**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(13) - 0703(19) - 0704(1) - 0709(1) - 0711(3)

2008 - 0801(1) - 0805(2) - 0808(1) - 0809(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(3) - 0812(3)

2009 - 0908(15) - 0909(1) - 0910(3) - 0911(1)

2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(4) - 1003(5) - 1004(6) - 1005(1) - 1006(5) - 1007(6) - 1008(2) - 1009(2) - 1010(1) - 1011(4) - 1012(2)

2011 - 1101(6) - 1102(4) - 1103(4) - 1104(19) - 1105(5) - 1106(3) - 1107(4) - 1108(3) - 1109(3) - 1110(3) - 1111(8) - 1112(6)

2012 - 1201(5) - 1202(4) - 1203(2) - 1204(9) - 1205(8) - 1206(4) - 1207(8) - 1208(4) - 1209(5) - 1210(6) - 1211(7) - 1212(9)

2013 - 1301(11) - 1302(9) - 1303(11) - 1304(3) - 1305(10) - 1306(13) - 1307(13) - 1308(4) - 1309(8) - 1310(20) - 1311(13) - 1312(21)

2014 - 1401(24) - 1402(18) - 1403(13) - 1404(14) - 1405(4) - 1406(11) - 1407(22) - 1408(15) - 1409(13) - 1410(8) - 1411(19) - 1412(9)

2015 - 1501(14) - 1502(18) - 1503(20) - 1504(9) - 1505(16) - 1506(13) - 1507(13) - 1508(22) - 1509(58) - 1510(28) - 1511(17) - 1512(12)

2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(40) - 1603(29) - 1604(13) - 1605(11) - 1606(11) - 1607(15) - 1608(6) - 1609(10) - 1610(25) - 1611(8) - 1612(22)

2017 - 1701(18) - 1702(14) - 1703(10) - 1704(15) - 1705(10) - 1706(17) - 1707(15) - 1708(8)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1091] **viXra:1708.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-16 01:18:46*

**Authors:** Youngdae Seo

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The memristor is a kind of resistor with memory characteristic, not new fourth circuit element. The relationship between electric charge and magnetic flux linkage represents the resistor. The linear resistor has linear relationship between charge and magnetic flux, and the non-linear resistor has nonlinear relationship between them. The memristor has non-volatile and memory characteristic as well as non-linear characteristic. In addition, from the viewpoint of the mechanical system instead of the electrical system, it can be seen that the relationship between the momentum and the displacement represents the drag coefficient. This implies that there is a new term associated with consumption, not the momentum mv we usually think of. Generally, total energy is expressed as the sum of kinetic energy and potential energy. This may be due to stereotypes, and it has to be corrected because we have not considered the concept of consumption enough. It may be too far ahead, but these ideas may be the key to solving many contradictions arising from relativity, quantum mechanics, and dark energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1090] **viXra:1708.0154 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-14 11:54:09*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This talks about gravity is produced in the universe and how to induce gravitational fields

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1089] **viXra:1708.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-13 03:36:47*

**Authors:** Osvaldo Domann

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The intention of theoretical physics is to construct mathematical models
so that experimental data can be predicted through calculation.
Models are based on approaches which define the nature of the models.
The most common approaches used are of mythological, mathematical or
physical nature.
Examples of mythological approaches are gluons, gravitons, dark matter,
dark energy. Examples of mathematical approaches are the MOND
theory for gravitation, special relativity and general relativity, the theory
of quantum mechanics with the gauge principle. Examples of approaches of
physical nature are the String, Vortex and Focal Point theories, the Emission
theories, the theory of gravitation as the result of the reintegration
of migrated electrons and positrons to their nuclei, the theory of Galilean
relativity with the gamma factor.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1088] **viXra:1708.0134 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 05:48:33*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensor. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1087] **viXra:1708.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-12 01:13:28*

**Authors:** Tong Wang

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The possibility of a photon being made of mass and negative mass

We wish to propose a configuration of a photon. This configuration has novel features which are of considerable physical implications. The potential existence of negative mass has been presented before and some of its unique attributes were discussed. Here we show that a photon is able to be made of mass and negative mass. We have emphasized the importance of an intrinsic distance between mass and negative mass inside a photon. The mass-negative mass interaction can formulate a relationship between the wavelength of a light and the intrinsic distance inside its photon. As a pair of mass and negative mass a photon can have zero active gravitational mass and positive passive gravitational mass at the same time.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1086] **viXra:1708.0110 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-10 08:08:09*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper will introduce a numerical equivalence between the strain amplitude of a gravitational wave and the wavelength of a photon emited when an electron dropps from the energy level 2 to the ground state .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1085] **viXra:1708.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-08 17:28:12*

**Authors:** Dham Ahmed Mohammed Ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page. Mass of photon

Mass of photon found

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1084] **viXra:1708.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-06 02:19:02*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The asymmetric and symmetric tensors can be associated with to the electromagnetic field (EMF) canonical antisymmetric tensor. From these tensors, in the form of their divergences, new EMF equations of follow. The introduction of field sources into Maxwell's equations is mathematically incorrect, since these equations are a four-dimensional divergence with respect to one of the indices of the four-dimensional rotor (antisymmetric tensor). The total divergence of the antisymmetric EMF tensor is equal to the sum of divergences for each of its indices. These divergences have different signs, and their sum is identically zero. Thus, EMF sources can only be attributed to the total divergence of asymmetric or symmetric EMF tensors, the full divergences of which can be non-zero. As a result, it can be argued that Maxwell's equations do not carry a real physical meaning and should be replaced by field equations that follow in the form of a four-dimensional divergence from the symmetric EMF tensor. Only these EMF equations can be attributed to the field sources. These equations represent a new complete system of EMF equations, replacing the system of Maxwell's equations. From the symmetric EMF tensor follows the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation for the vector potential showing the unity of the field and the continuum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1083] **viXra:1707.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 10:01:18*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 15 Pages. The face of Journal of Modern Optics is presented

This is a discussion. The discussion involves an exchange of opinions and three papers: the new paper, the first paper and another paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1082] **viXra:1707.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-31 01:08:45*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

On the example of the Michelson-Morley experiment. It is clear that there is no ether in nature. But if you imagine that there is. Then, for different radii, there will be a different speed of the light signal. This gives a different geometric configuration. This configuration completely compensates for the change in speed. Therefore, it is impossible to detect a change.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1081] **viXra:1707.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-30 06:28:13*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 3 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

It is clear that there is no ether in nature. But there is a Michelson-Morley device and there are references to the experiment with this device. And there is a conclusion of this experiment, which supposedly proves something there. Here it is simply shown that nothing could prove this experiment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1080] **viXra:1707.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-24 13:30:56*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there is a growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy
harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting,
wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on
the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, it is known that Huygens’
Principle (HP) contains both the principle of action-at-proximity and the superposition principle.
Although the propagation of sharp, non-spreading wave fronts is included in Huygens’ (1690)
original formulation, it can be left out without touching those principles. HP for Maxwell’s
equations is discussed in terms of the Helmholtz-decomposed fields and currents.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1079] **viXra:1707.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-23 10:32:52*

**Authors:** I. N. Tukaev

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

This work considers Coulomb forces acting on a charged point particle located between the two coaxial, likely charged rings laying at some distance between one another. Conditions under which the charged particle, while being affected by Coulomb repulsion forces of charges of the rings, localises in the space between the rings and moves along a closed trajectory around the axis of charged rings, not leaving the space between them, were determined. Also, conditions at which a controlled ejection of the charged particle from its localisation zone (or the capability to control the kinetic energy and direction of ejection of the particle) is possible, were determined. Based on the obtained results, we conclude that the considered method of localisation and controlled ejection of charged particles is applicable both in experiments on the nuclear synthesis in swarms of localised positively charged particles and for the formation of beams of likely charged particles with the given velocity of motion relatively to the charged rings.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1078] **viXra:1707.0293 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-23 04:40:45*

**Authors:** Hans-Joerg Hochecker

**Comments:** 17 Pages. International Journal of Physics. 2017; 5(4):121-134. doi: 10.12691/ijp-5-4-4

The matter-waves, well-known from numerous experiments, can be described
as beat waves of two counter-moving waves. Thus mass is oscillating space-time, which
results from the superposition of two counter-moving space-time waves. The duality of
this counter-motion derives the duality of the electric force. And the inertia of the mass
arises from the frequency. The electric force arises from a space- or energy- shift.
Gravitation arises from the change of the energy-density of the electric field (by which
the gravitational acceleration is independent of the mass) and yields the same results as
GR. And the magnetic field appears to be an angle between the direction in which the
electric field propagates and the direction in which it exerts its force.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1077] **viXra:1707.0270 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-20 10:40:29*

**Authors:** I. N. Tukaev

**Comments:** 207 Pages.

A system of equations of motion of point particles is considered within the framework of the classical dynamics (the three Newton’s laws). Equations of the system are similar to the equation by Wilhelm Eduard Weber from his theory of electrodynamics. However, while deriving equations of the system, the Coulomb law as the law for point particles which are motionless relatively one another (used by Weber for formulation of his equation) is regarded as a hypothesis unverified experimentally. An alternative hypothesis was proposed, presuming that the Coulomb law describes the interaction of the two electrically charged point particles within a determined range of their relative velocity magnitudes excluding a zero value – if the relative velocity magnitude is equal to zero, particles with like charges attract one another and those with unlike charges repulse. The results of mathematical analysis of the system of equations of motion of point particles with Coulomb forces modified in accordance with the alternative hypothesis and acting between them were used for modelling of the various physical phenomena and processes.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1076] **viXra:1707.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-20 05:12:37*

**Authors:** Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache

**Comments:** 6 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Your comments are welcome

In recent years, there are growing number of proposals to use a novel concept of energy harvesting using nanogenerators. This concept can be used for water wave energy harvesting, wind energy harvesting, but also for self-powered microdevices. This novel concept is based on the reality of Maxwell’s displacement current. On the other hand, such a displacement current has been debated for many years: whether it is real or just a mathematical entity. This paper is intended to dispelling the myth surrounding the reality and correct interpretation of displacement current based on on Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory. We also briefly discuss a plausible extension of Maxwell equations based on vortex sound theory of Prof. Tsutomu Kambe. It is our hope that discerning the myth from reality is very important step toward tapping and harvesting energy from the hidden electromagnetic structure in Nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1075] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-12 07:04:22*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell 's electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1074] **viXra:1707.0120 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-08 16:46:36*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU, M.Sc.

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Formulated almost 150 years ago, Thomas Young’s hypothesis that light might be a transverse wave has never been seriously questioned, much less subjected to experiment. In this article I report on an attempt to prove experimentally that Young’s hypothesis is untenable. Although it has certain limitations, the experiment seems to show that sound in air, a longitudinal wave, can be “polarized” by reflection just like light, and this can be used as evidence against Young’s hypothesis. Further refinements of the experimental setup may yield clearer results, making this report useful to those interested in the important issue of whether light is a transverse or a longitudinal wave.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1073] **viXra:1707.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 11:42:46*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

From the energy-momentum tensors of the electromagnetic field and the mechanical energy-momentum, the equations of energy conservation and balance of electromagnetic and mechanical forces are obtained. The equation for the Abraham force in a dielectric medium with losses is obtained

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1072] **viXra:1707.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 11:47:51*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The article is devoted to the Abragam force in a conducting medium. From the energy-momentum tensor of the electromagnetic field interaction with moving charges the equation for the Abraham force is obtained. It is shown that the Abraham force in a conducting medium, as well as in a dielectric medium, has vortical character. Сurrent density vectors and vector potential must be non-collinear.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1071] **viXra:1707.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-05 11:50:37*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this article the final results on the Abraham-Minkowski problem are presented. It is shown that the Minkowski momentum is related to the dielectric characteristics of the medium, and the Abraham momentum is related to the magnetic characteristics of the medium. The total electromagnetic momentum in the medium is equal to the half-sum of the Minkowski and Abraham momentums. Therefore, the Minkowski momentum and the Abraham momentum have equal importance in electrodynamics, and the discussion of which of these forms of electromagnetic momentum is better does not make sense. It is shown that only an asymmetric energy-momentum tensor describes the total electromagnetic momentum in the medium. The Abraham force in a dielectric and conducting medium is described. It is shown that the Abraham force does not transmit a mechanical impulse to the medium, that means it is a fictitious force that really does not exist and it is impossible to detect it experimentally

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1070] **viXra:1707.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-01 21:38:47*

**Authors:** Carlos Barona

**Comments:** 2 Pages. In the pdf document there is a link that allows access to all the information: electrodynamic calculations, didactic animations of the same, and an experimental proposal.

This is a scientific proposal with which it's sought to establish the theoretical-practical basis that permits that a device can be able to change its gravity environment (self-acceleration without lose mass).
I propose that such effect might appear in an oscillating magnetic dipoles system.
This work is based on simultaneous electrodynamic calculations, the results of which lead me to pose that effect as probabilistic exotic acceleration that must be taken into account in the Equivalence Principle analysis.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1069] **viXra:1707.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-07-01 09:28:54*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

I search to obtain a generalized probability equation

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1068] **viXra:1706.0563 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-30 09:25:16*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

I search to obtain the general dynamic for a probabilistic system

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1067] **viXra:1706.0558 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-29 18:58:47*

**Authors:** Antonio Iovane

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Not that this is my point (*), but I propose for speculation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1066] **viXra:1706.0545 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-28 15:31:47*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

DERIVATION OF A TRANSPORT FLUX
FROM THE FOKKER-PLANCK EQUATION AND WHERE SUCH A CURRENT DENSITY HAS FOUND APPLICATION

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1065] **viXra:1706.0495 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-27 03:22:26*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun, Wuanding

**Comments:** 10 Pages. It is believed that gravitation is a kind of surplus of electric field force, so as to achieve the purpose of unifying gravity and electromagnetic force.

This article is based on the Maxwell's electromagnetic theory ，by the introduction of virtual particle
cloud , and strict mathematics and physics verification ,firstly get the conclusion of gravitation field,
nuclear power field and weak field all are result of the electrostatic field’s different forms effect, and
unify this four field force in an equation. This is the only unified field theory including gravitation at
present.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1064] **viXra:1706.0481 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 14:01:08*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Could the changing magnetic field of the earth lead ultimately to more powerful lightning bolts?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1063] **viXra:1706.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 18:25:20*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Three very strange consequences of zero inertia are deduced by very simple reasoning.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1062] **viXra:1706.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 00:08:53*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Abstract. Modern analysis of the Boltzmann distribution on the basis of probability theory and of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution is proposed. It is shown that the Boltzmann distribution function is neither a reliable result of probability theory nor a consequence of Gibbs quantum canonical distribution. Conclusion is that the Boltzmann distribution function has no statistical and physical meaning, and the concept “Boltzmann distribution” should be abolished.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1061] **viXra:1706.0463 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-25 00:16:24*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of classical thermodynamics is proposed. The principle of the unity of formal logic and rational dialectics is a methodological basis of the analysis. The main result is as follows: the foundations of classical thermodynamics (i.e., the first and second laws, equation of state, concepts of internal energy, of heat energy, of entropy, of temperature) contain logical errors. The existence of logical errors is irrefutable proof of incorrectness of thermodynamics. The correct statistical foundations are proposed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1060] **viXra:1706.0428 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-22 05:38:58*

**Authors:** José Francisco García Juliá

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The null result of the Michelson-Morley experiment would be due to that the electric field is contracted in the line of motion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1059] **viXra:1706.0417 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-21 07:56:44*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The standard cosmological model defines the Observable Universe as the region of the Universe observed from the earth at the present time ; all the signals that have arrived to the earth since the beginning of the cosmological expansion .We could imagine a spherical volumen centered on the observer , whose radius is about r~〖10〗^26 m .This article is the introduction to other developments concerning the numerical reality of the observable universe .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1058] **viXra:1706.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 20:20:08*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Using Quattro Pro Optimizer in order to assist in calculating the dimensions of a to be built military runway, given only the area of the runway, as part of a bid challenge to supposed government contractors!

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1057] **viXra:1706.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-19 05:27:00*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper, two experimental designs are proposed to approach the internal relation of Lorentz Force law and Faraday’s Induction Law. In the two experiments, when a part of a conductor loop moves in a uniform magnetic field, there is only one of the two mechanisms working (either Lorentz Force Law or Faraday’s Flux Rule). By the experimental results, the deeper relation of the two laws could be further revealed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1056] **viXra:1706.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-15 09:10:50*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper, Faraday’s law of induction was further investigated. The purpose is to see that besides there is the change of magnetic flux through the region enclosed by a conductor loop, if the magnetic flus change inside the wire of the loop is also required to generate an induction current in the conductor loop. An experiment is design and performed. The result shows that it is also a necessary condition that there is magnetic flux change inside the wire of the loop to generate an induction current in the conductor loop.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1055] **viXra:1706.0195 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-14 15:14:46*

**Authors:** Elio Proietti

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this short article we use the notoriety of the EmDrive to get more attention
to the important theoretical paper
''Momentum conservation in electromagnetic systems''
(removed by the moderators of arxiv). \\

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1054] **viXra:1706.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-09 03:13:58*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that as a consequence of induced inertial force over accelerated mass-body that have internal structure, an addi-tional kind of energy will build up in that body beside the kinetic energy of it when it is accelerated in free space. The Lagrange of this body will acquire an additional term to represent this energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1053] **viXra:1706.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-08 03:04:51*

**Authors:** Elio Proietti

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Newton's third law doesn't apply to electromagnetic systems.
Nevertheless a relativistic dissertation, directly founded on Maxwell's equations
and on relativistic dynamics, allows us to establish rigorously the law of total
momentum for such systems.
Some undervalued details about the role of internal forces in isolated systems
are emphasized.
The laws governing momentum in systems subject to electromagnetic forces
are consistent in every situation.
There are no reasons to postulate the existence of a hidden momentum to avoid
non-existent paradoxes in the case of static fields.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1052] **viXra:1706.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-06-01 17:59:21*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

An attempt to obtain an ideal refractive surface

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1051] **viXra:1705.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-29 13:33:55*

**Authors:** Peter Bissonnet

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Does Cause and Effect automatically imply Conservation of Energy? This paper takes an extremely simplistic example and shows that there is an apparent inconsistency on the macroscopic level.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1050] **viXra:1705.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-28 06:18:10*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

In the framework of the system of units MKS-PLUS the dependence between vacuum permittivity, vacuum permeability, Newtonian gravitational constant and speed of light. This dependence allowed us to find numerical values of the permittivity and permeability for gravitomagnetic vacuum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1049] **viXra:1705.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-22 09:05:28*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 159 Pages.

New macro-projects, concepts, ideas, methods, and innovations are explored here, but hardly developed. There remain many problems that must be researched, modeled, and tested before these summarized research ideas can be practically designed, built, and utilized—that is, fully developed and utilized.
Most ideas in our book are described in the following way: 1) Description of current state in a given field of endeavor. A brief explanation of the idea researched, including its advantages and short comings. No eny equations. Some of them have only the results of estimation and computations. But all ideas contains the links in initial scientific articles contains detail proofs, equtions and computations. 2) A brief description of possible applications—candidate macro-projects, including estimations of the main physical parameters of such economic developmental undertakings.
The parts are in a popular form accessible to the wider reading public. The many original articles of this book will require some mathematical and scientific knowledge, such as may be found amongst technical school graduate students.
The book gives the main physical data which will help researchers, engineers, dedicated students and enthusiastic readers make estimations for their own macro-projects. Also, inventors will find an extensive field of inventions and innovations revealed in our book.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1048] **viXra:1705.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 15:19:36*

**Authors:** Luca Nascimbene

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This particle that take my last name was discovered in the lab by using electronic instrumentation with various electronic components,Applying a physical formula I invented corresponds to a new form of particles.
The electronic instrumentation i have use
Oscilloscope, amplificator operational (LM741),capacitor 100nf, 2 resistor 1kohm and sensor photomultipler → rilevator of particle and photodiode

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1047] **viXra:1705.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-22 00:14:36*

**Authors:** Temur Z. Kalanov

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

The correct scientific and critical analysis of the generally accepted foundations of classical mechanics is proposed. The methodological basis for the analysis is the unity of formal logic and of rational dialectics. The main results of the analysis are as follows: (1) the correct starting point of kinematics is formulated: the informational definition of the concept of time; definitions of the concepts of motion, speed, and acceleration of material point in the metric system of coordinates; the principle of motion of quantum particle (photon); proof of the mathematical, physical, and formal-logical erroneousness (fallaciousness) of Lorentz transformations; (2) the correct starting point of dynamics is formulated: the definition of force as a physical property of the structure of the system of the interacting objects; (3) the correct starting point of the theory of gravitation is formulated: the condition of existence of the gravitational interaction which represents the condition of existence of the region of overlap (superposition, intersection) of the gravitational fields of the material objects; (4) the correct formulation of the law of gravitation within the framework of the system approach is given (the formulation represents the system of the proportions); (5) it is proved that the formulation of Newton’s empirical law of gravitation represents the formal-logical and dialectical errors.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1046] **viXra:1705.0299 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-20 10:04:50*

**Authors:** Norberto Meyer Robsrto Morales

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

se reescribe la ley de newton según un enfoque más matemático.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1045] **viXra:1705.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-19 01:41:04*

**Authors:** Gavin R. Putland

**Comments:** 41 pages (main text: 37 pages).

A time-variation in magnetic flux density *B* may occur because the field *changes* and/or because the field *moves* relative to the observation point. Faraday's law for a fixed circuit makes no distinction between these causes. But the latter cause is isolated by the magnetic term in the Lorentz force law, which, in a reference frame fixed with respect to the particle, implies that a field *B* moving at velocity *r* induces an electric field *E* = −*r* × *B*. In the case of a traveling electromagnetic wave, *r* is the *ray* velocity (hence the symbol).

Similarly, a time-variation in the electric displacement field * D* may occur because the field changes and/or because the field moves. The Maxwell-Ampère law makes no distinction between these causes. But, by analogy with the Lorentz force law, the latter cause can be isolated by saying that a *D* field moving at velocity *r* induces a magnetizing field *H* = *r* × *D*.

The two "moving field" laws, combined with the relations between *D* and *E* and between *B* and *H*, yield an unusually simple theory of electromagnetic waves, including a derivation of Fresnel's equation for the ray-velocity surface of a non-chiral birefringent crystal. Taking cross-products of the "moving field" laws with the wave-slowness vector, we obtain two more "moving field" equations in terms of wave slowness (generalizing the conventional formulation in terms of the wave *vector*). The last two equations, by analogy with the first two, yield Hamilton's wave-slowness surface. Comparing the results, we can conclude that the ray-velocity and wave-slowness surfaces of a biaxial crystal have curves of contact with tangent planes, and deduce the associated polarizations. Eigenvectors are introduced to show that, in general, the permitted polarizations for a given propagation direction are orthogonal. A coordinate transformation (simpler than Hamilton's) shows that the curves of contact are circles and yields their linear and angular diameters.

Among the footnotes are interpretations of the Poynting vector and the Minkowski momentum density. The text includes introductory material intended to make it comprehensible to high-school graduates.

(P.S.: In this abstract, vectors are shown in italics because boldface is not permitted.)

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1044] **viXra:1705.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 22:43:22*

**Authors:** Yanming Wei

**Comments:** 10 pages, 6 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.33349.45285

Just like the webs of duck feet or bird wings, human beings have struggled for many centuries to experiment flapping-wing aircrafts or ornithopters that shall vertically takeoff, but still failed to commercialize it. Until nowadays, only rotary propeller driven helicopters have achieved great success. Now I propose a flapping umbrella driven ornithopter that is powered by pulse power supply. Once upon commercialization of such inventions, humankind will benefit in many aspects, e.g. affordable personal aerial commuting, remote internet service, goods shipping, etc.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1043] **viXra:1705.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-09 10:30:21*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By analyzing the charge and electric field distribution for some charge systems that containing neutral conductor cavity, we found phenomena that violate Gauss’ Law. In some cases, the net electric flux through a closed surface is equal to zero, although there is net electric charge within it. In the other case, there is net electric flux through a closed surface, but the net electric charge within that surface is not zero.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1042] **viXra:1705.0113 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-05 19:39:37*

**Authors:** Robert Stach

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Teil 1: Erweiterung des Archimedischen Prinzips und die technischen Anwendungen - Teil 2: die Swastika und ihre technische Bedeutung

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1041] **viXra:1704.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-28 13:19:13*

**Authors:** Yanming Wei

**Comments:** 41 Pages. Part one: Dielectric blade comb piston mechanic-electric bi-direction converter

The electric vs. mechanic bi-directional power conversion application has been traditionally and asymmetrically favoring at magnetic element as energy caching and buffering bridge, e.g. the electric motors and generators that are also abstracted as electromechanical devices. The theory behind those omnipresent electromechanical devices or equipments is electrodynamics.
Based on recent fast development of high energy density dielectric materials, my inventions are to be a game changer: let electrical field alone to take the heavy duty of electromechanical utilities, and let “dielectrodynamics” replace electrodynamics.
Of the most importance is the key limitless high voltage generator, which can cover full gamut of voltages from volts to kilovolts (KV), megavolts (MV), even gigavolts (GV), and what we need, is just to provide necessary space occupancy and mechanic work acting on dielectric blade comb-like piston. Either motor or generator can be re-invented with this core dielectrodynamic module.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1040] **viXra:1704.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-28 13:47:46*

**Authors:** Yanming Wei

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Part two of dielectrodynamics

Superconductor is good for carrying huge current, but extreme low cryogenic temperature is cumbersome, expensive and high energy consumption for keeping the condition. As alternative, spinning electric charged metal disc(s) can mimic superconductor in normal ambient condition or even high temperature as long as not too hot to deform parts, and such is more convenience and far less energy consumption than cryogenic deep freezer. In fact, velocity of electrons drift in current carrying disc is very slow, e.g. only 23μm/s for 1 ampere in a 2mm diameter wire, in contrast, mechanic motion can easily reach sound speed, hence huge virtual current can exist.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1039] **viXra:1704.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-24 15:01:19*

**Authors:** Simon A. Olanipekun

**Comments:** Pages.

An Inexhaustible Power Source(IPS) that has a power-to-weight ratio of 122Horsepower per kilogram, with an efficiency of about 99% and a lifespan of 70years, and a coefficient of performance that tends to infinity… The IPS produces energy by inducing a magnetic vortex in its vicinity and transducing the energy inherent in the magnetic vortex into classical mechanical energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1038] **viXra:1704.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-20 09:28:01*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU, M.Sc.

**Comments:** 7 pages

Following a theory to be detailed in a work to be published in the near future, an experiment was planned to see whether the potential difference between two points of a current-carrying straight wire can be observed in the magnetic field lines produced around the wire by the electric current. Direct observation seems to show that there is a crowding of the magnetic field lines at the negative side of the wire compared to the positive side.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1037] **viXra:1704.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-18 22:23:21*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is presented an extremely easy paper to understand to explain that in nature, there are mass gain phenomenon and there are mass loss phenomenon. Clarification is presented so that the nature of these types of phenomenon are well established. This paper utilizes a simple rule of nature concerning physics, the conservation of mass.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1036] **viXra:1704.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-16 18:05:21*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

In given book considered the topics: utilization wind energy at high altitude, transfer of energy from airborne wind turbines to ground surface, new non turbine electron wind and water electric generators and propulsion system.
Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This book suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy transmission system between the air rotor and a ground.
Author offers a new method of getting electric energy from wind. A special injector injects electrons into the atmosphere. Wind picks up the electrons and moves them in the direction of wind which is also against the direction of electric field. At some distance from injector a unique grid acquires the electrons, thus charging and producing electricity. This method does not require, as does other wind energy devices, strong columns, wind turbines, or electric generators. This proposed wind installation is cheap. The area of wind braking may be large and produces a great deal of energy. Although this electron wind installations may be in a city, the population will not see them.
Author offers a new high efficiency propulsion non turbine system using electrons for acceleration of the craft. As this system does not heat the air, it does not have the heating limitations of conventional air ramjet hypersonic engines. Offered engine can produce a thrust from a zero flight speed up to the desired escape velocity for space launch. It can work in any planet atmosphere (gas, liquid) and at high altitude.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1035] **viXra:1704.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 18:43:45*

**Authors:** Lorenzo Galli, P.F. Nali

**Comments:** 3 pages, in Italian. Question Answer published on Sep. 28, 2005 on the section "Chiedi a Ulisse" of the SISSA website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in January 2011.

Why is it incomplete to enunciate the principle of inertia in this form: "a body not subject to forces is either at rest or moves with uniform rectilinear motion"?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1034] **viXra:1704.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-14 04:42:54*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the orbiting electron is seen as an objectively real particle. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms can be treated as being affected by relativity. The model provides a mechanism which drives the quantization process and so leads to the discrete energy levels of the atom.
The Rydberg formula, being empirically derived, represents the yardstick by which any model for the hydrogen atom must be judged. Rather than develop a model and test it against the Rydberg formula, the approach taken here is to use the Rydberg formula itself as the basis for such a model.
The model effectively unifies quantum mechanics with classical mechanics as well as providing a simple mechanical explanation of the Somerfield Fine Structure Constant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1033] **viXra:1704.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-11 21:20:48*

**Authors:** Tsao Chang, Kongjia Liao，Jing Fan

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This is a new-type experiment

Our experiment to measure the speed of alternating electricity is briefly reported here. It is found that the speed of alternating electricity within the metal wire is not constant, which is depended on the circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electricity is less than the speed of light. However, our recent experimental results show that at less than 3 MHz frequency region and under our circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times more than the speed of light.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1032] **viXra:1704.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 16:24:53*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Gravity was found to depend on the entropy of the object at hand. Entropy Atoms are introduced as elementary building blocks of observable matter, having an entropy value of 2 bit. The gravitational constant G is calculated between these Entropy Atoms, as a first indication of gravity between larger observable objects (ensembles). It is 0.3 percent below the literature value of G. Furthermore it is argued why photons are NOT pulled by gravity. Their frequency does NOT respond to gravity: it is the time measurement that slows down in gravitational fields, locally making a photons frequency appear higher. Finally, a hypothesis is proposed on the nature of black matter: it is composed of objects with an entropy value of 1 bit.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1031] **viXra:1704.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 10:59:25*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new form of the equivalent representation of the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field is described. This form of representation is based on the decomposition of an asymmetric tensor of a general form into a symmetric and antisymmetric part. It follows from this expansion that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be equivalently represented as the difference between an asymmetric tensor of general form and a symmetric tensor. Then Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of four-dimensional divergences of these tensors. From this representation, in addition to the Maxwell equations, new equations of the electromagnetic field also follow, expanding knowledge of it. One of these equations is the equation of motion of the electromagnetic field in the form of the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1030] **viXra:1704.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-06 14:50:48*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

From Maxwell's equations with field sources are followed not only by the wave equations of the electromagnetic field and the continuity equation for the current density, but also by the equation of motion of electric charges in the form of the Euler equation. It is shown that these equations in an explicit form describe the mechanism of the appearance in a collisionless plasma of self-consistent current structures and its turbulence.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1029] **viXra:1704.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 15:53:28*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper is devoted to obtaining an equation for the Abraham force in a continuous non-conducting medium and methods of its measurement. The equation for the Abraham force is obtained from the Minkowski tensor. The Abraham force occurs when the vectors D and E, H and B are noncollinear. From the equation for the Abraham force it follows that it is a vortex force, and its divergence is zero. It is shown that there exist the Abraham electric force and the magnetic Abraham's Force. Various methods for measuring the Abraham force, which follow from its equation, are given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1028] **viXra:1704.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 08:47:33*

**Authors:** Dragan Turanyanin

**Comments:** 17 Pages. This paper (2004) is just partially altered form of the original written in early 1980s. The Addendum (exponential gravitation) is completely new but also represents contemporary author’s researches.

This paper supposes an “electrodynamics-like” interaction of motional masses. A development possibility of linear, vector gravitation theory (gravitodynamics) is discussed and the force field (gravito-Lorentz) on this basis is defined. Some direct consequences of the equation of motion are obtained and analyzed in brief and the existence of an important exp-factor is mentioned. It is proposed new transformation χ-factor which could lead to the more general dynamical picture. The dimensional analysis shows that magnetic-like field vector has frequency dimensions. The proposed wave function describes the state of space around the motional masses. As frequency appears in both quantum and gravitation picture of the substance, the principle of resonance arises as a natural, so its possible direct consequence could be the natural existence of Planck’s values as the main quantums. Finally, this paper also discusses a possible connection between principle of resonance, creation (origin) of mass and Heisenberg’s principle.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1027] **viXra:1704.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 10:48:54*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In terms of the symmetric perfect and analogy of Lorentz Force law, a Counterpart Lorentz force is proposed in this paper. Similar to a Lorentz force when a charged particle moving across a magnetic field, an analogical force may act on a magnet or a magnetic domain when it moving across an electric field. Aimed to verify if this force is really existed, an experimental design is also described here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1026] **viXra:1703.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 10:13:11*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By analyzing the magnetic field of a direct electric current within conductors and its action on the charge carrier in the current, a new effect is proposed for a conduct when current flowing through. Similar to the Hall Effect, this effect make the directionally moving charge carrier in the current deflected towards to the center of the current. If the charge carriers of the conductor with only one type charge (positive or negative), a radical electric field will form in the current cross section and a voltage will be produced between the center and the edge of the current. This effect also predicts that for a steady DC current the current density is not evenly distributed in the cross section of the current. The current density in the center area is larger than that in the edge area. It is not like what we always thought that the current density is evenly distributed in the current cross section.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1025] **viXra:1703.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 12:01:40*

**Authors:** Christopher H. Brown

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The theory of everything. In this extract, the basic operations of the universe are discussed. The reason momentum occurs; the fundamental properties of a completely unifying theory; the mechanics driving the expansion of the universe; the nature of EM; accounting for quantum behavior in a logical geometric context; etc.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1024] **viXra:1703.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-25 09:33:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The article describes a new approach to obtaining the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in medium without the use of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. The energy-momentum tensor has new qualities and consequences. Its linear invariant is Lagrange density of the electromagnetic field. From the tensor follows the equation of conservation of energy density, the equation of flux energy density and wave equations for these energy values. Wave equation for momentum density describes simultaneous transfer of momentum and angular momentum regardless of radiation polarization. From the tensor follow the balance equations of the electromagnetic forces for the momentum density in the forms of the Minkowski and Abraham, which proves their equality and mutual supplementation. Equation for Abraham force is obtained as well. It is shown that its divergence is equal to zero. Tensor and the balance equations of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium are derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1023] **viXra:1703.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 22:43:59*

**Authors:** Dayanand Potaraj

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The universe is made up of elementary particles, even the gas is composed of the same. The electric force of an object is found because of its atomic particles. And the mass is given by constitution of the same. Everything is made up of elementary particles but most of the time we experience all the universe by the mass but not with their electric charges. Let us resolve this difference, by taking Gravitational force and the Electrical force into account among the forces of nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1022] **viXra:1703.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 11:50:02*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 6 formulas

Proton is obtained as an inevitable consequence of the existence of the universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1021] **viXra:1703.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 20:46:11*

**Authors:** Roger Munday

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The transmission of the force of gravity is accepted by the general physics community to be inexplicable in terms of the currently accepted atomic structure of the local environment here on Earth.
Therefore there is something fundamentally wrong with this hypothetical structure.
This brief introduction demonstrates that this force, and any other, can be transmitted through and by a continuous structure of atomic matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1020] **viXra:1703.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 10:36:08*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., 1 February 2017, p.128, Historical Corner, 10.1109/MAP.2016.2629848

Upon closure of a switch, a TEM wave (step) travels from voltage source to load,
between conducting wires of a transmission line. An electric field E appears between the top and bottom conductors, and orthogonal to them, as the TEM wave propagates at the speed of light for the dielectric in which it travels. Thus, according to classical electromagnetic theory, there are positive charges on the one conductor and negative charges on the other conductor, within the region of the transverse electric field. The Catt Question is: Where does this new charge come from?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1019] **viXra:1703.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 08:33:38*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A mathematical model of the plasma crystal built using Maxwell’s equations is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1018] **viXra:1703.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 08:36:25*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian

A mathematical model of the plasma crystal built using Maxwell’s equations is given. \\ Предлагается математическая модель плазменного кристалла, построенная с использованием уравнений Максвелла.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1017] **viXra:1703.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 21:57:14*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The English

The traditional concept of space is threedimensional, with a time dimension, that is, fourdimensional space. That is, time is one dimensional. According to the theory of relativity, time and space are inextricably linked. Therefore, the space is multidimensional, so why is it that time can not may be also multidimensional. The dimension of time and space may be the same. This paper proposes that the dimension of time is the same as the dimension of space.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1016] **viXra:1702.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-22 13:11:13*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** Pages.

While all objects having mass also possess energy, energy itself has no rest mass. But both mass and energy interact gravitationally. Therefore, the real gravitational constant is G/c4, instead of simple G, while the interacting partners are represented by their respective energy (Mc2, mc2). The new formulation leads to some interesting results, which are derived and discussed in the pdf of this communication.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1015] **viXra:1702.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 15:07:31*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper considers a physical process inside EM Drive. According to the proposed conception, there is an electromagnetic field gyroscope, EMFG, originated due to superposition of straight and reflected flows of the electromagnetic energy inside the resonant chamber. The considered model comes to conclusion of existence of a narrow area inside the EMFG where its mass-function experiences a break and even becomes negative. There are 3 models which deduce origination of the thrust of EM Drive on a base of the considered properties of the EMFG.
The first considered model states that there is a gradient of the gravitational potential inside the originated narrow area due to its heavy non-linear electromagnetic mass. Interaction of the originated gradient of the gravitational potential and the mass of the EM Drive results in origination of a net force, which is the thrust of the EM Drive. This thrust is furnished by the axial gradient of the gravitational potential inside the EM Drive.
The second model projects a property and theory of 4D gyroscope, developed by G.I.Shipov, onto EMFG. Operation of the mechanical 4D gyroscope results in the reactionless motion, due to a time-varying and frequency-dependable mass of the gyroscope. The EMFG has the time and frequency dependable mass and fits the above condition for the mechanical 4D gyroscope.
The third model considers a behavior of the EMFG in frames of N.A. Kozyrev’s Casual Mechanics. The EMFG is a quantum object and its C2 indicator of movement of time trends to zero as well as the external force 0. The considered limit of their ratio brings a finite force which is a trust developed by the EM Drive.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1014] **viXra:1702.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:35:07*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Maxwell equations are not causal, says Oleg Jefimenko. In this paper, the causality of the Maxwell equations is explored and explained, and new causal equations formulated, according to Jefimenko’s important work in this area, strongly inspired by Oliver Heaviside’s genius work. The causal equations take into account what is commonly called ‘relativistic’ velocities, and in fact replace the need for any relativity theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1013] **viXra:1702.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:43:51*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The gravity measurement of Qian-shen Wang during the total eclipse of the Sun on 9 March 1997 showed a strange diagram-shape over time. In this paper, I investigate this shape by setting up a simple scenario: the double shielding of the used gravimeter didn’t totally exclude an induction of the fast electrons of the Sun’s corona. The passage of the Moon shielded the fields. Neither the hypothesis of a gravitational shielding, nor a temperature effect can be maintained.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1012] **viXra:1702.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:53:41*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, two types of magnetic fields were proposed and discussed. The two types of magnetic fields should have very different properties with respect to the observer’s motion state. For convenience to discuss, here we name them absolute magnetic field and relative magnetic field. The absolute magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by permanent magnets or by electric currents in neutral wires, which is very familiar to us. Its magnitude is invariable with respect to the motion state of the observer. The relative magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by directional motion of like charges, of which, the magnitude is variable with respect to the motion state of the observer. Here in this article, experimental designs are proposed, by which the existence of the relative magnetic field can be proved.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1011] **viXra:1702.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 08:13:33*

**Authors:** Kiyoung Kim

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

It has been believed that the process of scientific reasoning in research and its conclusion in the natural science should be in phenomenological basis. However, what if physical reality that is based on phenomenological facts is not enough to explain all natural phenomena or what if physical reality is not closed by itself? In other words, what if physical reality is representing just a part of outcome through interacting with any unconceivable entities in ontological truth? After reviewing 4-dimensional complex space model, which has been introduced as an alternative way to understand physics comprehensively from classical physics to modern physics, some interesting scientific activities are discussed, which have been ignored in the name of pseudoscience, such as free electric energy generation, Hutchison Effect, and the common physical origin of the Hutchison Effect and WTC (World Trade Center) collapse in 2001.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1010] **viXra:1702.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 17:48:18*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Blackbody radiation by volume accounts for temperature distribution in the troposphere. Gravity perform an equal amount of work on a square meter, as the amount of thermal energy radiated by the surface towards space.

Abstract
This is a very simple analysis of earth and the input of solar energy using heat transfer and geometry. I show that earth radiates as a blackbody by volume and not as a surface.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1009] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 08:24:33*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. currently available only in German

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article suggests and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1008] **viXra:1702.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 07:54:35*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Castillo demonstrates an important case of successful superposition of
elliptically-polarised light by moving to spinor representations of
electromagnetic plane waves: when the angle between the two unit spinors
as represented on a Poincare sphere are (as a complex number) either 1,
-1, i or -i. This paper demonstrates that there are additional conditions
under which superposition is successful: phase-shifting of one of the
waves by 90 degrees prior to superposition. Two and three superpositions
are shown, and the candidate configurations for each are listed.
The result is significant for Particle Physics at least, in that Castillo
and Rubalcava-Garcia's
prior work show a correspondance between Jones Calculus and SU(2), and
gives a direct mapping between Jones and Pauli Matrices.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[459] **viXra:1708.0134 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 10:57:31*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

It is customary to assume that the law of conservation of the angular momentum is violated for an asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. This is the reason for criticizing the Minkowski tensor and other asymmetric energy-momentum tensors. In this paper, it is shown that the laws of conservation of energy and momentum following from an asymmetric tensor in the form of its total divergence are equivalent to the divergence of its symmetric part. It is shown that the total divergence of the antisymmetric part of the asymmetric tensor is identically zero. From this, it follows that for the asymmetric energy-momentum tensor the law of conservation of the angular momentum is also fulfilled. It is shown that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor for a vacuum does not correspond to the quadratic invariant of the electromagnetic field. This indicates that the linear invariant of the Minkowski tensor and the three-dimensional stress tensor are not correct.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[458] **viXra:1708.0091 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-15 10:25:08*

**Authors:** Adham ahmed mohamed ahmed

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Mass of photons from big photons to small photons

**Category:** Classical Physics

[457] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-24 08:38:52*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and
source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has
nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any
amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic
measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[456] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-24 06:07:00*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and
source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has
nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any
amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic
measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[455] **viXra:1707.0170 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-21 05:19:43*

**Authors:** Xiao Jun

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On the basis of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory, the relationship between the speed of light and
source is obtained for the first time according to the conclusion that the form of wave equation has
nothing to do with the moving velocity of light source. Under the condition to do not make any
amendments to the classical absolute space-time theory, all the current dynamic electromagnetic
measurement results are easily explained by using this relationship.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[454] **viXra:1706.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-25 08:07:41*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that as a consequence of induced inertial
force due to the acceleration of a system of particles or rigid body, an
additional kind of energy will arise in that body or system of particles
beside the kinetic energy of it. The Lagrange of this body will acquire an
additional term to represent this energy. The paper shows multiple cases
of object motion in which this energy is present and shows the derivation
of its energy expressions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[453] **viXra:1706.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-22 13:41:53*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that as a consequence of induced inertial
force due to the acceleration of a system of particles or rigid body, an
additional kind of energy will arise in that body or system of particles
beside the kinetic energy of it. The Lagrange of this body will acquire an
additional term to represent this energy. The paper shows multiple cases
of object motion in which this energy is present and shows the derivation
of its energy expressions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[452] **viXra:1706.0122 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-07-13 00:51:29*

**Authors:** Louai Hassan Elzein Bashier

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

This paper is prepared to show that as a consequence of induced inertial
force due to the acceleration of a mass-body that has internal structure, an
additional kind of energy will accumulate in that body beside the kinetic
energy of it. The Lagrange of this body will acquire an additional term
to represent this energy. The paper shows multiple cases of object motion
in which this energy is present and shows the derivation of its energy
expressions.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[451] **viXra:1704.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-24 10:10:11*

**Authors:** Yanming Wei

**Comments:** 41 Pages, 11 figures. Part one: Dielectric blade comb piston mechanic-electric bi-direction converter. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.29374.69448

The electric vs. mechanic bi-directional power conversion application has been traditionally and asymmetrically favoring at magnetic element as energy caching and buffering bridge, e.g. the electric motors and generators that are also abstracted as electromechanical devices. The theory behind those omnipresent electromechanical devices or equipments is electrodynamics.
Based on recent fast development of high energy density dielectric materials, my inventions are to be a game changer: let electrical field alone to take the heavy duty of electromechanical utilities, and let “dielectrodynamics” replace electrodynamics.
Of the most importance is the key limitless high voltage generator, which can cover full gamut of voltages from volts to kilovolts (KV), megavolts (MV), even gigavolts (GV), and what we need, is just to provide necessary space occupancy and mechanic work acting on dielectric blade comb-like piston. Either motor or generator can be re-invented with this core dielectrodynamic module.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[450] **viXra:1704.0385 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-24 10:05:30*

**Authors:** Yanming Wei

**Comments:** 12 Pages, 7 figures. Part two of dielectrodynamics. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.13855.76966

Superconductor is good for carrying huge current, but extreme low cryogenic temperature is cumbersome, expensive and high energy consumption for keeping the condition. As alternative, spinning electric charged metal disc(s) can mimic superconductor in normal ambient condition or even high temperature as long as not too hot to deform parts, and such is more convenience and far less energy consumption than cryogenic deep freezer. In fact, velocity of electrons drift in current carrying disc is very slow, e.g. only 23μm/s for 1 ampere in a 2mm diameter wire, in contrast, mechanic motion can easily reach sound speed, hence huge virtual current can exist.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[449] **viXra:1704.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-09 15:02:21*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Energy, mass, gravity and heat are united using only observed mean values. Gravity is a conservative force of mass being under stress from electromagnetic radiation in a scalar field. Earth state is balanced by solar radiation, emitted radiation and the internal state, using only the fourth power of temperature in Kelvin. Heat transfer explain the distribution of energy density and gravity is shown to be equal to surface temperature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[448] **viXra:1704.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 13:40:03*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Normalizing the velocity of light ‘c’ to a non-dimensional 1 generates a simple system of units of measurements. All other natural constants will still have their unique unit of measurement, and thus no information will be snowed under. Instead, nature appears more transparent.
Besides Planck’s E=h.υ, Boltzmann gives an alternate way of defining ‘content’: if the entropy of an object is expressed in e.g. J/K, multiplying that objects entropy with its (inherent) temperature delivers ‘content’ in Joules. This route delivers an enhanced Planck equation, applicable to binary particles (particles that have a discrete number of states).
This alternate Boltzmann route must meet the conservation principle. This demands a relationship between natural constants. From that relationship, the gravitational constant between smallest observable binary particles is calculated. Photons are not binary particles. It will be argued why photons are not subject to gravity: the frequency drop we measure if they climb in a gravitational field is the consequence of the local clock running faster while climbing (time dilatation).
Therefore, gravity isn’t equal to everything.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[447] **viXra:1704.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-12 14:02:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new form of the equivalent representation of the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field is described. This form of representation is based on the decomposition of an asymmetric tensor of a general form into a symmetric and antisymmetric part. It follows from this expansion that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be equivalently represented as the difference between an asymmetric tensor of general form and a symmetric tensor. Then Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of four-dimensional divergences of these tensors. From this representation, in addition to the Maxwell equations, new equations of the electromagnetic field also follow, expanding knowledge of it. One of these equations is the equation of motion of the electromagnetic field in the form of the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[446] **viXra:1704.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-08 22:46:54*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new form of the equivalent representation of the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field is described. This form of representation is based on the decomposition of an asymmetric tensor of a general form into a symmetric and antisymmetric part. It follows from this expansion that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be equivalently represented as the difference between an asymmetric tensor of general form and a symmetric tensor. Then Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of four-dimensional divergences of these tensors. From this representation, in addition to the Maxwell equations, new equations of the electromagnetic field also follow, expanding knowledge of it. One of these equations is the equation of motion of the electromagnetic field in the form of the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[445] **viXra:1703.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-04 11:10:49*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The article describes a new approach to obtaining the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in medium without the use of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. The energy-momentum tensor has new qualities and consequences. Its linear invariant is Lagrange density of the electromagnetic field. From the tensor follows the equation of conservation of energy density, the equation of flux energy density and wave equations for these energy values. Wave equation for momentum density describes simultaneous transfer of momentum and angular momentum regardless of radiation polarization. From the tensor follow the balance equations of the electromagnetic forces for the momentum density in the forms of the Minkowski and Abraham, which proves their equality and mutual supplementation. Equation for Abraham force is obtained as well. It is shown that its divergence is equal to zero. Tensor and the balance equations of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium are derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[444] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-19 12:25:44*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. fix scaling error in figure 3

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations lead always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[443] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 03:18:13*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. now in English

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[442] **viXra:1702.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-22 09:10:48*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Castillo demonstrates an important case of successful superposition of
elliptically-polarised light by moving to spinor representations of
electromagnetic plane waves: when the angle between the two unit spinors
as represented on a Poincare sphere are (as a complex number) either 1,
-1, i or -i. This paper demonstrates that there are additional conditions
under which superposition is successful: phase-shifting of one of the
waves by 90 degrees prior to superposition. Two and three superpositions
are shown, and the candidate configurations for each are listed.
The result is significant for Particle Physics at least, in that Castillo
and Rubalcava-Garcia's
prior work show a correspondance between Jones Calculus and SU(2), and
gives a direct mapping between Jones and Pauli Matrices.

**Category:** Classical Physics