tables in element periodic table” will have a good prospect.
Category: Chemistry

[152] viXra:1609.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:29:19

Identification and Quantification of Cannabinoids in Cannabis Sativa L. Plants by High Performance Liquid Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: 8O. Aizpurua-Olaizola; J. Omar; P. Navarro; M. Olivares; N. Etxebarria; A. Usobiaga
Comments: 12 Pages.

High performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) has been successfully applied to cannabis plant extracts in order to identify cannabinoid compounds after their quantitative isolation by means of supercritical fluid extraction (SFE). MS conditions were optimized by means of a central composite design (CCD) approach, and the analysis method was fully validated. Six major cannabinoids [tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (THCA), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), cannabidiol (CBD), tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), cannabigerol (CBG), and cannabinol (CBN)] were quantified (RSD < 10%), and seven more cannabinoids were identified and verified by means of a liquid chromatograph coupled to a quadrupole-time-of-flight (Q-ToF) detector. Finally, based on the distribution of the analyzed cannabinoids in 30 Cannabis sativa L. plant varieties and the principal component analysis (PCA) of the resulting data, a clear difference was observed between outdoor and indoor grown plants, which was attributed to a higher concentration of THC, CBN, and CBD in outdoor grown plants.
Category: Chemistry

[151] viXra:1609.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-06 03:34:41

Optimization of Supercritical Fluid Consecutive Extractions of Fatty Acids and Polyphenols from Vitis Vinifera Grape Wastes

Authors: 7O. Aizpurua-Olaizola, M. Ormazabal, A. Vallejo, M. Olivares, P. Navarro, N. Etxebarria, A. Usobiaga
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this study, supercritical fluid extraction has been successfully applied to a sequential fractionation of fatty acids and polyphenols from wine wastes (2 different vitis vinifera grapes). To this aim, in a 1st step just fatty acids were extracted and in a 2nd one the polyphenols. The variables that affected to the extraction efficiency were separately optimized in both steps following an experimental design approach. The effect of extraction temperature flow, pressure, and time were thoroughly evaluated for the extraction of fatty acids, whereas the addition of methanol was also considered in the case of the polyphenols extraction. A quantitative extraction with high efficiency was achieved at a very short time and low temperatures. Concerning quantification, fatty acids were determined by means of gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry after a derivatization step, whereas the polyphenols were analyzed by means of high performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry and the Folin–Ciocalteu method.
Category: Chemistry

[150] viXra:1609.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 18:01:36

Fly Ash Concrete

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes
Comments: 24 Pages.

Despite its significant importance in the economy growth, concrete industry faces several environmental and economic challenges like the emissions of toxic gases during production and high prices of the products, respectively. Consequently, the project aims to produce an alternative solution to the conventional concrete by following the design requirements of low cost, high efficiency and through recycling the fly ash, another industrial pollutant. The idea depends on mixing the fly ash with a liquid alkaline activator, under certain conditions to produce solidified concrete that has proven efficiency after testing. Finally, the mixture, put for 24 hours in 75℃ in dry oven to solidify, has shown the best results. In conclusion it can be easily deduced that such cement is an eco-friendly cheap alternative to conventional concrete; in addition to getting rid of another pollutant.
Category: Chemistry

[149] viXra:1609.0009 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-01 00:52:55

Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Indole Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective of the current experiment was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) in indole using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample of organic compound indole was divided into two parts - one part was designated as a control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated indole sample was analyzed at different time intervals and were symbolized as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to understand the effect of the biofield energy on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectra, the presence of the molecular ion peak C8H7N+ (m/z 117) along with major fragmented peaks C7H6+ (m/z 90), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H2+ (m/z 50), C3H3+ (m/z 39), and C2H4 (m/z 28) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated indole was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of indole using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated indole at T1 and T2 was significantly decreased by 44.28 and 28.18% as compared to the control sample. On the contrary, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T3 and T4, was significantly increased by 41.22 and 180.88%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N) was significantly altered in the biofield energy treated indole as compared to the control with respect to the time. The biofield treated indole with the altered isotopic abundance ratio might have altered the physicochemical properties and rate of reaction. This biofield energy treated indole might be more useful as a chemical intermediate in the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, plastics, dyes, and perfumes.
Category: Chemistry

[148] viXra:1608.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:01:48

Impact of Modified Dmdheu and Copolymer Acrylic Resin Using Spraying Treatment Before and After an Enzymatic Washing on the Mechanical Properties of Denim Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun, Saber Ben Abdessalem
Comments: 11 Pages. N Litim et al

In this paper, The principal purpose is to investigate the impact of modified DMDHEU and acrylic resin using spraying treatment of denim cotton fabric on mechanical properties loss (tear strength, grab strength loss and elongation loss) and others textile properties effect , such as, 3D rank evaluation and 3D thickness. All results are obtained for two of finishing process state; before and after an enzymatic washing and in warp and weft direction fabric. It has obtain that before and after washing, the modified DMDHEU resin effect more than acrylic resin the mechanical properties, (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) especially, for fabric 100% cotton compared to different fabric (weft composition contain Elasthanne 5% or Polyester). For the 3D rank of treated fabric with dissimilar resins, results clarify that enzymatic washing one of many factors cause increase of 3D rank level and more than their level before washing. It was established that the acrylic resin and resin spray application are significant factors in 3D thickness variation of treated fabrics.
Category: Chemistry

[147] viXra:1608.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 08:19:28

Investigation of Acrylic Resin Treatment and Evaluation of Cationic Additive Quality Impact on the Mechanical Properties of Finished Cotton Fabric

Authors: Nasr Litim, Ayda Baffoun
Comments: 9 Pages. N Litim et al

Statistical design of experiment (DOE) is an important tool to improve and developed of existing products or processes. This paper investigates the effect of essential finishing factors; curing temperature, curing time, resin, catalyst and cationic additive concentrations on the mechanical properties, especially on 3D ranks of cotton treated fabric with a copolymer acrylic resin. After that, it evaluates the impact of cationic additive class on 3D ranks and mechanical properties loss (breaking strength, breaking elongation and tear strength) of treated fabric with acrylic resin. The results, showed that cationic type effect; firstly (Electroprep) has the best quality on 3D rank of treated fabric and effect a little loss on mechanical properties, secondly (Easy stone super X), whereas (Easystone K) lead to a negatively loss on mechanical properties and gives undesired 3D rank. In order to investigate the causes of resin finish resumption and downgrading of garments in textile industry caused by ingredient concentration in bath resin. The main effect plot, interaction plot and contour plot method applied give to the textile engineer the possibility to predict the effect of resin treatment factors on the final quality desired of 3D rank and preserving the mechanical characteristics of treated fabric.
Category: Chemistry

[146] viXra:1608.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:05:44

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2,6-Dichlorophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

2,6-Dichlorophenol (2,6-DCP) is a compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The present work is intended to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of the 2,6-DCP. The control and treated 2,6-DCP were characterized by various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD results showed the increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 28.94% as compared to the control sample. However, the intensity of the XRD peaks of treated 2,6-DCP were diminished as compared to the control sample. The DTA analysis showed a slight increase in melting temperature of the treated sample. Although, the latent heat of fusion of the treated 2,6-DCP was changed substantially by 28% with respect to the control sample. The maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated 2,6-DCP was decreased slightly in comparison with the control. The FT-IR analysis showed a shift in C=C stretching peak from 1464→1473 cm-1 in the treated sample as compared to the control sample. However, the UV-vis analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks of treated 2,6-DCP with respect to the control sample. Overall, the result showed a significant effect of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2,6-DCP. It is assumed that increase in crystallite size and melting temperature of the biofield energy treated 2,6-DCP could alleviate its reaction rate that might be a good prospect for the synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[145] viXra:1608.0209 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:08:08

Physicochemical Characterization of Biofield Treated Orchid Maintenance/Replate Medium

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Orchids are used worldwide for indoor decoration, vanilla production, and beverage preparation. They are also reported for their therapeutic efficacy in brain-related problems. The in vitro micropropagation technique was used for their propagation using the orchid maintenance/replate (OMR) medium. The current study was based on analysing the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of OMR medium. A part of the sample was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy; various physicochemical properties were analyzed and compared with the untreated (control) part. The X-ray diffraction analysis revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated sample (132.80 nm) as compared to the control (147.55 nm). The particle size analysis revealed 20.78% increase in average particle size and 39.29% increase in d99 (size below which 99% particles are present) of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. Moreover, the surface area of the treated sample was reduced by 3.9%, supporting the data of particle size analysis. The thermal analysis studies revealed an increase in the thermal stability of the treated OMR medium as compared to the control. The analysis was done by using differential scanning calorimetry that showed increase in melting point (1.23%) and latent heat of fusion (135.7%); and thermogravimetric analysis that reported increase in onset temperature and maximum thermal degradation temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. Besides, the CHNSO analysis revealed the increase in percentage of nitrogen (22.22%) as well as the presence of sulphur in the treated sample. The Fourier transform infrared and UV-visible spectroscopy also showed the differences in the spectra of the treated sample as compared to the control OMR medium. Hence, the overall data revealed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical properties of the treated sample that might be used in better way in the in vitro culture techniques as compared to the control sample.
Category: Chemistry

[144] viXra:1608.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-19 00:12:28

Evaluation of Plant Growth Regulator, Immunity and DNA Fingerprinting of Biofield Energy Treated Mustard Seeds (Brassica Juncea)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Among the oilseeds grown around the world, mustard is one of the important crop worldwide due to its wide adaptability and high yielding capacity. Owing to the importance of its utilities as condiment, cooking oil and some medical aids, the demand for its seed production is too high. The present study was carried out to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on mustard (Brassica juncea) for its growth-germination of seedling, glutathione (GSH) content in leaves, indole acetic acid (IAA) content in shoots and roots and DNA polymorphism by random amplified polymorphic-DNA (RAPD). The sample of B. juncea was divided into two groups. One group was remained as untreated and coded as control, while the other group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and referred as the treated sample. The growth-germination of B. juncea seedling data exhibited that the biofield treated seeds were germinated faster on day 5 as compared to the control (on day between 7-10). The shoot and root length of seedling were slightly increased in the treated seeds of 10 days old with respect to untreated seedling. Moreover, the major plant antioxidant i.e. GSH content in mustard leaves was significantly increased by 206.72% (p<0.001) as compared to the untreated sample. Additionally, the plant growth regulatory constituent i.e. IAA level in root and shoot was increased by 15.81% and 12.99%, respectively with respect to the control. Besides, the DNA fingerprinting data using RAPD revealed that the treated sample showed an average 26% of DNA polymorphism as compared to the control. The overall results envisaged that the biofield energy treatment on mustard seeds showed a significant improvement in germination, growth of roots and shoots, GSH and IAA content in the treated sample. In conclusion, the biofield energy treatment of mustard seeds could be used as an alternative way to increase the production of mustard.
Category: Chemistry

[143] viXra:1608.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:33:26

Determination of Isotopic Abundance Ratio of Biofield Energy Treated 1,4-Dichlorobenzene Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of P M+1/PM, PM+2/PM, PM+3/PMand PM+4/PM in p-DCB using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The p-DCB was divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as the treated sample which was subjected to biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were referred the biofield treated p-DCB having analyzed at different time intervals. The GC-MS analysis of both the control and biofield treated p-DCB indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak at m/z 146 along with four major fragmentation peaks at m/z 111, 75, 55 and 50. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated p-DCB were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was significantly increased by 10.87, 83.90, 225.16, and 241.15%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, and T3 (biofield energy treated p-DCB) was enhanced by 4.55, 9.49, and 1.80%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Beside these, another two isotopic molecular ion peaks at m/z 149 and 150 were found in the GS-MS spectra due to arise from the contributions of various combinations of 2H, 13C, and 37Cl. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+3/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 15.14, 82.57, 192.43, and 218.31%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, the PM+4/PM in biofield energy treated sample at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was significantly increased by 13.80, 86.66, 186.13, and 204.29%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C), PM+2/PM (37Cl/35Cl), for PM+3/PM and PM+4/PM (the probable combinations of 2H/1H, 13C/12C, and 37Cl/35Cl) were significantly enhanced in the biofield energy treated p-DCB. The biofield treated p-DCB has shown improved isotopic abundance ratios that might have altered the physicochemical properties, thermal properties and rate of reaction. Biofield treated p-DCB might be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and chemicals by monitoring the rate of chemical reaction.
Category: Chemistry

[142] viXra:1608.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 04:35:05

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance of 13C, 2H, and 18o in Biofield Energy Treated P-Tertiary Butylphenol (PTBP)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

p-tert-Butyphenol (PTBP) is a phenolic monomer used in the synthesis of numerous industrially useful chemicals. The current research work aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in PTBP using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, PTBP was distributed into two parts - one part was designated as control PTBP and another part was considered as biofield energy treated PTBP. The biofield energy treatment was achieved through unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were indicated to the different time interval analysis of the biofield treated PTBP. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated PTBP showed the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with eight major fragmented peaks at m/z 135, 107, 95, 91, 77, 65, 41, and 39, which might be due to C10H15+, C7H7O+ or C8H11+, C6H7O+, C7H7+, C6H5+, C5H5+, C3H5+, and C3H3• •+ ions, respectively. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated PTBP were altered as compared to the control PTBP. The percentage in the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated PTBP at T2, T3 and T4 by 1.60%, 3.57%, and 120.13%, respectively while it was decreased by 4.14% in the treated sample at T1 with respect to the control PTBP. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated PTBP at T1, T3, and T4 by 1.28%, 2.56%, and 123.08%, respectively with respect to the control sample. On the other hand, it was reduced in the biofield treated sample at T2 by 1.28% as compared to the control PTBP. Concisely, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated PTBP were changed with respect to the control sample and was found to have time dependent effect. The biofield energy treated PTBP might display isotope effects such as different physicochemical and thermal properties, rate of the reaction, selectivity and binding energy due to the changed isotopic abundance ratio as compared to the control sample. Biofield treated PTBP could be valuable for the designing new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects.
Category: Chemistry

[141] viXra:1608.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:11:55

Antibiogram of Multidrug-Resistant Isolates of Pseudomonas Aeruginosa After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In recent years, prevalence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) has been noticed with high morbidity and mortality. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on MDR clinical lab isolates (LS) of P. aeruginosa. Five MDR clinical lab isolates (LS 22, LS 23, LS 38, LS 47, and LS 58) of P. aeruginosa were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated group were analyzed for antimicrobial susceptibility pattern, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment as compared with control group. Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 60% alteration in sensitivity of tested antimicrobials in MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa after biofield treatment. MIC results showed an alteration in 42.85% tested antimicrobials out of twenty eight after biofield treatment in five isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa. Biochemical study showed a 48.48% change in tested biochemical reactions out of thirty three as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers was reported in three clinical lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa out of five, after biofield treatment as compared to respective control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7302 0052) in biofield treated LS 23, new organism was identified as Citrobacter freundii as compared to control (0206 3336). A very rare biotype number (7400 4263) was found in biofield treated LS 38, as compared to control (0206 3736). Study results suggest that biofield treatment on lab isolates of MDR P. aeruginosa has significant effect on the antimicrobial sensitivity, MIC values, biochemical reactions and biotype number. Biofield treatment might prevent the emergence of absolute resistance pattern of useful antimicrobials against MDR isolates of P. aeruginosa.
Category: Chemistry

[140] viXra:1608.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:16:39

Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Based Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-napthylether (Nerolin)

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Methyl-2-napthylether (nerolin) is an organic compound and has the applications in pharmaceutical, and perfume industry. The stable isotope ratio analysis is increasing importance in various field of scientific research. The objective of the current study was to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) in nerolin using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The compound nerolin was divided into two parts - one part was control sample (untreated), and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample which was received the biofield energy treatment through the unique biofield energy transmission process by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also known as The Trivedi Effect®). The biofield energy treated nerolin was analyzed at different time intervals and were represented as T1, T2, T3, and T4 in order to understand the effect of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. From the GC-MS spectral analysis, the presence of the molecular ion peak C11H10O+(m/z 158) along with major fragmented peaks C10H7O- (m/z 143), C10H8 (m/z 128), C9H7+ (m/z 115), C7H5+ (m/z 89), C5H3+ (m/z 63), C4H3+ (m/z 51), and C3H3+ (m/z 39) were observed in both control and biofield treated samples. Only, the relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated nerolin was notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis of nerolin using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated nerolin at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, as compared to the control sample. Likewise, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3, and T4 was increased by 2.38, 138.10, 13.10, and 32.14%, respectively in the biofield treated nerolin as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 17O/16O) and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were significantly increased in the biofield energy treated sample as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. It is concluded that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has the significant impact on alteration in isotopic abundance of nerolin as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated nerolin might display different altered physicochemical properties and rate of reaction and could be an important intermediate for the production of pharmaceuticals, chemicals, and perfumes in the industry.
Category: Chemistry

[139] viXra:1608.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-16 00:21:19

Determination of Isotopic Abundance of 13C/12C or 2H/1H and 18O/16O in Biofield Energy Treated 1-Chloro-3-Nitrobenzene (3-CNB) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

1-Chloro-3-nitrobenzene (3-CNB) is an aromatic halo-amine compound used as chemical intermediate for the production of several fine chemicals like pharmaceuticals, dyes, agricultural chemicals, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, etc. The objective of the current research was to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in 3-CNB using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The sample, 3-CNB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was treated with biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated 3-CNB. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated 3-CNB indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+] at m/z 157 (calculated 156.99 for C6H4ClNO2) along with same pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated 3-CNB were improved as compared to the control 3-CNB. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2 and T3 by 11.62, 18.50, and 29.82%, respectively with respect to the control 3-CNB. Accordingly, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T2 and T3 was significantly improved by 15.22 and 35.09%, respectively as compared to the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1 and T4 were changed as compared to the control sample. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+3/PM was enhanced in the biofield treated 3-CNB at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 4.67, 18.69, 31.31 and 6.08%, respectively as compared to the control 3-CNB. The isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, PM+2/PM and PM+3/PM in the biofield treated 3-CNB changed with the time. So, the biofield energy treated 3-CNB might exhibit the altered isotope effects such as altered physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy, and the rate of the chemical reaction as compared to the control sample. The biofield energy treated 3-CNB might assist in designing for the synthesis of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyes, corrosion inhibitors and other several useful industrial chemicals.
Category: Chemistry

[138] viXra:1608.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-13 01:41:21

Characterisation of Physical, Spectral and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Resorcinol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Resorcinol is widely used in manufacturing of several drugs and pharmaceutical products that are mainly used for topical ailments. The main objective of this study is to use an alternative strategy i.e., biofield treatment to alter the physical, spectral and thermal properties of resorcinol. The resorcinol sample was divided in two groups, which served as control and treated group. The treated group was given biofield treatment and both groups i.e., control and treated were analysed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, UV-Visible (UVVis) spectroscopy, Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The results showed a significant decrease in crystallite size of treated sample i.e., 104.7 nm as compared to control (139.6 nm). The FTIR and UV-Vis spectra of treated sample did not show any change with respect to control. Besides, thermal analysis data showed 42% decrease in latent heat of fusion. The onset temperature of volatilization and temperature at which maximum volatilization happened was also decreased by 16% and 12.86%, respectively. The significant decrease in crystallite size may help to improve the spreadability and hence bioavailability of resorcinol in topical formulations. Also increase in volatilization temperature might increase the rate of reaction of resorcinol when used as intermediate. Hence, biofield treatment may alter the physical and thermal properties of resorcinol and make it more suitable for use in pharmaceutical industry.
Category: Chemistry

[137] viXra:1608.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:18:59

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Atomic and Thermal Properties of Ethanol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Ethanol is a polar organic solvent, and frequently used as a fuel in automobile industries, principally as an additive with gasoline due to its higher octane rating. It is generally produced from biomass such as corn, sugar and some other agriculture products. In the present study, impact of biofield treatment on ethanol was evaluated with respect to its atomic and thermal properties. The ethanol sample was divided into two parts i.e., control and treatment. Control part was remained untreated. Treatment part was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples were characterized using Gas chromatography-mass Spectrometry (GC-MS), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). GC-MS data revealed that isotopic abundance of 13C i.e., δ13C of treated ethanol was significantly changed from -199‰ upto 155‰ as compared to control. The DSC data exhibited that the latent heat of vaporization of treated ethanol was increased by 94.24% as compared to control, while no significant change was found in boiling point. Besides, HPLC data showed that retention time was 2.65 minutes in control, was increased to 2.76 minutes in treated ethanol sample. Thus, overall data suggest that biofield treatment has altered the atomic and thermal properties of ethanol.
Category: Chemistry

[136] viXra:1608.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 05:21:24

In vitro Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Viral Load Against Human Immunodeficiency-1 and Cytomegalo Viruses

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Viral load quantification is the amount of particular viral DNA or RNA in a blood samples. It is one of the surrogate biomarker of AIDS. High viral load indicates that the immune system is failed to fight against viruses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on HIV-1 and HCMV in terms of viral loads as surrogate marker. The viral load assay was performed on stored stock cultures of HIV infected human plasma samples before and after 7 days of biofield treatment using Roche COBAS® AMPLICOR analyzer. Viral load (HIV-1 RNA and HCMV DNAaemia) was considered as surrogate marker for assessment of the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment in HIV infected stored plasma samples. The viral load quantification of HIV-1 RNA in infected stored plasma samples was significantly reduced by 65% in biofield treated group as compared to control. Additionally, viral load of HCMV DNAaemia in infected stored plasma samples was also reduced by 80% in the biofield treated group as compared to control. Because, children are more prone to HCMV infection and adults are generally liable to suffer from HIV-1 infection. As the biofield treatment has reduced HCMV DNAaemia, it could be beneficial for HIV infected children populations. Altogether, data suggest that biofield treatment has significantly reduced the viral load quantification in HIV-1 and HCMV infected stored plasma samples and could be a suitable alternative treatment strategy for AIDS patients in near future.
Category: Chemistry

[135] viXra:1608.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 04:48:21

Physicochemical and Spectroscopic Characterization of P-Chlorobenzaldehyde: an Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

p-Chlorobenzaldehyde (p-CBA) is used as an important chemical intermediate for the preparation of pharmaceuticals, agricultural chemicals, dyestuffs, optical brighteners, and metal finishing products. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the physicochemical and spectroscopic properties of p-CBA. The study was accomplished in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Finally, both the samples (control and treated) were evaluated using various analytical techniques. The surface area analysis showed a substantial increase in the surface area by 23.06% after biofield treatment with respect to the control sample. The XRD analysis showed the crystalline nature of both control and treated samples. The X-ray diffractogram showed the significant alteration in the peak intensity in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD analysis showed the slight increase (2.31%) in the crystallite size of treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA analysis exhibited the decrease (10%) in onset temperature of thermal degradation form 140°C (control) to 126°C in treated sample. The Tmax (maximum thermal degradation temperature) was slightly decreased (2.14%) from 157.09°C (control) to 153.73°C in treated sample of p-CBA. This decrease in Tmax was possibly due to early phase of vaporization in treated sample as compared to the control. The FT-IR spectrum of treated p-CBA showed the increase in wavenumber of C=C stretching as compared to the control. The UV spectroscopic study showed the similar pattern of wavelength in control and treated samples.
Category: Chemistry

[134] viXra:1608.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:13:56

Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated 3-Chloronitrobenzene: Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Studies

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The chloronitrobenzenes are widely used as the intermediates in the production of pharmaceuticals, pesticides and rubber processing chemicals. However, due to their wide applications, they are frequently released into the environment thereby creating hazards. The objective of the study was to use an alternative strategy i.e. biofield energy treatment and analysed its impact on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-chloronitrobenzene (3-CNB). For the study, the 3-CNB sample was taken and divided into two groups, named as control and treated. The analytical techniques used were X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), UV-Visible (UV-Vis), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The treated group was subjected to the biofield energy treatment and analysed using these techniques against the control sample. The XRD data showed an alteration in relative intensity of the peak along with 30% decrease in the crystallite size of the treated sample as compared to the control. The TGA studies revealed the decrease in onset temperature of degradation from 140ºC (control) to 120°C, while maximum thermal degradation temperature was changed from 157.61ºC (control) to 150.37ºC in the treated sample as compared to the control. Moreover, the DSC studies revealed the decrease in the melting temperature from 51°C (control) →47°C in the treated sample. Besides, the UV-Vis and FT-IR spectra of the treated sample did not show any significant alteration in terms of wavelength and frequencies of the peaks, respectively from the control sample. The overall study results showed the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical and thermal properties of 3-CNB that can further affect its use as a chemical intermediate and its fate in the environment.
Category: Chemistry

[133] viXra:1608.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-09 04:16:11

Evaluation of Thermal and Physical Properties of Magnesium Nitride Powder: Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Magnesium nitride (Mg3N2 ) has gained extensive attention due to its catalytic and optoelectronic properties. The present investigation was aimed to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on physical and thermal properties of Mg3N2 powder. The Mg3N2 powder was divided into two parts i.e. control and treated. The control part was remained as untreated and the treated part was subjected to the Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated Mg3N2 samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The DSC results showed the specific heat capacity of 2.24 Jg-1°C-1 in control, which increased upto 5.55 Jg-1°C-1 in treated Mg3N2 sample. The TGA data revealed that the onset temperature for the formation of magnesium oxide, possibly due to oxidation of Mg3N2 in the presence of air and moisture, was reduced from 421.0°C (control) to 391.33°C in treated sample. Besides, the XRD data revealed that the lattice parameter and unit cell volume of treated Mg3N2 samples were increased by 0.20 and 0.61% respectively, as compared to the control. The shifting of all peaks toward lower Bragg angle was observed in treated sample as compared to the control. The XRD diffractogram also showed that the relative intensities of all peaks were altered in treated sample as compared to control. In addition, the density of treated Mg3N2 was reduced by 0.60% as compared to control. Furthermore, the crystallite size was significantly increased from 108.05 nm (control) to 144.04 nm in treated sample as compared to the control. Altogether data suggest that biofield energy treatment has substantially altered the physical and thermal properties of Mg3N2 powder. Thus, the biofield treatment could be applied to modulate the catalytic and optoelectronic properties of Mg3N2 for chemical and semiconductor industries.
Category: Chemistry

[132] viXra:1608.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-08 04:18:21

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated O-Aminophenol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

O-aminophenol has extensive uses as a conducting material and in electrochemical devices. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical thermal and spectral properties of o-aminophenol. The study was performed in two groups; the control group was remained as untreated, while the treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated o-aminophenol samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), surface area analysis, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and Ultra violet-visible spectroscopy analysis (UV-vis). The XRD analysis showed an increase in peak intensity of the treated o-aminophenol with respect to the control. Additionally, the crystallite size of the treated o-aminophenol was increased by 34.51% with respect to the control sample. DSC analysis showed a slight increase in the melting temperature of the treated sample as compared to the control. However, a significant increase in the latent heat of fusion was observed in the treated o-aminophenol by 162.24% with respect to the control. TGA analysis showed an increase in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) in treated o-aminophenol (178.17ºC) with respect to the control (175ºC). It may be inferred that the thermal stability of o-aminophenol increased after the biofield treatment. The surface area analysis using BET showed a substantial decrease in the surface area of the treated sample by 47.1% as compared to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed no changes in the absorption peaks of the treated sample with respect to the control. UV-visible analysis showed alteration in the absorption peaks i.e. 211→203 nm and 271→244 nm of the treated o-aminophenol as compared to the control. Overall, the results showed that the biofield treatment caused an alteration in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated o-aminophenol.
Category: Chemistry

[131] viXra:1608.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-07 16:03:58

Chemical Equilibrium in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page.

In stellar metamorphosis stars are not in chemical equilibrium, because their pressures, temperatures and concentrations of their chemical components change greatly during their evolution.
Category: Chemistry

[130] viXra:1608.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 05:05:31

Characterization of Physicochemical and Thermal Properties of Chitosan and Sodium Alginate After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Chitosan (CS) and sodium alginate (SA) are two widely popular biopolymers which are used for biomedical and pharmaceutical applications from many years. The objective of present study was to study the effect of biofield treatment on physical, chemical and thermal properties of CS and SA. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treated group. The control and treated polymers were characterized by Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, CHNSO analysis, X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). FT-IR of treated chitosan showed increase in frequency of –CH stretching (2925→2979 cm- 1) vibrations with respect to control. However, the treated SA showed increase in frequency of –OH stretching (3182→3284 cm-1) which may be correlated to increase in force constant or bond strength with respect to control. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage of oxygen and hydrogen of treated polymers (CS and SA) with respect to control. XRD studies revealed that crystallinity was improved in treated CS as compared to control. The percentage crystallite size was increased significantly by 69.59% in treated CS with respect to control. However, treated SA showed decrease in crystallite size by 41.04% as compared to control sample. The treated SA showed significant reduction in particle size (d50 and d99) with respect to control SA. DSC study showed changes in decomposition temperature in treated CS with respect to control. A significant change in enthalpy was observed in treated polymers (CS and CA) with respect to control. TGA results of treated CS showed decrease in Tmax with respect to control. Likewise, the treated SA also showed decrease in Tmax which could be correlated to reduction in thermal stability after biofield treatment. Overall, the results showed that biofield treatment has significantly changed the physical, chemical and thermal properties of CS and SA.
Category: Chemistry

[129] viXra:1608.0050 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 05:07:41

Thermal, Spectroscopic and Chemical Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Anisole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the thermal, spectroscopic, and chemical properties of anisole by various analytical methods such as gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The anisole sample was divided into two parts, control and treated. The control part was remained same while the other part was treated with Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield energy treatment. Mass spectra showed the molecular ion peak with five fragmented peaks in control and all treated samples. The isotopic abundance ratio of 2H/1H, and 13C/12C [(PM+1)/PM] in treated sample was increased by 154.47% (T1) as compared to the control [where, PM- primary molecule, (PM+1)-isotopic molecule either for 13C or 2H]. The HPLC chromatogram showed retention time of treated anisole was slightly decreased as compared to the control. Moreover, the heat change in the sharp endothermic transition of treated anisole was increased by 389.07% in DSC thermogram as compared to the control. Further, C-C aromatic stretching frequency of treated sample was shifted by 2 cm-1 to low energy region in FT-IR spectroscopy. The UV-Vis spectra of control sample showed characteristic absorption peaks at 325 nm, which was red shifted and appeared as shoulder in the treated sample. These results suggested that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and spectroscopic properties of anisole, which could make them stable solvent for organic synthesis and as a suitable reaction intermediate in industrial applications.
Category: Chemistry

[128] viXra:1608.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 04:30:09

Potential Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment on the Atomic, Physical and Thermal Properties Indium Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Indium has gained significant attention in the semiconductor industries due to its unique thermal and optical properties. The objective of this research was to investigate the influence of the biofield energy treatment on the atomic, physical and thermal properties of the indium. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated indium samples were characterized by the X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. The XRD diffractogram showed the shifting of peaks toward higher Bragg’s angles in the treated indium sample as compared to the control. The crystallite size of treated indium sample were substantially changed from -80% to 150.2% after biofield energy treatment, as compared to control. In addition, the biofield energy treatment has altered the lattice parameter (-0.56%), unit cell volume (-0.23%), density (0.23%), atomic weight (-0.23), and nuclear charge per unit volume (1.69%) of the treated indium sample with respect to the control. The DSC showed an increase in the latent heat of fusion up to 3.23% in the treated indium sample with respect to control. Overall, results suggest that biofield energy treatment has substantially altered the atomic, physical, and thermal properties of treated indium powder. Therefore, the treated indium could be utilized in thermal interface material in semiconductor industries.
Category: Chemistry

[127] viXra:1608.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-03 04:39:08

Antimicrobial Sensitivity, Biochemical Characteristics and Biotyping of Staphylococcus Saprophyticus: an Impact of Biofield Energy Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Staphylococcus saprophyticus (S. saprophyticus) is a frequent cause of urinary tract infection in the young women. The current study was designed to analyze the effect of biofield energy treatment on S. saprophyticus for evaluation of its antibiogram profile, biochemical reactions pattern and biotyping characteristics. Two sets of ATCC samples were taken in this experiment and denoted as A and B. Sample A was revived and divided into two parts Group (Gr.I) (control) and Gr.II (revived); likewise, sample B was labeled as Gr.III (lyophilized). Gr. II and III were given with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated groups of S. saprophyticus cells were tested with respect to antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 50% out of twenty-eight tested antimicrobials showed significant alteration in susceptibility and 36.67% out of thirty antimicrobials showed an alteration in minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of S. saprophyticus in revived treated cells (Gr. II, day 10), while no alteration was found in lyophilized treated cells (Gr. III, day 10) as compared to the control. It was also observed that overall 14.81%, out of twenty-seven biochemical reactions were altered in the revived treated group with respect to the control. Moreover, biotype number was changed in Gr. II, on day 5 (246076) and in Gr. III, on day 10 (242066), while organism along-with biotype number was also changed in Gr. II, on day 10 (342066, Staphylococcus hominis subsp. novobiosepticus) as compared to the control (242076, S. saprophyticus). The result suggested that biofield treatment has the significant impact on S. saprophyticus in revived treated cells with respect to the antimicrobial susceptibility, MIC, biochemical reactions pattern and biotype.
Category: Chemistry

[126] viXra:1607.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:18:09

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Energy Treated 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: 2,4-Dihydroxybenzophenone (DHBP) is an organic compound used for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of DHBP. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. Methods: The control and treated DHBP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyser, surface area analyser, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. Results: The XRD study indicated a slight decrease in the volume of the unit cell and molecular weight of treated DHBP as compared to the control sample. However, XRD study revealed an increase in average crystallite size of the treated DHBP by 32.73% as compared to the control sample. The DSC characterization showed no significant change in the melting temperature of treated sample. The latent heat of fusion of the treated DHBP was substantially increased by 11.67% as compared to the control. However, TGA analysis showed a decrease in the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of the treated DHBP (257.66º C) as compared to the control sample (260.93º C). The particle size analysis showed a substantial increase in particle size (d50 and d99) of the treated DHBP by 41% and 15.8% as compared to the control sample. Additionally, the surface area analysis showed a decrease in surface area by 9.5% in the treated DHBP, which was supported by the particle size results. Nevertheless, FT-IR analysis showed a downward shift of methyl group stretch (2885→2835 cm-1) in the treated sample as compared to the control. The UV analysis showed a blue shift of absorption peak 323→318 nm in the treated sample (T1) as compared to the control. Conclusion: Altogether, the results showed significant changes in the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated DHBP as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[125] viXra:1607.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:23:57

Investigation of Biofield Treatment on Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Reaction Pattern and Biotyping of Enteropathogenic Multidrug-Resistant Escherichia Coli Isolates

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: Multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) has become a major health concern, and failure of treatment leads to huge health burden. Aim of the present study was to determine the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment on E. coli. Methods: Four MDR clinical lab isolates (LSs) of E. coli (LS 8, LS 9, LS 10, and LS 11) were taken and divided into two groups i.e. control and biofield treated. Control and treated samples were identified with respect to its antimicrobial sensitivity assay, biochemical study and biotype number using MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The analysis was done on day 10 after biofield treatment and compared with its respective control group. Results: Antimicrobial sensitivity assay showed 50% alteration in sensitivity of total tested antimicrobials in treated group of MDR E. coli isolates. MIC results showed the alteration in MIC of about 40.63% antimicrobials out of thirty two tested antimicrobials, after biofield treatment in clinical isolates of E. coli. Ticarcillin/k-clavulanate showed improved sensitivity (R → I) with decreased MIC value in LS 9 as compared to control. A fourfold and twofold decreased in MIC values were reported in case of piperacillin/tazobactam (in LS 9) and chloramphenicol (in LS 8), respectively as compared to respective control. Biochemical study showed a 39.39% alteration in biochemical reactions after treatment among four isolates of E. coli as compared to control. A significant change in biotype numbers were reported in three clinical isolates (i.e. LS 8, LS 9, and LS 11) of MDR E. coli as compared to control. On the basis of changed biotype number (7774 5272) after biofield treatment, organism with maximum probability was identified as Enterobacter aerogenes in LS 8 as compared to control, (E. coli, 7711 5012). Conclusion: Overall results suggest that Mr Trivedi’s biofield treatment has a significant effect on altering the antimicrobial sensitivity, biochemical reactions and biotype number of MDR isolates of E. coli.
Category: Chemistry

[124] viXra:1607.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 23:26:05

Isotopic Abundance Ratio Analysis of 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene (TMB) After Biofield Energy Treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene (TMB) is one of the most versatile chemical used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has increased attention day-by-days in several fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, medical research, etc. The current study was aimed to evaluate the effect of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in TMB using Gas chromatography - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. TMB was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was received through Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy (The Trivedi Effect® ). The GC-MS of the biofield treated TMB was characterized at different time intervals considered as T1, T2, T3, and T4 to examine the impact of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated TMB exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 168 (calculated 168.08 for C9H12O3) along with similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated TMB, particularly at T2 and T3 was altered from the control sample. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis in the biofield treated TMB exhibited that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated TMB at T2 and T3 was significantly enhanced by 128.13 and 117.99%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the percentage change in isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was significantly increased in the biofield treated TMB at T2 and T3 by 125.93 and 116.67%, respectively as compared with the control TMB. The isotopic abundance ratios (PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM) in the biofield treated TMB at T1 and T4 was altered with respect to the control TMB. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C9H12O3) + to m/z 169 and 18O contribution from (C9H12O3) + to m/z 170 for the biofield treated TMB, particularly at T2 and T3 were significantly improved and biofield treated TMB might exhibit changed isotope effects as compared to the control sample. The biofield treated TMB might assist to develop new chemicals and pharmaceuticals through using its kinetic isotope effects like understanding the reaction mechanism, the enzymatic transition state and all aspects of enzyme mechanisms.
Category: Chemistry

[123] viXra:1607.0547 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:12:06

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Study background: 1,2,3-Trimethoxybenzene is an important compound used for the synthesis of chemicals and pharmaceutical agents. The objective of this study was to investigate the influence of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene. Methods: The study was performed by dividing the sample into two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, while the treated group received Mr Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 1,2,3-trimethoxybenzene samples were then characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violetvisible spectroscopy (UV-Vis) analysis. Results: XRD studies revealed the significant increase in crystallite size of treated sample by 45.96% as compared to the control sample. DSC analysis showed a decrease in melting temperature of the treated sample (45.93ºC) with respect to control (46.58ºC). Additionally, the substantial change was evidenced in latent heat of fusion of treated sample by 64.18% as compared to the control. TGA analysis indicated a decrease in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated sample (151.92ºC) as compared to the control sample (154.43ºC). This indicated the decrease in thermal stability of the treated sample as compared to the control. FT-IR spectroscopic analysis showed an increase in the frequency of C-O bond in treated sample (1105→1174 cm-1) as compared to the control sample. However, UV analysis showed no changes in absorption peaks in treated sample as compared to the untreated sample. Conclusion: Overall, the result indicated that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated sample as compared to control. Hence, the treated sample could be used as an intermediate in the synthesis of organic compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[122] viXra:1607.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:14:10

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Studies of Biofield Treated P-Chlorobenzonitrile

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Para-chlorobenzonitrile (p-CBN) is widely used as a chemical intermediate in the manufacturing of dyes, medicines, and pesticides, however; sometimes it may cause runaway reactions at high temperatures. The current study was designed to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of p-CBN. The analysis was done by dividing the p-CBN samples into two groups that served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using various analytical techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) and UV-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD results showed an increase in the crystallite size (66.18 nm) of the treated sample as compared to the control sample (53.63 nm). The surface area analysis of the treated sample also showed 14.19% decrease in the surface area as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion of the treated p-CBN increased considerably by 5.94% as compared to control. However, the melting temperature of the treated sample did not show any considerable change from the control sample. Besides, TGA/DTG studies showed that Tmax (the temperature at which the sample lost its maximum weight) was increased by 5.22% along with an increase in its onset of thermal decomposition temperature i.e. 96.80°C in the biofield treated p-CBN as compared to the control sample (84.65°C). This indicates that the thermal stability of treated p-CBN sample might increase as compared to the control sample. However, no change was found in the FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic character of the treated p-CBN as compared to the control. These findings suggest that the biofield treatment significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of p-CBN, which could make it more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[121] viXra:1607.0545 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 23:15:32

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 2, 6-Diaminopyridine

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

2, 6-Diaminopyridine (2, 6-DAP) has extensive use in synthesis of pharmaceutical compounds. The objective of present research was to investigate the influence of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectral properties of 2, 6-DAP. The study was performed in two groups, control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment group. The control and treated 2, 6-DAP samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), Thermo gravimetric analysis (TGA), Laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and UV-visible spectroscopy. XRD analysis revealed decrease in intensity of the peaks of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Unit cell volume and molecular weight were decreased by 2.97% and 2.98% respectively in treated 2, 6-DAP as compared to control. Crystallite size was decreased by 24.70% in treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. DSC analysis showed no significant change in melting temperature of treated 2, 6-DAP with respect to control. Nevertheless, the treated 2, 6-DAP showed significant increase in latent heat of fusion by 35.52% as compared to control 2, 6-DAP. TGA analysis showed decrease in percent weight loss of the treated 2, 6-DAP in comparison with control. Additionally, substantial increase in maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) was observed in treated 2, 6-DAP (203.52°C) as compared with control 2, 6-DAP (186.84°C). Particle size analysis results showed a substantial decrease in d50 (average particle size) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of the particles) of the treated 2, 6-DAP by 20.5 and 57.4%, respectively as compared to control. Additionally, the BET analysis showed substantial increase in surface area of treated 2, 6-DAP by 75.58% as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated 2, 6-DAP showed alteration in O-H stretching (3390→3370 cm-1), C-H stretching (3132→3138 cm-1) and N-H bending (1637→1604 cm-1) vibration peaks with respect to control. However, UV-visible analysis of treated 2, 6-DAP showed no significant changes in absorption peaks (λ max) with respect to control. Overall, the results demonstrated that biofield has significant impact on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of the treated 2, 6-DAP.
Category: Chemistry

[120] viXra:1607.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:23:29

Physical, Thermal, and Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Energy Treated Methyl-2-Naphthyl Ether

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Methyl-2-naphthyl ether (MNE) is an organic compound and used as the primary moiety for the synthesis of several antimicrobial and anti-inflammatory agents. This study was attempted to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal, and spectroscopic properties of MNE. The study was carried out in two groups i.e., control and treated. The treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Afterward, the control and treated samples of MNE were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyzer, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis-derivative thermogravimetric analysis (TGA-DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR), and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. The XRD study exhibited the decrease in average crystallite size by 30.70%. The surface area analysis showed 5.32% decrease in surface area of the treated sample with respect to the control. The DSC thermogram of treated MNE exhibited no significant change in the melting temperature; however, the latent heat of fusion was slightly increased (0.83%) after biofield treatment as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed the onset temperature of thermal degradation at 158℃ in the control sample that was reduced to 124℃ after biofield treatment. The result showed about 21.52% decrease in onset temperature of thermal degradation of treated MNE as compared to the control. Similarly, the end-set temperature of thermal degradation was also reduced by 13.51% after biofield treatment with respect to the control. The FT-IR and UV spectroscopic studies did not show any changes in the wavenumber and wavelength, respectively in treated MNE with respect to the control. Overall, the XRD, surface area and thermal analysis suggest that biofield treatment has the impact on physical and thermal properties of the treated MNE as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[119] viXra:1607.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 23:26:21

Physical, Thermal and Spectral Properties of Biofield Treated 3-Nitroacetophenone

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

3-Nitroacetophenone (3-NAP) is an organic compound used as an intermediate for the synthesis of pharmaceutical agents. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy treatment on the physical, thermal and spectral properties of 3-NAP. The study was performed in two groups i.e. control and treated. The control group remained as untreated, and the treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment. The control and treated 3-NAP samples were further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), laser particle size analyzer, surface area analyzer, Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and ultra violet-visible spectroscopy (UV-vis) analysis. The XRD analysis showed decrease in crystallite size of treated 3-NAP by 20.27% as compared to the control sample. However, the XRD peaks of treated sample showed an increase in intensity as compared to the control. The DSC result showed a slight increase in melting temperature of treated 3-NAP (80.75ºC) with respect to the control (79.39ºC). The latent heat of fusion of treated 3-NAP was changed by 16.28% as compared to the control sample. The TGA analysis showed an increase in onset temperature of treated sample (192ºC) as compared to the control sample (182ºC). Further, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated 3-NAP was increased as compared to the control. This showed the increase in thermal stability of treated 3-NAP with respect to control. The treated 3-NAP showed an increase in average particle size (d50) by 27.6% along with an increase in size exhibited by 99% of particles (d99) by 4.9% as compared to the control. Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis showed a substantial decrease in surface area by 24.6% with respect to the control. The FT-IR analysis showed an emergence of peak at 1558 cm-1 in treated 3-NAP sample as compared to the control. Nevertheless, the UV spectral analysis of treated 3-NAP showed no alterations in absorption peaks as compared to the control. Altogether, the result showed that biofield energy treatment has altered the physical, thermal and spectral properties of treated 3-NAP as compared to the control.
Category: Chemistry

[118] viXra:1607.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-26 23:29:29

Evaluation of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Nitrophenol Derivatives Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 10 Pages.

Nitrophenols are the synthetic organic chemicals used for the preparation of synthetic intermediates, organophosphorus pesticides, and pharmaceuticals. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the effect of biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM, and PM+2/PM in o- and m-nitrophenol using the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The o- and m-nitrophenol were divided into two parts - one part was control sample, and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample, which received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ). The biofield energy treated nitrophenols having analyzed at different time intervals were designated as T1, T2, T3, and T4. The GCMS analysis of both the control and biofield treated samples indicated the presence of the parent molecular ion peak of o- and mnitrophenol (C6H5NO3 + ) at m/z 139 along with major fragmentation peaks at m/z 122, 109, 93, 81, 65, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in the biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol were notably changed as compared to the control sample with respect to the time. The isotopic abundance ratio analysis using GC-MS revealed that the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated o-nitrophenol at T2 and T3 was significantly increased by 14.48 and 86.49%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T2 and T3 was increased by 11.36, and 82.95%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Similarly, in m-nitrophenol, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield energy treated sample at T1, T3, and T4 was increased by 5.82, 5.09, and 6.40%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Subsequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM at T1, T2, T3 and T4 in the biofield energy treated m-nitrophenol was increased by 6.33, 3.80, 16.46, and 16.46%, respectively as compared to the control sample. Overall, the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM (2H/1H or 13C/12C or 15N/14N or 17O/16O), and PM+2/PM (18O/16O) were altered in the biofield energy treated o- and m-nitrophenol as compared to the control increased in most of the cases. The biofield treated o- and m-nitrophenol that have improved isotopic abundance ratios might have altered the physicochemical properties and could be useful in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as an intermediate in the manufacturing of pharmaceuticals and other useful chemicals for the industrial application.
Category: Chemistry

[117] viXra:1607.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 07:39:40

Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Thymol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Thymol is a natural monoterpenoid phenol possessing various pharmacological activities such as antimicrobial, antioxidant, etc. The stable isotope ratio analysis has drawn attention in numerous fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. An investigation of the effect of the biofield energy treatment (The Trivedi Effect® ) on the isotopic abundance ratios of PM+1/PM and PM+2/PM in thymol using gas chromatography - mass spectrometry was attempted in this study. The sample, thymol was divided into two parts - one part was denoted as control and another part was referred as biofield energy treated sample that was given Mr. Trivediꞌs unique biofield energy. T1, T2, T3, and T4 were represented to different time interval analysis of the biofield treated thymol. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated thymol indicated the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 150 (calculated 150.10 for C10H14O) along with the similar pattern of fragmentation. The relative intensities of the parent molecule and other fragmented ions of the biofield treated thymol were enhanced as compared to the control thymol. The percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 was increased by 3.25, 6.31, 96.75, and 140.25%, respectively as compared to the control thymol. In addition, the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM was increased in the biofield treated thymol at T1, T2, T3, and T4 by 5.33, 8.00, 101.33, and 140.00%, respectively with respect to the control sample. In summary, 13C, 2H, and 17O contributions from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 151 and 18O contribution from (C10H14O)+ to m/z 152 in the biofield treated thymol were significantly increased gradually with respect to the time and was found that biofield energy treatment has time dependent effect on it. Hence, the biofield energy treated thymol might display altered isotope effects such as physicochemical and thermal properties, binding energy and the reaction kinetics with respect to the control sample. So, biofield energy treated thymol could be advantageous for designing the synthetic scheme for the preparation of pharmaceuticals through its kinetic isotope effects. Besides, biofield treated thymol might be useful to overcome the problems associated with thymol for e.g. pungent flavor, high dose requirement for the activity through understanding its isotope effects and the determination of its pharmacokinetic profile, bioavailability.
Category: Chemistry

[116] viXra:1607.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-22 23:30:02

Antimicrobial Susceptibility, Biochemical Characterization and Molecular Typing of Biofield Treated Klebsiella Pneumoniae

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Pathogenic isolates of Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), particularly the extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) producing strains, are mostly associated with the failure of antibiotic therapy in nosocomial infections. The present work was designed to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on phenotypic and genotypic characteristics of K. pneumoniae. The strain of K. pneumoniae bearing ATCC 15380 (American Type Culture Collection) was procured from the Bangalore Genei, in sealed pack and divided into control and treated groups. Treated group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment and analyzed for the antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotyping using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. Further, the effect of biofield treatment was also evaluated using Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA (RAPD) in order to determine their epidemiological relatedness and genetic characteristics of biofield treated K. pneumoniae samples. The antimicrobial susceptibility results showed an improve sensitivity (i.e. from intermediate to susceptible) of ampicillin/sulbactam and chloramphenicol, while altered sensitivity of cephalothin (i.e. from susceptible to intermediate) was also reported as compared to the control sample. The MIC value showed two-fold decrease in MIC value of ampicillin/sulbactam (i.e. 16/8 to ≤8/4 µg/mL) and chloramphenicol (i.e. 16 to ≤ 8 µg/mL) as compared to the control. The cephalothin showed two-folds change (i.e. ≤ 8 to 16 µg/mL) in the MIC value as compared with the control. Biofield treatment showed 9.09% alterations in biochemical reactions followed by a change in biotype number (7774 4272) in the treated group with respect to the control (7774 4274). Genetic fingerprinting was performed on control and treated samples using RAPD-PCR biomarkers, which showed an average range of 11 to 15% of polymorphism among the treated samples with respect to the control. These results suggested that Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment has a significant impact on K. pneumoniae.
Category: Chemistry

[115] viXra:1607.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 23:18:00

Bio-field Treatment: An Effective Strategy to Improve the Quality of Beef Extract and Meat Infusion Powder

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

The present research work investigated the influence of bio-field treatment on two common flavoring agents used in food industries namely beef extract powder (BEP) and meat infusion powder (MIP). The treated powders were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), particle size analysis, surface area analysis, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The FT-IR results showed disappearance of triglycerides peaks in both the treated powders as compared to control. XRD results corroborated the amorphous nature of both control and treated samples. The BEP showed enhanced average particle size (d50) and d99 (size exhibited by 99% of powder particles) by 5.7% and 16.1%, respectively as compared to control. Contrarily, the MIP showed a decreased particle size (d50; 0.4% and d99; 18.1%) as compared to control. It was assumed that enormous energy was stored in MIP after bio-field treatment that led to fracture into smaller particles. The surface area was increased in both the treated powders. DSC result showed significant increase in melting temperature, in BEP and MIP, which indicated the higher thermal stability of the samples. However, the specific heat capacity (∆H) was decreased in both samples, which was probably due to high energy state of the powders.
Category: Chemistry

[114] viXra:1607.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:09:36

Spectroscopic Characterization of Disulfiram and Nicotinic Acid After Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 5 Pages.

Disulfiram is being used clinically as an aid in chronic alcoholism, while nicotinic acid is one of a B-complex vitamin that has cholesterol lowering activity. The aim of present study was to investigate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of disulfiram and nicotinic acid. The study was performed in two groups i.e., control and treatment of each drug. The treatment groups were received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, spectral properties of control and treated groups of both drugs were studied using Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR spectrum of biofield treated disulfiram showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 1496 to 1506 cm-1 and C-N stretching from 1062 to 1056 cm-1. The intensity of S-S dihedral bending peaks (665 and 553 cm-1) was also increased in biofield treated disulfiram sample, as compared to control. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated nicotinic acid showed the shifting in wavenumber of C-H stretching from 3071 to 3081 cm-1 and 2808 to 2818 cm-1. Likewise, C=C stretching peak was shifted to higher frequency region from 1696 cm-1 to 1703 cm-1 and C-O (COO- ) stretching peak was shifted to lower frequency region from 1186 to 1180 cm-1 in treated nicotinic acid. UV spectrum of control and biofield treated disulfiram showed similar pattern of UV spectra. Whereas, the UV spectrum of biofield treated nicotinic acid exhibited the shifting of absorption maxima (λmax) with respect of control i.e., from 268.4 to 262.0 nm, 262.5 to 256.4, 257.5 to 245.6, and 212.0 to 222.4 nm. Over all, the FT-IR and UV spectroscopy results suggest an impact of biofield treatment on the force constant, bond strength, and dipole moments of treated drugs such as disulfiram and nicotinic acid that could led to change in their chemical stability as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[113] viXra:1607.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-19 23:11:05

Characterization of Physical and Thermal Properties of Biofield Treated Neopentyl Glycol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

Neopentyl glycol (NPG) has been extensively used as solid-solid phase change materials (PCMs) for thermal energy storage applications. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, spectral and thermal properties of NPG. The study was performed in two groups (control and treated). The control group remained as untreated, and treatment group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. The control and treated NPG were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. XRD study revealed the decrease in crystallite size of treated NPG by 21.97% as compared to control sample. DSC studies showed slight change in melting temperature of treated NPG as compared to control sample. TGA analysis showed 55.66% weight loss in control NPG however, the treated sample showed reduction in weight loss (44.81%). Additionally, the maximum thermal decomposition temperature (Tmax) of treated NPG (160.40°C) was minimally increased with respect to control sample (159.72°C). This can be inferred as good thermal stability of biofield treated NPG with respect to control. FT-IR spectroscopy showed no structural changes in treated NPG with respect to control sample. The overall results showed that biofield treatment has affected the physical and thermal properties of treated NPG. Moreover, good thermal stability of treated NPG showed that it could be used as phase change materials for thermal energy storage applications.
Category: Chemistry

[112] viXra:1607.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-14 23:09:48

Bacterial Identification Using 16S Rdna Gene Sequencing and Antibiogram Analysis on Biofield Treated Pseudomonas Fluorescens

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 9 Pages.

Biofield therapies have been reported to improve the quality of life as compared to other energy medicine. The aim of the study was to evaluate the impact of Mr. Trivedi’s biofield energy treatment on Pseudomonas fluorescens (P. fluorescens) for antimicrobial sensitivity, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype number. P. fluorescens cells were procured from MicroBioLogics Inc., USA in sealed packs bearing the American Type Culture Collection (ATCC 49838) number and divided in control and treated group. The effect was evaluated on day 10, and 159 after biofield treatment in lyophilized state. Further study was performed on day 5, 10, and 15 after retreatment on day 159 in revived state as per study design. All experimental parameters were studied using automated MicroScan Walk-Away® system. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. fluorescens with other bacterial species after treatment. The results showed improved sensitivities and decreased MIC value of aztreonam, cefepime, moxifloxacin, and tetracycline in revived and lyophilized treated sample with respect to the control. Arginine, cetrimide, kanamycin, and glucose showed altered biochemical reactions after biofield treatment with respect to control. Biotype numbers were altered along with species in lyophilized as well as in revived group. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis using 16S rDNA gene sequencing, treated sample was detected to be Pseudomonas entomophila (GenBank Accession Number: AY907566) with 96% identity of gene sequencing data, which was nearest homolog species to P. fluorescens (Accession No. EF672049). These findings suggest that Mr. Trivedi’s unique biofield treatment has the capability to alter changes in pathogenic P. fluorescens even in the lyophilized storage condition and can be used to modify the sensitivity of microbes against antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[111] viXra:1607.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-13 01:18:25

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physical and Structural Characteristics of Barium Oxide and Zinc Sulfide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Barium oxide (BaO) and zinc sulfide (ZnS) are well known for their applications in electrical, optical and chemical industries. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powder. The study was carried out in two groups, one was set to control, and another group was subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of BaO and ZnS were analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and surface area analyzer. XRD data showed that lattice parameter and unit cell volume of BaO powder were reduced upto 0.42% and 1.26%, respectively as compared to control. Whereas, density of treated BaO was increased upto 1.27% as compared to control. Besides, the unit cell volume was changed in treated ZnS from -0.55 to 0.24% as compared to control that led to change in density from -0.24 to 0.55% after biofield treatment. However, the crystallite size was substantially increased upto 40.5% and 71.4% in treated BaO and ZnS, respectively as compared to control. FT-IR data exhibited that absorption peaks at wavenumber 862/cm (control) was shifted to 858/cm in treated BaO. Upward shifting of absorption peaks corresponding to Zn-S stretching bond was observed in treated (617/cm) as compared to control (592/cm). Furthermore, surface area result showed that it was reduced by 4.32% and 2.1% in treated BaO and ZnS powder, respectively as compared to control. Hence, these, findings suggest that biofield treatment has altered the structural and physical properties of BaO and ZnS powders.
Category: Chemistry

[110] viXra:1607.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-07 23:33:08

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Phenotypic and Genotypic Characteristic of Provindencia Rettgeri

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 6 Pages.

Providencia rettgeri (P. rettgeri) is a clinically significant Gram-negative bacterium of genus Providencia, and commonly associated with hospital-acquired infection like urinary tract infection (UTI), gastroenteritis, and ocular infections. Present study was designed to evaluate the effect of biofield treatment on P. rettgeri against antimicrobial susceptibility, biochemical reaction pattern, biotype number, and 16S rDNA sequence. The samples of P. rettgeri (ATCC 9250) were divided into three groups: Gr.I (control), Gr.II (treatment, revived), and Gr.III (treatment, lyophilized). The Gr.II and III were treated with Mr. Trivedi’s biofield, and then subsequently characterized for antimicrobial susceptibility, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), biochemical reactions, and biotype numbering. The 16S rDNA sequencing was carried out to correlate the phylogenetic relationship of P. rettgeri with other bacterial species. The treated cells of P. rettgeri showed an alteration in susceptibility of about 50% and 53.3% tested antimicrobials of Gr.II on day 5 and 10, respectively; and 53.3% of tested antimicrobials of Gr.III on day 10. MIC results showed a significant decrease in MIC values of 53.1, 56.3, and 56.3% antimicrobials in Gr.II on day 5, Gr.II on day 10, and Gr.III on day 10, respectively, as compared to control. The significant changes in biochemical reactions and biotype numbers were also observed in all the treated groups of P. rettgeri. Based on nucleotides homology and phylogenetic analysis the P. rettgeri was found to be Proteus mirabilis (GenBank Accession Number: AY820623) and nearest homolog species was found to be Proteus vulgaris (Accession No. DQ499636). These findings suggest that biofield treatment can prevent the emergence of absolute resistance of existing antimicrobials to P. rettgeri.
Category: Chemistry

[109] viXra:1607.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-06 23:29:51

Evaluation of the Isotopic Abundance Ratio in Biofield Energy Treated Resorcinol Using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry Technique

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The stable isotope ratio analysis is widely used in several scientific fields such as agricultural, food authenticity, biochemistry, metabolism, medical research, etc. Resorcinol is one of the most versatile chemicals used for the synthesis of several pharmaceuticals, dyes, polymers, organic compounds, etc. The current research work was designed to investigate the impact of the biofield energy treatment on the isotopic abundance ratios of 13C/12C or 2H/1H or 17O/16O (PM+1/PM) and 18O/16O (PM+2/PM) in resorcinol using Gas chromatograph - mass spectrometry (GC-MS) technique. Resorcinol was divided into two parts - one part was control and another part was considered as biofield energy treated sample. The biofield energy treatment was accomplished through unique biofield energy transmission by Mr. Mahendra Kumar Trivedi (also called as The Trivedi Effect®). T1, T2, T3, and T4 were denoted by different time interval analysis of the biofield treated resorcinol in order to understand the influence of the biofield energy treatment on isotopic abundance ratio with respect to the time. The GC-MS spectra of the both control and biofield treated resorcinol exhibited the presence of molecular ion peak [M+ ] at m/z 110 (calculated 110.04 for C6H6O2) along with major fragmented peaks at m/z 82, 81, 69, 53, and 39. The relative peak intensities of the fragmented ions in biofield treated resorcinol (particularly T2) was significantly changed with respect to the control sample. The stable isotope ratio analysis in resorcinol using GC-MS revealed that the percentage change of the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+1/PM was increased in the biofield treated resorcinol at T1, T2, T3 and T4 by 1.77%, 165.73%, 0.74%, and 6.79%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Consequently, the isotopic abundance ratio of PM+2/PM in the biofield treated resorcinol at T2, T3, and T4 were enhanced by 170.77%, 3.08%, and 12.31%, respectively with respect to the control sample. Briefly, 13C, 2H, 17O contributions from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 111 and 18O contribution from (C6H6O2) + to m/z 112 for the biofield treated resorcinol at T2 and T4 were significantly altered as compared to the control sample. For this reasons, biofield treated resorcinol might exhibit altered physicochemical properties like diffusion velocity, mobility and evaporation rate, reaction rate, binding energy, and stability. Biofield treated resorcinol could be valuable in pharmaceutical and chemical industries as intermediates during the preparation of pharmaceuticals and chemical compounds by altering its physicochemical properties, the reaction rate and selectivity, the study of the reaction mechanism and facilitating in designing extremely effective and specific enzyme inhibitors.
Category: Chemistry

[108] viXra:1607.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-05 23:20:46

Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Characterization of M-Toluic Acid: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 8 Pages.

m-toluic acid (MTA) is widely used in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, and insect repellents. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of MTA. MTA sample was divided into two groups that served as treated and control. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), surface area analyser, differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed a decrease in crystallite size in treated samples i.e. 42.86% in MTA along with the increase in peak intensity as compared to control. However, surface area analysis showed an increase in surface area of 107.14% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis results showed that the latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 40.32%, whereas, the melting temperature was increased (2.23%) in treated MTA sample as compared to control. The melting point of treated MTA was found to be 116.04°C as compared to control (113.51°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/DTG studies showed that the control sample lost 56.25% of its weight, whereas, in treated MTA, it was found 58.60%. Also, Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost maximum of its weight) was decreased by 1.97% in treated MTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that the vaporisation temperature of treated MTA sample might decrease as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant change in spectral properties of treated MTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of m-toluic acid, which could make them more useful as a chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[107] viXra:1607.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-04 23:22:41

An Impact of Biofield Treatment: Antimycobacterial Susceptibility Potential Using BACTEC 460/MGIT-TB System

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment modality on mycobacterial strains in relation to antimycobacterials susceptibility. Mycobacterial sensitivity was analysed using 12 B BACTEC vials on the BACTEC 460 TB machine in 39 lab isolates (sputum samples) from stored stock cultures. Two American Type Culture Collection (ATCC) strains were also used to assess the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of antimicrobials (Mycobacterium smegmatis 14468 and Mycobacterium tuberculosis 25177). Rifampicin, ethambutol and streptomycin in treated samples showed increased susceptibility as 3.33%, 3.33% and 400.6%, respectively, as compared to control in extensive drug resistance (XDR) strains. Pyrazinamide showed 300% susceptibility as compared to control in multidrug resistance (MDR) strains. Isoniazide did not show any improvement of susceptibility pattern against treated either in XDR or MDR strains of Mycobacterium as compared to control. Besides susceptibility, the resistance pattern of treated group was reduced in case of isoniazide (26.7%), rifampicin (27.6%), pyrazinamide (31.4%), ethambutol (33.43%) and streptomycin (41.3%) as compared to the untreated group of XDR strains. The MIC values of few antimicrobials were also altered in the treated group of Mycobacterium smegmatis. There was a significant reduction observed in MIC values of linezolid (8.0 to 2.0 µg/ml) and tobramycin (2.0 to 1.0 µg/ml); however, very slight changes occurred in the remaining antimicrobials of treated samples. There was no change of MIC values in the strain of Mycobacterium tuberculosis after biofield treatment. Biofield treatment effect on Mycobacterium against anti-tubercular drugs might be due to altered ligand-receptor/protein interactions at either enzymatic and/or genetic level with respect to anti-mycobacterium susceptibility and MIC values of antimicrobials.
Category: Chemistry

[106] viXra:1607.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-03 23:17:48

Structural and Physical Properties of Biofield Treated Thymol and Menthol

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 10 Pages.

Thymol and menthol are naturally occurring plant derived compounds, which have excellent pharmaceutical and antimicrobial applications. The aim of this work was to evaluate the impact of biofield energy on physical and structural characteristics of thymol and menthol. The control and biofield treated compounds (thymol and menthol) were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Differential Scanning Calorimetry (DSC), Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR). XRD study revealed increase in intensity of the XRD peaks of treated thymol, which was correlated to high crystallinity of the treated sample. The treated thymol showed significant increase in crystallite size by 50.01% as compared to control. However, the treated menthol did not show any significant change in crystallite size as compared to control. DSC of treated menthol showed minimal increase in melting temperature (45ºC) as compared to control (44ºC). The enthalpy (∆H) of both the treated compounds (thymol and menthol) was decreased as compared to control samples which could be due the high energy state of the powders. TGA analysis showed that thermal stability of treated thymol was increased as compared to control; though no change in thermal stability was noticed in treated menthol. FT-IR spectrum of treated thymol showed increase in wave number of –OH stretching vibration peak (14 cm-1) as compared to control. Whereas, the FT-IR spectrum of treated menthol showed appearance of new stretching vibration peaks in the region of 3200-3600 cm-1 which may be attributed to the presence of hydrogen bonding in the sample as compared to control. Overall, the result showed that biofield treatment has substantially changed the structural and physical properties of thymol and menthol.
Category: Chemistry

[105] viXra:1607.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 19:35:07

Theory of Three-Electrone Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 20 Pages.

Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works: 1. Bezverkhniy V. D. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf 2. Bezverkhniy V. D. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the threeelectron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v1.pdf 3. Bezverkhniy V. D. A short analysis of chemical bonds. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v1.pdf 4. Bezverkhniy V. D., Bezverkhniy V. V. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v1.pdf
Category: Chemistry

[104] viXra:1607.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-01 23:20:23

Spectroscopic Characterization of Biofield Treated Metronidazole and Tinidazole

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Metronidazole and tinidazole are widely used antimicrobial drugs against Gram-negative and Gram-positive anaerobic bacteria. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on metronidazole and tinidazole using FT-IR and UV spectroscopy. The study was carried out in two groups i.e. control and treatment. Treatment groups were subjected to Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment while no treatment was given to control group. FT-IR spectrum of treated metronidazole showed the impact of biofield treatment on frequency of characteristic functional groups such as C=C (imidazole ring) stretching was appeared at lower frequency i.e. from 1600 cm-1 to 1553 cm-1. Likewise, NO2 asymmetric stretching and C-N symmetric stretching were appeared at higher wave number i.e. 1479 cm-1 to 1501 cm-1 and 1070 cm-1 to 1077 cm-1, respectively. FT-IR spectrum of tinidazole showed shifting in absorption peak of C-N stretching to higher wavenumber from 1002 cm-1 (control) to 1022 cm-1. The wavenumber of aromatic C=C bond (in imidazole) was shifted to lower frequency, which could be due to increases in conjugation effect. Further, increases in wavenumber of NO2 and C-N in treated sample suggested the increased force constant and bond strength as compared to control. Because of higher conjugation effect and increased bond strength, the molecule supposed to be more stable. The UV spectra of both metronidazole and tinidazole showed the similar patterns of lambda max (λmax) with respect to their control. The FT-IR results of both drugs suggest that there was an impact of biofield treatment on atomic level of metronidazole and tinidazole, as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[103] viXra:1606.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:23:26

Effect of Biofield Treatment on Spectral Properties of Paracetamol and Piroxicam

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

Paracetamol and piroxicam are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), widely used in pain and inflammatory diseases. The present study aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam. The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each drug. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Subsequently, spectral properties of both drugs before and after biofield treatment were characterized using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopic techniques. FT-IR data of paracetamol showed N-H amide II bending peak in biofield treated paracetamol, which was shifted to lower wavenumber (1565 to 1555 cm-1) as compared to control. Further, the intensity of vibrational peaks in the range of 1171-965 cm-1 (C-O and C-N stretching) were increased in treated sample of paracetamol as compared to control. Similarly, the FT-IR data of piroxicam (treated) showed increased intensity of vibrational peaks at 1628 (amide C=O stretching), 1576-1560 cm-1 (C=C stretching) with respect to control peaks. Furthermore, vibrational peak of C=N stretching (1467 cm-1) was observed in biofield treated piroxicam. This peak was not observed in control sample, possibly due to its low intensity. Based on FT-IR data, it is speculated that bond length and dipole moment of some bonds like N-H (amide), C-O, and C-N in paracetamol and C=O (amide), C=N, and C=C in piroxicam might be changed due to biofield treatment. The UV spectrum of biofield treated paracetamol showed the shifting in wavelength of UV absorption as 243→248.2 nm and 200→203.4 nm as compared to control. Likely, the lambda max (λmax) of treated piroxicam was also shifted as 328 →345.6 nm, 241→252.2 nm, and 205.2→203.2 nm as compared to control. Overall results showed an impact of biofield treatment on the spectral properties of paracetamol and piroxicam.
Category: Chemistry

[102] viXra:1606.0286 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 23:25:47

An Impact of Biofield Treatment on Spectroscopic Characterization of Pharmaceutical Compounds

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Snehasis Jana
Comments: 6 Pages.

The stability of any pharmaceutical compound is most desired quality that determines its shelf life and effectiveness. The stability can be correlated to structural and bonding properties of compound and any variation arise in these properties can be easily determined by spectroscopic analysis. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on these properties of four pharmaceutical compounds such as urea, thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate, using spectroscopic analysis. Each compound was divided into two groups, referred as control and treatment. The control groups remained as untreated and treatment group of each compound received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Control and treated samples of each compound were characterized using FourierTransform Infrared (FT-IR) and Ultraviolet-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. FT-IR spectra of biofield treated urea showed the shifting of C=O stretching peak towards lower frequency (1684→1669 cm-1) and N-H stretching peak towards higher frequency (3428→3435 cm-1) with respect to control. A shift in frequency of C-N-H bending peak was also observed in treated sample as compared to control i.e. (1624→1647 cm-1). FT-IR spectra of thiourea showed upstream shifting of NH2 stretching peak (3363→3387 cm-1) as compared to control, which may be due to decrease in N-H bond length. Also, the change in frequency of N-C-S bending peak (621→660 cm-1) was observed in treated thiourea that could be due to some changes in bond angle after biofield treatment. Similarly, treated sample of sodium carbonate showed decrease in frequency of C-O bending peak (701→690 cm-1) and magnesium sulphate showed increase in frequency of S-O bending peak (621→647 cm-1) as compared to control, which indicated that bond angle might be altered after biofield treatment on respective samples. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated urea showed shift in lambda max (λmax) towards higher wavelength (201→220 nm) as compared to control sample, whereas other compounds i.e. thiourea, sodium carbonate, and magnesium sulphate showed the similar λmax to their respective control. These findings conclude that biofield treatment has significant impact on spectral properties of tested pharmaceutical compounds which might be due to some changes happening at atomic level of compounds, and leading to affect the bonding and structural properties of compounds.
Category: Chemistry

[101] viXra:1606.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:51:28

Evaluation of Biofield Treatment on Physical, Atomic and Structural Characteristics of Manganese (II, III) Oxide

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 6 Pages.

In Mn3 O4 , the crystal structure, dislocation density, particle size and spin of the electrons plays crucial role in modulating its magnetic properties. Present study investigates impact of Biofield treatment on physical and atomic properties of Mn3 O4 . X-ray diffraction revealed the significant effect of biofield on lattice parameter, unit cell volume, molecular weight, crystallite sizes and densities of treated Mn3 O4 . XRD analysis confirmed that crystallinity was enhanced and dislocation density was effectively reduced by 80%. FTIR spectroscopic analysis revealed that Mn-O bond strength was significantly altered by biofield treatment. Electronic spin resonance analysis showed higher g-factor of electron in treated Mn3 O4 as compared to control, along with altered spin-spin atomic interaction of Mn with other mixed valance states. Additionally, ESR study affirmed higher magnetization behaviour of the treated Mn3 O4 . The results demonstrated that treated Mn3O4 ceramic could be used as an excellent material for fabrication of novel magnetic data storage devices.
Category: Chemistry

[100] viXra:1606.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-25 06:11:54

Influence of Biofield Treatment on Physicochemical Properties of Hydroxyethyl Cellulose and Hydroxypropyl Cellulose

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 7 Pages.

Cellulose based polymers have shown tremendous potential as drug delivery carrier for oral drug delivery system (DDS). Hydroxyethyl cellulose (HEC) and hydroxypropyl cellulose (HPC) are widely explored as excipients to improve the solubility of poorly water soluble drugs and to improve self-life of dosage form. This work is an attempt to modulate the physicochemical properties of these cellulose derivatives using biofield treatment. The treated HEC and HPC polymer were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The XRD studies revealed a semi-crystalline nature of both the polymers. Crystallite size was computed using Scherrer’s formula, and treated HEC polymer showed a significant increase in percentage crystallite size (835%) as compared to the control polymer. This higher increase in crystallite size might be associated with greater crystallite indices causing a reduction in amorphous regions in the polymer. However treated HPC polymer showed decrease in crystallite size by -64.05% as compared to control HPC. DSC analysis on HEC polymer revealed the presence of glass transition temperature in control and treated HEC polymer. We observed an increase in glass transition temperature in treated HEC, which might be associated with restricted segmental motion induced by biofield. Nonetheless, HPC has not showed any glass transition. And no change in melting temperature peak was observed in treated HPC (T2) however melting temperature was decreased in T1 as compared to control HPC. TGA analysis established the higher thermal stability of treated HEC and HPC. CHNSO results showed significant increase in percentage oxygen and hydrogen in HEC and HPC polymers as compared to control samples. This confirmed that biofield had induced changes in chemical nature and elemental composition of the treated polymers (HEC and HPC).
Category: Chemistry

[99] viXra:1606.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-24 08:02:02

Spectroscopic Characterization of Chloramphenicol and Tetracycline: an Impact of Biofield Treatment

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi
Comments: 5 Pages.

Objective: Chloramphenicol and tetracycline are broad-spectrum antibiotics and widely used against variety of microbial infections. Nowadays, several microbes have acquired resistance to chloramphenicol and tetracycline. The present study was aimed to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment for spectroscopic characterization of chloramphenicol and tetracycline using FT-IR and UV-Vis spectroscopy. Methods: The study was performed in two groups (control and treatment) of each antibiotic. The control groups remained as untreated, and biofield treatment was given to treatment groups. Results: FT-IR spectrum of treated chloramphenicol exhibited the decrease in wavenumber of NO2 from 1521 cm-1 to 1512 cm-1 and increase in wavenumber of C=O from 1681 cm-1 to 1694 cm-1 in acylamino group. It may be due to increase of conjugation effect in NO2 group, and increased force constant of C=O bond. As a result, stability of both NO2 and C=O groups might be increased in treated sample as compared to control. FT-IR spectrum of treated tetracycline showed the downstream shifting of aromatic C-H stretching from 3085-3024 cm-1 to 3064-3003 cm-1 and C=C stretching from 1648-1582 cm-1 to 1622-1569 cm-1 and up shifting of C-N stretching from 965 cm-1 to 995 cm-1. It may be due to enhanced conjugation effect in tetracycline, and increased force constant of C-N (CH3 ) bond of tetracycline as compared to control. The results indicated the enhanced stability of treated tetracycline as compared to control. UV-Vis spectra of biofield treated chloramphenicol and tetracycline showed the similar lambda max (λmax) to their respective control. It revealed that the chromophore groups of both antibiotics remained same as control after the biofield treatment. Conclusion: Based on FT-IR spectroscopic data, it is speculated that due to increase in bond strength and conjugation effect after biofield treatment, the chemical stability of both the drugs might be increased as compared to control.
Category: Chemistry

[98] viXra:1606.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-20 22:15:17

A Technical Study on 3D Effect on Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

Washing is considered as the final process in denim jeans production and is the core of denim finishing. It is the key to create the style in denim garments which is now becoming an art of creating fashion trends. The three dimensional (3D) effect is one of the most demandable finishing techniques for producing vintage denim jeans. Various types of 3D making equipments and methods are applied to jeans after resin application for producing such 3D effects. Denim jeans are then dried and finally cured in an oven for specific time at right temperature for getting final product
Category: Chemistry

[97] viXra:1606.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-18 00:30:48

The Effect of Normalisation on Partition Function – a Brief Review

Authors: S. Saha, J. Datta
Comments: 02 Pages.

In this review we wish to report a most probale approach of normalisation on partition function. And also the nature of thermal wave function as a normalised parameter.
Category: Chemistry

[96] viXra:1606.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:35:06

Structure of the Benzene Molecule on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 34 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Using the concept of three-electron bond one can represent the actual electron structure of benzene, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond on bond distance. In this article carbon-to-carbon bonds are reviewed. Using these dependences it is possible to calculate chemical bound energy by different bond distance or different multiplicity of chemical bond, that makes possible to calculate delocalization energy of benzene molecule.
Category: Chemistry

[95] viXra:1606.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:39:25

Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of the Three-Electron Bond and Theoretical Basis of Its Existence.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 6 Pages.

Analysis of images made in techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of high resolution in pentacene and other aromatic systems shows that according to predictions, aromatic three-electron bond is deflected to the centre of aromatic nuclei, which clearly confirms the fact of existence of three-electron bond in benzene, pentacene and other aromatic systems. It also confirms the existence of this bond in carboxylate anions and other similar ions and molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[94] viXra:1606.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:42:21

Supplement to the Theoretical Justification of Existence of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 7 Pages.

The existence of large aromatic monocycles has been proved impossible based on interaction of three-electron bonds through the cycle at distances between the bonds (through the cycle) greater than 3.5 Å due to the lack of energy interaction (the length of chemical bonds is in the range of distances 0.74 Å – 3.5 Å). The chemical bond (two-electron and three-electron) is considered on the assumption that the electrons in a chemical bond can be regarded as being in an entangled quantum state, that is, the chemical bond is seen as a new "indivisible" particle. There has been provided an algorithm for calculating the two-electron chemical bond "on the tip of the pen". An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the interfering Universe.
Category: Chemistry

[93] viXra:1606.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-15 07:45:29

A Short Analysis of Chemical Bonds.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 16 Pages.

It is easy to show, that relation multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole will be described by function y = a + b/x + c/x² for any types of bond (C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P).
Category: Chemistry

[92] viXra:1605.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 11:57:44

An Investigation of the Energy Storage Properties of a 2D α-Moo3-SWCNTs Composite Films

Authors: Beatriz Mendoza-Sanchez, Damien Hanlon, Joao Coelho, Sean O' Brien, Henrik Pettersson, Jonathan Coleman, Valeria Nicolosi
Comments: 22 Pages.

2D a-MoO3 was synthesized using a facile, inexpensive and scalable liquid-phase exfoliation method. 2D a-MoO3/SWCNT (85 wt%/15 wt%) composite films were manufactured by vacuum filtration and their energy storage properties were investigated in a LiClO4/propylene carbonate electrolyte in a 1.5 V to 3.5 V vs. Li+/Li electrochemical window. Cyclic voltammetry showed typical ion intercalation peaks of a-MoO3 and a capacitance of 200 F/g was achieved at 10 mV/s and 82 F/g at 50 mV/s. The composite electrodes achieved a capacitive charge storage of 375 C/g and a diffusion-controlled maximum charge storage of 703 C/g. The latter being superior to the charge storage achieved by previously reported mesoporous a-MoO3, produced using more cumbersome multi-step templating methods, and a-MoO3 nanobelts . This superior Li-ion intercalation charge storage was attributed to the shorter ion-transport paths of 2D a-MoO3 as compared to other nanostructures. Galvanostatic charge-discharge experiments showed a maximum charge storage of 123.0 mAh/g at a current density of 100 mA/g.
Category: Chemistry

[91] viXra:1603.0359 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 15:38:36

A New Linear Equation Relating Interfacial Tension of Mercury and Isotension Potentials Describing Asymmetry in Electrocapillary Curves

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Eqs. 3 and 4a, the last terms should read 1-R(+) and -52.01 resply.

It has been known for over a century that the interfacial tension of mercury dipping in electrolyte solutions changes with applied potential following a near parabolic course called the electrocapillary curve. Solution components adsorbable on mercury produce asymmetric curves with respect to the potential at the electrocapillary maximum. A simple mathematical description of this asymmetry has so far exercised and eluded many scientists. Here, the author shows a simple linear relation which describes the electrocapillary curves, using the existing data.
Category: Chemistry

[90] viXra:1603.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-25 11:58:59

The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene

Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of NH3, we demonstrate a strong shift of the equilibrium of the Haber-Bosch process towards ammonia. Hydroxylated graphene provides the polar environment favoring the forward reaction, and remain stable under the investigated thermodynamic conditions. Ca. 50 kJ mol-1 enthalpy gain and ca. 60-70 kJ mol-1 free energy gain are achieved at 298 1300 K and 1 1000 bar, strongly shifting the reaction equilibrium towards the product. A clear microscopic interpretation of the observed phenomenon is given using electronic structure calculations and real-time reactive simulations. The demonstrated principle can be applied with many polar groups functionalizing a substrate with a high surface area, provided that the system is chemically inert to H2, N2 and NH3. The modified Haber-Bosch process is of significant importance to the chemical industry, since it provides a substantial increase of the reaction yield while decreasing the temperature and pressure, thereby, reducing the cost.
Category: Chemistry

[89] viXra:1603.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-13 08:00:26

Simple and Exact Additivity of Atomic and Ionic Radii in Various Types of Bonds in Small as Well as Large Molecules

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 15 pages

The nature of the chemical bond has intrigued many a mind. Bohr’s theory of the hydrogen atom, which celebrated its centennial recently, gave the correct value but a negative sign for the energy. As this would imply that the energy of the Universe, which consists of 70% hydrogen, is negative, the author was dissatisfied with it. So she proposed a modified approach to the problem, which showed that the energy is positive. Moreover, she found that the Bohr radius is divided into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton. This idea cascaded into the finding that all bond lengths in small as well as large molecules are simply exact sums of the appropriate atomic and or Golden ratio based ionic radii of adjacent atoms or ions. Over the years, this has proved to be correct for various types of bonds, including hydrogen bonds, bonds in graphite and in benzene dimers.
Category: Chemistry

[88] viXra:1603.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 13:50:13

Absolute Potentials of the Standard Hydrogen Electrode, Reference Electrodes and Aqueous Redox Couples of Elements of Gps. I -VIII

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 5 pages

Electrochemical potentials are conventionally referred to that of the standard hydrogen electrode (SHE) arbitrarily as zero, in the absence of the knowledge of the latter. More than two centuries after Volta, the author demonstrated for the first time, a new simple linear relation between the gaseous ionization potentials (I) and the aqueous standard redox potentials using existing data for the elements of various Groups in the Periodic Table. All these straight lines (except for Gp. VII) converged to one point at I = 0, yielding the absolute potential of SHE as 4.20 (+/- 0.03)V. For halogens (Gp. VII), the value was found to be 2.87 (+/-0.01) V. This enabled converting the existing standard potential data into absolute potentials. Since the gaseous ionization potentials are inversely proportional to the Bohr radius, an extension of the idea to absolute aqueous redox potentials enabled estimating the radii of redox components in solution and correlating them with their covalent radii.
Category: Chemistry

[87] viXra:1603.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-08 13:15:37

Solution Chemistry Simplified Based on Arrhenius' Theory of Electrolytic Dissociation and Hydration For all Concentrations

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 17 pages

Arrhenius theory of partial dissociation of electrolytes rose to its heights and fame when he was awarded the Nobel Prize (1903). While the theory was still being developed to account for the non-ideal properties of electrolytes at higher concentrations, it was unfortunately replaced by Lewis’ empirical concepts of activity and activity coefficients. With the near success of the Debye-Huckel theory of inter-ionic interactions for very dilutions, the latter was erroneously extended over the next few decades by extended parametrical equations to higher concentrations assuming complete dissociation at all concentrations. This eventually turned solution theory into a mere catalogue of parameters. Therefore, the present author abandoned it all and started systematically analyzing the available experimental data as such. She found that with the degrees of dissociation and ‘surface’ and ‘bulk’ hydration numbers obtained from vapor pressure data, properties of electrolytes could be explained quantitatively over the whole concentration range, using simple mathematical equations.
Category: Chemistry

[86] viXra:1603.0049 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 05:28:19

Study on Properties Analysis of Knitwear After Acid Wash

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article deals with the investigation on the effect of the acid washing (with thermocol balls and potassium permanganate) on different properties of three knitted garments (Single Jersey 100% Cotton T-shirt, Single Jersey 95% Cotton 5% Spandex T-Shirt and 1×1 Rib100% Cotton T- Shirt). Typical washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that fabric weight, CPI, WPI, spirality and shrinkage increase while bursting strength, stitch length absorbency decrease after washing treatment. PH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 7 – 8. There is no change in pilling, colorfastness to wash, water and dry rubbing while a little bit decrease in wet rubbing.
Category: Chemistry

[85] viXra:1602.0348 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-27 11:04:49

A Simple and Exact Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Stacking Distances in Benzene and its Dimers in Terms of Atomic Covalent Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages, 2 figures

The structure of benzene and the stacking distances in its dimers have long been of interest for scientists. As the various rigorous approaches over the years to understand these have been complicated, the author presents here a new and simple interpretation through the additivity of atomic covalent radii in bond lengths. Considered here are the distances in pi-pi stacking and T-stacking dimers. The latter appears to be a hydrogen bond between a C atom of one benzene ring and the pi-system of the other.
Category: Chemistry

[84] viXra:1602.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-16 02:53:25

Storage Stability of Biofuel

Authors: H.H. Masjuki, M. Varman, M.Y. Cheah, Y.H. Cheng, M.A. Kalam, A.M. Liaquat, M. Shahabuddin, M. Mofijur
Comments: 13 pages. Paper presented at 2012 International Symposium on Energy Technology and Strategy, Tainan, Taiwan.

Biofuel is one of the prime candidates to take over the role played by fossil fuel as the main source of energy in the future. Numerous studies have been done on the potential of biofuel to produce similar power output generated by the current petrol and diesel which are depleting without any drawbacks. The objective of this particular study is to investigate 4 of the more established vegetable oil in the energy industry namely jatropha, palm, coconut and canola oil in terms of storage stability of biofuel at room temperature and 80ºC. The biofuels were tested in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every 2 weeks for 10-12 weeks or 3 months at 2 different temperatures to obtain a conspicuous result. At the end of the experiment and test, it is found that palm oil is the biofuel with the best storage stability. The next biofuel that followed is jatropha oil, canola oil and finally coconut oil. Although palm oil showed poor kinematic viscosity, however it has good stability in terms of density, Total Acid Number (TAN) and also relatively stable oxidation and flash point in comparison with the 4 samples tested. The experiment result and data also showed that effect of continuous heating at 80ºC promotes oxidation process, higher Total Acid Number (TAN), lower flash point as well as increase in density and kinematic viscosity. Next, experimental investigations were carried out to evaluate the storage stabilities of various biodiesel fuels. The biodiesel fuels were palm methyl ester (PME), jatropha methyl ester (JME), coconut methyl ester (COME), 20% blends of PME with diesel fuel and 20% blends of JME with diesel fuel. The ordinary diesel fuel was used for comparison purposes. The biodiesel were tested in terms of density, kinematic viscosity, Total Acid Number (TAN), flash point and oxidation stability every week for 3 months. The results show that almost all fuel samples met the standard specifications regarding oxidation stability. The trends for density, viscosity and TAN increased due to oxidation. For the flash point, the trend also decreased, but the rate was very low. In overall consideration, among the biodiesel, COME was found to be better with respect to storage stabilities. The results of this investigation will be used for sustainable development of biodiesel fuel from various feedstocks
Category: Chemistry

[83] viXra:1602.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-08 08:26:14

A Simple and Precise Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Angles in Diborane in Terms of Atomic and Ionic Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 5 pages, 3 Figures

Diborane is an unusual molecule with two boron atoms bonded to four terminal hydrogen atoms and two bridging hydrogen atoms. This has puzzled many scientists and gave rise to many theories, with no final definitive explanation. This article brings a simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles in diborane, based on the additivity of atomic and Golden ratio based ionic radii, which was found applicable for many other bonds in small as well as small molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[82] viXra:1602.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-03 00:49:45

A Kinetic Basis for the Hansch Equation

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Hansch equation is a key mathematical relationship and a conceptual guiding principle (QSAR) in the practice of modern medicinal chemistry. Recent years have apparently witnessed a debate on the utility of QSAR, hence it seems opportune to explore its fundamental origins. The Hansch equation leads to a parabolic relationship between drug activity and hydrophobicity. Currently, this is explained on the basis of more efficient drug-receptor interaction at low to moderate hydrophobicity, and decreasing aqueous solubility of the drug at moderate to high hydrophobicity. Herein is presented an alternative kinetic model, essentially based on the rate of the drug-receptor interaction; thus, binding is rate determining up to moderate levels of hydrophobicity, beyond which drug release is rate determining. The overall model is based on the idea that the release of the drug occurs concurrently with a physiological response, although alternative variants are also discussed. Overall, it is argued that QSAR essentially indicates the primacy of electronic over steric effects. This has fundamental implications for the classical theory of drug-receptor binding, which may need to be appropriately reassessed. Thus, the observed structure-activity relationships possibly apply to the kinetics of drug-receptor binding, likely involving substrate-induced conformational changes within the receptor, prior to the binding event. Recent developments in receptor-based drug design methodology apparently support these views.
Category: Chemistry

[81] viXra:1601.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-25 15:16:39

A Comparison Study on Original and Torrefied Hazelnut Shells using a Bubbling Fluidised Bed Gasifier

Authors: René Laryea-Goldsmith, Alper Sarioğlan, Parvana Aksoy, Işıl Işık Gülsaç, Berrin Engin, Yeliz Durak Çetin, Hakan Karataş
Comments: 12 Pages.

Torrefaction is mild thermo-chemical process similar to pyrolysis, that can be applied to biomass to improve energy density and hydrophobicity. Comparison was made between original and torrefied forms of hazelnut shell agricultural waste biomass, when these materials were subjected to gasification using a “bench-scale” fluidised bed gasifier. Results indicated that a simplified torrefaction process was successful in physical transformation of the hazelnut shell and that the resultant syn-gas was of a relatively higher calorific value, together with lower tar content. Keywords: biomass, TGA, thermogravimetry, thermogravimetic analysis, gasification, fluidisation
Category: Chemistry

[80] viXra:1601.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-25 10:44:59

The Coulombic Nature of the van der Waals Bond Connecting Conducting Graphene Layers in Graphite

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 6 pages, one Figure

Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon inter-planar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.
Category: Chemistry

[79] viXra:1512.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-12 09:45:05

Nanoscale Bombs

Authors: Vitaly Chaban
Comments: 2 Pages.

An explosion is a quick release of a significant amount of energy from a spontaneous chemical reaction. The liberated energy is expelled in all directions, provides yellow to red flames, and forms various gases, e.g., carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and molecular nitrogen, containing double and triple covalent bonds. The explosion reaction, once initiated, is simultaneously driven by large exothermic and positive entropy changes.
Category: Chemistry

[78] viXra:1512.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 04:59:13

Systematic and Efficient Navigating Potential Energy Surface: A Case Study of Silver Doped Gold Clusters for Calibration

Authors: Vitaly V. Chaban
Comments: 15 Pages.

Locating global minimum of certain atomistic ensemble is known to be a highly challenging and resource consuming task. This works represents joint usage of the semi-empirical PM7 Hamiltonian, Broyden–Fletcher–Goldfarb–Shanno algorithm and basin hopping scheme to navigate a potential energy surface. The Au20 nanocluster was used for calibration as its global minimum structure is well-known. Furthermore, Au18Ag2 and Au15Ag5 were simulated for illustration of the algorithm performance. The work shows encouraging results and, particularly, underlines proper accuracy of PM7 as applied to this type of heavy metal systems. The reported results motivate to use the benchmarked method for studying potential energy surfaces of manifold systems and locate their global-minimum atomistic configurations.
Category: Chemistry

[77] viXra:1512.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-06 07:49:45

Synergistic Degradation of 4-Nitrophenol Using Hydrodynamic Cavitation in Combination with Hydrogen Peroxide

Authors: Mihir N. Bhagat, Mandar P. Badve, Aniruddha B. Pandit
Comments: 5 Pages. Article in Press at the Int. J. of Sustainable Water & Environmental Systems Volume 8, No. 1 (2016).

p-Nitrophenol (PNP), a widely utilized intermediate, is a persistent pollutant present in industrial effluent streams. The inherent toxicity of PNP necessitates its treatment before releasing it in the environment. The conventional approach pertaining to degradation of PNP is based on chemical and biological methods for decomposition. Alternatively, Hydrodynamic Cavitation (HC) is emerging as a promising technology for waste water treatment. This study investigates HC as an alternative technology to degrade PNP and subsequently enhance efficiency by varying involved parameters. The HC-H2O2 system is reported to exhibit synergism for pollutant oxidation, the applicability of which is also investigated for degrading PNP. A PNP solution of fixed concentration was subjected to HC using a circular Venturi. Degradation was studied by varying time, pressure, pH and H2O2 concentration. Decompostion of p-Nitrophenol was quantified by UV-Visible Spectroscopy at 405nm. Degradation of PNP was observed to be directly proportional to time at constant pressure and an initial increase in pressure led to higher degradation. However, on achieving a peak decomposition level, the extent of decomposition declined with further increase in pressure. Experiments done at acidic pH resulted in over two times the decomposition than those done at basic pH. The PNP-H2O2 system exhibited 91% more degradation than the sum of degradations affected by PNP and H2O2 individually. Moreover, subjecting PNP:H2O2 in a molar ratio of 1:5 to HC resulted in near-complete (>95%) degradation. This study proposes variations of parameters for optimum decomposition of PNP using HC and explores the HC-H2O2 system as a promising alternative for the degradation PNP.
Category: Chemistry

[76] viXra:1511.0093 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-11 09:40:30

Investigation of Different Washing Effects on Physical and Mechanical Properties of Cotton Knitted Garments

Authors: Solaiman, Abdur Rouf, Shamsuzzaman Rasel, Elias Khalil
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper deals with three types of washing (enzyme, softener, Silicone) effects on 100% cotton Single Jersey T-shirt, Slub Single Jersey T-shirt, Double Lacoste (5% Lycra) Polo shirt, Single jersey CVC (T-shirt) and PC single Jersey (T-shirt). Typical industrial washing procedures and techniques were followed and then physico-mechanical properties were analyzed under standard condition. It is observed that after washing, weight of each garments has increased from 5% to 36%; stitch length of the constituted fabric has decreased from 1% to 10% approximately; CPI has increased 23% for CVC fabric only for enzyme treatment and for other process it has a little bit or no wash effects. Same effects found for WPI except 100% cotton and Double Lacoste. Shrinkage property both for lengthwise and widthwise remains the same except CVC and Double Lacoste knitted garments and spirality has almost unchanged except 100% cotton and slub fabric. Both the dry and wet rubbing properties have improved after any types of wash except 100% cotton on Silicone wash. Water absorbency property has increased; pH of all the samples is under controlled and lies between 4.5 and 5.0. But there is no significant change of colorfastness to wash and stain after these washing treatments.
Category: Chemistry

[75] viXra:1511.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-02 04:40:55

Classical Thermodynamics: A Web of Convoluted Myths. The Carnot Cycle and the Joule-Thomson Effect Unravelled

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 15 Pages.

It is argued that several key ideas upon which thermodynamics was founded are likely dubious and may well need to be abandoned altogether. This particularly applies to certain concepts based on the ideal gas laws, e.g. isothermal and adiabatic expansion and compression. Indeed, this is apparently the reason for the invalidity of the Carnot cycle, a cornerstone of thermodynamics that has widely influenced the evolution of scientific thought and technological innovation over nearly two centuries. (It has been previously argued that the Carnot cycle is self-evidently invalid, as a closed system operating in a cycle cannot yield net work.) Likewise, a re-evaluation of the Joule-Thomson effect indicates that the actual operations performed relate neither to the model employed nor to the derived theoretical construct. In fact, the proof of constant enthalpy during the adiabatic expansion is debatable, the calculated volume changes being invalidated by the accompanying transfer of mass. Thus, the imputed conversion of kinetic to potential energy is unlikely to be valid (the latter, in fact, being associated with higher – rather than lower – pressures). The Joule-Thomson effect is likely the result of simple pressure changes (including a possible Bernoulli Effect at the nozzle), along with mass changes which affect the energy density, akin to those found at high altitudes (‘hill-station effect’).
Category: Chemistry

[74] viXra:1511.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-01 19:08:30

Challenging Science

Authors: Joel M WIlliams
Comments: 2 Pages.

The author is releasing his book "Challenging Science" as a free, down-loadable, pdf file. The book covers many of his thoughts and research papers in chemistry and physics from the time of his retirement in 1993 to its publication in 2005. The small, 2-page, pdf file in this submission presents the reader with the Table of Contents and the Introduction section of the book. The reader is provided with a link to the author's website where many of the topics in the book are updated and where a link to download the 18Mb pdf file of the full-copy of the book for free is available.
Category: Chemistry

[73] viXra:1510.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-28 09:24:08

Nonlinear Analysis of Transient Response in Thin Film based Ammonia Detector

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian
Comments: 4 Pages.

The nonlinear analysis of the transient response of a Gallium Oxide thin film based ammonia detector is performed using standard techniques such as Wavelet Analysis and Lyapunov Exponents, all of these targeted towards the resistance transient response as a function of ammonia concentration in ppm. While the distance plots reveal maximum asymmetry in the vicinity of 5ppm, positive Lyapunov Exponents obtained confirm the presence of chaos, while exhibiting a very prominent peak at 5ppm concentration levels. This trend is attributed to the moderate response and recovery times seen for the 5ppm concentration level, making it an ‘optimum’ level of sensitivity. It is opined that the results of nonlinear analysis presented in this work will serve as a stepping stone in the systematic benchmarking of various sensing mechanisms taking into account the nonlinearity in the underlying mechanisms.
Category: Chemistry

[72] viXra:1510.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-08 09:27:42

Investigation of the Influence of Potassium Permanganate on Denim Jeans Processing During Acid Wash

Authors: Elias Khalil, Atikur Rahman, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 5 Pages.

Denim Jeans finishing is one of the most important value added activities in the washing plant to meet buyer requirements. It is done by creating numerous effects on it. Potassium Permanganate (PP) is a strong oxidizing agent used to make vintage look with acid stone wash. This present investigation deals with the simultaneous effect of processing time and concentration of PP on the physical and mechanical properties of denim garments. Three 100% cotton denim jeans were separately treated with stone acid wash with simultaneous variation of processing time (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5 minutes) and of PP concentration (1. 5, 2 & 2. 5g/l) respectively after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.
Category: Chemistry

[71] viXra:1509.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-28 21:29:59

Effect of Processing Time and Concentration of Potassium Permanganate on Physico-Mechanical Properties of Denim Jeans During Stone Washing

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Three 100% cotton denim jeans were treated with stone acid wash with the variation of processing time (1.5, 2 & 2.5 minutes) and concentration (1.5, 2 & 2.5g/l) of potassium permanganate after typical enzyme bleach wash. Various physical and mechanical properties (Hand feel, Weight, EPI, and PPI, Tensile strength, Shrinkage, Seam strength, Count & stiffness) were investigated before and after each treatment (concentration and respective time) according to standard test methods. It was found that change in processing time and concentration reveals big difference in various properties between treated and untreated garments.
Category: Chemistry

[70] viXra:1509.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-20 05:50:31

H2 Cars (Pem Hydrogen Fuel Cells)

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Ali Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed Ahmed
Comments: 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cell is the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.
Category: Chemistry

[69] viXra:1508.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-02 05:07:51

Nuclear Representation of Atom Characteristics

Authors: A. Warnery
Comments: 23 Pages. French

Atom characteristics can be represented by a nuclear structure. The nuclear structure depends on protonic forces. Protons attract neutrons and repulse protons. These forces makes two microstructures ; the free proton (in equilibrium between the neutron's attraction and the repulsion forces) and the corpuscle (two protons closely attracted by two or more neutrons). The nuclear structure is compact. Two free protons can make a corpuscle (2n protons). N² corpuscles make a saturated square layer of 2n² protons. Between two saturated layers it is possible to have an insaturated layer of 2(n+1)²-2n²=2n+1 free protons. From the nuclear equator (biggest layer) each successive layer has one proton less per side. The unsaturated layer can be considered as an unsaturated layer of (n) protons per side or a saturated layer of (n-1) protons per side (n/n-1). The structure is simple (see representation page 4-.7). Under the equator the layer has n= 4,3,2,1 (or 3,2,1 or 2,1 or1) protons per side. Above the equator the layer has : 4,3,2,1/0 (or 3,2,1/0 or 2,1/0 or 1/0) protons per side for alkaline metals, 4,3,2/1 (or 3,2/1 or 2/1) protons per side for poor metals, non metals, noble gases, 4,3/2,1 (or 3/2,1) protons per side for transition metals, 4/3,2,1 protons per side for rare earth metals, The characteristics (quantum, chemical) of an atom depends on the number and position of the free protons ; Oxydation (number of free protons in specifics layers), Valency (number of position of free proton), Principal quantum number (number of the unsaturated layer), Azimuthal quantum number, (number of protons per side (n) of the unsaturated layer with 1=s ; 2=p ; 3=d ; 4=f) Magnetic moment (free proton distance from the nuclear meridian), Spin (free proton distance from the neutron, free proton ½ or 0 corpuscle), In this paper, we present how this representation can interpret the physics from a chemical point of view. This representation can help us interpret the quantum physics and understand the dynamic material energy.
Category: Chemistry

[68] viXra:1507.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-25 13:20:22

Simple Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Bond Angles in Stratospheric Chlorine Monoxide and Peroxide Based on Atomic and Ionic Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 4 Figures

Over the last decade, the bond lengths in many molecules including hydrogen bonds and bond angles in small molecules like water and oxides of nitrogen, sulphur and carbon, were interpreted quantitatively in terms of the appropriate atomic and or the Golden ratio based ionic radii. Recently, the structure and formation of stratospheric ozone were explained using the atomic and ionic radii of oxygen. Presented here is a new, precise and simple explanation of the bond lengths and angles of the oxides of chlorine which cause depletion of stratospheric ozone. This work brings the simplest interpretation compared with existing complicated theories.
Category: Chemistry

[67] viXra:1507.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-11 05:02:29

Sustainable and Ecological Finishing Technology for Denim Jeans

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages. Denim Jeans, Ecofriendly Finishing, Laser, Ozone, Water Jet

Denim Jeans finishing is an important operation for value addition of the final products in the apparel business. There are numerous operations exist for fulfilling of this treatment. This paper deals with the recent developments of the sustainable, environment friendly and emerging industrial approaches (Laser, Ozone and Water Jet) for the finishing treatments of the denim jeans. It is observed that finishing with laser and ozone is a reduced water treatment while water jet fading system though consumes water but assembling of water recycling system makes it ecological and economic. The adoption of these finishing technologies has brought about a radical transformation in the garment finishing industry, which is changing from an artisanal, labor intensive industry towards an industry based on knowledge and technology that feels more responsible for the environment and for workers.
Category: Chemistry

[66] viXra:1507.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-08 17:07:31

Comparative Study Among Different Dyeing Methods of Polyester Fabric With Disperse Dyes

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 48 Pages.

The objective of our project was to compare among different dyeing methods of polyester fabric with disperse dyes. At first the polyester fabrics (knit and woven) were dyed with disperse dyes. Three methods have been used for dyeing polyester fabrics (knit & woven): 1. Aqueous dyeing with a carrier (90°- 100°C) (batch dyeing) 2. High-temperature (120°- 140°C) aqueous dyeing (batch dyeing) 3. "Thermosol" dyeing (180°- 220°C) (continuous dyeing) After dyeing the dyed sample were subjected to several tests- 1. Color fastness to perspiration. 2. Color fastness to rubbing. 3. Color fastness to washing 4. Process effectiveness 5. Cost analysis 6. Tensile Stregnth test 7. Pilling Test Finally from the overall comparison for different processes , we found that High Temperature & High Pressure method is the most suitable dyeing method used in industrial production.
Category: Chemistry

[65] viXra:1506.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-08 08:30:50

Sorry Bohr, Ground State Energy of Hydrogen Atom is Not Negative

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 7 pages, 2 Figures

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[64] viXra:1506.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:36:38

Investigation on Physico-Chemical Properties of 100% Cotton Woven Fabric Treated with Titanium Dioxide

Authors: Md Mostafizur Rahman, Elias Khalil, Md Solaiman, Ahmad Mubarak, Joy Sarkar, Faisal Abedin, A H M Asif Kamal, Rajib Al Mamun
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper represents an approach to observe the physico-chemical effects of titanium dioxide (TiO 2) applied on 100% cotton woven fabric. Cotton fabric was treated with TiO 2 by exhaustion method and followed by necessary curing and washing processes. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, pH and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were examined. It was found that titanium dioxide impairs the hand feel and absorbency of 100% cotton woven fabrics, wetting time of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the tensile strength of 100% cotton woven fabrics. The treatment with titanium dioxide also kept the pH of the fabric in acidic medium.
Category: Chemistry

[63] viXra:1506.0035 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 21:39:46

Influence Of Enzyme And Silicone Wash On The Physico-Mechanical Properties Of Non-Denim Twill Garments

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar, Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 3 Pages.

Garments washing is one of the most important finishing treatments applied on apparels which have vital use to create special outlooks and improving the fashion. Technologically washing is one of the most important fashion elements for clothing industry and production of washed garments depends on the machine quality. In order to achieve an optimum effect of washing process, on the woven fabric in different washing time, Enzyme Wash and then Silicone wash were carried out for cotton fabric. However, there are some of the comments that when the garments have longer washing time, use of the chemical on the washing procedure will affect the physical and mechanical performance. The aim of this study is to determine the effects of industrial enzyme silicone wash combined with silicone wash. For this study currently fashionable regular Non-denim (100% cotton with twill 3/1 weave construction) trouser was chosen. The selected Non-denim trouser has been processed by enzyme and then silicone wash. In order to evaluate the washing effects on Non-denim trouser, changes of fabric handle, fabric specification (ends/inch, picks/inch, surface density, warp & weft yarn linear density), fabric strength has been determined during and after washing.
Category: Chemistry

[62] viXra:1506.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:35:40

Application of Phase Change Materials in Textiles: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 14 Pages.

Phase change materials or PCMs are compounds which store and release latent heat by changing chemical bonds through a phase alteration. These materials absorb energy during the heating and release energy to the surroundings through a reverse cooling process. The integration of PCM in textiles by coating, encapsulation or any other means has grown concentration to the scientist. In this paper; characteristics, classification, working principle of PCMs and its versatile application in textiles are mainly discussed.
Category: Chemistry

[61] viXra:1506.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:40:29

Effect of Hardness of Water on Fixation and Total Wash off Percentage of Reactive Dyes When Applied to Cellulosic Fiber

Authors: Elias Khalil, Joy Sarkar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Dye-house water quality is the most important parameter to be confirmed before dyeing; precisely the presence of metal content i.e. Hardness. This research will investigate & analyses the impact of separate hardness (i.e. Calcium, Magnesium & Iron) on particular "Turquoise" (C.I. Reactive Blue 21) & a "High Exhaustion" class (C.I. HE Red 120, C.I. HE Yellow 84) of Reactive dye on cotton knitted-fabric. From evaluation of dyed fabric the range of metal content is sorted out where the quality starts to fluctuate as distinctive visible & spectral change of shade & fixation rate of the dye molecules has been found. The result of the work will help for further projection about water quality degradation in upcoming years & its effect on dyeing behavior, also the sustainability of present dyeing process to cope with the ever degrading quality of water.
Category: Chemistry

[60] viXra:1506.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:41:47

Effect of Industrial Bleach Wash and Softening on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is a novel process to impart worn-out look, to modify the appearance and to improve the comfort ability of the garments. Bleach wash is used to fade the color of denim in a higher degree as well as bleach wash has effect on the physical and mechanical properties of the denim also. This paper presents the impact of bleach wash and subsequent softening treatment on 100% cotton denim dyed with indigo dye. Garments were washed using a bleach concentration of 10 g/l for 30 minutes in 50oC temperature and then softened using standard recipe. The physical, mechanical and color properties were analyzed in before wash, after desizing, after bleaching and after softening. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color fading. Bleach washed and softened garments exhibit a great difference in the physical, mechanical and color properties than the unwashed garments
Category: Chemistry

[59] viXra:1506.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:43:09

Effect of Titanium Dioxide Treatment on the Properties of 100% Cotton Knitted Fabric

Authors: Md. Mostafizur Rahman, Md. Solaiman, Elias Khalil
Comments: 4 Pages.

Titanium dioxide (TiO 2) is a white, water insoluble pigment. It is used in paints, plastics, foods, pharmaceuticals and cosmetics. Its main application on textile materials as an ultraviolet ray protecting agents. Titanium dioxide can reflect, scatter or absorb ultraviolet ray. Besides Titanium dioxide also modify the properties of fabrics. In previous research, titanium dioxide was applied mainly by padding mangle method. This paper presents an approach to observe the effect of titanium dioxide treatment 100% cotton knitted (plain jersey) fabric applied by exhaustion method followed by curing and washing. The treated fabrics were then analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) and the tensile strength, p H value and absorbency of the treated and untreated fabrics were checked. It is found that titanium dioxide impairs the better hand feel and absorbency (wetting time) of all treated fabrics increased gradually than untreated fabrics. The treatment increases the strength and keeps the p H of the fabric in acidic medium
Category: Chemistry

[58] viXra:1506.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:47:55

Investigation on Effluent Characteristics of Organic Cotton Fabric Dyeing With Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes

Authors: Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Md. Mazedul Islam, Elias Khalil
Comments: 7 Pages.

Environmental sustainability is the major concern in the age of modern world. For textile and apparel sector, this has been a burning issue for many related concerned bodies. The pretreatment and dyeing process of greige fabrics results in large volume of effluents that has harmful effect on environment. In this study, the ecological parameters of the effluents obtained from scouring and dyeing of 100% organic cotton single jersey knitted fabrics with environmentally low impact Remazol series reactive dyes adopting exhaust dyeing method was investigated. The effluents collected for investigating the ecological parameters include chemical oxygen demand (COD), biological oxygen demand (BOD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), dissolved oxygen (DO) and alkalinity. The results show that the use of the low impact reactive dyes has greater ecological advantages as it reduces the COD, BOD, TDS, TSS, p H values and increases the DO values of effluents. Organic cotton itself being eco-friendly along with Remazol series sustainable dyes provides the better ecological results. Hence, the results indicated that wet processing of organic cotton knitted fabric with eco-friendly and low impact reactive dyes provide better ecological advantages.
Category: Chemistry

[57] viXra:1506.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:49:33

Investigation on Physical Properties of Organic Cotton T-Shirt by Bio-Scouring and Eco-Friendly Remazol Reactive Dyes Treatment

Authors: Md Mazedul Islam, Md. Mashiur Rahman Khan, Elias Khalil
Comments: 5 Pages.

Wet processing treatment plays an important role in the physico-mechanical properties of finished apparel products. This paper presents an investigated result of enzymatic scouring and eco-friendly remazol reactive dyes treatment on the physical properties of finished T-shirt product. 100 % organic cotton single jersey knitted grey fabric having 160 gsm was considered. To investigate the selected physical characteristics of the finished organic cotton T-shirt, the eco-friendly enzymatic scouring with Prima Green Eco scour, Prima Fast Gold RSL and remazol ultra RGBN series reactive dyed treatment were performed following standard recipe. Selected physical properties namely washing fastness, bursting strength, fabric drapability, color fastness to rubbing, perspiration and absorption have been investigated for the newly developed organic cotton T-shirt that showed better results in terms of quality. Hence, it can be concluded that by selecting eco-friendly materials like organic cotton and chemical processing treatment, it is possible to develop finished T-shirt products with improved physical properties.
Category: Chemistry

[56] viXra:1506.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 11:50:58

Wrinkle Finish on Denim by Resin Treatment: A Review

Authors: Elias Khalil, Md. Mazedul Islam
Comments: 6 Pages.

Nowadays, fashion in clothing is unimaginable without denim garment with a numerous effect. Various types of dry and wet process are used to make these effect. In this article, 3D/crinkle effect by creating wrinkles on the denim garments preceded by resin application is discussed. This effect gives vintage look as well as add value to the garments though having possibility of decreasing tearing strength.
Category: Chemistry

[55] viXra:1506.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:03:32

A Technical Overview on Protective Clothing Against Chemical Hazards

Authors: Elias Khalil
Comments: 10 Pages.

Protection against harmful chemical materials is compulsory in many aspects of everyday life. Proper and adequate protective clothing is desirable during household chores and in industrial, agricultural, and medical work, during military operations; and in response to incidents of terrorism. Different types of materials and garment designs are used in these clothing items, and protection levels vary considerably. Selections must be made as to which items of protective clothing to select for a given situation or environment. Variables to be considered include weight, comfort, level of protection, and the duration of protection required. In addition, the nature of the challenges to be encountered is also of significant concern. Due to the huge number of variables involved, numerous levels and types of chemical protective clothing systems has been technologically developed.
Category: Chemistry

[54] viXra:1506.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-04 08:13:21

Effect of Enzyme Washing Combined With Pumice Stone on the Physical, Mechanical and Color Properties of Denim Garments

Authors: Joy Sarkar, Elias Khalil, Md. Solaiman
Comments: 4 Pages.

Garments washing is being used as a novel process to modify the appearance, to impart worn-out look and to improve the comfort ability of the garments, especially denim garments. Enzyme washing of denim garments helps in bio-polishing and to fade the color of the denim to a desired degree depending on the processing time and conditions. Adding pumice stone with the enzyme extends the degree of fading and adds special effect in the multi ply areas like different seams and hems. This paper presents the impact of enzyme-pumice stone combined treatment on 100% cotton denim. Garments were washed using an enzyme concentration of 1.5, 2.0 and 2.5 g/l for 40 minutes in 55°C temperature with addition of 0.5 owg (On the weight of garments) pumice stone. The physical and mechanical properties of the treated denims were analyzed using standard test methods. The properties that were analyzed include hand feel, tensile strength, seam strength, fabric weight, stiffness, dimensional stability and color shade. Enzyme-stone washed garments exhibit a great difference in the physical and mechanical properties than the unwashed garments.
Category: Chemistry

[53] viXra:1506.0003 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-01 10:12:51

Structural Insights At The Atomic Level Of Important Materials: Al and Mn as special examples in honor of D. Shechtman

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 pages, 3 Figures, submitted to Flogen SIPS conference, Anatlya, October 2015

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.
Category: Chemistry

[52] viXra:1503.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-02 01:03:29

Liquid-Crystal Structure and Theory: the Chimerical Mesophase. Towards a New Paradigm Based on Chiral Symmetry Breaking

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is argued that the presumed mesophase theory of liquid crystals, which has evolved over the preceding century and is currently in vogue, is not only largely conjectural but also ignores fundamental theoretical principles and key experimental observations. Essentially, it is unsupported by hard experimental evidence, and the view that a large collection of molecules can remain both ordered and fluid over a wide temperature range can be challenged. Current theory overlooks the apparently unexceptional effects of liquid crystals on polarized light, which indicate the involvement of chirality (cf. the crossed-polarizers experiment). An alternative model proposed herein is based on the idea that chiral symmetry breaking is a fundamental property of matter (deriving from the thermodynamic advantage of the entropy of mixing of a racemate). Thus, even achiral molecules prefer to adopt chiral conformations when possible, which would open a kinetic channel to a non-equilibrium state that is chiral as a whole. This can happen if the racemic mixture of the metastable chiral conformers forms a ‘pseudo-conglomerate’, with ‘like’ enantiomers aggregating together. This can ultimately lead to a suspension of chiral nanoparticles in a fluid medium that is possibly also chiral, because of persistent proximity to the nanoparticles. This model of the liquid crystalline state can also explain its amazing electro-optical properties by invoking the development of surface charges on the nanoparticles in an electrical field; this would alter their aggregation behavior, and hence their optical properties. These phenomenal characteristics of matter are apparently manifested under suitable conditions leading to the liquid crystalline state.
Category: Chemistry

[51] viXra:1502.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-28 17:02:51

Parsing the Bonding in the Aluminum Trichloride Dimer

Authors: Joel M Williams
Comments: 3 Pages.

The shorter distance between the bridging chlorine atoms compared with that between the aluminum atoms is discussed in terms of the sp3 hybrid model and the MCAS atomic model.
Category: Chemistry

[50] viXra:1411.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2014-11-10 23:29:15

Chemical Constituents of the Different Anatomical Parts of the Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) for Their Sustainable Utilization

Authors: S. Saka, M.V. Munusamy, M. Shibata, Y. Tono, H. Miyafuji
Comments: 16 Pages. Seminar Proceedings - Natural Resources & Energy Environment JSPS-VCC Program on Environmental Science, Engineering and Ethics (Group IX), 24-25 November 2008, Kyoto, Japan, pp. 19-34

As the worldwide production of palm oil (Elaeis guineensis) is increasing, concomitant wastes of unutilized parts of the oil palm are also increasing. Thus, effective utilization of these wastes is expected. In this paper, therefore, the chemical composition of cellulose, hemicellulose, lignin and other minor cell wall components was studied for six different anatomical parts of the oil palm such as trunk, frond, mesocarp, endocarp (shell), kernel cake and empty fruit bunch (EFB). As a result, it was shown that cellulose is in a range between 20-40wt% with hemicellulose being 10-35wt%, whereas lignin in a range between 23-52wt%. More in detail, the shell contained the highest lignin about 52wt% but the kernel cake no lignin, while the rest in a range between 23-35wt%, being composed of guaiacyl and syringyl moieties without p-hydroxyphenyl propane residue. This is very similar to the hardwood-type lignin, rather than softwood-type lignin. On hemicellulose, mannan was rich in kernel cake, while glucuronoxylan rich in the other parts, with 1.8-8.5 xyloses per one uronic acid. Consequently, oil palm is not a good material for ethanol fermentation by yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) because of high pentosan and low hexosan contents. As a minor component, inorganic constituents were also studied from the ash by scanning electron microscopy equipped with energy dispersive X-ray analysis (SEM-EDXA). As a result, K, Si, Na, Ca, S, P and Mg were found as elements in all parts of the oil palm studied. Particularly, Si and K were abundant in the trunk, shell, mesocarp and kernel cake, while the frond and kernel cake contained, respectively, K, Ca and P in a large quantity. The elements of Cl, Fe and Al were, however, detected only in some parts. These elements found are important and prerequisite for the healthy growth of the oil palm. Therefore, it may be concluded that, upon the whole utilization of the oil palm, inorganic constituents found in this study must be returned to the plantation site. These lines of information are useful for the efficient utilization of the whole parts of the oil palm which is necessary for the sustainable development of the biomass resources. Keywords: Oil palm, chemical composition, trunk, mesocarp, EFB, kernel cake, Uronic acid, neutral sugar, lignin
Category: Chemistry

[49] viXra:1410.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-24 02:54:53

Contamination of the Food Chain by Toxic Metals and Chemicals from a Gelatine Factory in Kerala, India

Authors: VT Padmanabhan, Joseph Makkolil
Comments: 8 Pages.

A Kerala based industry producing food-pharma grade gelatine from animal bones is contaminating its neighbourhood and thousands acres of organic farms in Kerala and Tamil Nadu with its 18,000 tons of solid waste, containing heavy metals like lead and nickel, sold as organic manure. The waste may also contain persistent organic pollutants like dioxin and furan as they are using waste hydrochloric acid from a PVC manufacturing plant. The industry poses an unacceptable food safety risk, which needs to be investigated.
Category: Chemistry

[48] viXra:1410.0085 [pdf] submitted on 2014-10-16 08:45:54

Combinatorial System of Chemical Elements

Authors: Vladimir Komarov
Comments: 33 Pages.

Periodic system of elements in the form in which it exists today is just a convenient form of presentation of the late XIX early XX centuries. It does not fit into the Unified System of combinatorial evolution, adaptation and selection. It is in no way affiliated with the fundamental concept of nature - symmetry. It does not allow clear and easy to determine the accuracy of the experimental data for the nuclei of atoms and ions and their electron shells in general. In this work, an attempt was made to consider a set of atomic nuclei as a combination of a proton and a neutron with repetitions. Constructed a new form of chemical elements. On the example of the first twenty elements analyzed ionization energy of atoms. On the basis of previously made representations on unitary symmetry derived equation - conservation laws. It is shown that a significant number of data for the ionization energies of atoms were measured not accurately enough. Keywords: Periodic table, Combinatorics, Homologous series, Unitary Symmetry, Ionization energy of the atoms.
Category: Chemistry

[47] viXra:1403.0946 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-27 09:42:54

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Josh Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 9x9x9-atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in optical or near-optical searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[46] viXra:1403.0022 [pdf] submitted on 2014-03-05 03:38:21

Chemiosmosis and Microscopic Reversibility: Irreconcilable. Thermodynamic Limitations of Coupled Equilibria and the Role of Atp

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 25 Pages.

It is argued that the chemiosmotic theory, in positing the egress and ingress of protons across a membrane via different routes, violates the principle of microscopic reversibility (PMR). The theory was proposed as a mechanism for coupling the exergonic oxidation of NADH to the endergonic synthesis of ATP, believed to be a ready-to-use form of biochemical energy. The key proton-pump mechanism, however, should also operate in reverse by the PMR, hence is unlikely to be valid. Generally, the transfer of free energy via coupled equilibria is problematical, as neither of the coupled processes would go to completion. (However, it may be feasible in the case of entropy-driven reactions, as happens in the reactions of the Krebs cycle that lead to the formation of NADH.) Furthermore, reported thermodynamic data do not support the idea of ATP as a ‘high energy’ molecule, but rather indicate that ATP hydrolysis is driven by release of phosphate. In fact, many of the reactions believed to be thermodynamically driven by ATP hydrolysis are likely exergonic per se. ATP possibly provides part of the activation energy for the reaction in many cases. An alternative (non-equilibrium) mechanism for ATP synthesis is proposed based on the increase in pH that would accompany the oxidation of NADH. This would generate ADP3- and HPO42- which could form ATP4- in a thermodynamically favoured process within hydrophobic pockets.
Category: Chemistry

[45] viXra:1402.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-18 08:22:58

A Comparative Study of Oil Palm and Japanese Beech on Their Fractionation and Characterization as Treated by Supercritical Water

Authors: M. Varman, S. Saka
Comments: 24 Pages. M. Varman and S. Saka. "A Comparative Study of Oil Palm and Japanese Beech on Their Fractionation and Characterization as Treated by Supercritical Water" Waste and Biomass Valorization 2(3) (2011): 309-315.

Supercritical water treatment (380°C/100 MPa/ 8 s) was applied to extractive-free oil palm trunk and sapwood portion of Japanese beech and their fractionated products were comparatively characterized, for water-soluble portion and water-insoluble portion composed of methanol-soluble portion and methanol-insoluble residue. As a result, the water-soluble portion was determined to be composed of carbohydrate-derived products such as organic acids, sugar decomposed products and lignin- derived products, etc. for both species. The oil palm, however, shows higher yield of organic acids (12.9%) and lignin-derived products (12.2%) compared to Japanese beech, in which organic acids were 4.7% in yield and lignin-derived products 9.8%. The methanol-soluble portion was, on the other hand, mainly composed of lignin-derived products, and in oil palm, these lignin-derived products consisted of both syringyl and guaiacyl-type similar to Japanese beech. The methanol-insoluble residue, was also mainly composed of lignin to be 99.2% in its content in the oil palm, compared to Japanese beech 93.7%. Moreover, the phenolic hydroxyl content deter- mined by aminolysis method was higher in oil palm (36.5 PhOH/100C9) compared to Japanese beech (16.9 PhOH/100C9). Furthermore, an alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation analysis indicated that, the methanol-insoluble residue of the oil palm was less in oxidation products whereas in Japanese beech nitrobenzene oxidation products completely diminished. These lines of evidence suggest that methanol-insoluble residue is composed of lignin with more condensed-type of linkages with high phenolic hydroxyl groups. In addition, the water-soluble portion could be utilized for organic acid production, whereas the methanol-soluble portion and its insoluble residue for phenolic chemical production, with oil palm showing higher potential compared to Japanese beech.
Category: Chemistry

[44] viXra:1402.0112 [pdf] submitted on 2014-02-17 11:40:45

One-Step Salt-Assisted Deposition of Carbon Material onto the Polymer Substrate

Authors: Nikolay Dementev
Comments: 6 Pages.

It was found that a water-based ink in the presence of table salt forms deposits on the surface of polymer substrate. Without the salt, no distinct deposits were formed.
Category: Chemistry

[43] viXra:1401.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-29 09:21:36

Fractionation and Characterization of Oil Palm (Elaeis Guineensis) as Treated by Supercritical Water

Authors: M.Varman, H. Miyafuji, S. Saka
Comments: 21 Pages. M.Varman, H. Miyafuji, and S. Saka. "Fractionation and characterization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis) as treated by supercritical water" Journal of Wood Science 56(6) (2010): 484-494.

    In order to investigate a potential for the efficient utilization of oil palm (Elaeis guineensis), supercritical water treatment (380ºC/100MPa/8s) has been applied to fractionate into water-soluble portion and water-insoluble portion composing of methanol-soluble portion and methanol-insoluble residue for various parts of oil palm such as trunk, frond, mesocarp fibers, shell, empty fruit bunch (EFB) and kernel cake. These fractionated products were then characterized analytically, in which the water-soluble and methanol-soluble portions were determined to be mainly composed of carbohydrate-derived products and lignin-derived products, respectively. Besides, the methanol-insoluble residue was mainly composed of lignin more than 84wt%, and the phenolic hydroxyl contents determined by aminolysis method was higher than the untreated oil palm sample. In addition, an alkaline nitrobenzene oxidation analysis indicated that, the methanol-insoluble residue was less in oxidation products. These lines of findings implicate that the water-soluble portion could be utilized for organic acid production, whereas the methanol-soluble portion and its insoluble residue for phenolic chemical production.
Category: Chemistry

[42] viXra:1401.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2014-01-01 05:28:21

The Enigma of Bragg's Law

Authors: Sosale Chandrasekhar
Comments: 10 Pages.

It is argued that the fundamental theory of X-ray diffraction is based on a flawed model of wave interference. This is because the macroscopic distances between the crystalline sample on the one hand, and the X-ray source and the detector on the other, cannot be defined to the accuracy of a fractional wave-length. Thus, the inherent ‘graininess’ of the detector surface does not support the idea of constructive or destructive interference of electromagnetic radiation. This critique then applies equally to the presumed extensions of ‘Bragg’s Law’, particularly the so-called phase problem. The phase problem is thus a theoretical construct that is, practically, an artefact of the Bragg derivation. The Bragg approach, however, has been ingeniously adapted to make contact with the structural theory of chemistry by various guises and protocols. These are, inter alia, based on ideas about crystal morphology and internal structure that preceded the Bragg approach. An alternative theory of X-ray scattering, however, needs also to be compatible with the structural theory to be practically meaningful. A model of scattering is proposed herein, that is based on absorption and emission by groups of atoms that are defined by a conventional lattice plane. The Bragg equation is thus re-interpreted as relating the energy of the emitted radiation and the angle of ‘reflection’. It is argued that the Bragg approach is essentially empirical, and that its apparent consistency with the structural theory is based on a synergistic evolution of theoretical ideas and experimental observation. In this, therefore, it is not unlike other spectroscopic techniques in common use for structure determination.
Category: Chemistry

[41] viXra:1311.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-23 19:43:28

Comment on "Towards Rational Molecular Design: Derivation of Property Guidelines for Reduced Acute Aquatic Toxicity [Voutchkova et al., Green Chem., 2011, 13, 2373]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their article, Voutchkova et al. (Green Chem., 2011, 13, 2373) claim to use a dataset of 865 neutral organic compounds. Because a substantial proportion of the compounds that the authors do provide molecular identifiers for in their supporting information are not neutral organic compounds as the authors claim, one must reasonably conclude that the true set of ionizable compounds among the total dataset of 865 molecules is likely larger than presented herein. Properties such as the molecular weight, partitioning coefficients between various matrices (where at least one of the matrices is water), aqueous solubility, solvent accessible surface area, polar surface area, molecular volume, number of H-bonds, HOMO/LUMO energies, etc., are all pH dependent (i.e., speciation dependent) for ionizable compounds. Since Voutchkova et al. appear to have conducted all their molecular modeling efforts on the neutral forms of all compounds, the authors appear to have obtained molecular descriptors for speciations of the compounds that are not relevant for the toxicological properties being modeled against.
Category: Chemistry

[40] viXra:1311.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2013-11-23 19:46:38

Comment on "Towards Rational Molecular Design for Reduced Chronic Aquatic Toxicity [Voutchkova et al., Green Chem., 2012, 14, 1001]"

Authors: Sierra Rayne
Comments: 2 Pages.

In their article, Voutchkova et al. (Green Chem., 2012, 14, 1001) claim to use a dataset of 865 neutral organic compounds. Because a substantial proportion of the compounds that the authors do provide molecular identifiers for in their supporting information are not neutral organic compounds as the authors claim, one must reasonably conclude that the true set of ionizable compounds among the total dataset of 865 molecules is likely larger than presented herein. Properties such as the molecular weight, partitioning coefficients between various matrices (where at least one of the matrices is water), aqueous solubility, solvent accessible surface area, polar surface area, molecular volume, number of H-bonds, HOMO/LUMO energies, etc., are all pH dependent (i.e., speciation dependent) for ionizable compounds. Since Voutchkova et al. appear to have conducted all their molecular modeling efforts on the neutral forms of all compounds, the authors appear to have obtained molecular descriptors for speciations of the compounds that are not relevant for the toxicological properties being modeled against.
Category: Chemistry

Replacements of recent Submissions

[23] viXra:1703.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-09 14:24:49

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sodium Tantalate Nanocubes

Authors: Priya Karna, M. Ghimire, S. Karna, S. Mishra
Comments: 1 Page.

Experiments were conducted to optimize the growth parameters of perovskite structure of sodium tantalate in energy efficient hydrothermal process. We have succesfully grown sodium tantalate nanocubes at low temperature of 140oC for 15 hours in rich alkaline atmosphere. It contains orthorhombic crystal system of perovskite structure with an average size of 80 nm. The morphological, compositional, structural, and thermal properties of as-synthesized nanocubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[22] viXra:1703.0106 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-06 09:52:22

Hydrothermal Synthesis of Sodium Tantalate Nanocubes

Authors: Priya Karna, Sunil Karna, Madhav Gautam, Sanjay Mishra
Comments: 1 Page.

Experiments were conducted to optimize the growth parameters of perovskite structure of sodium tantalate in energy efficient hydrothermal process. We have succesfully grown sodium tantalate nanocubes at low temperature of 140oC for 15 hours in rich alkaline atmosphere. It contains orthorhombic crystal system of perovskite structure with an average size of 80 nm. The morphological, compositional, structural, and thermal properties of as-synthesized nanocubes were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM), x-ray powder diffraction (XRD), and thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) techniques.
Category: Chemistry

[21] viXra:1612.0246 [pdf] replaced on 2017-10-16 13:51:56

Silver Nanoparticles as Antibiotics: Bactericidal Effect, Medical Applications and Environmental Risk

Authors: Enrique Marcet, Manuel Medell, Marcelo Marcet
Comments: 23 Pages.

Silver nanoparticles (Ag-NPs) are among the most medical applications nanomaterials mainly due to its antimicrobial effect, plasmon resonance and its capacity to impregnate polymeric materials. Recently Ag-NPs have been used in water treatment systems, central venous catheters, burn dressing, as well as in biosensors for detecting levels of p53 protein associated with cancer development. Moreover, the Ag-NPs have been studied for being potentially dangerous to humans and environment. Ag-NPs are transformed under the ecosystems conditions and may even increase their aggressiveness. The aim of this paper is to investigate the current state of knowledge about the bactericidal effect of Ag-NPs, the main synthesis methods, its application based on antibiotic capacity, Ag-NPs environmental transformations and their impact on the human.
Category: Chemistry

[20] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-08 09:48:00

Review. Benzene on the Basis of the Three-Electron Bond. Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 93 Pages. This work is published in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017.07.02., Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[19] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-18 01:36:47

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[18] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-17 15:57:41

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[17] viXra:1612.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-06 19:32:49

Theory of Three-Electron Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Review).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 93 Pages.

Using the concept of three-electron bond we can represent the actual electron structure of benzene and other molecules, explain specificity of the aromatic bond and calculate the delocalization energy. Gives theoretical justification and experimental confirmation of existence of the three-electron bond. It was shown, that functional relation y = a + b/x + c/x^2 fully describes dependence of energy and multiplicity of chemical bond from bond distance.
Category: Chemistry

[16] viXra:1608.0168 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-17 01:36:27

Characterization of Physical, Thermal and Spectroscopic Properties of Biofield Treated Ortho-Toluic Acid

Authors: Mahendra Kumar Trivedi, Alice Branton, Dahryn Trivedi, Gopal Nayak
Comments: 8 Pages.

Toluic acid isomers are widely used as a chemical intermediate in manufacturing of dyes, pharmaceuticals, polymer stabilizers, insect repellent and other organic synthesis. The aim of present study was to evaluate the impact of biofield treatment on physical, thermal and spectroscopic properties of ortho isomer of toluic acid (OTA). The OTA sample was divided into two groups, served as control and treated. The treated group received Mr. Trivedi’s biofield treatment. Subsequently, the control and treated samples were evaluated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), thermogravimetric analysis/ derivative thermogravimetry (TGA/DTG), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) and ultraviolet-visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD result showed 26.66% decrease in crystallite size in treated OTA sample as compared to control. Furthermore, DSC analysis result showed that latent heat of fusion was considerably reduced by 6.68% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. However, an increase in melting point was observed in treated sample. The melting point of treated OTA sample was found to be 107.96°C as compared to control (105.47°C) sample. Moreover, TGA/ DTG studies showed that Tmax (temperature, at which sample lost its maximum weight) was decreased by 1.21% in treated OTA sample as compared to control. It indicates that vaporisation of treated OTA sample might increase as compared to control. The FT-IR and UV-Vis spectra did not show any significant changes in spectral properties of treated OTA sample as compared to control. These findings suggest that biofield treatment has significantly altered the physical and thermal properties of OTA, which could make it more useful as chemical intermediate.
Category: Chemistry

[15] viXra:1607.0022 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 12:58:43

Theory of Three-Electrone Bond in the Four Works with Brief Comments (Notes).

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 21 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Theory of three-electrone bond in the four works: 1. Bezverkhniy V. D. Structure of the benzene molecule on the basis of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0152v1.pdf 2. Bezverkhniy V. D. Experimental confirmation of the existence of the threeelectron bond and theoretical basis ot its existence. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0151v1.pdf 3. Bezverkhniy V. D. A short analysis of chemical bonds. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0149v1.pdf 4. Bezverkhniy V. D., Bezverkhniy V. V. Supplement to the theoretical justification of existence of the three-electron bond. http://vixra.org/pdf/1606.0150v1.pdf Nothing prohibits to give a definition of the multiplicity of bond: the multiplicity of bond is the energy of bond expressed in dimensionless units. Hückel rule (4n + 2) for aromatic systems can be written in a different form, in the form of 2n where n - unpaired number. So, we have: 2, 6, 10, 14, 18, etc. This is also true for the electron shells in the atom and aromatic systems. The principle of the interaction of fermions always one, everywhere.
Category: Chemistry

[14] viXra:1606.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-06 19:21:12

Experimental Confirmation of the Existence of the Three-Electron Bond and Theoretical Basis of Its Existence.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych.
Comments: 8 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Analysis of images made in techniques of atomic force microscopy (AFM) of high resolution in pentacene and other aromatic systems shows that according to predictions, aromatic three-electron bond is deflected to the centre of aromatic nuclei, which clearly confirms the fact of existence of three-electron bond in benzene, pentacene and other aromatic systems. It also confirms the existence of this bond in carboxylate anions and other similar ions and molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[13] viXra:1606.0150 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-17 08:56:55

Supplement to the Theoretical Justification of Existence of the Three-Electron Bond.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych, Bezverkhniy Vitaliy Volodymyrovich.
Comments: 9 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

The existence of large aromatic monocycles has been proved impossible based on interaction of three-electron bonds through the cycle at distances between the bonds (through the cycle) greater than 3.5 Å due to the lack of energy interaction (the length of chemical bonds is in the range of distances 0.74 Å – 3.5 Å). The chemical bond (two-electron and three-electron) is considered on the assumption that the electrons in a chemical bond can be regarded as being in an entangled quantum state, that is, the chemical bond is seen as a new "indivisible" particle. There has been provided an algorithm for calculating the two-electron chemical bond "on the tip of the pen". An attempt was made to explain the mechanism of interaction of particles in an entangled quantum state on the basis of a new model of the Interfering Universe.
Category: Chemistry

[12] viXra:1606.0149 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-20 18:25:47

A Short Analysis of Chemical Bonds.

Authors: Bezverkhniy Volodymyr Dmytrovych
Comments: 18 Pages. This work is published (as part) in journal "Organic Chemistry: Current Research" (2017, Volume 6, Issue 2) https://www.omicsonline.org/open-access/theory-of-threeelectron-bond-in-the-four-works-with-brief-comments-2161-0401-1000182.pdf

Nothing prohibits to give a definition of the multiplicity of bond: the multiplicity of bond is the energy of bond expressed in dimensionless units. It is easy to show, that relation multiplicity = f(L) and Е = f(L), where multiplicity is multiplicity of bond, L – length of bond in Å, Е – energy of bond in kj/mole will be described by function y = a + b/x + c/x² for any types of bond (C-N, C-O, C-S, N-N, N-O, O-O, C-P).
Category: Chemistry

[11] viXra:1603.0358 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-25 16:51:37

The Haber Process Made Efficient by Hydroxylated Graphene Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo

Authors: Vitaly Chaban, Oleg Prezhdo
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Haber-Bosch process is the main industrial method for producing ammonia from diatomic nitrogen and hydrogen. Very demanding energetically, it uses an iron catalyst, and requires high temperature and pressure. Any improvement of the Haber process will have an extreme scientific and economic impact. We report a significant increase of ammonia production using hydroxylated graphene. Exploiting the polarity difference between N2/H2 and NH3, as well as the universal proton acceptor behavior of NH3, we demonstrate a strong shift of the equilibrium of the Haber-Bosch process towards ammonia. Hydroxylated graphene provides the polar environment favoring the forward reaction, and remain stable under the investigated thermodynamic conditions. Ca. 50 kJ mol-1 enthalpy gain and ca. 60-70 kJ mol-1 free energy gain are achieved at 298 1300 K and 1 1000 bar, strongly shifting the reaction equilibrium towards the product. A clear microscopic interpretation of the observed phenomenon is given using electronic structure calculations and real-time reactive simulations. The demonstrated principle can be applied with many polar groups functionalizing a substrate with a high surface area, provided that the system is chemically inert to H2, N2 and NH3. The modified Haber-Bosch process is of significant importance to the chemical industry, since it provides a substantial increase of the reaction yield while decreasing the temperature and pressure, thereby, reducing the cost.
Category: Chemistry

[10] viXra:1602.0348 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-27 13:29:31

A Simple and Exact Interpretation of the Bond Lengths and Stacking Distances in Benzene and its Dimers in Terms of Atomic Covalent Radii

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. In Introduction, line 6: "methane [4,5]" should be "ethane [4]"

The structure of benzene and the stacking distances in its dimers have long been of interest for scientists. As the various rigorous approaches over the years to understand these have been complicated, the author presents here a new and simple interpretation through the additivity of atomic covalent radii in bond lengths. Considered here are the distances in pi-pi stacking and T-stacking dimers. The latter appears to be a hydrogen bond between a C atom of one benzene ring and the pi-system of the other.
Category: Chemistry

[9] viXra:1601.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-26 06:30:54

The Coulombic Nature of the van der Waals Bond Connecting Conducting Graphene Layers in Graphite

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: Pages. Published in: Graphene, 5, 35-38, 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/graphene.2016.52004

Carbon forms a variety of compounds with single, double, triple and the intermediate resonance bonds with atoms of its own or other kinds. This paper is concerned with graphite, a very useful material, which is a stack of electrically conducting graphene layers held together by weak van der Waals (vdW) bonds. It crystallizes in hexagonal and rhombohedral forms, in which the hexagon inter-planar bond distance is 0.34 nm. Here a new and simple approach accounts for this bond length and shows the coulombic nature of the vdW bond.
Category: Chemistry

[8] viXra:1509.0167 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-19 05:17:01

H2 Cars

Authors: Mahmoud Mohsen Alsayes, Khaled Hazem Hamed
Comments: 7 Pages.

For centuries the Energy crisis has been a curse that made Egypt and the world suffer in various ways. Energy is the backbone of many aspects of life; yet depending on fossil fuel as the main source of energy has numerous drawbacks like the high price, transportation, unavailability and pollution to the environment. This has led us to assign the design requirement of having a cheap, available rather than green fuel for cars. As a result, our PEM hydrogen fuel cells are the solution to the problem after making essential changes in order to increase its efficiency while decreasing the price, through using nickel as a catalyst, instead of platinum. Finally the test plan has assured that it meets the design requirements mentioned before, and unquestionably proved that our PEM fuel cells are the right and suitable solution for running vehicles.
Category: Chemistry

[7] viXra:1506.0064 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-11 01:42:04

Sorry Bohr, Ground State Energy of Hydrogen Atom is Not Negative

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 8 pages, 3 figures, in Fig. 3 the radius of Cl ion is 1.22 A; paper submitted to Nature Chemistry

The negative energy of the hydrogen atom ensuing from Bohr's theory has been widely accepted for over a century. However, the present author considered it strange and came to the conclusion about ten years ago that it is in fact positive and is the electromagnetic energy of a condenser with unit charges of opposite sign at a distance of Bohr radius. This resulted in the finding that the latter is divided at the point of electrical neutrality into two Golden sections pertaining to the electron and proton and enabled establishing the 'additivity of atomic and or ionic radii' rule in bond lengths in the atomic structures of molecules.
Category: Chemistry

[6] viXra:1506.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-02 13:13:34

Structural Insights at the Atomic Level of Important Materials: Al and Mn as Special Examples in Honor of D. Shechtman

Authors: Raji Heyrovska
Comments: 10 Pages.

A basic insight into the atomic structures of elements of the Periodic Table are presented in terms of their covalent radii, Bohr radii, nuclear and electron radii and their relation to the Golden ratio. The detailed structures of the quasi crystal forming elements, aluminium and manganese have been chosen here as special examples. At the atomic level, their crystal parameters and bond lengths are shown in detail for the first time and related to the Bohr radii obtained from the first ionization potentials. It is hoped that this work will provide deeper insights into the understanding of the bonding and alloy formation of different materials and help in designing materials for their intended purpose.
Category: Chemistry

[5] viXra:1403.0946 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-26 09:34:12

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 8×8×8 atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[4] viXra:1403.0946 [pdf] replaced on 2014-04-04 09:31:12

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages. 20. Lecture at APMAS Congress in Turkey, April 25, will include much of the material in this article. The article has not been submitted to any journal and may not be

An early test for periodicity among triatomic molecular energies of atomization underscores the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. The objective of this work is to prepare for a similar test using vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and ν1 data for molecules formed from second period atoms. The collected ν1 might be of use in optical or near-optical searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry

[3] viXra:1403.0943 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-20 14:17:09

Do Triatomic Molecules Echo Atomic Periodicity?

Authors: Ray Hefferlin, Joshua Barrow
Comments: 20 Pages.

The objective of this work is to test whether vibration frequencies ν1 of free, ground-state, main-group triatomic molecules manifest a periodicity similar to those of atomic spectroscopic constants. This test and an earlier test on energies of atomization underscore the role of the periodic law as a foundation of chemistry. Using data from four data bases and from computation, we have collected and have mapped ν1 data in mathematical spaces of fixed-period molecules. These spaces are 8×8×8 atom cubes with rare-gas molecules on each face. The ν1 collected from various sources might be of use in optical or near-optical searches for cold triatomics in interstellar space.
Category: Chemistry