Classical Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1017] viXra:1702.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-18 15:07:31

An Alternative Look at Operation of EM Drive. Role of the Electromagnetic Field Gyroscope

Authors: Mark Krinker
Comments: 12 Pages.

The paper considers a physical process inside EM Drive. According to the proposed conception, there is an electromagnetic field gyroscope, EMFG, originated due to superposition of straight and reflected flows of the electromagnetic energy inside the resonant chamber. The considered model comes to conclusion of existence of a narrow area inside the EMFG where its mass-function experiences a break and even becomes negative. There are 3 models which deduce origination of the thrust of EM Drive on a base of the considered properties of the EMFG. The first considered model states that there is a gradient of the gravitational potential inside the originated narrow area due to its heavy non-linear electromagnetic mass. Interaction of the originated gradient of the gravitational potential and the mass of the EM Drive results in origination of a net force, which is the thrust of the EM Drive. This thrust is furnished by the axial gradient of the gravitational potential inside the EM Drive. The second model projects a property and theory of 4D gyroscope, developed by G.I.Shipov, onto EMFG. Operation of the mechanical 4D gyroscope results in the reactionless motion, due to a time-varying and frequency-dependable mass of the gyroscope. The EMFG has the time and frequency dependable mass and fits the above condition for the mechanical 4D gyroscope. The third model considers a behavior of the EMFG in frames of N.A. Kozyrev’s Casual Mechanics. The EMFG is a quantum object and its C2 indicator of movement of time trends to zero as well as the external force 0. The considered limit of their ratio brings a finite force which is a trust developed by the EM Drive.
Category: Classical Physics

[1016] viXra:1702.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:35:07

Thoughts on the Causality of the Maxwell Equations

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Maxwell equations are not causal, says Oleg Jefimenko. In this paper, the causality of the Maxwell equations is explored and explained, and new causal equations formulated, according to Jefimenko’s important work in this area, strongly inspired by Oliver Heaviside’s genius work. The causal equations take into account what is commonly called ‘relativistic’ velocities, and in fact replace the need for any relativity theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1015] viXra:1702.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 04:43:51

The Wang Anomaly During a Total Solar Eclipse: an Electromagnetic Analysis

Authors: Thierry De Mees
Comments: 5 Pages.

The gravity measurement of Qian-shen Wang during the total eclipse of the Sun on 9 March 1997 showed a strange diagram-shape over time. In this paper, I investigate this shape by setting up a simple scenario: the double shielding of the used gravimeter didn’t totally exclude an induction of the fast electrons of the Sun’s corona. The passage of the Moon shielded the fields. Neither the hypothesis of a gravitational shielding, nor a temperature effect can be maintained.
Category: Classical Physics

[1014] viXra:1702.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 03:53:41

Experimental Designs to Prove the Existence of Two Types Magnetic Fields

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, two types of magnetic fields were proposed and discussed. The two types of magnetic fields should have very different properties with respect to the observer’s motion state. For convenience to discuss, here we name them absolute magnetic field and relative magnetic field. The absolute magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by permanent magnets or by electric currents in neutral wires, which is very familiar to us. Its magnitude is invariable with respect to the motion state of the observer. The relative magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by directional motion of like charges, of which, the magnitude is variable with respect to the motion state of the observer. Here in this article, experimental designs are proposed, by which the existence of the relative magnetic field can be proved.
Category: Classical Physics

[1013] viXra:1702.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-15 08:13:33

Paradigm Shift in Physics

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 19 Pages.

It has been believed that the process of scientific reasoning in research and its conclusion in the natural science should be in phenomenological basis. However, what if physical reality that is based on phenomenological facts is not enough to explain all natural phenomena or what if physical reality is not closed by itself? In other words, what if physical reality is representing just a part of outcome through interacting with any unconceivable entities in ontological truth? After reviewing 4-dimensional complex space model, which has been introduced as an alternative way to understand physics comprehensively from classical physics to modern physics, some interesting scientific activities are discussed, which have been ignored in the name of pseudoscience, such as free electric energy generation, Hutchison Effect, and the common physical origin of the Hutchison Effect and WTC (World Trade Center) collapse in 2001.
Category: Classical Physics

[1012] viXra:1702.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-12 17:48:18

A Simple Analysis of the Relationship Between the Power of the Solar Constant and the Temperature of the Earth Surface and the Atmosphere.

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 5 Pages. Blackbody radiation by volume accounts for temperature distribution in the troposphere. Gravity perform an equal amount of work on a square meter, as the amount of thermal energy radiated by the surface towards space.

Abstract This is a very simple analysis of earth and the input of solar energy using heat transfer and geometry. I show that earth radiates as a blackbody by volume and not as a surface.
Category: Classical Physics

[1011] viXra:1702.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-12 08:24:33

Experimental Verification of the Relativity or Non-Relativity of the Electric Charge in a Cylinder-Capacitor with Rotating Core

Authors: Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.
Comments: 7 Pages. currently available only in German

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed. This article suggests and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions. The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.
Category: Classical Physics

[1010] viXra:1702.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 07:54:35

Nontrivial Unit Vector Phase-Shifted Stable Superpositions of Elliptical Polarised Plane Waves Using Jones Vectors as Spinors

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton
Comments: 4 Pages.

Castillo demonstrates an important case of successful superposition of elliptically-polarised light by moving to spinor representations of electromagnetic plane waves: when the angle between the two unit spinors as represented on a Poincare sphere are (as a complex number) either 1, -1, i or -i. This paper demonstrates that there are additional conditions under which superposition is successful: phase-shifting of one of the waves by 90 degrees prior to superposition. Two and three superpositions are shown, and the candidate configurations for each are listed. The result is significant for Particle Physics at least, in that Castillo and Rubalcava-Garcia's prior work show a correspondance between Jones Calculus and SU(2), and gives a direct mapping between Jones and Pauli Matrices.
Category: Classical Physics

[1009] viXra:1702.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-08 19:17:35

Geometric (Clifford) Algebra Calculation of the Trajectory of a Gas Molecule Desorbed from the Earth's Surface

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 14 Pages.

As a step toward understanding why the Earth's atmosphere "rotates" with the Earth, we use using Geometric (Clifford) Algebra to investigate the trajectory of a single molecule that desorbs vertically upward from the Equator, then falls back to Earth without colliding with any other molecules. Sample calculations are presented for a molecule whose vertical velocity is equal to the surface velocity of the Earth at the Equator (463 m/s) and for one with a vertical velocity three times as high. The latter velocity is sufficient for the molecule to reach the Kármán Line (100,000 m). We find that both molecules fall to Earth behind the point from which they desorbed: by 0.25 degrees of latitude for the higher vertical velocity, but by only 0.001 degrees for the lower.
Category: Classical Physics

[1008] viXra:1702.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 09:37:09

Double Slit Experiment

Authors: J.Williams
Comments: 2 Pages.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle once said, and I am paraphrasing (once you remove all that's false, whatever remains has to be the truth. No matter how strange or ridiculous it may seem). I am going to assume that a photon will turn into a wave just because it goes through a double slit in a piece of paper is a false statement. I will then demonstrate that whatever is left can explain the four bars of light that form when light travels through the double slit.
Category: Classical Physics

[1007] viXra:1702.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 03:09:04

A Theoretical Study of Oam Light Beams Under Gravity

Authors: Calin Vasilescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

Here I study the behaviour of internal orbital angular momentum OAM light beams in a gravitational field. According to this study, such a beam should behave like a particle with rest mass, therefore the wavefront should slow down if the beam is pointed against the gravitational field and it will accelerate if pointed in the same direction as the gravitational field. This study is conducted in a classical context, intentionally ignoring Lorentz factors. However, the relativistic effects associated with these helical structures will emerge naturally. The paper will focus on a single relativistic phenomenon – naturally occurring velocity limitation of a spin ½ particle concept which poses a rest mass. However, this rest mass is also a redefined concept. It is interesting that if a beam is pointed against a gravitational field, the step length of the helical structure reduces which acts on increasing the detected frequency of the incoming beam (considering a stationary detector above the source and the gravitational filed direction pointing downward), but since the speed of the wavefront reduces, it acts as a reducing factor for the frequency that the detector will read. In other words, although the wavelength of the beam reduces as the wave-front advances, the speed of the wavefront reduces as well, resulting in a decreasing frequency. When the front-wave velocity tends to zero, this frequency tends to a positive number. It is clear that if the wavefront speed reduces under a gravitational field, it will eventually stop and reverse the direction, falling towards the source of the field. This behaviour is similar to a particle with rest mass. However, if photons don't have mass, then, my suggestion is that particles are helical structures that have similar construction to OAM |m| = 1 and therefore, we could say they don't have mass either.
Category: Classical Physics

[1006] viXra:1702.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-06 03:41:13

Fundamental Theorems of Physics

Authors: Hervé Le Cornec
Comments: 6 Pages.

We show that the time must be quantized in a classical world, and therefore all other physics parameters must also be. We propose to build a classical physics theory that uses only theorems, but no postulate. The foundation are build on five elementary theorems, that lead trivially and straight forward to the description of the Planck's constant, the Planck-Einstein relationship, and the speed of light as the maximum speed, although we remain on a classical point of view.
Category: Classical Physics

[1005] viXra:1702.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-02 11:46:31

Spin Transferred to a Mirror Reflecting Light

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 5 Pages. Submitted to all journals

We consider the incidence of a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave on a mirror at an angle and its reflection from it. We have calculated the transfer of a momentum and a spin to the mirror and, accordingly, the pressure and density of a mechanical torque on the mirror. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of the plane electromagnetic wave, as momentum. Recognizing the existence of photons with momentum, energy and spin in a plane electromagnetic wave, it is strange to deny the presence of spin in such a wave, as is done in modern electrodynamics.
Category: Classical Physics

[1004] viXra:1701.0677 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 02:28:36

The Relativistic Origin of the Electric Charge

Authors: Hervé Le Cornec
Comments: 6 Pages.

We investigated the possibility to use the electron's rotation speed, inside the hydrogen atom, into the dilatation factor of the special relativity, even if the electron is in a non inertial frame. Doing so, we were able to demonstrate that the electron's charge-to-mass ratio is nothing else but a relativistic frequency, and that a magnetic moment, very similar to the one of the quantum mechanics, must appear, although we stay in the fields of classical and relativistic physics. This facts, in excellent agreement with the experiment, lead us to propose to extend the Einstein's postulate of inertial frame, to all frames having a constant speed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1003] viXra:1701.0666 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 23:37:06

Power Amplification Via Parasitic Resonator Inside Waveguide Cavity

Authors: Xiaodong Liu, Yu Liang, Qichang Liang
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this work, a parasitic dipole was mounted inside a waveguide cavity. The amplitude of the oscillating wave through the waveguide was amplified 15% by the negative impedance reflected from the parasitic resonator to the waveguide.
Category: Classical Physics

[1002] viXra:1701.0624 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 14:52:05

New Newton Mechanics and Related Problems

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 125 Pages.

Consider all possible situations, won the best ending. This is our starting point for establishing New Newton Mechanics and for solving many complicated problems. Practice has proved that this idea is successful.
Category: Classical Physics

[1001] viXra:1701.0610 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 09:25:59

The New Phenomenon Turbo Self-Injection, a New Type of Liquid Flow Circulation

Authors: Leonid Kanevskyy
Comments: 12 Pages. The paper contains the introduction and the abstract in English, the rest of the paper - in German

This paper’s aim is to establish existence of the new phenomenon – Turbo Self-Injection. It is a new type of circulation of liquid flow that appears inside cylindrical, conical or spherical hollow rotationally symmetrical solid-bodies.Throttling water jet turns into the circular, vortex flow of liquid, for example water, in such solid-bodies and creates a static pressure drop that increases suction capacity of injectors several fold; the injectors also have much smaller sizes and consume considerably less energy than any known models. To achieve that, I created a mixing chamber in a pipe with a throttling disk on one end and a dead impact wall on another end and with an outlet sideways in front of the impact wall. The mixing chamber had two more holes: one for air intake and one for liquid soap.As it turned out, the water was not coming out of the holes for air and for soap even when the throttling water jet was hitting the dead flat perpendicular wall in the pipe. Instead, the water was rotating in a vortical manner around the mixing chamber longitudinal axis which is parallel to the throttling water jet. In this process, sucked-in air increases volume and velocity of the circular vortex flow several fold, and suction pressure is created which is 20 to 30 times higher than in previously known injectors. Because of this, simultaneous suction of both air and liquid soap is possible. In the process a homogenous fine soap foam is created with air bubbles of 1-2 millimetre diameter. This sub-mission is a brief summary of the experimental research that I have been conducting on my own for 14 years.
Category: Classical Physics

[1000] viXra:1701.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 08:29:10

Charge Relativity and Universe Field Equation

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu
Comments: 8 Pages.

Charge relativity means that charge can cause space-time vortex. Using this concept, we can solve the puzzle of dark matter. Charge causes spacetime torsion. By combining Einstein field equation and Faraday electromagnetic torsion tensor, we can get a complete universe field equation including gravity, light pressure, and electromagnetism.
Category: Classical Physics

[999] viXra:1701.0590 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-24 13:33:18

On the Choice of the Energy-Momentum Tensor in Electrodynamics and Force Abraham

Authors: Spirichev Yurii Alexseevich
Comments: 8 Pages. Russian

The article deals with the choice of the energy-momentum tensor in electrodynamics. Considered the electromagnetic force in a continuous medium of the following Minkowski and Abraham tensors. From Minkowski tensor the equations of conservation of energy-momentum density, density of electromagnetic force balance in a continuous medium and the equation for the Abraham force. It is shown that it is equal to zero when choosing a canonical material equations. It is shown that the equivalence of the Minkowski momentum density and Abraham. Arguments in favor of a unique choice of the tensor of the Minkowski and Abraham tensor incomplete.
Category: Classical Physics

[998] viXra:1701.0541 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-19 07:15:53

The Hypothesis of Perpendicular Time

Authors: Manik Dawar
Comments: 7 Pages. Contact information: manikdawar@live.com

The entirety of this document assumes the existence of a maximum speed with which any entity in the universe can travel from a set of points in space to any other set of points in space. The consequences on the motion of the constituents of a typical system of particles, when the system is travelling at a speed which is close to the speed limit of the universe, are initially subjected to a qualitative analysis, the conclusions of which hint at a mechanical definition of time. A quantitative analysis of the same reveals the Lorentz Transformation Factor. The fact that the Lorentz transformation factor is derived on applying the definition of time, which was hinted from the qualitative analysis, supports that definition. The quantitative analysis, however, also revealed a different value (transformation factor*). Both the transformation factors are combined to form one transformation factor, which, given that n (the number of spatial dimensions in the universe through which any moving object traverses) is large enough, approximately equates to the Lorentz Transformation Factor. Thus, using the results derived here, the value of n might be revealed.
Category: Classical Physics

[997] viXra:1701.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 13:20:25

Another Counterexample to Landauer’s Principle

Authors: Gary R. Prok
Comments: 2 Pages.

There has been disagreement about the validity of Landauer's Principle, which places a limitation on computational energy efficiency. The Principle is predicated on a finite entropy increase associated with every erasure of a memory register. Existence of a reversible memory register reduces Landauer' Principle to a disproven conjecture.
Category: Classical Physics

[996] viXra:1701.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 13:23:54

A Classical Analysis of the Szilard Engine

Authors: Gary R. Prok
Comments: 9 Pages.

Maxwell’s demon challenges our interpretation of thermodynamics and our understanding of the Second Law of thermodynamics. The Szilard engine is a gedanken instantiation of Maxwell’s Demon that is amenable to standard thermodynamic analysis. The paradox of Maxwell’s demon as presented by the Szilard engine is considered to have been solved by Landauer’s principle. A classical analysis of the Szilard engine, presented here, shows that Landauer’s principle is not needed to resolve the paradox of the demon. Classical thermodynamics is all that is needed.
Category: Classical Physics

[995] viXra:1701.0529 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-17 20:26:55

Chaos in N-Body Problem.

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 22 Pages.

via conservative forces. These forces can be of gravitational origin (celestial mechanics), inter-molecular origin (molecular dynamics), or representing (structural biology). In The n-body problem as a classic astronomical and physical problem that naturally follows from the two- body problem first solved by Newton in his Principia in 1687. The efforts of many famous mathematicians have been devoted to this difficult problem, including Euler and Lagrange (1772), Jacobi (1836), Hill (1878), Poincaré (1899), Levi-Civita (1905), and Birkhoff (1915). However, despite centuries of exploration, there is no clear structure of the solution of the general n- or even three-body problem as there are no coordinate transformations that can simplify the problem, and there are more and more evidences that, in general, the solutions of n-body problems are chaotic. Failure to find a general analytical structure of the solution shifted the effort towards numerical methods. Many ODE solvers offer a variety of advance numerical methods for the solution. 2. Chaos in classical dynamics We start this section with revisiting mathematical formalism of chaos in a non-traditional way that is based upon the concept of orbital instability. The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [4], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [5]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems illustrated by chaos in inertial systems a. Orbital instability as a precursor of chaos. Chaos is a special type of instability when the system does not have an alternative stable state and displays an irregular aperiodic motion. Obviously this kind of instability can be associated only with ignorable variables, i.e. with such variables that do not contribute into energy of the system. In order to demonstrate this kind of instability, consider an inertial motion of a particle M of unit mass on a smooth pseudosphere S having a constant negative curvature G0, Fig. 1. The n-body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of objects 1 interacting with each other the most common version, the trajectories of the objects are determined by numerically solving the Newton's equations of motion for a system of interacting particles. Non-conservative version of the interaction forces became important in case of the n-body problem that incorporates the effects of the Coulomb potential radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag, and solar wind drag. The general method of numerical solution of the corresponding system of ODE was originally conceived within theoretical physics in the late 1950s,,[1,2], but is applied today mostly in chemical physics, materials science and the modeling of biomolecules. The most significant “side effect “of the existing numerical methods for n-body problems becomes chaos when different numerical runs with the same initial conditions result in different trajectories. Although numerical errors can contribute to chaos, nevertheless the primary origin of chaos is physical instability, [3]. In this work, a general approach to probabilistic description of chaos in n-body problem with conservative
Category: Classical Physics

[994] viXra:1701.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 16:29:56

Analytical Prediction and Representation of Chaos

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 10 Pages.

The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [1], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [2]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems.
Category: Classical Physics

[993] viXra:1701.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 13:55:40

Foundation of Turbulence Revisited.

Authors: Michail Zak
Comments: 22 Pages.

This paper presents a non-traditional approach to theory of turbulence. Its objective is to prove that Newtonian mechanics is fully equipped for description of turbulent motions without help of experimentally obtained closures. Turbulence is one of the most fundamental problems in theoretical physics that is still unsolved. The term “unsolved “ here means that turbulence cannot be properly formulated, i.e. reduced to standard mathematical procedure such as solving differential equations. In other words, it is not just a computational problem: prior to computations, a consistent mathematical model must be found. Although applicability of the Navier-Stokes equations as a model for fluid mechanics is not in question, the instability of their solutions for flows with supercritical Reynolds numbers raises a more general question: is Newtonian mechanics complete? The problem of turbulence (stressed later by the discovery of chaos) demonstrated that the Newton’s world is far more complex than those represented by classical models. It appears that the Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formulations do not suggest any tools for treating postinstability motions, and this is a major flaw of the classical approach to Newtonian mechanics. The explanation of that limitation is proposed in this paper: the classical formalism based upon the Newton’s laws exploits additional mathematical restrictions (such as space–time differentiability, and the Lipchitz conditions) that are not required by the Newton’s laws. The only purpose for these restrictions is to apply a powerful technique of classical mathematical analysis. However, in many cases such restrictions are incompatible with physical reality, and the most obvious case of such incompatibility is the Euler’s model of inviscid fluid in which absence of shear stresses are not compensated by a release of additional degrees of freedom as required by the principles of mechanics. It has been recently demonstrated, [3], that according to the principle of release of constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applied to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl’s solution is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-viscous version of the Navier-Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns.
Category: Classical Physics

[992] viXra:1701.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 16:01:36

Fresnel Dragging Explained by a Classical Model of Light Transmission in Optical Media

Authors: Declan Traill
Comments: 7 Pages.

The original mathematical treatment used in the analysis of the Fizeau experiment of 1851, which measured the relative speed of light in a moving medium, assumes that light travels through the water in a smooth continuous flow, at a speed less than the speed of light in a vacuum (relative to the water). Thus it assumes that the water’s velocity vector can simply be added to that of the light. However, light is transmitted through optical media, such as water, by a continuous process of absorption and re-emission by the water molecules; but travels between them at the full speed of light (in a vacuum). Thus the mathematics describing the process of Fresnel dragging must be formulated differently and can then be explained by classical Physics
Category: Classical Physics

[991] viXra:1701.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-09 15:20:14

Segurança de Voo na Aviação Acrobática

Authors: Desire Francine Gobato
Comments: 95 Pages. Portuguese.

The flight safety is one of the main concerns related to the current aviation and through the prevention it is gotten to avoid countless incidents and accidents. The work has as objective demonstrates through norms, patterns and documents, that a safe way exists of accomplishing acrobatic maneuvers. The focus from work will have as reference the operational safety in the acrobatic maneuvers involving the current acrobatic aircrafts inside of the Brazilian air space. It gave way a bibliographical consultation it was elaborated through virtual libraries, where were books that they are correlated with the flight safety and the acrobatic flight, besides the norms and patterns of ANAC. It was verified like this that several ways exist of accomplishing a flight with acrobatics in a safe way, and for that they were developed several norms that owe her they be followed in the aerial demonstrations, shows or in any event that executes maneuvers or acrobatics in a risky way, where the aircraft is exposed to your own limits.
Category: Classical Physics

[990] viXra:1701.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-09 12:13:24

Teoria de Voo de Alta Velocidade

Authors: Desire Francine Gobato Fedrigo, Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese. Panel presented in the XVII Physics Week of the State University of Londrina, October 22 to 26, 2012.

To begin a study related to the High Speed Theory, it is necessary to know that the aircraft are classified according to the being: subsonic, transonic, hypersonic or supersonic. Directly related to there are still the so-called pressure waves, which are concentric waves printed in the air by any object that produces sound or which travels in the Earth's atmosphere, these propagate at a speed of 340 m/s or 1224 km/h at the mean sea level. The Aircraft in flight produces these waves, which are formed around them and move 360º around it. In this study, the nose of the aircraft and the area of greater curvature in the extrados of the wing as expansion waveformers, in order to study the wave of Shock, Mach number and critical Mach number.
Category: Classical Physics

[989] viXra:1701.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-08 01:29:36

The Substantial Model of the Photon

Authors: Sergey G. Fedosin
Comments: 69 pages. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 411-467 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i1.25

It is shown that the angular frequency of the photon is nothing else than the averaged angular frequency of revolution of the electron cloud’s center during emission and quantum transition between two energy levels in an atom. On assumption that the photon consists of charged particles of the vacuum field (of praons), the substantial model of a photon is constructed. Praons move inside the photon in the same way as they must move in the electromagnetic field of the emitting electron, while internal periodic wave structure is formed inside the photon. The properties of praons, including their mass, charge and speed, are derived in the framework of the theory of infinite nesting of matter. At the same time, praons are part of nucleons and leptons just as nucleons are the basis of neutron stars and the matter of ordinary stars and planets. With the help of the Lorentz transformations, which correlate the laboratory reference frame and the reference frame, co-moving with the praons inside the photon, transformation of the electromagnetic field components is performed. This allows us to calculate the longitudinal magnetic field and magnetic dipole moment of the photon, and to understand the relation between the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields, connected by a coefficient in the form of the speed of light. The total rest mass of the particles making up the photon is found, it turns out to be inversely proportional to the nuclear charge number of the hydrogen-like atom, which emits the photon. In the presented picture the photon composed of praons moves at a speed less than the speed of light, and it loses the right to be called an elementary particle due to its complex structure.
Category: Classical Physics

[988] viXra:1701.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 04:09:40

Phase Transition

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

An attempt to universal definition of phase transition
Category: Classical Physics

[987] viXra:1701.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 11:56:23

The Unification of Gravity, Inertia, and Centripetal Force

Authors: Don Brown
Comments: 12 Pages. Author Email: dbrown7473@gmail.com

This paper creates a model that unifies Gravity, Inertia, and Centripetal Force and shows how they are all created by the same mechanical properties.
Category: Classical Physics

[986] viXra:1612.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 11:44:56

Symmetric and Asymmetric Tensors of the Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 9 Pages. Russian

It is shown that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be associated with symmetric and asymmetric tensors, which are derived from decomposition of the antisymmetric tensor of general form into its elements: symmetric and antisymmetric parts. These tensors contain additional information about the electromagnetic field. d'Alembert wave equations for electromagnetic potential and derivatives of Lorenz gauge condition follow from antisymmetric tensor and Navier-Stokes dynamic equation for the electromagnetic potential follow from symmetric tensor. A harmonized system of field equations, including Maxwell's equations, follows from these three tensors.
Category: Classical Physics

[985] viXra:1612.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-30 11:57:30

On the Tensor of Energy-Momentum Tensor of the Interaction of Electromagnetic Fields with Matter

Authors: Yurii A. Spirichev
Comments: 14 Pages. Russian

In this paper, a new consistent approach to theory of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. The tensor of energy-momentum tensor obtained from the tensor of the electromagnetic field and the induction field without the involvement of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. Tensor of energy-momentum the equations of conservation of energy density, the flux density of energy, density and momentum of the wave equation for these energy values. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium.
Category: Classical Physics

[984] viXra:1612.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 01:38:23

The Special Nature of the Magnetic Field Around a Moving Line Charge

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 8 Pages.

Two types of electric currents and related magnetic fields were analyzed deeply in this paper. One is the current in a neutral wire, which is very familiar to us. The other current is the result of directional motion of one type (positive or negative) charges suspended in the space. The analysis results show that the two types of currents and related magnetic fields have same properties to observers in stationary frame. But, to the observers in a moving frame, the two types of currents and related magnetic field appear very different behaviors. In the second situation, it looks not sufficient to determine a magnetic field to a given point in space only by its magnitude and direction. In order to sufficiently determine the magnetic, the source of the magnetic field is also required to be considered into.
Category: Classical Physics

[983] viXra:1612.0310 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 13:18:02

Comment on "New Formulation of the Two Body Problem Using a Continued Fractional Potential "

Authors: M.E. Hassani
Comments: 4 Pages; 1 Reference. This paper is submitted to Astrophysics and Space Science Journal

In a relatively recent article by F.A. Abd El-Salam et al. [Astrophys. Space Sci. 350, 507 (2014)], the authors claimed a new formulation of the two-body problem via the introduction of the continued fractional potential. Even if the idea of applying the continued fraction procedure to the gravitational physics is by itself a novelty, the study presented in their work suffers both from mathematical and physical issues. These issues are discussed in this comment.
Category: Classical Physics

[982] viXra:1612.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-20 12:21:56

The Push Of Gravity

Authors: Donald Brown
Comments: 9 Pages.

In the universe two common things seem to dictate a great deal of how things work: electromagnetic energy and gravity. If photons are responsible for all of the electromagnetic effects that we see, can neutrinos be responsible for all of the gravity we see? I believe the answer is yes and through this paper I will lay out the logic and observations I have used to arrive at this conclusion.
Category: Classical Physics

[981] viXra:1612.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-19 11:19:56

A Short Presentation of a New Physics Theory Based on the HM16 Model of Ether

Authors: Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus, Aurelian Has
Comments: 4 Pages. The authors intend to develop this paper in future, with necessary details

Here we briefly expose a new physics theory, which contains some explanations of physical phenomena in nature including some unexplained to date. The New Physics Theory 2016 (NPT16) is based on a new model of ether HM16 which lead to NPT16.
Category: Classical Physics

[980] viXra:1612.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-19 03:08:08

The Principle of Equivalence Applied to Transformer Law

Authors: Carles R Paul
Comments: 4 Pages. in Spanish

The transformer relation is an electromagnetic law that arises as a consequence of the application of the electromagnetic induction between the primary and secondary electrical circuit. In this article we propose a relation transformer new demonstration without needing to resort to electromagnetic induction and even without resorting to electromagnetic principles. We deduce the law from fundamental mechanical principles, such as the law of conservation of angular momentum. With all this we show that the law of the transformer is the consequence of an inertial phenomenon
Category: Classical Physics

[979] viXra:1612.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-13 11:11:49

Absorption of Angular Momentum of a Plane Electromagnetic Wave

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 4 Pages. Will be submitted to all scietific journals

It is demonstrated that dielectric or magnetic, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave according to the canonical spin tensor of electrodynamics. Lorentz transformations are used for energy, momentum, and angular momentum flux density because a moving absorber is considered. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.
Category: Classical Physics

[978] viXra:1612.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-13 12:47:59

Continuous Natural Vector of Electro-Magnetism

Authors: H. J. Spencer
Comments: 74 Pages. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical E/M in an immediate and direct algebraic manner.

A new algebraic representation is used to immediately recover all the major results of classical electromagnetism. This new representation (‘Natural Vectors’) is based on Hamilton’s quaternions and completes the original attempt by Maxwell to use this powerful, non-commutative algebra in the final presentation of his theory in his Treatise. The foundational hypothesis here is that the principal electromagnetic variables are best represented by Natural Vectors, rather than the conventional 3D vectors defined by ‘real numbers’. The present results avoid all use of the field concept and validate the retarded scalar and vector potentials approach first introduced by L. V. Lorenz, who combined Gauss’s 1845 suggestion of the finite speed of interaction with Newton’s action-at-a-distance model of physics into a charge-potential model of electromagnetism in 1867. This new approach demonstrates the primacy and physical significance of the ‘Lorenz gauge’. Not withstanding Maxwell’s aether theory, the present results are based on the artificial continuous charge-density substance model of electricity that is used today to develop and teach Maxwell’s Equations for classical electromagnetism. The present analysis also demonstrates that Helmholtz’s ‘fluid’ model of electricity is one of the few that can result in an electromagnetic ‘explanation’ for the phenomenon of light. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical electro-magnetism in an immediate and direct algebraic manner. This new theory focuses on the remote interaction between charges, which then appears both as variations in the charge-density and the potentials “traveling at light-speed across space”. Surprisingly, this same result also appears for the current-density; this suggests that the conventional interpretation of this major symbol in Maxwell’s Equations needs to be questioned further. * SPSI, Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299 spsi99@telus.cnet © H. J. Spencer Version 2.3 25-07-2012 Version 1.0 16-06-2007
Category: Classical Physics

[977] viXra:1612.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 12:11:33

The Use of the Electrodynamics Canonical Spin Tensor

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 3 Pages. Will be submitted to all scietific journals

It is demonstrated that a dielectric, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave, according to the canonical spin tensor. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.
Category: Classical Physics

[976] viXra:1612.0211 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 11:44:20

The Shape of Water and Air Vortices

Authors: M. J. Germuska
Comments: 17 Pages.

This paper presents a new formula found experimentally for the shape of the free surface of stable vortices. It is a generalisation of the theoretical formula for the irrotational vortex in the ideal fluid. The new formula applies to real vortices where viscosity and compression may be present. The experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions on water and air vortices that were produced in several different ways.
Category: Classical Physics

[975] viXra:1612.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:41:10

Computational Techniques for Modeling Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 35 Pages.

Modeling the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is a challenging subject. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. These include continuum models, numerical methods, and pore-scale network modeling. The latter proved to be more successful and realistic than the rest. The reason is that it captures the essential features of the flow and porous media using modest computational resources and viable modeling strategies. In this article we present pore-scale network modeling techniques for simulating non-Newtonian flow in porous media. These techniques are partially validated by theoretical analysis and comparison to experimental data.
Category: Classical Physics

[974] viXra:1612.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:44:06

Flow of Non-Newtonian Fluids in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 99 Pages.

The study of flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is very important and serves a wide variety of practical applications in processes such as enhanced oil recovery from underground reservoirs, filtration of polymer solutions and soil remediation through the removal of liquid pollutants. These fluids occur in diverse natural and synthetic forms and can be regarded as the rule rather than the exception. They show very complex strain and time dependent behavior and may have initial yield-stress. Their common feature is that they do not obey the simple Newtonian relation of proportionality between stress and rate of deformation. Non-Newtonian fluids are generally classified into three main categories: time-independent whose strain rate solely depends on the instantaneous stress, time-dependent whose strain rate is a function of both magnitude and duration of the applied stress and viscoelastic which shows partial elastic recovery on removal of the deforming stress and usually demonstrates both time and strain dependency. In this article, the key aspects of these fluids are reviewed with particular emphasis on single-phase flow through porous media. The four main approaches for describing the flow in porous media are examined and assessed. These are: continuum models, bundle of tubes models, numerical methods and pore-scale network modeling.
Category: Classical Physics

[973] viXra:1612.0183 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 20:52:35

Slip at Fluid-Solid Interface

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 69 Pages.

The `no-slip' is a fundamental assumption and generally-accepted boundary condition in rheology, tribology and fluid mechanics with strong experimental support. The violations of this condition, however, are widely recognized in many situations, especially in the flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Wall slip could lead to large errors and flow instabilities, such as sharkskin formation and spurt flow, and hence complicates the analysis of fluid systems and introduces serious practical difficulties. In this article, we discuss slip at fluid-solid interface in an attempt to highlight the main issues related to this diverse complex phenomenon and its implications.
Category: Classical Physics

[972] viXra:1612.0158 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:09:55

Methods for Calculating the Pressure Field in the Tube Flow

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper we outline methods for calculating the pressure field inside flow conduits in the one-dimensional flow models where the pressure is dependent on the axial coordinate only. The investigation is general with regard to the tube mechanical properties (rigid or distensible), and with regard to the cross sectional variation along the tube length (constant or variable). The investigation is also general with respect to the fluid rheology as being Newtonian or non-Newtonian.
Category: Classical Physics

[971] viXra:1612.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 16:25:37

A Derived Expression of NEWTON’S Law of Gravitation and of the Newtonian Constant G

Authors: Curtis J. Forsythe
Comments: 11 Pages.

I propose a theoretical model of Universal Gravitation based upon hypothetical mass/energy resonance waves, the intensities of which I propose to be casually analogous with those of electromagnetic waves. Using said model, I derive the Newtonian gravitational expression, from which the Newtonian gravitational constant G factors as a combination of other physical constants, resulting in an apparent value of 6.662936 x 10-11m3/kg s2. A second resultant of the theory is a demonstration that the quantum energy states of the hydrogen atom appear related to the length of these waves, shown equal to twice the ground state orbital radius in a Bohr hydrogen atom. Additionally, I have determined apparent values for the Planck mass, length, and time independently of any determination of G.
Category: Classical Physics

[970] viXra:1612.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 01:29:02

Yield and Solidification of Yield-Stress Materials in Rigid Networks and Porous Structures

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 31 Pages.

In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.
Category: Classical Physics

[969] viXra:1612.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-05 08:41:42

Explanation of the Eclipse Effect by Electro Anti Gravity

Authors: Mohsen Lutephy
Comments: 7 Pages. this is answer for pendulums mysteries

The explanation of the eclipse effect by reality that the pendulums are electrified in the eclipse time and affected by sun electric charge in agreement with Nipher experiments and Erwin Saxl experiments and flying saucers mysterious anti gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[968] viXra:1612.0033 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 19:09:43

Critical Loss Factor in 2-Dof in-Series System with Hysteretic Friction and Its Use for Vibration Control

Authors: Roman Vinokur
Comments: 17 Pages.

Although the classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), the loss factors of most solid structures are largely controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents new relationships for the dynamics of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteresis damping. The most important among them is a close-form equation for the critical loss factor that was derived as the marginal condition for the degenerate case where the higher-frequency resonance peak fully vanishes in the vibration spectrum of the second mass. The critical loss factor can take values between 0 and 2-3/2 ≈ 0.354 and depends on the ratio of the natural frequencies of 2-DOF system: the closer the undamped natural frequencies, the lower the critical loss factor. The equation may help to interpret the vibration spectra for the second mass in the real 2-DOF systems, in particular on sweep-sine shaker tests. The single resonance peak in the degenerate case for a 2-DOF grows up notably as the natural frequencies get close to each other. By a formal analogy with 1-DOF systems, the peak magnitude can be reduced by increasing the loss factor. But in 2-DOF systems, the vibration can be effectively attenuated for the same loss factor by making the natural frequencies more different from each other (in particular, via increasing the stiffness of the second spring).
Category: Classical Physics

[967] viXra:1612.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 08:21:12

Spacetime Discreteness .A Brief Look .

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 8 Pages.

Will analyze some physical concepts only using natural numbers. We assume a space discrete Physical variables such speed or momentum are considered as result of the sum of discrete contributions .Such discrete contributions can be calculated with natural numbers only . Elementary algebra is used in the analysis of physical subjects .
Category: Classical Physics

[966] viXra:1612.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-01 06:39:24

A New Model of Ether Reproducing Electromagnetic Phenomena, Including Gravity

Authors: Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus
Comments: 30 Pages. -

This paper is based on the results obtained in our previous articles where an error has been found in Michelson’s analysis of his interferometer experiment, even though Einstein relied on it, while developing the Special Relativity Theory, in which he eliminated ether from physics. Our own results imply that ether can exist. We have also validated the hypothesis that Coulomb’s law would better describe the complex reality, including ether, by adding other terms to the actual term in r-2. As such, the force that exists between two distant dipoles, when computed with a modified version Coulomb’s law, depends on r-2, as in Newton’s law. Numerically, the two forces were practically equal given that the gravitation consists of electromagnetic interactions. For ether’s composition, we proposed the HM16 model, in which the constituents etherons α and β are placed in the nodes of a crystalline network with a cell of approximately 10-27m, then subject to manifesting forces of mutual attraction/rejection. Ether behaves as an ideal mechanism in the form of a perpetuum mobile. The microparticles MPs consisted of local zones of ether where an energy intake induced a state of vibrating or vortex motion. The vibrant MPs, having electrical charges, will transmit fundamental vibrations FV in ether around the MPs, which have a finite velocity cF. Stationary FV vibrations do not transmit energy in the continuous infinite ether, but they do create interaction forces between MPs of an electric (modified Coulomb forces) and magnetic nature. A MP passing through two energetic levels will expel (or absorb) a special MP, namely, the F photon, which moves through the ether at the speed of light c, which is a property granted by the ether, and forms electromagnetic EM waves that transmit energy in ether. The F photon can be constituted similar to an MP, which creates its own FV vibrations in ether. It is likely that the two velocities cF and c will not be equal. As we consider that cF > c, velocity cF corresponds to the “gravitational” waves resulting from the interaction between the electric dipoles produced by the completed Coulomb’s law. The HM16 model of ether can explain the nature of an electric field in terms of volumetric ε strains of ether, while the nature of the magnetic field can be explained by distortional γ strains of ether. The HM16 model can also explain the various interactions between EM waves and MPs, as well as collisions between MPs.
Category: Classical Physics

[965] viXra:1611.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 11:44:25

The Meaning of the Postulates of the Special Relativity

Authors: Valery P. Skorobogatov
Comments: 4 Pages. I made a lapse in my surname :(

It is shown the cause of the invariant value of the light speed on the ground of 4D model.
Category: Classical Physics

[964] viXra:1611.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-20 10:02:11

Magnetism, Interpreted as a Multiple-Particle Effect

Authors: Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.
Comments: 8 Pages. untranslated and still in german

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.
Category: Classical Physics

[963] viXra:1611.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 12:59:54

Heinrich Hertz (1857-1894) and the Fatal Timeline

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 2 Pages.

When a timeline was established related to events that lead to and following Heinrich Hertz's discovery that electromagnetic waves can propagate through the air, a potentially fatal chronology was identified. It is quite possible that the cause of Hertz's early death was exposure to damaging levels of electromagnetic radiation.
Category: Classical Physics

[962] viXra:1611.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 12:16:02

Non-Conservativeness of Natural Orbital Systems

Authors: Slobodan Nedic
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Newtonian mechanic and contemporary physics model the non-circular orbital systems on all scales as essentially conservative, closed-path zero-work systems and circumvent the obvious contradictions (rotor-free ‘field’ of ‘force’, in spite of its inverse proportionality to squared time-varying distance) by exploiting both energy and momentum conservation, along specific initial conditions, to be arriving at technically more or less satisfactory solutions, but leaving many of unexplained puzzles. In sharp difference to it, in recently developed thermo-gravitational oscillator approach movement of a body in planetary orbital systems is modeled in such a way that it results as consequence of two counteracting mechanisms represented by respective central forces, that is gravitational and anti-gravitational accelerations, in that the actual orbital trajectory comes out through direct application of the Least Action Principle taken as minimization of work (to be) done or, equivalently, a closed-path integral of increments (or time-rate of change) of kinetic energy. Based on the insights gained, a critique of the conventional methodology and practices reveals shortcomings that can be the cause of the numerous difficulties the modern physics has been facing: anomalies (as gravitational and Pioneer 10/11), three or more bodies problem, postulations in modern cosmology of dark matter and dark energy, the quite problematic foundation of quantum mechanics, etc. Furthermore, for their overcoming, indispensability of the Aether as an energy-substrate for all physical phenomena is gaining a very strong support, and based on recent developments in Aetherodynamics the Descartes' Vortex Physics may become largely reaffirmed in the near future.
Category: Classical Physics

[961] viXra:1611.0167 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-11 13:16:13

Reflection of Light from a Moving Mirror

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 4 Pages. submetted to all scientific journals

We demonstrate the fulfilment of the conservation laws with respect to fluxes of momentum, energy, spin, and photons when a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave reflects from a receding mirror at normal incidence
Category: Classical Physics

[960] viXra:1611.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 13:19:32

Essentials

Authors: Heyfetz Eduard
Comments: 12 Pages.

The author made conclusion about internal infinity of any physical object. He proposes a simple mathematical tool for its analysis and conclusions from the latter.
Category: Classical Physics

[959] viXra:1611.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 13:09:29

The New Concept to Understand How the Basic Universe Work

Authors: Jimmy Chiehmei Yang
Comments: 12 pages

Introduce a new concept of MS(motion in space) charges, this charge is fill up all the space move in all direction with speed C, when single direction charged to mass it create motion, when charge density changes it cause gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[958] viXra:1611.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-04 22:48:11

Time Multidimensional

Authors: GuagSan Yu
Comments: 6 Pages. The Chinese

The traditional concept of space is three-dimensional, with a time dimension, that is, four-dimensional space. That is, time is one-dimensional. According to the theory of relativity, time and space are inextricably linked. Therefore, the space is multidimensional, so why is it that time can not may be also multidimensional. The dimension of time and space may be the same. This paper proposes that the dimension of time is the same as the dimension of space.
Category: Classical Physics

[957] viXra:1610.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-30 09:23:06

Michelson's Experiment of Force Majeure?

Authors: Vladislav Mirkin, Ph.D.
Comments: 8 Pages.

 The article shows that almost "negative" results of the Michelson-Morley-Miller and all subsequent experiments due to the fact that the selected standards of measurement of the size and time have changed almost simultaneously with the measured parameters. That means that all the "old" and modern experiments could not answer the question of the existence of the ether in principle. Furthermore, even in the first experiments the result was already present, which should be interpreted as the presence of the ether.
Category: Classical Physics

[956] viXra:1610.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 06:21:56

Two-Dimension Curvature of a Wire: a Simple Model Using Shear Modulus Concept

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Nadya Amalia
Comments: 7 Pages. Conference paper, 11 figures, 3 tables

In this work simple model based on definition of shear modulus to produce bending of wire is proposed. Several results are discussed only for constant shear modulus and diameter, but the model can be extened to non-constant shear modulus and diameter. For arbitrary parameters the model can show bending of wire which epends on shear modulus, wire mass, initial angle, and number of segments. Unfortunatey, it does not give fully agreement for nanowire system, which produces higher value than expected.
Category: Classical Physics

[955] viXra:1610.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 05:09:20

Celestial Mechanics Tornado in the Bowl?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 5 Pages. In Russian

After introduction of vortical repulsion in celestial mechanics it turned out, that gravity should act non-linear. Some points for Einstein. Real weight of gravity theory of Nordstrom should be determined.
Category: Classical Physics

[954] viXra:1610.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 17:45:21

A Theory of the Gravitational Co-Field and its Application to the Spacecraft Flyby Anomaly

Authors: J.F. Cuderman
Comments: 8 Pages.

A co-field to Newton's gravitational field is derived and its properties defined. It is applied to explain "Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies" discovered during deep space missions launched between 1990 and 2006. The Flyby anomaly has been considered a major unresolved problem in astrophysics. Keywords: Gravitational Co-Field, Spacecraft-Earth Flyby Anomalies, Space Physics, Classical Physics
Category: Classical Physics

[953] viXra:1610.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 10:53:36

Permanent Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Classical Physics

[952] viXra:1610.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 09:29:27

The Physical Nature of Linear Momentum

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 7 Pages.

The principles of the conservation of ‘Linear momentum’ and the conservation of “energy” are the corner stones of the present theory of physics. The true nature of these concepts and the underlying physical mechanisms of their conservation have however never been properly cleared out. Even the great European physicists, Descartes, Leibnitz and D’Alembert had long discussions whether ‘kinetic energy’ or ‘linear momentum’ was the true property that is considered by the conservation laws. In the present physics the linear momentum of a body is mathematically defined as the product of its mass and its velocity and its conservation is explained as a consequence of Newton’s first law of motion. In this paper the author reveals the true physical nature of the linear momentum of a moving particle system and the physical reason for its conservation in the absence of external interactions.
Category: Classical Physics

[951] viXra:1610.0267 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 09:35:35

The Physical Nature of Force

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 10 Pages.

The concept of ‘force’, which finds its origin in Newton’s laws of motion, is one of the fundamental concepts of classical physics, because it is the basic concept of the fundamental notions of ‘work’ and ‘energy’. The problem is that the present concept of ‘force’, which is in a general way defined as the momentum transfer per unit time, covers a wide variety of phenomena, which blurs the disclosure of its true nature. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper part 1, In which I demonstrated that the ‘linear momentum’ of a mass particle system is a mathematical expression of its total amount of congruent translational motion, I will reveal in this paper the physical meaning of the ‘force’ exerted between two colliding bodies.
Category: Classical Physics

[950] viXra:1610.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 09:42:40

The Physical Nature of Work and Kinetic Energy

Authors: Guido F. Nelissen
Comments: 10 Pages.

The principle of conservation of ‘energy’ is the ultimate building stone of physics. The problem is that we don’t have a tight description of what ‘energy’ really is and how and where it is physically stored. On the basis of the conclusion of my paper Part 2: “The true physical nature of force” in which I have demonstrated that ‘force’ is a mathematical expression of the rate at which congruent translational motion is transferred, I will in this paper give a real physical definition of the true nature of ‘work’, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of a force times its displacement and of the true physical nature of ‘kinetic energy’ of a moving body, which is in the present textbooks mathematically defined as the product of its mass times half the square of its velocity.
Category: Classical Physics

[949] viXra:1610.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 09:35:57

The Gravitational Potential of a Multidimensional Shell

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

This paper is an attempt to generalize the well-known expression of the gravitational potential for more than three dimensions. We used the Sneddon-Thornhill approach of the Newton’s theorem and then the results are passed through the filter of Poisson’s equation. The comparison with other theories implies some restrictions, but the overall results are valid until the experiment will disprove them.
Category: Classical Physics

[948] viXra:1610.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 12:50:37

Fizica ZMV. Bazele Fizicii Noi \\ Physics ZMV. the Basics of New Physics

Authors: Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi
Comments: 33 Pages. In Romanian. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed from gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons that gave up to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” by the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.
Category: Classical Physics

[947] viXra:1610.0230 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 11:22:02

On the Eötvös Effect

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to propose a new theory about the Eötvös effect. We develop a mathematical model which aloud us a better understanding of this effect. From the equation of motion the Eötvös term could arise naturally without supplementary assumptions. The Eötvös force and the Coriolis force are the vertical and horizontal projections of a force generated by the circular motion. Under these circumstances we can conceive the Eötvös effect like a vertical Coriolis effect. In addition we have deduced the Eötvös term from centrifugal force, classic hypothesis. The cosine function appears only due to spherical coordinates and express the variation of centrifugal force with altitude.
Category: Classical Physics

[946] viXra:1610.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 21:41:44

The Spatial Elliptical Movement in a Non-Inertial Frame of Reference

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper the spatial two-body problem in a Newtonian non-inertial frame of reference is analyzed. The Lagrange’s equations of elliptical movement are established and applied to estimate the advance of perihelion in this case. Finally the theoretical results are compared with the observational results.
Category: Classical Physics

[945] viXra:1610.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 21:51:08

A General Form for the Electric Field Lines Equation Concerning an Axially Symmetric Continuous Charge Distribution

Authors: MUGUR B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

By using an unexpected approach it results a general form for the electric field lines equation. It is a general formula, a derivative-integral equation structured as a multi-pole expansion series. By solving this equation we can find the electric field lines expressions for any type of an axially symmetric multi-pole continuous electric charge distributions we interested in, without the need to take again the calculus from the beginning for each case particularly, for instance as in discrete charge distribution case.
Category: Classical Physics

[944] viXra:1610.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 10:56:02

Solving the Flow Fields in Conduits and Networks Using Energy Minimization Principle with Simulated Annealing

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 11 Pages.

In this paper, we propose and test an intuitive assumption that the pressure field in single conduits and networks of interconnected conduits adjusts itself to minimize the total energy consumption required for transporting a specific quantity of fluid. We test this assumption by using linear flow models of Newtonian fluids transported through rigid tubes and networks in conjunction with a simulated annealing (SA) protocol to minimize the total energy cost. All the results confirm our hypothesis as the SA algorithm produces very close results to those obtained from the traditional deterministic methods of identifying the flow fields by solving a set of simultaneous equations based on the conservation principles. The same results apply to electric ohmic conductors and networks of interconnected ohmic conductors. Computational experiments conducted in this regard confirm this extension. Further studies are required to test the energy minimization hypothesis for the non-linear flow systems.
Category: Classical Physics

[943] viXra:1610.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 10:59:00

Energy Minimization for the Flow in Ducts and Networks

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 14 Pages.

The present paper is an attempt to demonstrate how the energy minimization principle may be considered as a governing rule for the physical equilibrium that determines the flow fields in tubes and networks. We previously investigated this issue using a numerical stochastic method, specifically simulated annealing, where we demonstrated the problem by some illuminating examples and concluded that energy minimization principle can be a valid hypothesis. The investigation in this paper is more general as it is based to a certain extent on an analytical approach.
Category: Classical Physics

[942] viXra:1610.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:01:37

Deterministic and Stochastic Algorithms for Resolving the Flow Fields in Ducts and Networks Using Energy Minimization

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 18 Pages.

Several deterministic and stochastic multi-variable global optimization algorithms (Conjugate Gradient, Nelder-Mead, Quasi-Newton, and Global) are investigated in conjunction with energy minimization principle to resolve the pressure and volumetric flow rate fields in single ducts and networks of interconnected ducts. The algorithms are tested with seven types of fluid: Newtonian, power law, Bingham, Herschel-Bulkley, Ellis, Ree-Eyring and Casson. The results obtained from all those algorithms for all these types of fluid agree very well with the analytically derived solutions as obtained from the traditional methods which are based on the conservation principles and fluid constitutive relations. The results confirm and generalize the findings of our previous investigations that the energy minimization principle is at the heart of the flow dynamics systems. The investigation also enriches the methods of Computational Fluid Dynamics for solving the flow fields in tubes and networks for various types of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluids.
Category: Classical Physics

[941] viXra:1610.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 11:28:21

Variational Approach for the Flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson Fluids in Pipes

Authors: Taha Sochi
Comments: 18 Pages.

The flow of Ree-Eyring and Casson non-Newtonian fluids is investigated using a variational principle to optimize the total stress. The variationally-obtained solutions are compared to the analytical solutions derived from the Weissenberg-Rabinowitsch-Mooney equation and the results are found to be identical within acceptable numerical errors and modeling approximations.
Category: Classical Physics

[940] viXra:1610.0179 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 21:49:10

Bernoulli’s Law for an Adiabatic Ideal Gas Flow

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 5 Pages.

The aim of this paper is to establish a synthetic form for Bernoulli’s law concerning an adiabatic ideal gas flow and to apply it to the expanding universe. Unfortunately, the obtained law is not applicable to the expansion of the universe, but it is applicable only to ordinary cases of fluid mechanics.
Category: Classical Physics

[939] viXra:1610.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-15 05:45:29

A Novel Cryogenic Liquid Level Sensing Technique: Harnessing the Optical Properties of a Cryogenic Liquid.

Authors: Pragyaditya Das, Prateek Agrawal.
Comments: 7 Pages. Your constructive input is very much welcome.

This paper explores the use of a light based measurement technique for the level measurement of cryogenic liquids. Differential pressure transmitters are commonly used to measure the levels of cryogenic liquids such as liquid nitrogen and liquid oxygen in cryogenic tanks. They require the liquid inside the temperature controlled tank to be drawn out into impulse lines. This causes a number of problems, one of the most common one is Chocking of the impulse lines, which ultimately results in a significant loss of material.
Category: Classical Physics

[938] viXra:1610.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 23:05:47

Magnetic Monopole Theory

Authors: S Hussainsha
Comments: 11 Pages. AN ELCETRON IS ASSUMED AS A MAGNETIC MONOPOLE

The principal objective of this paper is, finding a way to discover magnetic monopole or an isolated magnetic charge in a theoretical manner. This paper discusses only theory with the support of Special Theory of Relativity. In future, if we found magnetic monopole, this theory is unaltered. In this theory I state Gauss law for magnetic charge. So, I modify Maxwell’s equation by using Gauss law and mathematical procedure called Gauss divergence theorem. The result of this paper gives Equivalence of coulombs and webers.
Category: Classical Physics

[937] viXra:1610.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-09 03:42:34

Comparative Studies of Laws of Conservation of Energy, Momentum and Angular Momentum —No.2 of Comparative Physics Series Papers

Authors: Fu Yuhua
Comments: 6 Pages.

As No.2 of comparative physics series papers, this paper discusses the same and different points of law of conservation of energy, law of conservation of momentum, and law of conservation of angular momentum in the traditional viewpoints. The same points: they belong to the three fundamental conservation laws in modern physics; and they are all widely used in physics. The different points: the law of conservation of energy is derived by the time translation-invariant, the law of conservation of momentum is derived by the space translation-invariant, and the law of conservation of angular momentum is derived by the space rotation-invariant; and in the fields of natural sciences, the law of conservation of energy is the most important and the most widely used law, while the other two laws are not so important and far-reaching. With the comparative method, the above traditional viewpoints are re-discussed. According to the principle of uniqueness of truth, the law of conservation of energy should be considered as the unique truth, and establish the science of conservation of energy; accordingly, within the whole physics range, the law of conservation of momentum and the law of conservation of angular momentum are not forever right, namely these two laws are correct only in some conditions (for instance, we can give the examples that these two laws are not correct as considering the actions of the friction and the like), therefore these two laws cannot be taken as the fundamental conservation laws in the field of physics; furthermore, in the case of no external force, the law of conservation of momentum may not be correct, and in the case of no external moment, the law of conservation of angular momentum may be not correct too. Finally, the improvements of the laws of conservation of momentum and angular momentum are discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[936] viXra:1610.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-05 08:03:56

Fine Structure Constant .an Arithmetical Dissection

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 1 Page.

We analyze arithmetically the value of the fine structure constant .As we show , it’s appropiate to write such constant using natural numbers only .On condition that such natural numbers are properly sorted . Namely , we make several simple series of natural numbers .Each series is a sum of different numbers . The second condition is to apply physical units .We use LT^(-1),i.e. speed units .Since fine structure constant is a dimensionless number , we must to search the ratio between two speed values : speed of light in vacuum with respect to the sum of velocities expressed as a series of natural numbers added correctly .
Category: Classical Physics

[935] viXra:1610.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 14:23:50

Theoretical Physics

Authors: Trevor Borocz Johnson
Comments: 2 Pages.

The following paper proposes some answers to some common physics questions like the mechanism behind gravity, energy, and magnetism.
Category: Classical Physics

[934] viXra:1610.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 11:24:12

Detection of Torsion Field Based on Measuring the Dark Current of Silicon Photodiode

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 9 Pages.

Abstract-This work studies detection of torsion field by way of measuring the dark current of silicon photodiode. For this purpose, a photodiode which works in reverse bias state and a ultra-weak current detector should be used in all the related experiments, because the dark current of selected photodiode is in pA(10-12A) level. According to the results,the right-handed torsion field can make the dark current decrease and the left-handed torsion field can make the dark current increase.
Category: Classical Physics

[933] viXra:1609.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 08:20:02

Free Space Tem Transmission Lines Radiation Losses Model

Authors: Reuven Ianconescu, Vladimir Vulfin
Comments: 21 Pages.

There are three kind of losses in transmission lines: ohmic, dielectric and radiation losses. While the first two are local phenomena which are easy to model, the radiation losses lack a simple model. This work analyzes the radiation losses from two conductors transmission lines in free space, and derives a radiation model within the RLCG transmission lines model.
Category: Classical Physics

[932] viXra:1609.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-26 10:40:12

Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики \\ Physics ZMV. the Basics of New Physics

Authors: Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi
Comments: 31 Pages. In Russian. © «Физика ZMV. Основы новой физики». Конгресс – 2016, Материалы. Фундаментальные проблемы естествознания и техники. Серия: «Проблемы исследования Вселеннй». Санкт-Петербург 2016, том37, №1, С. 202 – 231. ISSN 2304-0300.

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. Graviton is an elementary quantum of energy when it is in state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass when it is in state of rest. Mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons which gave to mass their kinetic energy of motion. It is possible to explain scientifically many physical phenomena that classical physics cannot explain them or explain them naive, if at the basis of physics put the existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and mass created by gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field: where does the energy of the stars come from? Why are the planets nuclei hot? What kind of relation is there between the potential and thermal energy in any point inside the mass? What is the propagation medium of the electromagnetic field? Why is the mass accelerating when a constant force acts upon it? Why is the mass moving by inertia? What is the maximum speed at which the given mass can move by inertia? Why do fluxes and refluxes take place on the Earth? The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field (distorted by the masses) compress the masses. The compression of masses by the gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named Universal Compression of Masses. Universal Compression of Masses by Gravitational Field (distorted by the masses) is the first fundamental law of Physics ZMV. The thermal energy of the mass (received from the gravitational field at the mass penetration) heats the mass. Heating of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the second fundamental law of Physics ZMV. That part of gravitons, which gave up their energy to the mass and contributed to the creation of the potential energy of the gravitational field and the thermal energy of mass, remain in the mass and increase the amount of the mass. Growth of Mass by Gravitational Field (during its penetration through the mass) is the third fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Motion of Mass by Inertia Energy of Gravitational Field is the fourth fundamental law of Physics ZMV. Flux and Reflux of Mass, as a result of rectilinear and rotational motion of the mass is the fifth fundamental law of Physics ZMV.
Category: Classical Physics

[931] viXra:1609.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-23 20:11:08

Modeling the "Falling Slinky"

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 25 Pages. Document is in Spanish

This document attempted to obtain analytical solutions for the "Falling Slinky" in three ways. The first two, which used the wave equation, failed for different reasons. The first attempt used Fourier series, which could not satisfy the initial and boundary conditions. The second attempt used Laplace transforms; this method did give a solution, which correctly predicted the acceleration of the center of mass, but which predicted that the upper part of the Slinky should "fall through" the lower part, which is impossible. This false prediction is not a defect of the use of Laplace transforms, but an artifact of the use of the wave equation to treat the falling Slinky, which is a shock-wave phenomenon. The third attempt at a solution used the impulse-momentum theorem, obtaining a result whose predictions are internally consistent, as well as agreeing with empirical results. However, we must point out that the model used here treats only the Slinky's longitudinal behavior, ignoring its torsional behavior.
Category: Classical Physics

[930] viXra:1609.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-19 04:08:46

Equation for Orbital Distances of Rocky Planets is Found

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 5 Pages. In Russian

Three forces, which according to author determine orbital distances of rocky planets are sufficiently deciphered here.
Category: Classical Physics

[929] viXra:1609.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 13:04:27

An Oscillator

Authors: Prado, Pf
Comments: 1 Page.

tmeptive of oscilator model
Category: Classical Physics

[928] viXra:1609.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-13 14:03:15

Coulomb's Law Equally Wrong with Newton's Law

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages. In Russian

Comparision of oddities in equations of electrostatic interaction of two charges and gravitational interaction of two masses show a mess in both.
Category: Classical Physics

[927] viXra:1609.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-12 13:34:09

Physics ZMV. the Basics of New Physics

Authors: Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi
Comments: 37 Pages. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-0300.

Abstract The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed from gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, of gravitons that gave up to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” in the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.
Category: Classical Physics

[926] viXra:1609.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-10 07:34:35

External-Jet (Fluid) Propulsion Analogy for Photonic (Laser) Propulsion

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 10 Pages.

External-jet propulsion uses a narrow jet of high velocity water or conceptually a bank of high power lasers to “blast” vehicles to high velocity. The original goal of this work was to create a design analogy for launching micro-sized laser-propelled probes to 20 percent of the speed of light to the nearest stars. This work also resulted in the practical capability to launch micro-craft on external jets of high velocity water having a mass of only 0.7 grams, which represents the smallest known reusable jet propelled vehicle in history. A sphere-cone projectile having a hollow interior shaped like a diverging nozzle demonstrated the concept of propelling projectiles to high velocity using the principal of conservation of linear momentum. An extremely narrow streamtube of high velocity water directed into the interior of a sphere-cone successfully demonstrated stable flight and high acceleration for an inherently unstable projectile.
Category: Classical Physics

[925] viXra:1609.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 13:22:00

О вихрях солнечной системы/About Vortices of Solar System

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 5 Pages. In Russian

Considerations about radial strenghts of vortices of solar system and counteracting gravity
Category: Classical Physics

[924] viXra:1609.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 06:25:59

Эзотерика Эфира (парафизика)

Authors: Brazhnik Gennadyi
Comments: 183 Pages.

Сравнение эзотерических знаний и законов физического взаимодействия материализма дает порой неожиданные результаты восприятия реалий окружающей действительности. В рамках рубрики философии бытия настоящая книга, возможно, позволит читателю определиться с основными направлениями развития и совершенствования Сознания его Души.
Category: Classical Physics

[923] viXra:1608.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-29 07:22:40

A New Law of Kinematics

Authors: Joseph Palazzo
Comments: 15 Pages.

Three laws of kinematics are identified. The first two were already known, and are presented with a slightly different perspective. However, the third law of kinematics is a new law of nature. And it states: for every elastic collisions, a free body with the higher kinetic energy can only gain energy from another body with lower kinetic energy, and the lower kinetic energy body will always gain energy from the higher kinetic energy body. Moreover, under general considerations from the theory of Special Relativity, a particle can decay into other particles only if there is a source of positive energy necessary to insure that the new particles have positive kinetic energy, which is why E=mc2 provides the source of this positive energy in the form of mass conversion into energy. Also this new kinematics leads to the reformulation of the 2nd law of thermodynamics which can now explain why heat only flows from a hot body to a cold body, and never the other way around, that a system left on its own will see its disorder increase in time, and that the entropy as defined according to Boltzmann tends to increase. The insight that we gain from this deeper concept which underlies the new law of kinematics and the reformulation of the second law of thermodynamics is that vacuum energy is a necessary condition for particles to pop out of the vacuum. However, this spells trouble for Hawking radiation as it has been formulated - it would lead to a violation of this new kinematics law. Surprisingly this new law of kinematics also sheds new insights into Planck’s ad hoc hypothesis, E = ħω, and why energy must be quantized. As a general conclusion, every dynamical theory must reconcile with this new kinematics.
Category: Classical Physics

[922] viXra:1608.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 12:02:33

About a Definition in Time

Authors: Junnichi Fujii
Comments: 3 Pages.

The definition in time in the present-day physics is insufficient. Several problems which are to reconsider a definition in time and concern in time can be settled. This definition isn't inconsistent with general relativity. 4 are supposed. This isn't also inconsistent with general relativity. Mystery in the life expectancy of the neutron can be settled by this. Several dilemmas which concern at time can be settled. It's possible to deepen the understanding simpler than the one of the general relativity.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[425] viXra:1702.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-19 12:25:44

Experimental Verification or Refutation of the Electric Charge Conservation Using a Cylinder-Capacitor with Rotating Core

Authors: Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.
Comments: 7 Pages. fix scaling error in figure 3

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed. This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations lead always to the same experimental predictions. The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.
Category: Classical Physics

[424] viXra:1702.0141 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 03:18:13

Experimental Verification or Refutation of the Electric Charge Conservation Using a Cylinder-Capacitor with Rotating Core

Authors: Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.
Comments: 7 Pages. now in English

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed. This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions. The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.
Category: Classical Physics

[423] viXra:1702.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-09 19:34:42

Geometric (Clifford) Algebra Calculation of the Trajectory of a Gas Molecule Desorbed from the Earth's Surface

Authors: James A. Smith
Comments: 15 Pages.

As a step toward understanding why the Earth's atmosphere "rotates" with the Earth, we use Geometric (Clifford) Algebra to investigate the trajectory of a single molecule that desorbs vertically upward from the Equator, then falls back to Earth without colliding with any other molecules. Sample calculations are presented for a molecule whose vertical velocity is equal to the surface velocity of the Earth at the Equator (463 m/s) and for one with a vertical velocity three times as high. The latter velocity is sufficient for the molecule to reach the Kármán Line (100,000 m). We find that both molecules fall to Earth behind the point from which they desorbed: by 0.25 degrees of latitude for the higher vertical velocity, but by only 0.001 degrees for the lower.
Category: Classical Physics

[422] viXra:1702.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-07 07:43:45

A Theoretical Study of Oam Light Beams Under Gravity

Authors: Calin Vasilescu
Comments: 10 Pages.

Here I study the behaviour of internal orbital angular momentum OAM light beams in a gravitational field. According to this study, such a beam will behave like a particle with rest mass, therefore the wavefront will slow down if the beam is pointed against the gravitational field and it will accelerate if pointed in the same direction as the gravitational field. This study is conducted in a classical context, intentionally ignoring Lorentz factors. However, the relativistic effects associated with these helical structures will emerge naturally. The paper will focus on a single relativistic phenomenon – naturally occurring velocity limitation of a spin ½ particle concept which poses a rest mass. However, this rest mass is also a redefined concept. It is interesting that if a beam is pointed against a gravitational field, the step length of the helical structure reduces which acts on increasing the detected frequency of the incoming beam (considering a stationary detector above the source and the gravitational filed direction pointing downward), but since the speed of the wavefront reduces, it acts as a reducing factor for the frequency that the detector will read. In other words, although the wavelength of the beam reduces as the wave-front advances, the speed of the wavefront reduces as well, resulting in a decreasing frequency. When the front-wave velocity tends to zero, this frequency tends to a positive number. It is clear that if the wavefront speed reduces under a gravitational field, it will eventually stop and reverse the direction, falling towards the source of the field. This behaviour is similar to a particle with rest mass. However, if photons don't have mass, then, my suggestion is that particles are helical structures that have similar construction to OAM |m| = 1 and therefore, we could say they don't have mass either.
Category: Classical Physics

[421] viXra:1701.0677 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-04 04:19:33

The Relativistic Origin of the Electric Charge

Authors: Hervé Le Cornec
Comments: 6 Pages. New version with minor modifications. Excuse me for the inconvenience.

Looking at the hydrogen atom, we investigated the possibility to use the electron's rotation speed, into the dilatation factor of the special relativity, even if the electron is in a non inertial frame. Doing so, we were able to demonstrate that the electron's charge-to-mass ratio is the subsequent relativistic frequency that appears to the observer. We also show that a magnetic moment, very similar to the one of the quantum mechanics, must appear, although we stay in the fields of classical and relativistic physics. These facts, in excellent agreement with the experiment, lead us to propose to extend the Einstein's postulate of inertial frame, to all frames having a constant speed.
Category: Classical Physics

[420] viXra:1701.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-30 11:42:37

The Unification of Gravity, Inertia, and Centripetal Force with Practical Applications

Authors: Don Brown
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper creates a model that unifies Gravity, Inertia, and Centripetal Force and shows how they are all created by the same mechanical properties. Some additions to the opening statements and some Practical Applications for this theory have been added to the end of the paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[419] viXra:1612.0310 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-08 14:16:56

Comment on "New Formulation of the Two Body Problem Using a Continued Fractional Potential "

Authors: M. E. Hassani
Comments: 4 Pages; 1Reference. This work is submitted to Astrophysics and Space Science

In a relatively recent article by F.A. Abd El-Salam et al. [Astrophys. Space Sci. 350, 507 (2014)], the authors claimed a new formulation of the two-body problem via the introduction of the continued fractional potential. Even if the idea of applying the continued fraction procedure to the gravitational physics is by itself a novelty, the study presented in their work suffers both from some mathematical and physical issues. These issues are discussed in this comment.
Category: Classical Physics

[418] viXra:1612.0301 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-20 12:37:15

Earth Thermal Resonance Model with Gravitational Side Effect

Authors: Emil Junvik
Comments: 4 Pages. Unexpected correlations found in earth energy density

Abstract I build a theoretical model of the relationship between the solarconstant and earth surface temperature by using temperature to obtain energy density instead of surface flux. Earth behave as a standing wave in resonance, shown in the resulting energy levels. Energy density of vacuum from the cosmological constant is added. The result is a function of pi that shows how earth is not only dependant of solar radiation for energy content, it is a three point exchange. Mass has no part at all in these calculations, temperature is accurately obtained for all points of interest. The speed of light in units of km/s is connected to the calculations. The model seems to cover the whole earth system state, not only as a planet, but as a planet heated by the sun as it floats in vacuum with energy density 8πG. Earth mass can be ignored in all internal relationships.
Category: Classical Physics

[417] viXra:1612.0239 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-07 03:06:05

Dynamic Wave Geometry Concept

Authors: Calin Vasilescu
Comments: 31 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. We can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. This model assumes, by definition that space doesn't have a variable geometry and takes the other possibility, hence, complex particles inner geometry changes what we measure as time and space. The strong point of this concept is that it predicts a particle / wave construct model that perfectly matches the behaviour of internal OAM light beams. Analysing these waves, in this context, leads to a proper development of the concept.
Category: Classical Physics

[416] viXra:1612.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-05 03:20:05

Absorption of Angular Momentum of a Plane Electromagnetic Wave

Authors: Radi I. Khrapko
Comments: 6 Pages. Introduction is increased

It is demonstrated that dielectric or magnetic, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave according to the canonical spin tensor of electrodynamics. Lorentz transformations are used for energy, momentum, and angular momentum flux density because a moving absorber is considered. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.
Category: Classical Physics

[415] viXra:1611.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-21 14:19:40

Magnetism, Interpreted as a Multi-Particle Effect

Authors: Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.
Comments: 8 Pages. replace r with c

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.
Category: Classical Physics

[414] viXra:1611.0287 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 13:44:33

Magnetism, Interpreted as a Multiple-Particle Effect

Authors: Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.
Comments: 8 Pages. fix sign-error

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.
Category: Classical Physics

[413] viXra:1611.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 00:12:46

Time Multidimensional

Authors: GuagSan Yu
Comments: 6 Pages. The Chinese

Traditional idea, space is three dimension of, plus a the degree of dimension of time, be four the space of dimension. Then the time is a dimension. According to the relativity [theory], the time is inseparable with space. Therefore, the space is many dimensions of, so and why time, must not is also many dimension. Time and the dimension of the space, may be same. This paper put forward, the dimension of the time and the dimension of the space, is same.
Category: Classical Physics

[412] viXra:1610.0114 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-15 21:09:16

Measurement Quantization Unites Classical and Quantum Physics

Authors: Jody Anthony Geiger
Comments: 21 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, time, and mass—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented in a set of postulates by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Conversions of well-known expressions from different areas of physics (quantum physics, gravitation, and optics) exemplify the approach and mathematical procedures. The postulated integer counts of fundamental measures changes our understanding of length, suggesting that our current understanding of reality is distorted.
Category: Classical Physics

[411] viXra:1610.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2016-10-08 19:52:48

Detection of Torsion Field Based on Measuring the Dark Current of Silicon Photodiode

Authors: Gao Peng
Comments: 9 Pages.

This work studies detection of torsion field by way of measuring the dark current of silicon photodiode. For this purpose, a photodiode which works in reverse bias state and a ultra-weak current detector should be used in all the related experiments, because the dark current of selected photodiode is in pA(10-12A) level. According to the results,the right-handed torsion field can make the dark current decrease and the left-handed torsion field can make the dark current increase.
Category: Classical Physics

[410] viXra:1609.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-19 12:56:09

Physics ZMV. The Basics of New Physics

Authors: Mihail Vasile Zastavnitchi
Comments: 37 Pages. © Physics ZMV. The basics of new physics. Congress – 2016, Proceedings. Fundamental Problems in Natural Sciences and Engineering. Series: “Problems of Research of the Universe” Saint-Petersburg 2016, volume 37, issue 1, p. 232-260. ISSN 2304-0300.

The Beginning of the Beginning is the gravitational field. It is formed of gravitons in chaotic motion. The graviton is an elementary quantum of energy, when it is in the state of motion and an indivisible particle of mass, when it is in the state of rest. The mass is a conglomerate of gravitons in the state of rest, that is, the gravitons that gave to the mass their kinetic energy. “Physics ZMV” is based on the idea of existence of the gravitational field independent of mass and the mass, created by the gravitational field, independent of the gravitational field. The masses are not attracted to each other. The potential energies of the gravitational field distorted by masses compresses the masses to their common center of mass. The compression of masses by gravitational field (distorted by masses) is named “Universal compression of masses”. Mass grows quantitatively due to gravitons, which gave to mass their kinetic energy (therefore have remained in the mass) and is heated by this energy. These phenomena are named „Growth of mass” and “Heating of mass” in the gravitational field. The motion of mass under the action of the inertia energy of the gravitational field is named "Motion of mass by inertia energy of the gravitational field". In gravitational field mass cannot move by inertia at a higher speed than the maximum speed, which corresponds to the given mass. Mass is not a function of its speed. The inertia energy of the gravitational field depends on the speed of mass. The inertia energy of the gravitational field is equal to the difference between the potential energy of the gravitational field in the back and in the front side of the mass in motion. Mass, which has received rectilinear and rotational movement (axis of rotation is perpendicular to the vector rectilinear velocity), changes the volume of its parts, in synchronism with the rotational speed. This phenomenon is named “Flux and reflux of mass”. The gravitational field is propagation medium of the electromagnetic field. The speed at which the mass is moving under the action of a force in the space without gravitational field is directly proportional to the force and inversely proportional to the mass: F = zmV, where z – is a coefficient of proportionality. That’s why this Physics is named “Physics ZMV”.
Category: Classical Physics

[409] viXra:1609.0131 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-26 08:21:11

External-Jet (Fluid) Propulsion Analogy for Photonic (Laser) Propulsion

Authors: John R. Cipolla
Comments: 10 Pages.

External-jet propulsion uses a narrow jet of high velocity water or conceptually a bank of high power lasers to “blast” vehicles to high velocity. The original goal of this work was to create a design analogy for launching micro-sized laser-propelled probes to 20 percent of the speed of light to the nearest stars. This work also resulted in the practical capability to launch micro-craft on external jets of high velocity water having a mass of only 0.7 grams, which represents the smallest known reusable jet propelled vehicle in history. A sphere-cone projectile having a hollow interior shaped like a diverging nozzle demonstrated the concept of propelling projectiles to high velocity using the principal of conservation of linear momentum. An extremely narrow streamtube of high velocity water directed into the interior of a sphere-cone successfully demonstrated stable flight and high acceleration for an inherently unstable projectile.
Category: Classical Physics