The world’s needs for energy have been growing sharply, so Egypt is struggling to meet its
own needs especially concerning fossil fuels. Solar energy plays an important role to reduce energy consumption. Based on Organolead halide perovskite solar cells (PSCs) show great promise as a new large scale and cost-competitive photovoltaic technology. The power conversion efficiencies (PCE) have achieved
over 15% within 18 months of development, and thus perovskite materials have attracted great attention in
photovoltaic research. However, the manufacture of PSCs raises environmental concerns regarding the overproduction of raw lead ore, which has harmful health and ecological effects. Herein, we report an environmentally-responsible process to fabricate efficient PSCs by reusing car batteries to simultaneously
avoid the disposal of toxic battery materials and provide an alternative, readily-available lead sources for PSCs.
Moreover, we made tracking system by using electronics to make our PSC follow the sun like so the sun radiation always perpendicular on the cell. Overheat, dust and humidity impact negatively on PSC because it changes the chemical structure of perovskite film, hence we coated Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) which makes our cell hydrophobic, has excellent temperature resistance and good resistance to certain acids and solvents so energy crisis can be solved by what is considered as (PTSC).
Authors: Stefko B. Iliev
Comments: 24 Pages.
The Atom Transfer Radical Polymerization (ATRP) in the conventional – copper mediated variant is the main representative case of the controlled radical polymerizations (CRP). That’s why, the discussions of the new notions about the complex formation, polymer chains initiation, growth and termination are oriented to comparison with the reactions included in the conventional ATRP mechanism.
The basic postulate of this mechanism is the opinion for reversible haloid atom transfer at every chain growth elementary act. This mechanism however, can not to explain the effect of the ATRP acceleration observed at the vinyl monomers polymerization under of magnetic field influence. That’s why, it is proposed a new functional mechanism named: ATRP – Polarizing / Depolarizing Functional Mechanism. The proposed theory submit that the monovalent copper complex chemical activity is a consequence from the complex brief-living molecular structure physical asymmetry. Because of this, the resulting effect is double electrostatic and electrochemical polarization of the complex molecules and following biphase depolarization at the chain grouth and the termination steps.
This mechanism throw additional light not only on the ATRP reversible equilibrium and the haloid atom transfer effects, but also on the motive forces essence at all of the cases by transition metals mediated radical polymerizations with identical complex formation.