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Any replacements are listed further down

[1040] **viXra:1704.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-24 15:01:19*

**Authors:** Simon A. Olanipekun

**Comments:** Pages.

An Inexhaustible Power Source(IPS) that has a power-to-weight ratio of 122Horsepower per kilogram, with an efficiency of about 99% and a lifespan of 70years, and a coefficient of performance that tends to infinity… The IPS produces energy by inducing a magnetic vortex in its vicinity and transducing the energy inherent in the magnetic vortex into classical mechanical energy.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1039] **viXra:1704.0253 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-20 09:28:01*

**Authors:** Ionel DINU, M.Sc.

**Comments:** 7 pages

Following a theory to be detailed in a work to be published in the near future, an experiment was planned to see whether the potential difference between two points of a current-carrying straight wire can be observed in the magnetic field lines produced around the wire by the electric current. Direct observation seems to show that there is a crowding of the magnetic field lines at the negative side of the wire compared to the positive side.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1038] **viXra:1704.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-18 22:23:21*

**Authors:** Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

**Comments:** 1 Page.

It is presented an extremely easy paper to understand to explain that in nature, there are mass gain phenomenon and there are mass loss phenomenon. Clarification is presented so that the nature of these types of phenomenon are well established. This paper utilizes a simple rule of nature concerning physics, the conservation of mass.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1037] **viXra:1704.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-16 18:05:21*

**Authors:** Alexander Bolonkin

**Comments:** 142 Pages.

In given book considered the topics: utilization wind energy at high altitude, transfer of energy from airborne wind turbines to ground surface, new non turbine electron wind and water electric generators and propulsion system.
Ground based, wind energy extraction systems have reached their maximum capability. The limitations of current designs are: wind instability, high cost of installations, and small power output of a single unit. The wind energy industry needs of revolutionary ideas to increase the capabilities of wind installations. This book suggests a revolutionary innovation which produces a dramatic increase in power per unit and is independent of prevailing weather and at a lower cost per unit of energy extracted. The main innovation consists of large free-flying air rotors positioned at high altitude for power and air stream stability, and an energy transmission system between the air rotor and a ground.
Author offers a new method of getting electric energy from wind. A special injector injects electrons into the atmosphere. Wind picks up the electrons and moves them in the direction of wind which is also against the direction of electric field. At some distance from injector a unique grid acquires the electrons, thus charging and producing electricity. This method does not require, as does other wind energy devices, strong columns, wind turbines, or electric generators. This proposed wind installation is cheap. The area of wind braking may be large and produces a great deal of energy. Although this electron wind installations may be in a city, the population will not see them.
Author offers a new high efficiency propulsion non turbine system using electrons for acceleration of the craft. As this system does not heat the air, it does not have the heating limitations of conventional air ramjet hypersonic engines. Offered engine can produce a thrust from a zero flight speed up to the desired escape velocity for space launch. It can work in any planet atmosphere (gas, liquid) and at high altitude.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1036] **viXra:1704.0203 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-15 18:43:45*

**Authors:** Lorenzo Galli, P.F. Nali

**Comments:** 3 pages, in Italian. Question Answer published on Sep. 28, 2005 on the section "Chiedi a Ulisse" of the SISSA website "ULISSE - nella rete della scienza". It is posted at this time as the website has discontinued service in January 2011.

Why is it incomplete to enunciate the principle of inertia in this form: "a body not subject to forces is either at rest or moves with uniform rectilinear motion"?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1035] **viXra:1704.0184 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-14 04:42:54*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A model is proposed for the hydrogen atom in which the orbiting electron is seen as an objectively real particle. The model is based on the postulate that certain velocity terms can be treated as being affected by relativity. The model provides a mechanism which drives the quantization process and so leads to the discrete energy levels of the atom.
The Rydberg formula, being empirically derived, represents the yardstick by which any model for the hydrogen atom must be judged. Rather than develop a model and test it against the Rydberg formula, the approach taken here is to use the Rydberg formula itself as the basis for such a model.
The model effectively unifies quantum mechanics with classical mechanics as well as providing a simple mechanical explanation of the Somerfield Fine Structure Constant.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1034] **viXra:1704.0144 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-11 21:20:48*

**Authors:** Tsao Chang, Kongjia Liao，Jing Fan

**Comments:** 7 Pages. This is a new-type experiment

Our experiment to measure the speed of alternating electricity is briefly reported here. It is found that the speed of alternating electricity within the metal wire is not constant, which is depended on the circuit parameters. In most cases, the speed of alternating electricity is less than the speed of light. However, our recent experimental results show that at less than 3 MHz frequency region and under our circuit parameters, the speed of alternating electric field can be 20 times more than the speed of light.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1033] **viXra:1704.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 16:24:53*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Gravity was found to depend on the entropy of the object at hand. Entropy Atoms are introduced as elementary building blocks of observable matter, having an entropy value of 2 bit. The gravitational constant G is calculated between these Entropy Atoms, as a first indication of gravity between larger observable objects (ensembles). It is 0.3 percent below the literature value of G. Furthermore it is argued why photons are NOT pulled by gravity. Their frequency does NOT respond to gravity: it is the time measurement that slows down in gravitational fields, locally making a photons frequency appear higher. Finally, a hypothesis is proposed on the nature of black matter: it is composed of objects with an entropy value of 1 bit.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1032] **viXra:1704.0096 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 10:59:25*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new form of the equivalent representation of the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field is described. This form of representation is based on the decomposition of an asymmetric tensor of a general form into a symmetric and antisymmetric part. It follows from this expansion that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be equivalently represented as the difference between an asymmetric tensor of general form and a symmetric tensor. Then Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of four-dimensional divergences of these tensors. From this representation, in addition to the Maxwell equations, new equations of the electromagnetic field also follow, expanding knowledge of it. One of these equations is the equation of motion of the electromagnetic field in the form of the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1031] **viXra:1704.0081 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-06 14:50:48*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

From Maxwell's equations with field sources are followed not only by the wave equations of the electromagnetic field and the continuity equation for the current density, but also by the equation of motion of electric charges in the form of the Euler equation. It is shown that these equations in an explicit form describe the mechanism of the appearance in a collisionless plasma of self-consistent current structures and its turbulence.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1030] **viXra:1704.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 15:53:28*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper is devoted to obtaining an equation for the Abraham force in a continuous non-conducting medium and methods of its measurement. The equation for the Abraham force is obtained from the Minkowski tensor. The Abraham force occurs when the vectors D and E, H and B are noncollinear. From the equation for the Abraham force it follows that it is a vortex force, and its divergence is zero. It is shown that there exist the Abraham electric force and the magnetic Abraham's Force. Various methods for measuring the Abraham force, which follow from its equation, are given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1029] **viXra:1704.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 08:47:33*

**Authors:** Dragan Turanyanin

**Comments:** 17 Pages. This paper (2004) is just partially altered form of the original written in early 1980s. The Addendum (exponential gravitation) is completely new but also represents contemporary author’s researches.

This paper supposes an “electrodynamics-like” interaction of motional masses. A development possibility of linear, vector gravitation theory (gravitodynamics) is discussed and the force field (gravito-Lorentz) on this basis is defined. Some direct consequences of the equation of motion are obtained and analyzed in brief and the existence of an important exp-factor is mentioned. It is proposed new transformation χ-factor which could lead to the more general dynamical picture. The dimensional analysis shows that magnetic-like field vector has frequency dimensions. The proposed wave function describes the state of space around the motional masses. As frequency appears in both quantum and gravitation picture of the substance, the principle of resonance arises as a natural, so its possible direct consequence could be the natural existence of Planck’s values as the main quantums. Finally, this paper also discusses a possible connection between principle of resonance, creation (origin) of mass and Heisenberg’s principle.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1028] **viXra:1704.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-03 10:48:54*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In terms of the symmetric perfect and analogy of Lorentz Force law, a Counterpart Lorentz force is proposed in this paper. Similar to a Lorentz force when a charged particle moving across a magnetic field, an analogical force may act on a magnet or a magnetic domain when it moving across an electric field. Aimed to verify if this force is really existed, an experimental design is also described here.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1027] **viXra:1703.0298 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 10:13:11*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

By analyzing the magnetic field of a direct electric current within conductors and its action on the charge carrier in the current, a new effect is proposed for a conduct when current flowing through. Similar to the Hall Effect, this effect make the directionally moving charge carrier in the current deflected towards to the center of the current. If the charge carriers of the conductor with only one type charge (positive or negative), a radical electric field will form in the current cross section and a voltage will be produced between the center and the edge of the current. This effect also predicts that for a steady DC current the current density is not evenly distributed in the cross section of the current. The current density in the center area is larger than that in the edge area. It is not like what we always thought that the current density is evenly distributed in the current cross section.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1026] **viXra:1703.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-26 12:01:40*

**Authors:** Christopher H. Brown

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The theory of everything. In this extract, the basic operations of the universe are discussed. The reason momentum occurs; the fundamental properties of a completely unifying theory; the mechanics driving the expansion of the universe; the nature of EM; accounting for quantum behavior in a logical geometric context; etc.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1025] **viXra:1703.0240 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-25 09:33:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The article describes a new approach to obtaining the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in medium without the use of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. The energy-momentum tensor has new qualities and consequences. Its linear invariant is Lagrange density of the electromagnetic field. From the tensor follows the equation of conservation of energy density, the equation of flux energy density and wave equations for these energy values. Wave equation for momentum density describes simultaneous transfer of momentum and angular momentum regardless of radiation polarization. From the tensor follow the balance equations of the electromagnetic forces for the momentum density in the forms of the Minkowski and Abraham, which proves their equality and mutual supplementation. Equation for Abraham force is obtained as well. It is shown that its divergence is equal to zero. Tensor and the balance equations of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium are derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1024] **viXra:1703.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 22:43:59*

**Authors:** Dayanand Potaraj

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The universe is made up of elementary particles, even the gas is composed of the same. The electric force of an object is found because of its atomic particles. And the mass is given by constitution of the same. Everything is made up of elementary particles but most of the time we experience all the universe by the mass but not with their electric charges. Let us resolve this difference, by taking Gravitational force and the Electrical force into account among the forces of nature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1023] **viXra:1703.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-15 11:50:02*

**Authors:** Branko Zivlak

**Comments:** 5 Pages. 6 formulas

Proton is obtained as an inevitable consequence of the existence of the universe.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1022] **viXra:1703.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-14 20:46:11*

**Authors:** Roger Munday

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The transmission of the force of gravity is accepted by the general physics community to be inexplicable in terms of the currently accepted atomic structure of the local environment here on Earth.
Therefore there is something fundamentally wrong with this hypothetical structure.
This brief introduction demonstrates that this force, and any other, can be transmitted through and by a continuous structure of atomic matter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1021] **viXra:1703.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-08 10:36:08*

**Authors:** Stephen J Crothers

**Comments:** 2 Pages. IEEE Antennas Propag. Mag., 1 February 2017, p.128, Historical Corner, 10.1109/MAP.2016.2629848

Upon closure of a switch, a TEM wave (step) travels from voltage source to load,
between conducting wires of a transmission line. An electric field E appears between the top and bottom conductors, and orthogonal to them, as the TEM wave propagates at the speed of light for the dielectric in which it travels. Thus, according to classical electromagnetic theory, there are positive charges on the one conductor and negative charges on the other conductor, within the region of the transverse electric field. The Catt Question is: Where does this new charge come from?

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1020] **viXra:1703.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 08:33:38*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

A mathematical model of the plasma crystal built using Maxwell’s equations is given.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1019] **viXra:1703.0050 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 08:36:25*

**Authors:** Solomon I. Khmelnik

**Comments:** 10 Pages. in Russian

A mathematical model of the plasma crystal built using Maxwell’s equations is given. \\ Предлагается математическая модель плазменного кристалла, построенная с использованием уравнений Максвелла.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1018] **viXra:1703.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 21:57:14*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The English

The traditional concept of space is threedimensional, with a time dimension, that is, fourdimensional space. That is, time is one dimensional. According to the theory of relativity, time and space are inextricably linked. Therefore, the space is multidimensional, so why is it that time can not may be also multidimensional. The dimension of time and space may be the same. This paper proposes that the dimension of time is the same as the dimension of space.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1017] **viXra:1702.0279 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-22 13:11:13*

**Authors:** Jaswant Rai Mahajan

**Comments:** Pages.

While all objects having mass also possess energy, energy itself has no rest mass. But both mass and energy interact gravitationally. Therefore, the real gravitational constant is G/c4, instead of simple G, while the interacting partners are represented by their respective energy (Mc2, mc2). The new formulation leads to some interesting results, which are derived and discussed in the pdf of this communication.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1016] **viXra:1702.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-18 15:07:31*

**Authors:** Mark Krinker

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The paper considers a physical process inside EM Drive. According to the proposed conception, there is an electromagnetic field gyroscope, EMFG, originated due to superposition of straight and reflected flows of the electromagnetic energy inside the resonant chamber. The considered model comes to conclusion of existence of a narrow area inside the EMFG where its mass-function experiences a break and even becomes negative. There are 3 models which deduce origination of the thrust of EM Drive on a base of the considered properties of the EMFG.
The first considered model states that there is a gradient of the gravitational potential inside the originated narrow area due to its heavy non-linear electromagnetic mass. Interaction of the originated gradient of the gravitational potential and the mass of the EM Drive results in origination of a net force, which is the thrust of the EM Drive. This thrust is furnished by the axial gradient of the gravitational potential inside the EM Drive.
The second model projects a property and theory of 4D gyroscope, developed by G.I.Shipov, onto EMFG. Operation of the mechanical 4D gyroscope results in the reactionless motion, due to a time-varying and frequency-dependable mass of the gyroscope. The EMFG has the time and frequency dependable mass and fits the above condition for the mechanical 4D gyroscope.
The third model considers a behavior of the EMFG in frames of N.A. Kozyrev’s Casual Mechanics. The EMFG is a quantum object and its C2 indicator of movement of time trends to zero as well as the external force 0. The considered limit of their ratio brings a finite force which is a trust developed by the EM Drive.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1015] **viXra:1702.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:35:07*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Maxwell equations are not causal, says Oleg Jefimenko. In this paper, the causality of the Maxwell equations is explored and explained, and new causal equations formulated, according to Jefimenko’s important work in this area, strongly inspired by Oliver Heaviside’s genius work. The causal equations take into account what is commonly called ‘relativistic’ velocities, and in fact replace the need for any relativity theory.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1014] **viXra:1702.0220 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 04:43:51*

**Authors:** Thierry De Mees

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The gravity measurement of Qian-shen Wang during the total eclipse of the Sun on 9 March 1997 showed a strange diagram-shape over time. In this paper, I investigate this shape by setting up a simple scenario: the double shielding of the used gravimeter didn’t totally exclude an induction of the fast electrons of the Sun’s corona. The passage of the Moon shielded the fields. Neither the hypothesis of a gravitational shielding, nor a temperature effect can be maintained.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1013] **viXra:1702.0202 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-17 03:53:41*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In a previous paper of the author’s, two types of magnetic fields were proposed and discussed. The two types of magnetic fields should have very different properties with respect to the observer’s motion state. For convenience to discuss, here we name them absolute magnetic field and relative magnetic field. The absolute magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by permanent magnets or by electric currents in neutral wires, which is very familiar to us. Its magnitude is invariable with respect to the motion state of the observer. The relative magnetic field is the magnetic field produced by directional motion of like charges, of which, the magnitude is variable with respect to the motion state of the observer. Here in this article, experimental designs are proposed, by which the existence of the relative magnetic field can be proved.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1012] **viXra:1702.0179 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-15 08:13:33*

**Authors:** Kiyoung Kim

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

It has been believed that the process of scientific reasoning in research and its conclusion in the natural science should be in phenomenological basis. However, what if physical reality that is based on phenomenological facts is not enough to explain all natural phenomena or what if physical reality is not closed by itself? In other words, what if physical reality is representing just a part of outcome through interacting with any unconceivable entities in ontological truth? After reviewing 4-dimensional complex space model, which has been introduced as an alternative way to understand physics comprehensively from classical physics to modern physics, some interesting scientific activities are discussed, which have been ignored in the name of pseudoscience, such as free electric energy generation, Hutchison Effect, and the common physical origin of the Hutchison Effect and WTC (World Trade Center) collapse in 2001.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1011] **viXra:1702.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 17:48:18*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Blackbody radiation by volume accounts for temperature distribution in the troposphere. Gravity perform an equal amount of work on a square meter, as the amount of thermal energy radiated by the surface towards space.

Abstract
This is a very simple analysis of earth and the input of solar energy using heat transfer and geometry. I show that earth radiates as a blackbody by volume and not as a surface.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1010] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 08:24:33*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. currently available only in German

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article suggests and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1009] **viXra:1702.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 07:54:35*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Castillo demonstrates an important case of successful superposition of
elliptically-polarised light by moving to spinor representations of
electromagnetic plane waves: when the angle between the two unit spinors
as represented on a Poincare sphere are (as a complex number) either 1,
-1, i or -i. This paper demonstrates that there are additional conditions
under which superposition is successful: phase-shifting of one of the
waves by 90 degrees prior to superposition. Two and three superpositions
are shown, and the candidate configurations for each are listed.
The result is significant for Particle Physics at least, in that Castillo
and Rubalcava-Garcia's
prior work show a correspondance between Jones Calculus and SU(2), and
gives a direct mapping between Jones and Pauli Matrices.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1008] **viXra:1702.0116 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 19:17:35*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

As a step toward understanding why the Earth's atmosphere "rotates" with the Earth, we use using Geometric (Clifford) Algebra to investigate the trajectory of a single molecule that desorbs vertically upward from the Equator, then falls back to Earth without colliding with any other molecules. Sample calculations are presented for a molecule whose vertical velocity is equal to the surface velocity of the Earth at the Equator (463 m/s) and for one with a vertical velocity three times as high. The latter velocity is sufficient for the molecule to reach the Kármán Line (100,000 m). We find that both molecules fall to Earth behind the point from which they desorbed: by 0.25 degrees of latitude for the higher vertical velocity, but by only 0.001 degrees for the lower.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1007] **viXra:1702.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 09:37:09*

**Authors:** J.Williams

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Sir Arthur Conan Doyle once said, and I am paraphrasing (once you remove all that's false, whatever remains has to be the truth. No matter how strange or ridiculous it may seem). I am going to assume that a photon will turn into a wave just because it goes through a double slit in a piece of paper is a false statement. I will then demonstrate that whatever is left can explain the four bars of light that form when light travels through the double slit.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1006] **viXra:1702.0084 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 03:09:04*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here I study the behaviour of internal orbital angular momentum OAM light beams in a gravitational field. According to this study, such a beam should behave like a particle with rest mass, therefore the wavefront should slow down if the beam is pointed against the gravitational field and it will accelerate if pointed in the same direction as the gravitational field. This study is conducted in a classical context, intentionally ignoring Lorentz factors. However, the relativistic effects associated with these helical structures will emerge naturally. The paper will focus on a single relativistic phenomenon – naturally occurring velocity limitation of a spin ½ particle concept which poses a rest mass. However, this rest mass is also a redefined concept. It is interesting that if a beam is pointed against a gravitational field, the step length of the helical structure reduces which acts on increasing the detected frequency of the incoming beam (considering a stationary detector above the source and the gravitational filed direction pointing downward), but since the speed of the wavefront reduces, it acts as a reducing factor for the frequency that the detector will read. In other words, although the wavelength of the beam reduces as the wave-front advances, the speed of the wavefront reduces as well, resulting in a decreasing frequency. When the front-wave velocity tends to zero, this frequency tends to a positive number. It is clear that if the wavefront speed reduces under a gravitational field, it will eventually stop and reverse the direction, falling towards the source of the field. This behaviour is similar to a particle with rest mass. However, if photons don't have mass, then, my suggestion is that particles are helical structures that have similar construction to OAM |m| = 1 and therefore, we could say they don't have mass either.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1005] **viXra:1702.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 03:41:13*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We show that the time must be quantized in a classical world, and therefore all other physics parameters must also be. We propose to build a classical physics theory that uses only theorems, but no postulate. The foundation are build on five elementary theorems, that lead trivially and straight forward to the description of the Planck's constant, the Planck-Einstein relationship, and the speed of light as the maximum speed, although we remain on a classical point of view.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1004] **viXra:1702.0032 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 11:46:31*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Submitted to all journals

We consider the incidence of a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave on a mirror at an angle and its reflection from it. We have calculated the transfer of a momentum and a spin to the mirror and, accordingly, the pressure and density of a mechanical torque on the mirror. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of the plane electromagnetic wave, as momentum. Recognizing the existence of photons with momentum, energy and spin in a plane electromagnetic wave, it is strange to deny the presence of spin in such a wave, as is done in modern electrodynamics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1003] **viXra:1701.0677 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 02:28:36*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We investigated the possibility to use the electron's rotation speed, inside the hydrogen atom, into the dilatation factor of the special relativity, even if the electron is in a non inertial frame. Doing so, we were able to demonstrate that the electron's charge-to-mass ratio is nothing else but a relativistic frequency, and that a magnetic moment, very similar to the one of the quantum mechanics, must appear, although we stay in the fields of classical and relativistic physics. This facts, in excellent agreement with the experiment, lead us to propose to extend the Einstein's postulate of inertial frame, to all frames having a constant speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1002] **viXra:1701.0666 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-29 23:37:06*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Yu Liang, Qichang Liang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work, a parasitic dipole was mounted inside a waveguide cavity. The amplitude of the oscillating wave through the waveguide was amplified 15% by the negative impedance reflected from the parasitic resonator to the waveguide.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1001] **viXra:1701.0624 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-26 14:52:05*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 125 Pages.

Consider all possible situations, won the best ending. This is our starting point for establishing New Newton Mechanics and for solving many complicated problems. Practice has proved that this idea is successful.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1000] **viXra:1701.0610 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-25 09:25:59*

**Authors:** Leonid Kanevskyy

**Comments:** 12 Pages. The paper contains the introduction and the abstract in English, the rest of the paper - in German

This paper’s aim is to establish existence of the new phenomenon – Turbo Self-Injection. It is a new type of circulation of liquid flow that appears inside cylindrical, conical or spherical hollow rotationally symmetrical solid-bodies.Throttling water jet turns into the circular, vortex flow of liquid, for example water, in such solid-bodies and creates a static pressure drop that increases suction capacity of injectors several fold; the injectors also have much smaller sizes and consume considerably less energy than any known models.
To achieve that, I created a mixing chamber in a pipe with a throttling disk on one end and a dead impact wall on another end and with an outlet sideways in front of the impact wall. The mixing chamber had two more holes: one for air intake and one for liquid soap.As it turned out, the water was not coming out of the holes for air and for soap even when the throttling water jet was hitting the dead flat perpendicular wall in the pipe. Instead, the water was rotating in a vortical manner around the mixing chamber longitudinal axis which is parallel to the throttling water jet. In this process, sucked-in air increases volume and velocity of the circular vortex flow several fold, and suction pressure is created which is 20 to 30 times higher than in previously known injectors. Because of this, simultaneous suction of both air and liquid soap is possible. In the process a homogenous fine soap foam is created with air bubbles of 1-2 millimetre diameter. This sub-mission is a brief summary of the experimental research that I have been conducting on my own for 14 years.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[999] **viXra:1701.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-24 08:29:10*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Charge relativity means that charge can cause space-time vortex. Using this concept, we can solve the puzzle of dark matter. Charge causes spacetime torsion. By combining Einstein field equation and Faraday electromagnetic torsion tensor, we can get a complete universe field equation including gravity, light pressure, and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[998] **viXra:1701.0590 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-24 13:33:18*

**Authors:** Spirichev Yurii Alexseevich

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Russian

The article deals with the choice of the energy-momentum tensor in electrodynamics. Considered the electromagnetic force in a continuous medium of the following Minkowski and Abraham tensors. From Minkowski tensor the equations of conservation of energy-momentum density, density of electromagnetic force balance in a continuous medium and the equation for the Abraham force. It is shown that it is equal to zero when choosing a canonical material equations. It is shown that the equivalence of the Minkowski momentum density and Abraham. Arguments in favor of a unique choice of the tensor of the Minkowski and Abraham tensor incomplete.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[997] **viXra:1701.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 07:15:53*

**Authors:** Manik Dawar

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Contact information: manikdawar@live.com

The entirety of this document assumes the existence of a maximum speed with which any entity in the universe can travel from a set of points in space to any other set of points in space. The consequences on the motion of the constituents of a typical system of particles, when the system is travelling at a speed which is close to the speed limit of the universe, are initially subjected to a qualitative analysis, the conclusions of which hint at a mechanical definition of time. A quantitative analysis of the same reveals the Lorentz Transformation Factor. The fact that the Lorentz transformation factor is derived on applying the definition of time, which was hinted from the qualitative analysis, supports that definition. The quantitative analysis, however, also revealed a different value (transformation factor*). Both the transformation factors are combined to form one transformation factor, which, given that n (the number of spatial dimensions in the universe through which any moving object traverses) is large enough, approximately equates to the Lorentz Transformation Factor. Thus, using the results derived here, the value of n might be revealed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[996] **viXra:1701.0537 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-18 13:20:25*

**Authors:** Gary R. Prok

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There has been disagreement about the validity of Landauer's Principle, which places a limitation on computational energy efficiency. The Principle is predicated on a finite entropy increase associated with every erasure of a memory register. Existence of a reversible memory register reduces Landauer' Principle to a disproven conjecture.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[995] **viXra:1701.0536 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-18 13:23:54*

**Authors:** Gary R. Prok

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Maxwell’s demon challenges our interpretation of thermodynamics and our understanding of the Second Law of thermodynamics. The Szilard engine is a gedanken instantiation of Maxwell’s Demon that is amenable to standard thermodynamic analysis. The paradox of Maxwell’s demon as presented by the Szilard engine is considered to have been solved by Landauer’s principle. A classical analysis of the Szilard engine, presented here, shows that Landauer’s principle is not needed to resolve the paradox of the demon. Classical thermodynamics is all that is needed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[994] **viXra:1701.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 20:26:55*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

via conservative forces. These forces can be of gravitational origin (celestial mechanics),
inter-molecular origin (molecular dynamics), or representing (structural biology). In
The n-body problem as a classic astronomical and physical problem that naturally follows from the two- body problem first solved by Newton in his Principia in 1687. The efforts of many famous mathematicians have been devoted to this difficult problem, including Euler and Lagrange (1772), Jacobi (1836), Hill (1878), Poincaré (1899), Levi-Civita (1905), and Birkhoff (1915). However, despite centuries of exploration, there is no clear structure of the solution of the general n- or even three-body problem as there are no coordinate transformations that can simplify the problem, and there are more and more evidences that, in general, the solutions of n-body problems are chaotic. Failure to find a general analytical structure of the solution shifted the effort towards numerical methods. Many ODE solvers offer a variety of advance numerical methods for the solution.
2. Chaos in classical dynamics
We start this section with revisiting mathematical formalism of chaos in a non-traditional way that is based upon the concept of orbital instability.
The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [4], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [5]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems illustrated by chaos in inertial systems
a. Orbital instability as a precursor of chaos.
Chaos is a special type of instability when the system does not have an alternative stable state and displays an irregular aperiodic motion. Obviously this kind of instability can be associated only with ignorable variables, i.e. with such variables that do not contribute into energy of the system. In order to demonstrate this kind of instability, consider an inertial motion of a particle M of unit mass on a smooth pseudosphere S having a constant negative curvature G0, Fig. 1.
The n-body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of objects
1
interacting
with each other
the most common version, the trajectories of the objects are determined by numerically solving the Newton's equations of motion for a system of interacting particles. Non-conservative version of the interaction forces became important in case of the n-body problem that incorporates the effects of
the Coulomb potential
radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag, and solar wind drag.
The general method of numerical solution of the corresponding system
of ODE was originally conceived within theoretical physics in the late 1950s,,[1,2], but is applied today
mostly in chemical physics, materials science and the modeling of biomolecules.
The most significant “side effect “of the existing numerical methods for n-body problems becomes chaos when different numerical runs with the same initial conditions result in different trajectories. Although numerical errors can contribute to chaos, nevertheless the primary origin of chaos is physical instability,
[3].
In this work, a general approach to probabilistic description of chaos in n-body problem with conservative

**Category:** Classical Physics

[993] **viXra:1701.0522 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-16 16:29:56*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [1], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [2]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[992] **viXra:1701.0517 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-16 13:55:40*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper presents a non-traditional approach to theory of turbulence. Its objective is to prove that Newtonian mechanics is fully equipped for description of turbulent motions without help of experimentally obtained closures. Turbulence is one of the most fundamental problems in theoretical physics that is still unsolved. The term “unsolved “ here means that turbulence cannot be properly formulated, i.e. reduced to standard mathematical procedure such as solving differential equations. In other words, it is not just a computational problem: prior to computations, a consistent mathematical model must be found. Although applicability of the Navier-Stokes equations as a model for fluid mechanics is not in question, the instability of their solutions for flows with supercritical Reynolds numbers raises a more general question: is Newtonian mechanics complete?
The problem of turbulence (stressed later by the discovery of chaos) demonstrated that the Newton’s world is far more complex than those represented by classical models. It appears that the Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formulations do not suggest any tools for treating postinstability motions, and this is a major flaw of the classical approach to Newtonian mechanics. The explanation of that limitation is proposed in this paper: the classical formalism based upon the Newton’s laws exploits additional mathematical restrictions (such as space–time differentiability, and the Lipchitz conditions) that are not required by the Newton’s laws. The only purpose for these restrictions is to apply a powerful technique of classical mathematical analysis. However, in many cases such restrictions are incompatible with physical reality, and the most obvious case of such incompatibility is the Euler’s model of inviscid fluid in which absence of shear stresses are not compensated by a release of additional degrees of freedom as required by the principles of mechanics.
It has been recently demonstrated, [3], that according to the principle of release of constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applied to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl’s solution is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-viscous version of the Navier-Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[991] **viXra:1701.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-12 16:01:36*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The original mathematical treatment used in the analysis of the Fizeau experiment of 1851, which measured the relative speed of light in a moving medium, assumes that light travels through the water in a smooth continuous flow, at a speed less than the speed of light in a vacuum (relative to the water). Thus it assumes that the water’s velocity vector can simply be added to that of the light. However, light is transmitted through optical media, such as water, by a continuous process of absorption and re-emission by the water molecules; but travels between them at the full speed of light (in a vacuum). Thus the mathematics describing the process of Fresnel dragging must be formulated differently and can then be explained by classical Physics

**Category:** Classical Physics

[990] **viXra:1701.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-09 15:20:14*

**Authors:** Desire Francine Gobato

**Comments:** 95 Pages. Portuguese.

The flight safety is one of the main concerns related to the current aviation and through the prevention it is gotten to avoid countless incidents and accidents. The work has as objective demonstrates through norms, patterns and documents, that a safe way exists of accomplishing acrobatic maneuvers. The focus from work will have as reference the operational safety in the acrobatic maneuvers involving the current acrobatic aircrafts inside of the Brazilian air space. It gave way a bibliographical consultation it was elaborated through virtual libraries, where were books that they are correlated with the flight safety and the acrobatic flight, besides the norms and patterns of ANAC. It was verified like this that several ways exist of accomplishing a flight with acrobatics in a safe way, and for that they were developed several norms that owe her they be followed in the aerial demonstrations, shows or in any event that executes maneuvers or acrobatics in a risky way, where the aircraft is exposed to your own limits.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[989] **viXra:1701.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-09 12:13:24*

**Authors:** Desire Francine Gobato Fedrigo, Ricardo Gobato

**Comments:** 1 Page. Portuguese. Panel presented in the XVII Physics Week of the State University of Londrina, October 22 to 26, 2012.

To begin a study related to the High Speed Theory, it is necessary to know that the aircraft are classified according to the being: subsonic, transonic, hypersonic or supersonic. Directly related to there are still the so-called pressure waves, which are concentric waves printed in the air by any object that produces sound or which travels in the Earth's atmosphere, these propagate at a speed of 340 m/s or 1224 km/h at the mean sea level. The Aircraft in flight produces these waves, which are formed around them and move 360º around it. In this study, the
nose of the aircraft and the area of greater curvature in the extrados of the wing as expansion waveformers, in order to study the wave of Shock, Mach number and critical Mach number.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[988] **viXra:1701.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 01:29:36*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 69 pages. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 411-467 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i1.25

It is shown that the angular frequency of the photon is nothing else than the averaged angular frequency of revolution of the electron cloud’s center during emission and quantum transition between two energy levels in an atom. On assumption that the photon consists of charged particles of the vacuum field (of praons), the substantial model of a photon is constructed. Praons move inside the photon in the same way as they must move in the electromagnetic field of the emitting electron, while internal periodic wave structure is formed inside the photon. The properties of praons, including their mass, charge and speed, are derived in the framework of the theory of infinite nesting of matter. At the same time, praons are part of nucleons and leptons just as nucleons are the basis of neutron stars and the matter of ordinary stars and planets. With the help of the Lorentz transformations, which correlate the laboratory reference frame and the reference frame, co-moving with the praons inside the photon, transformation of the electromagnetic field components is performed. This allows us to calculate the longitudinal magnetic field and magnetic dipole moment of the photon, and to understand the relation between the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields, connected by a coefficient in the form of the speed of light. The total rest mass of the particles making up the photon is found, it turns out to be inversely proportional to the nuclear
charge number of the hydrogen-like atom, which emits the photon. In the presented
picture the photon composed of praons moves at a speed less than the speed of light,
and it loses the right to be called an elementary particle due to its complex structure.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[987] **viXra:1701.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-06 04:09:40*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An attempt to universal definition of phase transition

**Category:** Classical Physics

[986] **viXra:1701.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 11:56:23*

**Authors:** Don Brown

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Author Email: dbrown7473@gmail.com

This paper creates a model that unifies Gravity, Inertia, and Centripetal Force and shows how they are all created by the same mechanical properties.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[985] **viXra:1612.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-30 11:44:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Russian

It is shown that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be associated with symmetric and asymmetric tensors, which are derived from decomposition of the antisymmetric tensor of general form into its elements: symmetric and antisymmetric parts. These tensors contain additional information about the electromagnetic field. d'Alembert wave equations for electromagnetic potential and derivatives of Lorenz gauge condition follow from antisymmetric tensor and Navier-Stokes dynamic equation for the electromagnetic potential follow from symmetric tensor. A harmonized system of field equations, including Maxwell's equations, follows from these three tensors.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[984] **viXra:1612.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-30 11:57:30*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Russian

In this paper, a new consistent approach to theory of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. The tensor of energy-momentum tensor obtained from the tensor of the electromagnetic field and the induction field without the involvement of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. Tensor of energy-momentum the equations of conservation of energy density, the flux density of energy, density and momentum of the wave equation for these energy values. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[983] **viXra:1612.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-21 01:38:23*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Two types of electric currents and related magnetic fields were analyzed deeply in this paper. One is the current in a
neutral wire, which is very familiar to us. The other current is the result of directional motion of one type (positive or
negative) charges suspended in the space. The analysis results show that the two types of currents and related magnetic
fields have same properties to observers in stationary frame. But, to the observers in a moving frame, the two types of
currents and related magnetic field appear very different behaviors. In the second situation, it looks not sufficient to
determine a magnetic field to a given point in space only by its magnitude and direction. In order to sufficiently determine
the magnetic, the source of the magnetic field is also required to be considered into.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[982] **viXra:1612.0310 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-20 13:18:02*

**Authors:** M.E. Hassani

**Comments:** 4 Pages; 1 Reference. This paper is submitted to Astrophysics and Space Science Journal

In a relatively recent article by F.A. Abd El-Salam et al. [Astrophys. Space Sci. 350, 507 (2014)], the authors claimed a new formulation of the two-body problem via the introduction of the continued fractional potential. Even if the idea of applying the continued fraction procedure to the gravitational physics is by itself a novelty, the study presented in their work suffers both from mathematical and physical issues. These issues are discussed in this comment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[981] **viXra:1612.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-20 12:21:56*

**Authors:** Donald Brown

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In the universe two common things seem to dictate a great deal of how things work: electromagnetic energy and gravity. If photons are responsible for all of the electromagnetic effects that we see, can neutrinos be responsible for all of the gravity we see? I believe the answer is yes and through this paper I will lay out the logic and observations I have used to arrive at this conclusion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[980] **viXra:1612.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-19 11:19:56*

**Authors:** Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus, Aurelian Has

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The authors intend to develop this paper in future, with necessary details

Here we briefly expose a new physics theory, which contains some explanations of physical phenomena in nature including some unexplained to date. The New Physics Theory 2016 (NPT16) is based on a new model of ether HM16 which lead to NPT16.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[979] **viXra:1612.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-19 03:08:08*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in Spanish

The transformer relation is an electromagnetic law that arises as a consequence of the application of the electromagnetic induction between the primary and secondary electrical circuit. In this article we propose a relation transformer new demonstration without needing to resort to electromagnetic induction and even without resorting to electromagnetic principles. We deduce the law from fundamental mechanical principles, such as the law of conservation of angular momentum. With all this we show that the law of the transformer is the consequence of an inertial phenomenon

**Category:** Classical Physics

[978] **viXra:1612.0237 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-13 11:11:49*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Will be submitted to all scietific journals

It is demonstrated that dielectric or magnetic, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave according to the canonical spin tensor of electrodynamics. Lorentz transformations are used for energy, momentum, and angular momentum flux density because a moving absorber is considered. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[977] **viXra:1612.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-13 12:47:59*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 74 Pages. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical E/M in an immediate and direct algebraic manner.

A new algebraic representation is used to immediately recover all the major results of classical electromagnetism. This new representation (‘Natural Vectors’) is based on Hamilton’s quaternions and completes the original attempt by Maxwell to use this powerful, non-commutative algebra in the final presentation of his theory in his Treatise.
The foundational hypothesis here is that the principal electromagnetic variables are best represented by Natural Vectors, rather than the conventional 3D vectors defined by ‘real numbers’. The present results avoid all use of the field concept and validate the retarded scalar and vector potentials approach first introduced by L. V. Lorenz, who combined Gauss’s 1845 suggestion of the finite speed of interaction with Newton’s action-at-a-distance model of physics into a charge-potential model of electromagnetism in 1867. This new approach demonstrates the primacy and physical significance of the ‘Lorenz gauge’. Not withstanding Maxwell’s aether theory, the present results are based on the artificial continuous charge-density substance model of electricity that is used today to develop and teach Maxwell’s Equations for classical electromagnetism. The present analysis also demonstrates that Helmholtz’s ‘fluid’ model of electricity is one of the few that can result in an electromagnetic ‘explanation’ for the phenomenon of light. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical electro-magnetism in an immediate and direct algebraic manner. This new theory focuses on the remote interaction between charges, which then appears both as variations in the charge-density and the potentials “traveling at light-speed across space”. Surprisingly, this same result also
appears for the current-density; this suggests that the conventional interpretation of this major symbol in Maxwell’s Equations needs to be questioned further.
* SPSI, Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299 spsi99@telus.cnet
© H. J. Spencer Version 2.3 25-07-2012 Version 1.0 16-06-2007

**Category:** Classical Physics

[976] **viXra:1612.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 12:11:33*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Will be submitted to all scietific journals

It is demonstrated that a dielectric, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave, according to the canonical spin tensor. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[975] **viXra:1612.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 11:44:20*

**Authors:** M. J. Germuska

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper presents a new formula found experimentally for the shape of the free surface of stable vortices. It is a generalisation of the theoretical formula for the irrotational vortex in the ideal fluid. The new formula applies to real vortices where viscosity and compression may be present. The experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions on water and air vortices that were produced in several different ways.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[974] **viXra:1612.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 20:41:10*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Modeling the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is a challenging subject. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. These include continuum models, numerical methods, and pore-scale network modeling. The latter proved to be more successful and realistic than the rest. The reason is that it captures the essential features of the flow and porous media using modest computational resources and viable modeling strategies. In this article we present pore-scale network modeling techniques for simulating non-Newtonian flow in porous media. These techniques are partially validated by theoretical analysis and comparison to experimental data.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[973] **viXra:1612.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 20:44:06*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 99 Pages.

The study of flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is very important and serves a wide variety of practical applications in processes such as enhanced oil recovery from underground reservoirs, filtration of polymer solutions and soil remediation through the removal of liquid pollutants. These fluids occur in diverse natural and synthetic forms and can be regarded as the rule rather than the exception. They show very complex strain and time dependent behavior and may have initial yield-stress. Their common feature is that they do not obey the simple Newtonian relation of proportionality between stress and rate of deformation. Non-Newtonian fluids are generally classified into three main categories: time-independent whose strain rate solely depends on the instantaneous stress, time-dependent whose strain rate is a function of both magnitude and duration of the applied stress and viscoelastic which shows partial elastic recovery on removal of the deforming stress and usually demonstrates both time and strain dependency. In this article, the key aspects of these fluids are reviewed with particular emphasis on single-phase flow through porous media. The four main approaches for describing the flow in porous media are examined and assessed. These are: continuum models, bundle of tubes models, numerical methods and pore-scale network modeling.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[972] **viXra:1612.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 20:52:35*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 69 Pages.

The `no-slip' is a fundamental assumption and generally-accepted boundary condition in rheology, tribology and fluid mechanics with strong experimental support. The violations of this condition, however, are widely recognized in many situations, especially in the flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Wall slip could lead to large errors and flow instabilities, such as sharkskin formation and spurt flow, and hence complicates the analysis of fluid systems and introduces serious practical difficulties. In this article, we discuss slip at fluid-solid interface in an attempt to highlight the main issues related to this diverse complex phenomenon and its implications.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[971] **viXra:1612.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 05:09:55*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we outline methods for calculating the pressure field inside flow conduits in the one-dimensional flow models where the pressure is dependent on the axial coordinate only. The investigation is general with regard to the tube mechanical properties (rigid or distensible), and with regard to the cross sectional variation along the tube length (constant or variable). The investigation is also general with respect to the fluid rheology as being Newtonian or non-Newtonian.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[970] **viXra:1612.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 16:25:37*

**Authors:** Curtis J. Forsythe

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I propose a theoretical model of Universal Gravitation based upon hypothetical mass/energy resonance waves, the intensities of which I propose to be casually analogous with those of electromagnetic waves. Using said model, I derive the Newtonian gravitational expression, from which the Newtonian gravitational constant G factors as a combination of other physical constants, resulting in an apparent value of 6.662936 x 10-11m3/kg s2. A second resultant of the theory is a demonstration that the quantum energy states of the hydrogen atom appear related to the length of these waves, shown equal to twice the ground state orbital radius in a Bohr hydrogen atom. Additionally, I have determined apparent values for the Planck mass, length, and time independently of any determination of G.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[969] **viXra:1612.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 01:29:02*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[968] **viXra:1612.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-02 19:09:43*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Although the classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), the loss factors of most solid structures are largely controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents new relationships for the dynamics of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteresis damping. The most important among them is a close-form equation for the critical loss factor that was derived as the marginal condition for the degenerate case where the higher-frequency resonance peak fully vanishes in the vibration spectrum of the second mass. The critical loss factor can take values between 0 and 2-3/2 ≈ 0.354 and depends on the ratio of the natural frequencies of 2-DOF system: the closer the undamped natural frequencies, the lower the critical loss factor. The equation may help to interpret the vibration spectra for the second mass in the real 2-DOF systems, in particular on sweep-sine shaker tests. The single resonance peak in the degenerate case for a 2-DOF grows up notably as the natural frequencies get close to each other. By a formal analogy with 1-DOF systems, the peak magnitude can be reduced by increasing the loss factor. But in 2-DOF systems, the vibration can be effectively attenuated for the same loss factor by making the natural frequencies more different from each other (in particular, via increasing the stiffness of the second spring).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[967] **viXra:1612.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 08:21:12*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Will analyze some physical concepts only using natural numbers. We assume a space discrete Physical variables such speed or momentum are considered as result of the sum of discrete contributions .Such discrete contributions can be calculated with natural numbers only . Elementary algebra is used in the analysis of physical subjects .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[966] **viXra:1612.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 06:39:24*

**Authors:** Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus

**Comments:** 30 Pages. -

This paper is based on the results obtained in our previous articles where an error has been found in Michelson’s analysis of his interferometer experiment, even though Einstein relied on it, while developing the Special Relativity Theory, in which he eliminated ether from physics. Our own results imply that ether can exist. We have also validated the hypothesis that Coulomb’s law would better describe the complex reality, including ether, by adding other terms to the actual term in r-2. As such, the force that exists between two distant dipoles, when computed with a modified version Coulomb’s law, depends on r-2, as in Newton’s law. Numerically, the two forces were practically equal given that the gravitation consists of electromagnetic interactions.
For ether’s composition, we proposed the HM16 model, in which the constituents etherons α and β are placed in the nodes of a crystalline network with a cell of approximately 10-27m, then subject to manifesting forces of mutual attraction/rejection. Ether behaves as an ideal mechanism in the form of a perpetuum mobile.
The microparticles MPs consisted of local zones of ether where an energy intake induced a state of vibrating or vortex motion. The vibrant MPs, having electrical charges, will transmit fundamental vibrations FV in ether around the MPs, which have a finite velocity cF. Stationary FV vibrations do not transmit energy in the continuous infinite ether, but they do create interaction forces between MPs of an electric (modified Coulomb forces) and magnetic nature.
A MP passing through two energetic levels will expel (or absorb) a special MP, namely, the F photon, which moves through the ether at the speed of light c, which is a property granted by the ether, and forms electromagnetic EM waves that transmit energy in ether. The F photon can be constituted similar to an MP, which creates its own FV vibrations in ether.
It is likely that the two velocities cF and c will not be equal. As we consider that cF > c, velocity cF corresponds to the “gravitational” waves resulting from the interaction between the electric dipoles produced by the completed Coulomb’s law.
The HM16 model of ether can explain the nature of an electric field in terms of volumetric ε strains of ether, while the nature of the magnetic field can be explained by distortional γ strains of ether. The HM16 model can also explain the various interactions between EM waves and MPs, as well as collisions between MPs.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[965] **viXra:1611.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-23 11:44:25*

**Authors:** Valery P. Skorobogatov

**Comments:** 4 Pages. I made a lapse in my surname :(

It is shown the cause of the invariant value of the light speed on the ground of 4D model.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[964] **viXra:1611.0287 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-20 10:02:11*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. untranslated and still in german

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[963] **viXra:1611.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-18 12:59:54*

**Authors:** Frank H. Makinson

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

When a timeline was established related to events that lead to and following Heinrich Hertz's discovery that electromagnetic waves can propagate through the air, a potentially fatal chronology was identified. It is quite possible that the cause of Hertz's early death was exposure to damaging levels of electromagnetic radiation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[962] **viXra:1611.0231 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-15 12:16:02*

**Authors:** Slobodan Nedic

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The Newtonian mechanic and contemporary physics model the non-circular orbital systems on all scales as
essentially conservative, closed-path zero-work systems and circumvent the obvious contradictions (rotor-free
‘field’ of ‘force’, in spite of its inverse proportionality to squared time-varying distance) by exploiting both
energy and momentum conservation, along specific initial conditions, to be arriving at technically more or less
satisfactory solutions, but leaving many of unexplained puzzles. In sharp difference to it, in recently developed
thermo-gravitational oscillator approach movement of a body in planetary orbital systems is modeled in such
a way that it results as consequence of two counteracting mechanisms represented by respective central forces,
that is gravitational and anti-gravitational accelerations, in that the actual orbital trajectory comes out through
direct application of the Least Action Principle taken as minimization of work (to be) done or, equivalently,
a closed-path integral of increments (or time-rate of change) of kinetic energy. Based on the insights gained,
a critique of the conventional methodology and practices reveals shortcomings that can be the cause of the
numerous difficulties the modern physics has been facing: anomalies (as gravitational and Pioneer 10/11),
three or more bodies problem, postulations in modern cosmology of dark matter and dark energy, the quite
problematic foundation of quantum mechanics, etc. Furthermore, for their overcoming, indispensability of the
Aether as an energy-substrate for all physical phenomena is gaining a very strong support, and based on recent
developments in Aetherodynamics the Descartes' Vortex Physics may become largely reaffirmed in the near
future.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[961] **viXra:1611.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-11 13:16:13*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 4 Pages. submetted to all scientific journals

We demonstrate the fulfilment of the conservation laws with respect to fluxes of momentum, energy, spin, and photons when a plane circularly polarized electromagnetic wave reflects from a receding mirror at normal incidence

**Category:** Classical Physics

[960] **viXra:1611.0126 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-09 13:19:32*

**Authors:** Heyfetz Eduard

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

The author made conclusion about internal infinity of any physical object. He proposes a simple mathematical tool for its analysis and conclusions from the latter.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[959] **viXra:1611.0108 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-08 13:09:29*

**Authors:** Jimmy Chiehmei Yang

**Comments:** 12 pages

Introduce a new concept of MS(motion in space) charges, this charge is fill up all the space move in all direction with speed C, when single direction charged to mass it create motion, when charge density changes it cause gravity.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[958] **viXra:1611.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-11-04 22:48:11*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The Chinese

The traditional concept of space is three-dimensional, with a time dimension, that is, four-dimensional space. That is, time is one-dimensional. According to the theory of relativity, time and space are inextricably linked. Therefore, the space is multidimensional, so why is it that time can not may be also multidimensional. The dimension of time and space may be the same. This paper proposes that the dimension of time is the same as the dimension of space.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[957] **viXra:1610.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-30 09:23:06*

**Authors:** Vladislav Mirkin, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article shows that almost "negative" results of the Michelson-Morley-Miller and all subsequent experiments due to the fact that the selected standards of measurement of the size and time have changed almost simultaneously with the measured parameters. That means that all the "old" and modern experiments could not answer the question of the existence of the ether in principle. Furthermore, even in the first experiments the result was already present, which should be interpreted as the presence of the ether.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[956] **viXra:1610.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-10-28 06:21:56*

**Authors:** Sparisoma Viridi, Mikrajuddin Abdullah, Nadya Amalia

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Conference paper, 11 figures, 3 tables

In this work simple model based on definition of shear modulus to produce bending of wire is proposed. Several results are discussed only for constant shear modulus and diameter, but the model can be extened to non-constant shear modulus and diameter. For arbitrary parameters the model can show bending of wire which epends on shear modulus, wire mass, initial angle, and number of segments. Unfortunatey, it does not give fully agreement for nanowire system, which produces higher value than expected.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[442] **viXra:1704.0112 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-09 15:02:21*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Energy, mass, gravity and heat are united using only observed mean values. Gravity is a conservative force of mass being under stress from electromagnetic radiation in a scalar field. Earth state is balanced by solar radiation, emitted radiation and the internal state, using only the fourth power of temperature in Kelvin. Heat transfer explain the distribution of energy density and gravity is shown to be equal to surface temperature.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[441] **viXra:1704.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-25 13:40:03*

**Authors:** Hans van Kessel

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Normalizing the velocity of light ‘c’ to a non-dimensional 1 generates a simple system of units of measurements. All other natural constants will still have their unique unit of measurement, and thus no information will be snowed under. Instead, nature appears more transparent.
Besides Planck’s E=h.υ, Boltzmann gives an alternate way of defining ‘content’: if the entropy of an object is expressed in e.g. J/K, multiplying that objects entropy with its (inherent) temperature delivers ‘content’ in Joules. This route delivers an enhanced Planck equation, applicable to binary particles (particles that have a discrete number of states).
This alternate Boltzmann route must meet the conservation principle. This demands a relationship between natural constants. From that relationship, the gravitational constant between smallest observable binary particles is calculated. Photons are not binary particles. It will be argued why photons are not subject to gravity: the frequency drop we measure if they climb in a gravitational field is the consequence of the local clock running faster while climbing (time dilatation).
Therefore, gravity isn’t equal to everything.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[440] **viXra:1704.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-12 14:02:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A new form of the equivalent representation of the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field is described. This form of representation is based on the decomposition of an asymmetric tensor of a general form into a symmetric and antisymmetric part. It follows from this expansion that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be equivalently represented as the difference between an asymmetric tensor of general form and a symmetric tensor. Then Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of four-dimensional divergences of these tensors. From this representation, in addition to the Maxwell equations, new equations of the electromagnetic field also follow, expanding knowledge of it. One of these equations is the equation of motion of the electromagnetic field in the form of the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[439] **viXra:1704.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-08 22:46:54*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

A new form of the equivalent representation of the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field is described. This form of representation is based on the decomposition of an asymmetric tensor of a general form into a symmetric and antisymmetric part. It follows from this expansion that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be equivalently represented as the difference between an asymmetric tensor of general form and a symmetric tensor. Then Maxwell's equations can be written in the form of four-dimensional divergences of these tensors. From this representation, in addition to the Maxwell equations, new equations of the electromagnetic field also follow, expanding knowledge of it. One of these equations is the equation of motion of the electromagnetic field in the form of the dynamic Navier-Stokes equation.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[438] **viXra:1703.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-04 11:10:49*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The article describes a new approach to obtaining the energy-momentum tensor of electromagnetic field in medium without the use of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. The energy-momentum tensor has new qualities and consequences. Its linear invariant is Lagrange density of the electromagnetic field. From the tensor follows the equation of conservation of energy density, the equation of flux energy density and wave equations for these energy values. Wave equation for momentum density describes simultaneous transfer of momentum and angular momentum regardless of radiation polarization. From the tensor follow the balance equations of the electromagnetic forces for the momentum density in the forms of the Minkowski and Abraham, which proves their equality and mutual supplementation. Equation for Abraham force is obtained as well. It is shown that its divergence is equal to zero. Tensor and the balance equations of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium are derived.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[437] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-19 12:25:44*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. fix scaling error in figure 3

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations lead always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[436] **viXra:1702.0141 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 03:18:13*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 7 Pages. now in English

The electric force from a uniformly moving point charge onto a resting point charge does not correspond exactly to the Coulomb force. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potentials which are derived from Maxwell's equations. If the point charge is moving toward or away from a resting point charge, the electric force seems to be weakened compared to the Coulomb force. In contrary, the electric force appears to be strengthened when the point charge is passing the resting charge sideways. Together, both effects compensate each other so that the total charge is independent of the relative speed.
This article proposes and discusses an experiment with which this claim can be verified. The experiment is of major importance, because besides the field formula of a point charge derived from Maxwell's equations a recently discovered, clearly easier structured alternative exist in which no longer a magnetic part occurs. Although both formulas differ significantly, it is impossible to design experiments with current loops of any form to decide between both alternatives, because theoretical considerations leads always to the same experimental predictions.
The electrical part of both field formulas differs only by a Lorentz factor. This has the consequence that the total charge is in the alternative formula no longer independent from the relative speed between source and destination charge. Thus, the electric charge depends here on the reference frame and we get rest and relativistic charge. The experiment proposed in this article makes it possible to measure this effect so that a decision between both alternatives becomes possible.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[435] **viXra:1702.0131 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-22 09:10:48*

**Authors:** Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Castillo demonstrates an important case of successful superposition of
elliptically-polarised light by moving to spinor representations of
electromagnetic plane waves: when the angle between the two unit spinors
as represented on a Poincare sphere are (as a complex number) either 1,
-1, i or -i. This paper demonstrates that there are additional conditions
under which superposition is successful: phase-shifting of one of the
waves by 90 degrees prior to superposition. Two and three superpositions
are shown, and the candidate configurations for each are listed.
The result is significant for Particle Physics at least, in that Castillo
and Rubalcava-Garcia's
prior work show a correspondance between Jones Calculus and SU(2), and
gives a direct mapping between Jones and Pauli Matrices.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[434] **viXra:1702.0116 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 19:34:42*

**Authors:** James A. Smith

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

As a step toward understanding why the Earth's atmosphere "rotates" with the Earth, we use Geometric (Clifford) Algebra to investigate the trajectory of a single molecule that desorbs vertically upward from the Equator, then falls back to Earth without colliding with any other molecules. Sample calculations are presented for a molecule whose vertical velocity is equal to the surface velocity of the Earth at the Equator (463 m/s) and for one with a vertical velocity three times as high. The latter velocity is sufficient for the molecule to reach the Kármán Line (100,000 m). We find that both molecules fall to Earth behind the point from which they desorbed: by 0.25 degrees of latitude for the higher vertical velocity, but by only 0.001 degrees for the lower.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[433] **viXra:1702.0084 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 07:43:45*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here I study the behaviour of internal orbital angular momentum OAM light beams in a gravitational field. According to this study, such a beam will behave like a particle with rest mass, therefore the wavefront will slow down if the beam is pointed against the gravitational field and it will accelerate if pointed in the same direction as the gravitational field. This study is conducted in a classical context, intentionally ignoring Lorentz factors. However, the relativistic effects associated with these helical structures will emerge naturally. The paper will focus on a single relativistic phenomenon – naturally occurring velocity limitation of a spin ½ particle concept which poses a rest mass. However, this rest mass is also a redefined concept. It is interesting that if a beam is pointed against a gravitational field, the step length of the helical structure reduces which acts on increasing the detected frequency of the incoming beam (considering a stationary detector above the source and the gravitational filed direction pointing downward), but since the speed of the wavefront reduces, it acts as a reducing factor for the frequency that the detector will read. In other words, although the wavelength of the beam reduces as the wave-front advances, the speed of the wavefront reduces as well, resulting in a decreasing frequency. When the front-wave velocity tends to zero, this frequency tends to a positive number.
It is clear that if the wavefront speed reduces under a gravitational field, it will eventually stop and reverse the direction, falling towards the source of the field. This behaviour is similar to a particle with rest mass. However, if photons don't have mass, then, my suggestion is that particles are helical structures that have similar construction to OAM |m| = 1 and therefore, we could say they don't have mass either.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[432] **viXra:1702.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-21 04:24:05*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We show that the time must be quantized in a classical world, and therefore all other physics parameters must also be. We propose to build a classical physics theory that uses only theorems, but no postulate. The foundation are build on five elementary theorems, that lead trivially and straight forward to the description of the Planck's constant, the Planck-Einstein relationship, and the speed of light as the maximum speed, although we remain on a classical point of view.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[431] **viXra:1701.0677 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-04 04:19:33*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 6 Pages. New version with minor modifications. Excuse me for the inconvenience.

Looking at the hydrogen atom, we investigated the possibility to use the electron's
rotation speed, into the dilatation factor of the special relativity, even if the electron is
in a non inertial frame. Doing so, we were able to demonstrate that the electron's
charge-to-mass ratio is the subsequent relativistic frequency that appears to the
observer. We also show that a magnetic moment, very similar to the one of the
quantum mechanics, must appear, although we stay in the fields of classical and
relativistic physics. These facts, in excellent agreement with the experiment, lead us to
propose to extend the Einstein's postulate of inertial frame, to all frames having a
constant speed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[430] **viXra:1701.0590 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-04 11:43:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article deals with the choice of the energy-momentum tensor in electrodynamics. Considered the electromagnetic force in a continuous medium of the following Minkowski and Abraham tensors. From Minkowski tensor the equations of conservation of energy-momentum density, density of electromagnetic force balance in a continuous medium and the equation for the Abraham force. It is shown that it is equal to zero when choosing a canonical material equations. It is shown that the equivalence of the Minkowski momentum density and Abraham. Arguments in favor of a unique choice of the tensor of the Minkowski and Abraham tensor incomplete.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[429] **viXra:1701.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-30 11:42:37*

**Authors:** Don Brown

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper creates a model that unifies Gravity, Inertia, and Centripetal Force and shows how they are all created by the same mechanical properties. Some additions to the opening statements and some Practical Applications for this theory have been added to the end of the paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[428] **viXra:1612.0310 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 14:16:56*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 4 Pages; 1Reference. This work is submitted to Astrophysics and Space Science

In a relatively recent article by F.A. Abd El-Salam et al. [Astrophys. Space Sci. 350, 507 (2014)], the authors claimed a new formulation of the two-body problem via the introduction of the continued fractional potential. Even if the idea of applying the continued fraction procedure to the gravitational physics is by itself a novelty, the study presented in their work suffers both from some mathematical and physical issues. These issues are discussed in this comment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[427] **viXra:1612.0301 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-20 12:37:15*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Unexpected correlations found in earth energy density

Abstract
I build a theoretical model of the relationship between the solarconstant and earth surface temperature by using temperature to obtain energy density instead of surface flux.
Earth behave as a standing wave in resonance, shown in the resulting energy levels.
Energy density of vacuum from the cosmological constant is added. The result is a function of pi that shows how earth is not only dependant of solar radiation for energy content, it is a three point exchange. Mass has no part at all in these calculations, temperature is accurately obtained for all points of interest. The speed of light in units of km/s is connected to the calculations.
The model seems to cover the whole earth system state, not only as a planet, but as a planet heated by the sun as it floats in vacuum with energy density 8πG. Earth mass can be ignored in all internal relationships.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[426] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-25 08:44:41*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The initial idea that made me think about this new concept was that the wave nature of light must be the reason why no entity in this universe can exceed this propagation speed, but only if all other “particles” are waves as well. Assuming this was true it meant that all the effects described by relativity must be related to this wave nature of light and matter. If these effects can be explained that way, then the only option is that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. We can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. This model assumes, by definition that space doesn't have a variable geometry and takes the other possibility, hence, complex particles inner geometry changes what we measure as time and space. The strong point of this concept is that it predicts a particle / wave construct model that perfectly matches the behaviour of internal OAM light beams. Analysing these waves, in this context, leads to a proper development of the concept.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[425] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-20 12:13:56*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 33 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. We can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. This model assumes, by definition that space doesn't have a variable geometry and takes the other possibility, hence, complex particles inner geometry changes what we measure as time and space. The strong point of this concept is that it predicts a particle / wave construct model that perfectly matches the behaviour of internal OAM light beams. Analysing these waves, in this context, leads to a proper development of the concept.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[424] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-07 03:06:05*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

The starting point for the concept is the idea that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. We can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. This model assumes, by definition that space doesn't have a variable geometry and takes the other possibility, hence, complex particles inner geometry changes what we measure as time and space.
The strong point of this concept is that it predicts a particle / wave construct model that perfectly matches the behaviour of internal OAM light beams. Analysing these waves, in this context, leads to a proper development of the concept.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[423] **viXra:1612.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-05 03:20:05*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Introduction is increased

It is demonstrated that dielectric or magnetic, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave according to the canonical spin tensor of electrodynamics. Lorentz transformations are used for energy, momentum, and angular momentum flux density because a moving absorber is considered. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[422] **viXra:1611.0287 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-21 14:19:40*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. replace r with c

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[421] **viXra:1611.0287 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-11-20 13:44:33*

**Authors:** Steffen Kühn, Ph.D.

**Comments:** 8 Pages. fix sign-error

In classical electrodynamics, point charges have always an electric as well as a magnetic field. This is a consequence of the Liénard–Wiechert potential, which is the solution of Maxwell's equations for a point charge. This article shows however that it easier to explain the magnetic force of currents and current loops without an explicit magnetic field for every point charge and that it is more probable that magnetic effects arise from the superposition of the single electric fields. The article shows furthermore that both concepts lead to the same results for an infinitely long straight wire and for an infinitely small current loop. The standard way, however, needs strong additional postulates, like a difficult ad-hoc B-field for a point charge and the Lorentz force law. These apriori assumptions are not necessary for the second alternative. The article demonstrates as well that for point charges both concepts are not identically.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[420] **viXra:1611.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-15 00:12:46*

**Authors:** GuagSan Yu

**Comments:** 6 Pages. The Chinese

Traditional idea, space is three dimension of, plus a the degree of dimension of time, be four the space of dimension. Then the time is a dimension. According to the relativity [theory], the time is inseparable with space. Therefore, the space is many
dimensions of, so and why time, must not is also many dimension. Time and the dimension of the space, may be same. This paper put forward, the dimension of the time and the dimension of the space, is same.

**Category:** Classical Physics