Classical Physics

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2019 - 1901(11)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1445] viXra:1901.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-23 09:31:13

Redefining the Electron (Part 1): The Implications for Electricity

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 15 pages - seeking feedback and comment before part 2 submission

By redefining the electron to be a toroidal solenoidal form of concentrated energy, rather than the monopole point-charge definition underpinning the orbital nuclear atomic model of the Standard Model and Quantum Mechanics, the explanation of electromagnetism and electricity becomes more logical, straight forward and consistent. Redefining the Electron (Part 1) addresses the nature of electric and magnetic fields, electrons, positrons, electric current flow, electric capacitors and the induction of electric current. The follow-up paper, Redefining the Electron (Part 2), extends the Toroidal Solenoidal Electron (TSE) model to explore the implications for atomic structure and the physical characteristics of elements in the Periodic Table, molecules and compounds; and how they interact with each other chemically. Part 2 examines the role of electrons and positrons within normal matter, providing insight into the particle-wave nature of EMR and alternative explanations for spectral line emission and absorption, the photo-electric effect, the Compton Effect, electron pair generation and annihilation, beta and electron capture radiation, and Gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[1444] viXra:1901.0321 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-22 00:47:15

Effect of Gravitation on Heat Conductivity of Perfect Gas

Authors: V.S. Vasilenko, A. Malgota, T.I. Maklygina, V.O. Komar, A.Yu. Yurkovskaya
Comments: 9 Pages. 9 p., Russian

The effect of gravity on the vertical thermal conductivity of a gas is theoretically investigated. To do this, we used the law of energy conservation and added to the average energy of the thermal motion of the molecule its potential energy in the gravitational field: <>= 2+. The formula for calculating the vertical heat flux =− − was obtained. From the formula it follows that in a gravitational field in an ideal gas with a temperature uniform in volume there a heat flux will exist 0=−V . For dry nitrogen, calculations give 0=1,3∙10−4 Вт м2 .
Category: Classical Physics

[1443] viXra:1901.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-17 03:15:57

About Energy of Photon

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages, 4 Figures

There is a widespread view in contemporary physics that the electric field of an electromagnetic wave is in the phase with the magnetic field. This statement is incorrect. The article discloses in detail that the above statement leads to violating the law of energy conservation. The right statement is that electric and magnetic fields in the photon are shifted mutually by 90 degrees. In this case the electric field converts to the magnetic field and vice versa. The energy of the photon over time remains constant.
Category: Classical Physics

[1442] viXra:1901.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-16 11:23:47

Increase the Angular Resolution Beyond the Classical Limits

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try an increase of the angular resolution of telescope, and microscope, with numerical methods: I try to obtain the real image (without interferences) using a learning algoritm on sample images
Category: Classical Physics

[1441] viXra:1901.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 23:45:06

Our Universe and Chaotic Determinism.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 5 Pages. For further research and experiments to understand a New Physics beyond Standard Model.

The concept of absolute space and time from Newtonian outlook and the effects of relativistic dilated concepts in Quantum Physics .
Category: Classical Physics

[1440] viXra:1901.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 10:49:02

A Possible Variant of Herschelian Reflector

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I hypothesize a new Herschelian reflector using two parabola sections
Category: Classical Physics

[1439] viXra:1901.0094 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-07 09:37:11

Hodge Experiment Photographs Quantified with a Color Function

Authors: John Hodge
Comments: 8 Pages.

The Hodge Experiment of the Scalar Theory of Everything (STOE) model is the Fraunhofer pattern from a first mask with a single slit impinges on a second mask. The pattern from a second mask slit and the pattern from an edge that differs only in the removal of one of the mask sides are compared. The second mask provides more to the screen pattern than only blocking light as wave models suggest. The second mask contributes to form the screen image as the STOE model suggests.
Category: Classical Physics

[1438] viXra:1901.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-06 10:40:39

A Test of the Superposition Principle in Intense Laser Beams

Authors: Alexander Unzicker
Comments: 10 Pages.

A test of a nonlinear effect hitherto unknown in classical electrodynamics is proposed. For the possible nonlinearity to be observed, a high-intensity standing wave with circular polarization in a resonator is required. If the effect exists, an electric voltage should be induced between the mirros and an electric current can be measured. Motivation, quantitative expectations and the design of the experiment are discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1437] viXra:1901.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-05 10:49:28

Technische Anwendungen Zur Umwandlung Der Rotationsenergie Der Erde in Elektrische Energie in Theorie Und Praxis Teil 9

Authors: Robert Stach
Comments: 21 Pages.

Aufgezeigt werden Möglichkeiten zur Umwandlung der Rotationsenergie der Erde in elektrische Energie. Neben einem geschichtlichen Exkurs erfolgt die detaillierte Beschreibung der Anlagen. Es wird zudem verdeutlicht, dass durch eine unterschiedliche Anzahl der Freiheitsgrade eines Kreisels auch unterschiedliche Berechnungsalgorithmen für die Winkelgeschwindigkeit der Präzessionsbewegung resultieren. Aufgezeigt werden auch die Unterschiede beim resultierenden Impuls der Präzessionsbewegung zwischen kippenden und parallel ausweichenden Kreiselachsen.
Category: Classical Physics

[1436] viXra:1901.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-03 09:11:36

New Concept of Mass

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 3 pages

In contemporary physics mass is a basic property of any physical object, but there is no consistent definition of what mass is. This article formulates a new concept of mass based on the statement that space and force field are synonyms, i.e., mass is the charge of gravity.
Category: Classical Physics

[1435] viXra:1901.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-02 11:41:26

Mathematics of Combined Theory of Time

Authors: Suraj Deshmukh
Comments: 16 Pages. Do not contain explanations for equations.

This theory is about time. I have represented time in a new manner. First we consider time to be isolated then merge it with space. These are equations governing this theory. Before you read I request to read combined theory of time(CTT). These are first few equations emerging in CTT. Excluding DOX mechanism all other topics of CTT are covered.
Category: Classical Physics

[1434] viXra:1812.0462 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 10:24:53

Our Universe and Some Thoughts.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 3 Pages. FOR FURTHER RESEARCH.

MODERN PHYSICS DWELLING ON WRONG TIME.
Category: Classical Physics

[1433] viXra:1812.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-28 00:58:56

Galileo's Solution for the 'Path of Quickest Descent'

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty padyala
Comments: 12 Pages.

Path of the quickest descent of a material particle from a point A to another point B at a lower lever, in a constant gravitational field, is a famous problem in mathematics. It was solved by Galileo around 1638. Galileo’s solution was that the quickest path is the arc of a circle with B as the lower end of the vertical diameter of the circle in the vertical plane. It is important to note that Galileo does not use the summation of time intervals of travel along the successive chords that connect A and B. He compares the times of travel between two paths from A to B. One path consists of the direct shortest path – the chord connecting A and B. The second path consists of two chords AC and CB. Galileo proves that the two chord path ACB is quicker than the single chord path. Then he compares the two chord path with the three chord path, AC, CD, DB and proves the three chord path ACDB is quicker than the two chord path ACB. He extends this procedure indefinitely to more and more chords and proves that the arc of the circle is the quickest path of travel from A to B. Later, John Bernoulli solves this problem and poses it as a challenge to peers to solve it. Many well known mathematicians that include Bernoulli’s elder brother Jacob Bernoulli, Newton, Pascal among others solved it. John Bernoulli’s solution was based on Fermat’s least time principle. To account for the path followed by a ray of light between two points, Fermat enunciated the principle of least time. According to this principle light takes the path of minimum time in going from the initial to the final point involving reflections or of refractions on its way. Bernoulli argued that if light follows Fermat’s principle in economizing the time of travel between two points, why not a material particle also follow that principle, so that nature economizes on the number of principles required to govern various processes? Arguing thus, he employed Fermat’s least time principle and arrived at a different solution from that of Galileo’s solution. This solution became very famous and gave rise to many other mathematical developments. In contrast to Galileo’s circular path, Bernoulli’s solution was a ‘brachistochrone’. We discussed Bernoulli’s solution in an article in this journal earlier. Bernoulli’s solution involves the summation of time intervals of travel along the successive chords of the brachistochrone. Galileo did not add the time intervals because time intervals along paths of different accelerations are not additive – they are additive if and only if they are along path of the same value of acceleration. Students must get a good grasp of this idea in order to appreciate Galileo’s solution. As Erlichson says, this study provides some very interesting information on Galileo’s geometrical methods.
Category: Classical Physics

[1432] viXra:1812.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 15:02:17

Motion of a Spinning Symmetric Top

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: 53 Pages.

We firstly reviewed the symmetric top problem, then we have solved different possible motions numerically. We have given explanation about the rise of the symmetric top during nutation in terms of torque and angu- lar momentum. We have encountered with previously unnoticed proper- ties of motion and studied them. During the study, calculations gave some surprising results that the symmetric top can change its spin direction.
Category: Classical Physics

[1431] viXra:1812.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-24 17:44:12

The Impetus of Firenado

Authors: Kiyoung Kim
Comments: 10 Pages.

For the vortex formation of fire whirl, the mechanism or physics behind is discussed. If the driving force for the updraft of fire whirl is just buoyancy of heated-air and flame inside the vortex, the vortex of firenado reaching up to a few kilometers, even more, above the ground surface cannot be explained. There should be an additional driving force for the updraft. The driving force for the vortex formation of firenado is supposed to be the electric interaction of electric charges in the vortex of firenado with the induced electric charges in a crustal conducting body underground.
Category: Classical Physics

[1430] viXra:1812.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 08:59:28

A New? Definition of the Second Law of the Thermodynamics

Authors: Domenico Oricchio
Comments: 1 Page.

I try a new definition of second law of thermodynamics
Category: Classical Physics

[1429] viXra:1812.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 11:30:21

New Conception of Space Curvature

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages, 4 Figures

According the new statement of Space, Space and the Force field are synonyms. Therefore Space is curved in the same way as a gravity field around celestial bodies. Far away from stars and planets Space is flat. The gravity Space is curved around each atom in micro scale distances.
Category: Classical Physics

[1428] viXra:1812.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-21 04:27:22

Physics since Einstein

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 138 Pages.

All my theoretical research on physics, created by and since Einstein, have led me to the belief that the higher the level of intelligence of the physicist, the more that can be a threat to the health of physical sciences. Einstein started the decline of this science with his Special Theory of Relativity!
Category: Classical Physics

[1427] viXra:1812.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-16 12:39:15

Controlled Artificial Nucleosyntheses and Electron Nuclear Reactor

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 11 Pages.

By now, about 3000 nuclides are known, which decay and pass into each other. Many of them can be obtained in nuclear reactors. The author offers a method for searching for the desired nuclides and a simple controlled method for obtaining artificial nuclides, such that in the chain of subsequent decays they contain an alpha decay. With alpha decay, a large amount of nuclear energy is generated that can easily be converted into electricity and reactive traction. This method is simple and safe, does not require large, expensive laser, magnetic installations, million temperatures, it can be used in small and medium engines for cars, airplanes, rockets, space vehicles and for unlimited energy on Earth.
Category: Classical Physics

[1426] viXra:1812.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 00:23:35

The Photoelectric Effect, Wave-Particle Duality and Atomic Structure

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 52 page extension of an earlier article to include the photoelectric effect and improve the coverage of elctricity

n 1905 Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" (later called photons) to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: this sparked the particle versus wave debate because the particle approach cannot adequately explain interference, diffraction and polarisation and the wave approach cannot explain the photoelectric effect. The De Broglie hypothesis, which attributed wave-like nature to matter, was confirmed experimentally for the electron, and wave-particle duality was formalised by Schrödinger's equation, and extended by Dirac’s equations, to form a theoretical foundation for Quantum Mechanics. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has been widely accepted, the meaning or physical interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved. In this thesis paper, electrons, positrons and preons are postulated to have a toroidal solenoid structure, whereas photons are postulated to have a helical solenoid structure (these solenoidal models are similar to those proposed by Oliver Consa in 2018 for non-static electrons and preons). The proposed helical solenoidal structure of photons provides them with wave-like and particle characteristics supportive of a wave-particle duality. Quarks are postulated to be built from preons, and nucleons from up- and down-quarks. The model for atomic structure developed using these fundamental and derived sub-atomic particles is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model based upon the monopole electrons and protons The model developed provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electronpositron annihilation, electric current (a ‘hole’ free explanation), the ionization process during plasma formation, Gravity and Gravity waves. It also provides good correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do.
Category: Classical Physics

[1425] viXra:1812.0263 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-15 11:07:34

A Conservative Standard Model

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 4 Pages.

the most conservative Standard Model of elementary particle physics that is possible
Category: Classical Physics

[1424] viXra:1812.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-14 14:55:21

Guilt by Association – Weak Higgs and More

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 3 Pages.

reductionism and the anthropic principle are understood with respect to the Higgs and weak force, antimatter, and gravitation
Category: Classical Physics

[1423] viXra:1812.0239 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 16:12:24

Ten Explanations on Essential Subjects of the Modern Theoretical Physics which need Immediate and Radical Re-studying. Part One.

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 14 Pages.

Many explanations on essential subjects of the modern theoretical physics leave a lot of unanswered questions. Certainly, the proposal of these explanations has been formulated based on the rationale that their definite establishment would take place only when all questions on each and every explanation would have been answered. However, as time passed by, the questions that had to be answered have been forgotten and the explanations have been established without the provision of the respective answers. The result of this tactic was the introduction of a lot of erroneous explanations in the modern theoretical physics; which need immediate and radical re-studying. In the present paper, I describe these explanations, adding some new proposals, which I believe will help this re-studying.
Category: Classical Physics

[1422] viXra:1812.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 01:43:34

Rotation Operators and Head Piece Fashion

Authors: Armin Zjajo
Comments: 6 Pages.

Ever since caps were worn, fashion deemed it necessary that everyone eventuallymigrate to new styles as the older styles became ”worn” and ”uncool.” Unfor-tunately, as of yet, there have been no mathematical explanations for how thesenew styles have come about. We henceforth set about creating a mathemati-cal foundation for the styles people use for wearing their hats, caps, and otherheadpieces of choice.
Category: Classical Physics

[1421] viXra:1812.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-07 09:20:05

Небесная Механика Эфира

Authors: Геннадий Бражник
Comments: 128 Pages.

Современное представление о гравитационном взаимодействии планет Солнечной системы основано на гелиоцентрической системе мира. Вместе с тем теоретическая аналитика показывает, что Солнце в структуре окружающего бытия вращается вокруг Меркурия, а Земля — вокруг Луны… Объяснение этих «парадоксов небесной механики» можно найти в предлагаемой публикации.
Category: Classical Physics

[1420] viXra:1812.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 13:21:29

Euclid Riemann and TET

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 6 Pages.

a humorous discussion of why we need a new branch of mathematics called 'theory of attribute spaces'
Category: Classical Physics

[1419] viXra:1811.0515 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-30 18:43:40

Две задачи для физиков и астрофизиков (Two Tasks for Physicists and Astrophysicists)

Authors: Robert Yusupov
Comments: 4 Pages. In Russian. Robert Yusupov © Two Tasks for Physicists and Astrophysicists. DEC 1, 2018

В настоящей статье формулируются две задачи, которые предлагаются вниманию физиков и астрофизиков. В основе лежит авторская концепция мироустройства, изложенная в его «Теории Природы». ++++++++++++++ This article formulates two tasks that are presented to the attention of physicists and astrophysicists. It is based on the author’s conception of the world order set forth in his “Theory of Nature”.
Category: Classical Physics

[1418] viXra:1811.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 21:10:35

A Study of Hentenna : Analysis, Simulation, Construction and Antenna Pattern Measurements

Authors: E.A. Babli, N.I. Yannopoulou, P.E. Zimourtopoulos
Comments: 29 Pages.

The radiation characteristics of Hentenna is the objective of this paper. Furthermore, the analytical study of antenna pattern, as well as, the simulation results for both electric and electromagnetic characteristics (Input Impedance, Standing Wave Ratio SWR, Antenna Pattern and Directivity) are presented. A thorough research using 465 simulation models, in which the Hentenna's total dimension and the position of its feeding segment are the variables, proves that Hentenna is an extremely narrow band antenna. Thus, the investigation was directed not only to SWR minimalization, in terms of three most commonly used transmission lines of characteristic impedance 50-75-300 [Ω], but also to operating bandwidth improvement under an almost invariable antenna pattern. Four experimental Hentenna models were finally selected and constructed. Their antenna patterns were measured in an anechoic chamber and the measurements were found to be in good agreement with the analytical and simulated results.
Category: Classical Physics

[1417] viXra:1811.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-29 04:24:22

EMR Wave-Particle Duality and Atomic Structure

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: This 51 page paper presents a wave-particle model for EMR different to that an earlier paper 'The Butterfly Effect and the Electron'

In 1905 Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" (later called photons) to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: this sparked the particle versus wave debate because the particle approach cannot adequately explain interference, diffraction and polarisation and the wave approach cannot explain the photoelectric effect. The De Broglie hypothesis, which attributed wave-like nature to matter, was confirmed experimentally for the electron, and wave-particle duality was formalised by Schrödinger's equation, and extended by Dirac’s equations, to form a theoretical foundation for Quantum Mechanics. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has been widely accepted, the meaning or physical interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved. In this paper however, electrons, positrons and preons are considered to have a toroidal solenoid structure, whereas photons are considered to have a helical solenoid structure (these solenoidal models are similar to those proposed by Oliver Consa in 2018 for non-static electrons and preons). The proposed solenoidal structure of photons, electrons, positrons and preons provides them with wave-like and particle characteristics supportive of wave-particle duality. Quarks are considered to be built from preons, and nucleons from up and down quarks. The model for atomic structure developed using these fundamental and derived sub-atomic particles is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model based upon the monopole electrons and protons. It provides a strong correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do. The model also provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral issues such as EMR, electricity and Gravity are covered in the appendices to reduce distractions within the body of the paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[1416] viXra:1811.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 14:01:03

Principia Physica

Authors: Peter Schuttevaar
Comments: 25 pages english text, submitted as a request for peer review

A hypothetical phenomenon Bp is introduced as a building block of all physical reality. The Bp has a velocity, a charge and an inertia. The magnitudes of the charge and the velocity of the Bp are deduced from the behavior of the electrostatic force. The inertia to mass ratio of the Bp is deduced from the characteristics of a photon. There is also an a-symmetry between two types of Bp, namely Bh and Bl, resulting in a dependency of its velocity and charge on its mass. The nature of this dependency is deduced from the behavior of the neutron. Then the deduced properties are used to theorize about the structure, the dimension and the gyro-magnetic ratio of the electron, proton and neutron, as well as their anti-particles. It shows that particles that are constructed of Bp’s conform to observed reality, such as their gyro-magnetic ratio and their behavior within the structure of an atom. In the course of former deductions, a number of theoretical innovations are developed and integrated in a coherent theoretical framework. There is for example a general formal relation between the mass of a particle and its size (any particle, not just the photon). As another example, the electrostatic as well as the electrodynamical interaction are modeled as phenomena that emerge from a common underlying dynamical interaction, integrating them in a more thorough manner than is currently the state of the art. The general significance of the proposed theoretical framework is in validating a significant theoretical simplification of particle physics, that can enable advancement in a number of disciplines, especially in nuclear physics, where contemporary modeling techniques are known to be very complex.
Category: Classical Physics

[1415] viXra:1811.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-18 08:15:32

Press or Expanding Force on a Charged Object Located in a Special Zero Electric Field

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper, combining Newton’s third law, the interaction conditions are analyzed for the system that a negative charged conductor ball is located inside a uniformly negative charged spherical shell. Under the premise of not violating Newton’s third law, interesting phenomena are predicted. They are against current widely accepted recognition in electrostatics, such as a non-zero electric field exists in a charged conductor under the special electrostatic equilibrium.
Category: Classical Physics

[1414] viXra:1811.0280 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-19 04:48:45

The Motion of a Liquid with Constant and Variable Volume( Whirlwinds and Tea Leaf Paradox)

Authors: Viktor Strohm
Comments: 6 Pages.

A set of experiments is presented. The two main types of the movement of incompressible liquid were investigated. In the first case liquid moved with no changes in volume. The elastic deformation made liquid move. In the second case a formation of curl took place during the expansion of the liquid getting an additional kinetic energy. Some formulas modeling curl's evolution were derived.
Category: Classical Physics

[1413] viXra:1811.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 01:27:55

The Butterfly Effect and the Electron

Authors: David Lindsay Johnson
Comments: Conclusions on page 34

Benjamin Franklin considered electricity to be analogous to a fluid, labelling objects containing high levels of electricity as having a negative charge and those with low levels a positive charge. In 1897 J.J. Thomson's cathode ray tube experiments identified electrons, and adopting Franklins’s negative charge convention, he determined their charge-by-mass-ratio (e/m), which contributed significantly to the development of the orbital nuclear model of the atom. Dirac’s equations, so important to the development of Quantum Mechanics, are predicated by a mathematical definition of an electron in terms of an electric point monopole with a negative charge, thus re-enforcing the monopole electron concept. Although since the mid 1960’s nucleons have been considered to be hadrons consisting of up and down quarks, protons are still represented as positively charged monopole particles within the nucleus, maintaining the strong co-dependency between the nuclear model and mono pole charged particles.   A toroidal ring model for the electron was first proposed by Alfred Lauck Parson in 1915, variations of which provide a feasible alternative to the monopole concept of the electron. This paper explores implications of adopting a toroidal rather than a monopole model for the electron (the flutter of a butterfly’s wing) and extends the toroidal concept to include Preons, the sub-components of quarks, and thus of nucleons. The resulting atomic structure model is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model (hence the Butterfly Effect). It provides strong correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do. The model also provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral issues such as EMR, electricity and Gravity are covered in the appendices to reduce distractions within the body of the paper. The implications for Physics and Chemistry theory and practice of simply re-defining the structure of the electron are significant, particularly if the toroidal structure proves to be valid, and demonstrates the major impact of quite minor changes to basic assumptions.
Category: Classical Physics

[1412] viXra:1811.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-15 14:07:07

Self-Standing End-Fed Electrically Quasi-Uniform Linear Arrays: Analysis, Design, Construction, Measurements and FLOSS

Authors: K. Th. Kondylis, N. I. Yannopoulou, P. E. Zimourtopoulos
Comments: 20 Pages.

Based on the analysis presented by the authors in their previous work for end-fed space arrays, where an application to geometrically uniform self-standing linear arrays of parallel dipoles was given, this paper presents the results of a single driving-point, self-standing, fully uniform linear array, that is one which has electrical uniformity, as well as, an application to the constrained pattern design. During the synthesis process and due to the multiplicity of solutions resulting from the complex analytical relations given here, the criterion of Electrically Quasi-Uniform Linear Array EQ-ULA was introduced. An experimental array model was designed, simulated, constructed, and its three main-plane radiation patterns were measured. The measurements were found in good agreement with analytical, computational, and theoretical results, and thus the proposed technique was experimentally proved. The developed software applications are available as FLOSS Free Libre Open Source Software.
Category: Classical Physics

[1411] viXra:1811.0205 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 11:55:31

Increase of Reliability of Escalators at Metro Stations

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

The reason of frequent repairs of escalators is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[1410] viXra:1811.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-12 07:04:54

Unresolved Question of the Piloted Astronautics

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

The question of adaptation to zero gravity is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[1409] viXra:1811.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 05:55:54

Gravity Between Moving Masses

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this paper, a previously unknown form of gravity is presented what has been named by "dy- namic gravity". Under dynamic gravity, we mean the phenomenon of gravitation between moving masses. The nearly 300-year success of the Newtonian gravitation theory has always been based on the implicit assumption that the gravitational force is the same size between standing and moving masses in non-relativistic cases. In the 1990s, gravitational experiments were carried out in Hungary in which the gravitational eects were studied between moving masses. Surprisingly, the moving source masses generated more powerful gravitational force than expected by the Newtonian gravity. In addition, in these experiments gravitational repulsion also appeared with the same strength as the attraction, depending on the moving directions of the interactive masses. The theoretical investigations have shown that the newly explored gravitational phenomenon is direct consequence of the special relativity. Keywords: experimental gravity, dynamic gravity, special relativity, physical pendulum, speed-dependent gravity
Category: Classical Physics

[1408] viXra:1811.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-10 19:50:44

AI Physics - Atomic Structure

Authors: Brian Strom
Comments: 15 Pages.

With the help of Artificial Intelligence (AI) and Deep Learning, the structure of the atom is computed from the results of established experiments on ionization energies and spectral emissions. The AI searches for trends and patterns in the ionization energy levels – when electrons are energized to escape from an atom. The AI first observes that the “depth” of the atomic Potential Energy Well is directly proportional to the number of protons in the nucleus, but is not dependent on the number of neutrons. The AI computes the energy levels for a “multi-layered ball” of electrons in a Potential Energy Well, and compares them to the ionization energy levels and electron depths. It identifies close similarities and proposes that electrons simply fill the three-dimensional atomic Potential Energy Well around the nucleus – loosely-packed for the lighter elements, and more tightly-packed for the heavier elements. The AI concludes that electrons are much larger than we presently imagine.
Category: Classical Physics

[1407] viXra:1811.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 01:20:23

An Ideal About the Forces

Authors: Jianping Mao
Comments: 2 Pages.

All of the forces may be a reflection of electromagnetic force in different scales, if the opposite charges attract was very faintly larger than like charges repel.
Category: Classical Physics

[1406] viXra:1811.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 09:51:42

New Concept of Conservation Laws

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 3 pages

In contemporary physics a conservation law states that the total sum of particular measurable properties of an isolated physical system remains constant over time. This statement is incomplete. This article formulates a complete set of conservation laws.
Category: Classical Physics

[1405] viXra:1811.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 11:37:35

Force on an Electric Current Flowing Through the Inner Area of a Long Uniformly Cylindrical Shell Current

Authors: Yannan Yang
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is generally considered that an electric current does not experience any force when it flows through any area where the magnetic field is zero and any places having zero magnetic fields are identical in magnetism. However, if Newton’s third law works, an electric current must feel a pressure or expansibility when it flowing through the inside area of a uniformly cylindrical shell current, where the magnetic field is zero. Concerning the pressure or expansibility on an electric current, the zero magnetic field area inside a long uniformly cylindrical shell current is not identical in magnetism with the absolute zero magnetic field which is far away from any magnetic sources.
Category: Classical Physics

[1404] viXra:1811.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 02:36:46

Multiverse Shrinkage with C Speed

Authors: Aurelian Dan Ivan
Comments: 2 Pages.

The notions of length, mass and time are the result of sensory perception. Physics is based on images created by us through observation and transmitted for mathematical or experimental confirmations. In modern physics and cosmology, what could not be noticed, being below or above the limit of observation of our instruments, are simple hypotheses that mathematical sciences have to confirm. We evaluate the cosmic space in terms of objects, bodies and particles, dividing the universe into a macrocosm and a microcosm, and establishing absolute results for distances and relative masses, which is illogical. The multiverse is infinite and consists of an infinite number of universes The multiverse is composed of multiverse elements The multiverse elements are perceived by humans as a substance or field function within the human observation . The measures of multiverse elements space-time dimensions, tend to mathematically 0. Applying number 0 to physics formulas is erroneous, except for addition and decrease operations, this being only a neutral element to add; the defining property of 0 is that 0 + a = a for all numbers a. The expressions "something / 0 = infinite" and "something x 0 = 0" can not describe the physical reality. The multiverse is shrinking by changing the scale. The shrinking takes place across the entire space and temporal scale, thus preserving our perception of the relative scale of the universe and of all the multiverse elements that make up at one point. For disqus : daurelian52@gmail.com
Category: Classical Physics

[1403] viXra:1811.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 10:10:48

R (T) in Integral Representation

Authors: Zafer Sah
Comments: 22 Pages.

The location coordinate in free fall is brought into a harmonic form. This results in an elementary representation that would appear in almost every physics book.
Category: Classical Physics

[1402] viXra:1811.0042 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-04 03:31:05

Some Suggestions in Modern Physics.

Authors: Durgadas Datta.
Comments: 2 Pages. Hints for a new Quantum Physics.

Re looking Modern Physics.
Category: Classical Physics

[1401] viXra:1810.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 08:47:59

Energy Velocity and Reactive Fields

Authors: Hans G. Schantz
Comments: 15 Pages. Philos Trans A Roy Soc (London) Published 29 October 2018. DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2017.0453

Conventional definitions of “near fields” set bounds that describe where near fields may be found. These definitions tell us nothing about what near fields are, why they exist, or how they work. In 1893, Heaviside derived the electromagnetic energy velocity for plane waves. Subsequent work demonstrated that although energy moves in synchronicity with radiated electromagnetic fields at the speed of light, in reactive fields the energy velocity slows down, converging to zero in the case of static fields. Combining Heaviside's energy velocity relation with the field Lagrangian yields a simple parameterization for the reactivity of electromagnetic fields that provides profound insights to the behaviour of electromagnetic systems. Fields guide energy. As waves interfere, they guide energy along paths that may be substantially different from the trajectories of the waves themselves. The results of this paper not only resolve the long standing paradox of runaway acceleration from radiation reaction, but also make clear that pilot wave theory is the natural and logical consequence of the need for quantum mechanics to correspond to the macroscopic results of classical electromagnetic theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1400] viXra:1810.0506 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 12:33:04

The Maxwell-Heaviside Equations

Authors: Antoine Acke
Comments: 29 Pages.

According to the gravitoelectromagnetic description of the gravitational phenomena, the Maxwell-Heaviside equations (GEM equations) govern the gravitational field. In this article these equations are mathematically deduced from the kinematics of the “informatons”, that – according to the “theory of informatons” - are the constituent elements of that field. It is also shown that the GEM equations are mathematically consistent and that they imply the existence of gravitational waves.
Category: Classical Physics

[1399] viXra:1810.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 06:55:52

Conditions for Stable Equilibrium of the Upright Human Body in the Presence of External Influence

Authors: Karlo Moistrapishvili
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper is a continuation of the earlier work, which considered the stable equilibrium of upright human body in the absence of external factors. External forces are introduced herein, which may disturb the stable equilibrium and cause the body to tumble. The paper also introduces the concept of the coefficient of the stable equilibrium and proposes a formula for its calculation. Finally, a formula is set up to obtain the maximum value of external forces under which the body still maintains the state of equilibrium.
Category: Classical Physics

[1398] viXra:1810.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 14:19:49

Time, Information and Memory

Authors: Kaushik Kumar Majumdar
Comments: 27 Pages. It should be in Computer Science / Information Theory category

In this work we present a unified mathematical framework, under which time, information and memory are represented. This framework is multidimensional real manifolds. Clock is a system in which a particle traverses the real line (a one dimensional manifold) in uniform velocity. Time is indicated by the position of the particle. Information is represented by the deformation of a multidimensional manifold. This deformation takes some time to take place, during which information is created (encoded) dynamically. When the deformation in the manifold is preserved over time it is called memory. Preservation over short period of time is short term memory and over long period of time is long term memory. Information as deformation of manifold accommodates both Shannon type (information as random occurrence of coded data, devoid of meaning) and semantic type (information as the meaning of data, where the meaning may or may not be unique). Accommodating codons, the unit of genetic information, in this unified framework is very challenging and left as an open problem. If this can be achieved we will get a framework in which it will become possible to study how information encoded in the gene manifests through proteins expression in an organism. Several real life applications of the study have been highlighted.
Category: Classical Physics

[1397] viXra:1810.0387 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-23 11:15:41

Quantum Entanglement and Multispace Conception

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 7pages, 5 figures

In contemporary physics space is the boundless, three-dimensional extent in which objects and events occur, i.e., a large container and the force field is a part of space where force acts. In contradiction to this very basic principle of contemporary physics we here propose a new concept that space and physical force field are mutually dependent entities of the same phenomena. If the force field does not exist, then the corresponding space does not exist either. And vice verse, if space does not exist, there is no force field present. Therefore each force field is associated with a separate space, which we call eigenspace. Objects which carry several force fields form several eigenspaces, for example, an electron has gravitation eigenspace, electric eigenspace and magnetic eigenspace. Particles in one eigenspace can be entangled, while in another eigenspace they must be separated in large distances, for example, photons entangled in the electromagnetic eigenspace can be separated in the gravitation eigenspace. All eigenspaces except gravitation eigenspace are separated for direct observation. In this sense they are Einstein “hidden variables”.
Category: Classical Physics

[1396] viXra:1810.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 11:17:30

Ether Theory of Everything

Authors: Aleksei Morozov
Comments: 73 Pages.

Ether Theory of Everything (aka Ether Theory) is Ether Theory of Relativity of Gravity and Magnetism, HyperAtomic Model, Ether Quantum Mechanics, Ether Cosmology, HyperAtomic Reactor, Ether Neural Network.
Category: Classical Physics

[1395] viXra:1810.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-22 11:22:49

Эфирная Теория Всего

Authors: Morozov Aleksey Aleksandrovich
Comments: 73 Pages. In Russian

Эфирная Теория Всего (или Эфирная Теория) - это Эфирная Теория Относительности Гравитации и Магнетизма, ГиперАтомная Модель, Эфирная Квантовая Механика, Эфирная Космология, ГиперАтомный Реактор, Эфирная Нейронная Сеть.
Category: Classical Physics

[1394] viXra:1810.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-21 09:06:47

A Resolution Of The Catt Anomaly.

Authors: Chan Rasjid Kah Chew
Comments: 7 Pages.

The Catt anomaly - more correctly the ‘Catt Question’ - was posed by Ivor Catt since 1982. It was initially posed to two Cambridge professors in electromagnetism who gave contradictory resolutions. None provided answers to explained why two authorities gave contradictory answers. Over the years, some attempts have been made but they did not seem to have been satisfactory. As recent as 2013, two Italian professors M. Pieraccini and S. Selleri attempted yet another resolution published in the journal Physics Education. From the critique by Stephen J. Crothers, this attempt too may be unsatisfactory. The author here gives an answer to the Catt question that is based only on classical electromagnetic theory. Through investigation on the Catt question, a concomitant observation have been made that electrical interactions and electric power transfer over conducting conductors all are based on instantaneous_action_at_a_distance’.
Category: Classical Physics

[1393] viXra:1810.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-20 05:05:17

Merging Mathematical and Physical Models

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

University of Illinois Professor Harry Hilton brought together several mathematical and physical theories to help look at problems in more unified ways and solve physical engineering problems. [21] A team of physicists from RUDN, JINR (Dubna), and the University of Hamburg (Germany) developed a mathematical model for describing physical processes in hybrid systems that consists of atoms and ions cooled down to temperatures close to absolute zero. [20] Recently, extensive study shows that the parity-time symmetry breaking in open systems leads to exceptional points, promising for novel applications leasers and sensing. [19] A recent discovery by William & Mary and University of Michigan researchers transforms our understanding of one of the most important laws of modern physics. [18] Now, a team of physicists from The University of Queensland and the NÉEL Institute has shown that, as far as quantum physics is concerned, the chicken and the egg can both come first. [17] In 1993, physicist Lucien Hardy proposed an experiment showing that there is a small probability (around 6-9%) of observing a particle and its antiparticle interacting with each other without annihilating—something that is impossible in classical physics. [16] Scientists at the University of Geneva (UNIGE), Switzerland, recently reengineered their data processing, demonstrating that 16 million atoms were entangled in a one-centimetre crystal. [15] The fact that it is possible to retrieve this lost information reveals new insight into the fundamental nature of quantum measurements, mainly by supporting the idea that quantum measurements contain both quantum and classical components. [14]
Category: Classical Physics

[1392] viXra:1810.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-17 11:49:34

Matter and Its Origin

Authors: Louis Rancourt
Comments: 66 Pages. refer to paper Further Experiments Demonstrating the Effect of Light on Gravitation

Following experimental results of the effect of light on gravity, a possible explanation of this effect and on matter itself.
Category: Classical Physics

[1391] viXra:1810.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-18 01:28:16

The Tides. Necessary Correction

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 1 Page. -

Correction according to the remark made by the reader is executed
Category: Classical Physics

[1390] viXra:1810.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 05:46:04

The Sea Tides in the Offered Explanation

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

The physical explanation of really observed phenomenon - the sea and ocean tides is offered.
Category: Classical Physics

[1389] viXra:1810.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-13 03:34:36

Action Without Counteraction. Magic Physics of A.a. Grishayev

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

The comment to "Sketches for new physics"
Category: Classical Physics

[1388] viXra:1810.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-11 08:58:09

Correction of the First Law of Motion of Newtonian Mechanics

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 2 Pages.

From the proposal of law of inertia to the present, we have never doubted its correctness. In fact, inertia exists objectively, while Galileo and Newton's definition of inertia is wrong. Therefore, I made a correction here.
Category: Classical Physics

[1387] viXra:1810.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 11:20:06

Cargo Cult Science – Electromagnetic Wave Fundamentals

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 11 Pages.

Electromagnetic fundamentals are being tagged herein as cargo cult science because they are based upon incomplete information. The scientific community assumes it has a correct grasp of electromagnetic fundamentals even though Maxwell, Hertz and contemporary scientists have not identified some of the basic characteristics of the electromagnetic wave phenomenon. Maxwell did not know of the existence of electrons when he developed his equations describing the characteristics of electromagnetic waves, but he was aware of the existence of charged particles and action at a distance. An error made early in the study of electromagnetic waves, and ignored to this day, has compromised scientists understanding of electromagnetic characteristics and other physical laws.
Category: Classical Physics

[1386] viXra:1810.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-11 03:41:42

Consideration of Parallel Universe

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

I put memos and letters in the Tesla coil and I am hoping that it will fly in the past and change the present. It might be like a dream. However, since there is only this method, I am challenging it.
Category: Classical Physics

[1385] viXra:1810.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 06:03:52

Gyroscopic Effects

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 6 Pages. -

The physical explanation of change of weight of the rotating gyroscopes is offered
Category: Classical Physics

[1384] viXra:1810.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-10 02:18:06

Exponential-Grating Monochromator

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 7 Pages.

A monochromator optical design is described, which comprises a grazing-incidence reflection grating and two grazing-incidence mirrors, one on each side of the grating. The grating operates in conical diffraction mode and has an exponential phase function, so that the wavelength can be scanned by translating the grating surface in the phase-gradient direction. The wavelength can be continuously tuned over a wide spectral range while maintaining zero-aberration performance over the full range, and perfect blazing is also achieved over the full illumination aperture at all wavelengths.
Category: Classical Physics

[1383] viXra:1810.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-08 11:59:08

From Maxwell’s Equations to Electro-Magnetic Waves

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 5 Pages.

This article shows how Electro-Magnetic source and wave are related and why the propagation velocity of light in vacuum is c, exclusively relative to its source.
Category: Classical Physics

[1382] viXra:1810.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-04 05:16:35

Eigenfrequency Determination of Biocells by a Multibioresonance Treatment Device

Authors: Un Sok Baek, Phyongchol Ri, Kwang Chol Jon, Chon Il Jo, Hi Hang An
Comments: 9 Pages.

Now a great interest has been attracted to the study on the physiological and the pathological eigenfrequency of the given biocell for bioresonance treatment. Until now few method for determining of eigenfrequency has been introduced, while some known eigenfrequencies are also considered to be different by each researcher. As shown in previous studies, under a certain external electromagnetic vibration, physiological eigenfrequency becomes larger while pathological eigenfrequency becomes smaller. Bioresonance treatment is just based on this simple principle. In this paper a method for determining the most important eigenfrequency of given biocell based on continuous variation of frequency has been presented, which can be effectively used in multi-bioresonance treatment equipments.
Category: Classical Physics

[1381] viXra:1809.0579 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-29 18:49:55

Electrostatic Accelerated Electrons Within Information Horizons Exert Bidirectional Propellant-Less Thrust

Authors: Ankur S. Bhatt, F.M. Becker
Comments: 26 Pages.

During internal discharge (electrical breakdown or field emission transmission), thin symmetric capacitors accelerate slightly towards the anode, in contradiction to standard physics. The effect can be predicted by core concepts of a model called quantised inertia (also known as MiHsC) which assumes inertia of accelerated particles, such as electrons, is caused by Unruh radiation. This discrete Unruh radiation forms standing waves between the particle’s boundaries to a Rindler horizon and a confinement horizon, which are established based on special relativity in concert with quantum mechanics. Electrons accelerate toward the anode and are assumed to encounter an inhomogenous Unruh radiation condition causing a force suggested by a modification to their inertial mass. To conserve momentum, the overall mechanical system moves in the direction of the anode. This resulting force is assumed to be caused by an energy gradient in between the confinement and the Rindler zone and its equation is derived directly from the uncertainty principle. Various thicknesses of discharging capacitors are compared to show the agreement between the experimental findings and a virtual particle oscillation associated with a standing wave energy gradient hypothesis.
Category: Classical Physics

[1380] viXra:1809.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 13:23:42

Helical Solenoid Model of the Electron

Authors: Oliver Consa
Comments: 10 Pages.

A new semiclassical model of the electron with helical solenoid geometry is presented. This new model is an extension of both the Parson Ring Model and the Hestenes Zitterbewegung Model. This model interprets the Zitterbewegung as a real motion that generates the electron’s rotation (spin) and its magnetic moment. In this new model, the g-factor appears as a consequence of the electron’s geometry while the quantum of magnetic flux and the quantum Hall resistance are obtained as model parameters. The Helical Solenoid Electron Model necessarily implies that the electron has a toroidal moment, a feature that is not predicted by Quantum Mechanics. The predicted toroidal moment can be tested experimentally to validate or discard this proposed model.
Category: Classical Physics

[1379] viXra:1809.0566 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 13:25:15

The Helicon: A New Preon Model

Authors: Oliver Consa
Comments: 5 Pages.

A new preon model is presented as an extension of the semiclassical Helical Solenoid Electron Model that was previously proposed by the author. This helicon model assumes as postulates both the Atomic Principle and the equality between matter and electric charge. These postulates lead us to a radical reinterpretation of the concepts of antimatter and dark matter and form a new framework for future preon theories.
Category: Classical Physics

[1378] viXra:1809.0537 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-26 17:21:57

A Hidden Circle in the Paths of a Family of Projectiles

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is already known that an ellipse passes through the apexes of a family of the parabolic paths of projectiles shot from a point with constant speed but different angles of projection. In this article we describe a method to show that a circle passes through the focii of such a family of projectile paths whose center is the point of projection. In this method, we don’t use vectors, or calculus or Newton’s laws of motion.
Category: Classical Physics

[1377] viXra:1809.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-24 01:50:25

On the Speed of Light and Continuity of Physical Vacuum

Authors: Anatoly V. Belyakov
Comments: 3 Pages.

It is shown that the speed of light can be calculated on the basis of the velocity equation of the waves propagating along a liquid surface. This gives reason to believe that the vacuum medium, being discrete, simultaneously possesses the property of continuity, like the surface of an ideal fluid.
Category: Classical Physics

[1376] viXra:1809.0469 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-22 15:11:02

Spin Radiation from a Rotating Dipole

Authors: Radi Khapko
Comments: 6 Pages. The paper represents an unknown physical phenomenon

When the canonical spin tensor is used, a spin is detected along the axis of rotation of a rotating electric dipole. Early this spin radiation was obtained by Feynman in the frame of quantum mechanics. The magnitude of the spin flux is half the flux of the angular momentum that is emitted by a rotating dipole, according to modern electrodynamics, and this angular momentum flux is recognized here as an orbital angular momentum. Thus, the total angular momentum flux exceeds 1.5 times the value now recognized. It is shown that the torque experienced by a rotating dipole from the field is equal in magnitude to this total angular momentum flux
Category: Classical Physics

[1375] viXra:1809.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-21 02:46:46

Accurate Tool Servo Control for Precision Diamond Turning

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 4 Pages.

The accuracy of precision diamond turning is limited by stage interferometers, which do not provide a direct measure of the cutting tool proximity to the workpiece or the depth of cut. When making shallow trim cuts on a previously machined part, accuracy can be greatly increased by using a proximity or depth sensor on or close to the tool for position servo control. Further improvements in both surface form and finish can be made by machining a pattern into a sacrificial layer, which is then transferred into the workpiece by a selective etch process. These techniques are particularly useful for EUV and X-ray mirrors and gratings.
Category: Classical Physics

[1374] viXra:1809.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-21 03:24:02

A More Exact G Gravitational Constant Value Established by Dimensional Analysis

Authors: Teodor Ognean
Comments: 8 Pages.

A more exact G gravitational constant value was established by dimensional analysis. This more exact value is equal to 6.674092281∙10^-11 m^3 kg^-1 s^-2. This result was obtained based on the values of the Planck constant, the Avogadro constant and the Boltzmann constant that will be recommended, in November 2018, by the 26th meeting of the General Conference on Weights and Measures (CGPM). These constants will be considered, by a resolution of the CGPM, to have exact values. On the base of these exact values, the gravitational constant G is established by calculus. At the same time, the dimensional analysis presented in this article highlights very interesting aspects with respect to the mass.
Category: Classical Physics

[1373] viXra:1809.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-21 03:41:02

Combined Theory Of time

Authors: Suraj Deshmukh
Comments: 51 Pages. Contains illustrations.

In this theory I have represented time in a new manner, it treats time to be isolated. After the isolated consideration we merge it with space. In this document we will find a solution to grandfather paradox. We will make a mathematical approach in some other document.
Category: Classical Physics

[1372] viXra:1809.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-19 18:16:46

The Theories Of The Graviton Part One: The Classical Framework of the Particle’s Nature and Mechanics

Authors: Noah MacKay, Aaron Bain
Comments: 18 Pages. Undergraduate Independent Study

Gravitons are the quantum particles of gravity that, if proven to exist, would potentially connect quantum mechanics with gravitation. This particular paper, however, mostly describes the particle’s nature and mechanics in the framework of classical physics: the same framework in which General Relativity was formulated. Although a classically-dominant perspective of gravitonic nature and mechanics, both quantum and classical physics are used to propose theorems, and to suppose two main considerations of the graviton: 1) The roles of the quantum graviton are vital in the overall nature of classical gravitation, 2) the particles contribute to the formation and potential energy of gravitational waves.
Category: Classical Physics

[1371] viXra:1809.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-20 02:23:32

Lunar Capture Theory from the Point of Vortical Celestial Mechanics

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 2 Pages.

Attraction of two planetary vortices of different spins allow lunar capture to proceed less dramatic.
Category: Classical Physics

[1370] viXra:1809.0365 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-18 09:55:34

Physical Quantity Mass a Scalar or a Vector? Mass Virtual and Real

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

The scalar or vector sense of physical quantity of mass is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[1369] viXra:1809.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 23:01:22

The Problem of Identity of Scalar Models of Gravity and Elasticity.

Authors: Oleg Tcherepanov
Comments: 23 Pages.

Using the principle of virtual scale, it was possible to obtain new solutions to a number of problems of mechanics as the first section of General physics. The identical transformation of the known rules and laws of classical science modifies the formulas into scalar structures of six special numbers. The context of the proposed theory consists of non-standard Metrology, scalar mechanics and physics without artifacts. They can be found in the published monographs ISBN 978-3-659-60213-9, ISBN 978-3-659-74415-9 and articles vixra: 1503.0037, vixra: 1807.0458, vixra: 1808.0182, vixra: 1808.0631.
Category: Classical Physics

[1368] viXra:1809.0295 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 01:16:04

Physical Sense of Force and Mass

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Force and mass - scalars or vectors?
Category: Classical Physics

[1367] viXra:1809.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 01:33:08

With What the Physics Begins …

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 7 Pages. -

The laws of the Newtonian mechanics defining physical concepts of forces and masses are considere
Category: Classical Physics

[1366] viXra:1809.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-15 01:44:30

As there Are Scientific Delusions. Principles of Physics

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 7 Pages. -

The axiomatic fundamentals of theoretical physics … have to be freely invented
Category: Classical Physics

[1365] viXra:1809.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 01:39:21

Clarity or Intentional Intricacy? Science Philosophy

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 9 Pages. -

Separate examples of scientific worldview
Category: Classical Physics

[1364] viXra:1809.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 01:53:26

Reasons of Rotation of Planets

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

Explanation of rotation of planets law of classical physics
Category: Classical Physics

[1363] viXra:1809.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 02:09:03

As there Are Scientific Delusions

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 24 Pages. -

On the example of classical physics. Description of rotation
Category: Classical Physics

[1362] viXra:1809.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 09:21:05

The Ellipse Circle Ellipse Property of Projectile Motion

Authors: Radhakrishnamurty Padyala
Comments: 5 Pages.

Recently we gave an alternate method to show the presence of an ellipse in the paths of projectiles, to the method given by Fernandez-Chapou and coworkers. Our method demonstrated that particles dropped from points of a circle in a vertical plane on to the horizontal diameter and reflected through 90 degrees by mirrors halfway on their paths, follow parabolic trajectories and that the apexes of these parabolic paths lie on an ellipse. In this article we give a similar procedure to show that particles dropped from points of an ellipse in a vertical plane to the horizontal (minor) axis but reflected through 90 degrees by mirrors halfway on their paths, follow parabolic trajectories and that the apexes of these parabolic paths lie on a circle. From this circle we can generate another ellipse by a similar procedure as above. This ‘circle-ellipse-circle–ellipse-…’ cycle is a representation of the ‘birth-death-birth-death-…’ cycle. It is a representation of the ‘parent-child-parent-child-…’ cycle of living organisms. These cycles have no beginning and no end. They exhibit the beauty of symmetry of Natural law. We don’t use vectors or calculus or Newton’s laws in our method. We follow Galileo’s tradition, use geometry principles in our analysis.
Category: Classical Physics

[1361] viXra:1809.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 19:10:09

In Support of a New Gravitational Model

Authors: Richard A Peters
Comments: 41 Pages.

If gravity is mediated by the exchange of gravitons between objects, then the acceleration of an object toward a gravitational body (GB) is proportional to the graviton flux emitted by the GB that impinges on the object. Any motion of the object relative to the GB will affect the graviton flux from the GB on the object. The acceleration of the object relative to the GB will thus depend on both the object’s distance from the object and its motion relative to the GB. This behavior defies the known acceleration profile that is absent any factor of the velocity of an object in the gravitational field. If an object were directly subject to gravity, the gravitational field of a GB could not be characterized, as it is known to be, solely as a function of the active gravitational mass and distance of the GB. The only mechanism that can be invoked to nullify the certain and irrefutable effect of the augmentation of graviton flux by the velocity of an object toward a GB is one that denies altogether the direct effect of graviton flux on the acceleration of an object in a gravitational field. In simpler terms: massive objects are not directly subject to gravity! The Temporal InertiaI (TI) field model of gravity and inertia is a conjecture of this author. The TI field acts as an intermediary in the transmission of the gravitational force between objects. Particles of the TI field are directly subject to gravity but objects are not. An object is accelerated toward a GB at the same rate as the TI field. The TI field supports the propagation of gravitons. No matter how the TI field moves, the velocity of gravitons is constant relative to the TI field, hence there is no increase in graviton flux as the TI field moves toward a GB except for the increase in graviton flux caused by the proximity to the GB.
Category: Classical Physics

[1360] viXra:1809.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 19:10:58

Final-State-Diagram of Quadratic Iterator Topologically Equivalent with an Eddy's Decay-Cascade in Turbulent Fluids

Authors: Udo E. Steinemann
Comments: 7 Pages.

This article refers to the paper http://vixra.org/abs/1801.0037, "Turbulence as structured Route of Energy from Order into Chaos", published by Udo E. Steinemann (vixra.org, Category: Physics, Classical Physics, 121801[2]). Within Conclusion of the referenced text a statement was made: "This way a picture about an eddy's decay can be drawn as a well structured route of energy from order into chaos, similar to those of many other dynamical systems too". The current text will give additional explanations to this statement. The current text will sketch the way entrance to chaos is shown for the quadratic iterator and how the major outcomes from this perception can be used in addition to the above mentioned article.
Category: Classical Physics

[1359] viXra:1809.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-10 22:47:19

Maxwell-type Theory for Non-uniformly Moving Electric Charge

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 16 Pages. A mathematic approach for electrodynamics of non-uniform moving charge

In this article, we propose a mathematic approach to study the effects of accelerating charges. We postulate and demonstrate mathematically that the acceleration of electric charges generate new N and M fields. The N and M field equations are supplement to Maxwell equations, and have the similar forms as that of Maxwell equations. The effect of the N and M fields is to vary the Lorentz force with time, and have the similar forms as that of Lorentz force. The N and M fields propagate as waves. The N and M fields due to accelerating charges exist mathematically. We suggest that those new fields are worth to be systematically studied experimentally. The study of those new fields might open a new window.
Category: Classical Physics

[1358] viXra:1809.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 00:55:28

Correction of Physics. Work and Energy

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 17 Pages. -

Vector sense of work
Category: Classical Physics

[1357] viXra:1809.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 18:15:22

Maxwell Equations Re-derived Mathematically

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 5 Pages. The world is built mathematically

In this article, by applying Gauss/Coulomb’s law, we re-derive mathematically the whole set of Maxwell equations, which means that, as long as a charge satisfies Gauss/Coulomb’s law, the uniform motion of the charge generates inevitably a magnetic field and an axial electric field. This fact is predetermined mathematically.
Category: Classical Physics

[1356] viXra:1809.0172 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-08 08:19:32

Dynamic Gravity Experiment with Physical Pendulum

Authors: Dezso Sarkadi
Comments: 6 Pages.

In recent decades, several methods significantly different from the classic method of the Cavendish torsion balance have been developed and used for measuring the gravitational constant G. Unfortunately, the new de-terminations of G have not reduced significantly its uncertainty. It seems that in recent times, the accuracy prob-lem for the gravitational constant has not been the focus. This paper presents a new type gravity experiment used a big and heavy physical pendulum, not for a newest gravitational constant measure, but for the study of special gravitational effects encountered accidentally. Surprisingly strong gravitational effects have been observed between moving masses. We have named the whole new group of gravitational phenomena by "dynamic gravity". Despite the simplicity of our gravity experiment, the observed extraordinary results could lead to an unexpected revolution in gravity science.
Category: Classical Physics

[1355] viXra:1809.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-08 23:49:57

Anti-Gravitation. Loss of Weight the Moving Subject

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

Gravitation Elimination without excessive expenses of energy
Category: Classical Physics

[1354] viXra:1809.0154 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-07 18:24:10

What is Mass?

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a brief definition of mass
Category: Classical Physics

[1353] viXra:1809.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-08 03:41:10

Weightlessness Principle

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

The physical principle of weightlessness (anti-gravity) on the basis of classical mechanics theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[1352] viXra:1809.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 05:35:51

Pierwsza Prędkość Kosmiczna a Siła Coriolisa ### The First Cosmic Velocity and The Coriolis Force

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 4 Pages. In Polish

Pokazano, że wartość pierwszej prędkości kosmicznej satelity krążącego po orbicie kołowej w płaszczyźnie równikowej wirującej Ziemi jest mniejsza w kierunku wschodnim niż w kierunku zachodnim. Efekt ten spowodowany jest przez siły bezwładności – odśrodkową i Coriolisa. ### It was shown that the value of the first cosmic velocity of a satellite moving in a circular orbit in the equatorial plane of the rotating Earth is smaller in the easterly direction than in the westerly direction. This effect is caused by inertial forces – centrifugal and Coriolis.
Category: Classical Physics

[1351] viXra:1809.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 05:39:57

The First Cosmic Velocity and The Coriolis Force

Authors: Zbigniew Osiak
Comments: 4 Pages.

It was shown that the value of the first cosmic velocity of a satellite moving in a circular orbit in the equatorial plane of the rotating Earth is smaller in the easterly direction than in the westerly direction. This effect is caused by inertial forces – centrifugal and Coriolis.
Category: Classical Physics

[1350] viXra:1809.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 14:14:10

Względność Ruchu

Authors: Dariusz Dudało
Comments: 1 Page.

Względność ruchu
Category: Classical Physics

[1349] viXra:1809.0082 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 23:51:37

On the Fundamental Constants

Authors: Steve P Smith
Comments: 4 Pages.

It is assumed by modern physics that there exists no theory which can predict the values of the fundamental physical constants. This assumption however is incorrect as there is undoubtedly an underlying connection between the constants being that of angular momentum. In particular the angular momentum of the electron in the hydrogen atom which appears to obey the laws of Kepler. It may be considered that the model of hydrogen as suggested by Bohr, is not an accurate representation however it would appear that the origin of many of the constants appear to rely upon the orbital model. This paper will illustrate this connection and correctly predicts all of the values of the physical constants with accuracy, equal to or greater than that of the currently accepted and published values . As a consequence of this the orbital model of Bohr should be considered in a new light.
Category: Classical Physics

[1348] viXra:1809.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 02:52:21

The Test for Check of Physical Understanding

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 2 Pages. -

Article of the prof. F.M.Kanarev "Small dedebilny gift to school students and students" of http://sciteclibrary.ru/rus/catalog/pages/12882.html is considered in quality of dough for check of physical understanding.
Category: Classical Physics

[1347] viXra:1809.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 08:09:42

Fine Structure Constant at Cosmological Scale

Authors: Alberto Coe
Comments: 2 Pages.

Will describe the ratio between two energies .The energy of photons associated to the cosmic microwave background and the gravitational potential energy of a system of particles (protons and electrons). The value of this ratio is equivalent to the current value of the fine structure constant .
Category: Classical Physics

[1346] viXra:1809.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-05 10:34:06

Quantum Mechanics and the ``emission & Regeneration'' Unified Field Theory.

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 58 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The origin of the limitations of our standard theoretical model is the assumption that the energy of a particle is concentrated at a small volume in space. The limitations are bridged by introducing artificial objects and constructions like particles wave, gluons, strong force, weak force, gravitons, dark matter, dark energy, etc. The proposed approach models subatomic particles such as electrons and positrons as focal points in space where continuously fundamental particles are emitted and absorbed, fundamental particles where the energy of the electron or positron is stored as rotations defining longitudinal and transversal angular momenta (fields). Interaction laws between angular momenta of fundamental particles are postulated in that way, that the basic laws of physics (Coulomb, Ampere, Lorentz, Maxwell, Gravitation, etc.) can be derived from the postulates. This methodology makes sure, that the approach is in accordance with the basic laws of physics, in other words, with well proven experimental data. Due to the dynamical description of the particles the proposed approach has not the limitations of the standard model and is not forced to introduce artificial concepts or constructions. All forces are the product of interactions between angular momenta of fundamental particles (electromagnetic interactions) described by QED. Interactions like QCD and Gauge/Gravity Duality are simply the product of the insufficiencies of the SM and not required.
Category: Classical Physics

[1345] viXra:1809.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 23:24:57

Axiom of Unity of Space-Matter-Time of the Prof. F.M. Kanaryov

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 3 Pages. -

Attempt of the comment
Category: Classical Physics

[1344] viXra:1809.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 23:28:20

The Law of Universal Gravitation at Zero Distance

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 5 Pages. -

The law of Universal gravitation at zero distance between bodies is considered
Category: Classical Physics

[1343] viXra:1809.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 23:54:40

Inertial Reference System

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

Physical definition of an inertial reference system for any pair of interacting bodies is given. The place zero of them is established. This position the only thing calculated on the found formulas
Category: Classical Physics

[1342] viXra:1809.0053 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 23:58:34

Work and Energy – Scalars or Vectors?

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 4 Pages. -

The physical sense of the concept "vector" and its applicability or inapplicability to physical concepts is considered.
Category: Classical Physics

[1341] viXra:1809.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 00:25:16

The Baer's Law and Einstein's Task on Behavior of Tea Leaves

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 10 Pages. -

The reasons of a curvature of river courses are considered. The solution of a task of Einstein on behavior of Tealeaf leaves is proposed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1340] viXra:1809.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-03 00:59:19

The Complete Solution for Existence and Smoothness of Navier-Stokes Equation

Authors: Mihir Kumar Jha
Comments: 7 Pages.

The motive of this paper is to put forward a general solution to Navier-stokes equation which describes the motion of viscous fluid substances, derived by applying Newton’s second law to fluid motion. These equations are the set of coupled differential equations, which are too difficult to solve analytically.
Category: Classical Physics

[1339] viXra:1809.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-02 02:14:10

Medieval Measurement of Time

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 6 Pages. -

Achievable accuracy of medieval temporary measurements is considered.
Category: Classical Physics

[1338] viXra:1809.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-01 05:02:57

Description of Rotation

Authors: A.I.Somsikov
Comments: 6 Pages. -

The logical contradiction of descriptions of rotary and oscillatory movements is revealed. Their consistent description is offered.
Category: Classical Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[544] viXra:1812.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-04 03:23:36

Motion of a Spinning Symmetric Top

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: 53 Pages.

We firstly reviewed the symmetric top problem, then we have solved different possible motions numerically. We have given explanation about the rise of the symmetric top during nutation in terms of torque and angu- lar momentum. We have encountered with previously unnoticed proper- ties of motion and studied them. During the study, calculations gave some surprising results that the symmetric top can change its spin direction.
Category: Classical Physics

[543] viXra:1812.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-29 03:10:21

Motion of a Spinning Symmetric Top

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: 53 Pages.

We firstly reviewed the symmetric top problem, then we have solved different possible motions numerically. We have given explanation about the rise of the symmetric top during nutation in terms of torque and angu- lar momentum. We have encountered with previously unnoticed proper- ties of motion and studied them. During the study, calculations gave some surprising results that the symmetric top can change its spin direction.
Category: Classical Physics

[542] viXra:1812.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-27 07:33:20

Motion of a Spinning Symmetric Top

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: 53 Pages.

We firstly reviewed the symmetric top problem, then we have solved different possible motions numerically. We have given explanation about the rise of the symmetric top during nutation in terms of torque and angu- lar momentum. We have encountered with previously unnoticed proper- ties of motion and studied them. During the study, calculations gave some surprising results that the symmetric top can change its spin direction.
Category: Classical Physics

[541] viXra:1812.0276 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-29 03:06:41

The Photoelectric Effect, Wave-Particle Duality and Atomic Structure

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: 52 pages long: Diamond C-12 model altered and more explanation of bar models.

n 1905 Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" (later called photons) to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: this sparked the particle versus wave debate because the particle approach cannot adequately explain interference, diffraction and polarisation and the wave approach cannot explain the photoelectric effect. The De Broglie hypothesis, which attributed wave-like nature to matter, was confirmed experimentally for the electron, and wave-particle duality was formalised by Schrödinger's equation, and extended by Dirac’s equations, to form a theoretical foundation for Quantum Mechanics. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has been widely accepted, the meaning or physical interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved. In this thesis paper, electrons, positrons and preons are postulated to have a toroidal solenoid structure, whereas photons are postulated to have a helical solenoid structure (these solenoidal models are similar to those proposed by Oliver Consa in 2018 for non-static electrons and preons). The proposed helical solenoidal structure of photons provides them with wave-like and particle characteristics supportive of a wave-particle duality. Quarks are postulated to be built from preons, and nucleons from up- and down-quarks. The model for atomic structure developed using these fundamental and derived sub-atomic particles is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model based upon the monopole electrons and protons The model developed provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electronpositron annihilation, electric current (a ‘hole’ free explanation), the ionization process during plasma formation, Gravity and Gravity waves. It also provides good correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do.
Category: Classical Physics

[540] viXra:1811.0470 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-29 20:54:20

EMR Wave-Particle Duality and Atomic Structure

Authors: David Johnson
Comments: This 51 page paper presents a wave-particle model for EMR different to that an earlier paper 'The Butterfly Effect and the Electron'

In 1905 Albert Einstein provided an explanation of the photoelectric effect by postulating the existence of "light quanta" (later called photons) to explain the photoelectric effect which the wave theory of light of that time was incapable of explaining: this sparked the particle versus wave debate because the particle approach cannot adequately explain interference, diffraction and polarisation and the wave approach cannot explain the photoelectric effect. The De Broglie hypothesis, which attributed wave-like nature to matter, was confirmed experimentally for the electron, and wave-particle duality was formalised by Schrödinger's equation, and extended by Dirac’s equations, to form a theoretical foundation for Quantum Mechanics. Although the use of the wave-particle duality has been widely accepted, the meaning or physical interpretation has not been satisfactorily resolved. In this paper however, electrons, positrons and preons are considered to have a toroidal solenoid structure, whereas photons are considered to have a helical solenoid structure (these solenoidal models are similar to those proposed by Oliver Consa in 2018 for non-static electrons and preons). The proposed solenoidal structure of photons, electrons, positrons and preons provides them with wave-like and particle characteristics supportive of wave-particle duality. Quarks are considered to be built from preons, and nucleons from up and down quarks. The model for atomic structure developed using these fundamental and derived sub-atomic particles is considerably different to the orbital nuclear model based upon the monopole electrons and protons. It provides a strong correlation between the atomic structure of the elements within the Periodic Table and their physical and chemical characteristics, which is something the orbital nuclear model fails to do. The model also provides a feasible explanation of different allotropic forms of elements and their various bonding geometries, beta decay, electron capture, electron-positron annihilation and the ionization process during plasma formation. Peripheral issues such as electricity and Gravity are covered in the appendices to reduce distractions within the body of the paper.
Category: Classical Physics

[539] viXra:1811.0450 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-01 08:26:02

Principia Physica

Authors: Peter Schuttevaar
Comments: 25 pages english text, submitted as a request for peer review

A hypothetical phenomenon Bp is introduced as a building block of all physical reality. The Bp has a velocity, a charge and an inertia. The magnitudes of the charge and the velocity of the Bp are deduced from the behavior of the electrostatic force. The inertia to mass ratio of the Bp is deduced from the characteristics of a photon. There is also an a-symmetry between two types of Bp, namely Bh and Bl, resulting in a dependency of its velocity and charge on its mass. The nature of this dependency is deduced from the behavior of the neutron. Then the deduced properties are used to theorize about the structure, the dimension and the gyro-magnetic ratio of the electron, proton and neutron, as well as their anti-particles. It shows that particles that are constructed of Bp’s conform to observed reality, such as their gyro-magnetic ratio and their behavior within the structure of an atom. In the course of former deductions, a number of theoretical innovations are developed and integrated in a coherent theoretical framework. There is for example a general formal relation between the mass of a particle and its size (any particle, not just the photon). As another example, the electrostatic as well as the electrodynamical interaction are modeled as phenomena that emerge from a common underlying dynamical interaction, integrating them in a more thorough manner than is currently the state of the art. The general significance of the proposed theoretical framework is in validating a significant theoretical simplification of particle physics, that can enable advancement in a number of disciplines, especially in nuclear physics, where contemporary modeling techniques are known to be very complex.
Category: Classical Physics

[538] viXra:1810.0514 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-31 09:04:55

Energy Velocity and Reactive Fields

Authors: Hans G. Schantz
Comments: 15 Pages. Philos Trans A Roy Soc (London) Published 29 October 2018. DOI: 10.1098/rsta.2017.0453

Conventional definitions of “near fields” set bounds that describe where near fields may be found. These definitions tell us nothing about what near fields are, why they exist, or how they work. In 1893, Heaviside derived the electromagnetic energy velocity for plane waves. Subsequent work demonstrated that although energy moves in synchronicity with radiated electromagnetic fields at the speed of light, in reactive fields the energy velocity slows down, converging to zero in the case of static fields. Combining Heaviside's energy velocity relation with the field Lagrangian yields a simple parameterization for the reactivity of electromagnetic fields that provides profound insights to the behaviour of electromagnetic systems. Fields guide energy. As waves interfere, they guide energy along paths that may be substantially different from the trajectories of the waves themselves. The results of this paper not only resolve the long standing paradox of runaway acceleration from radiation reaction, but also make clear that pilot wave theory is the natural and logical consequence of the need for quantum mechanics to correspond to the macroscopic results of classical electromagnetic theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[537] viXra:1810.0468 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-29 09:17:04

Inconsistencies in EM Theory - the Kelvin Polarization Force Density Contradiction

Authors: Zoltan Losonc
Comments: 38 Pages.

Calculations of resultant electrostatic force on a charged spherical or cylindrical capacitor with two sectors of different dielectrics, based on the classical formulas of electrostatic pressure, Kelvin polarization force density, and Maxwell stress tensor predict a reactionless force that violates Newton’s 3rd law. Measurements didn’t confirm the existence of such a reactionless thrust, thus there is an apparent inconsistency in the classical EM theory that leads to wrong results.
Category: Classical Physics

[536] viXra:1810.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-16 02:35:00

Ether Theory of Everything

Authors: Aleksei Morozov
Comments: 157 Pages.

Ether Theory of Everything (aka Ether Theory) is Ether Theory of Relativity of Gravity and Magnetism, HyperAtomic Model, Ether Quantum Mechanics, Ether Cosmology, HyperAtomic Reactor, Ether Neural Network.
Category: Classical Physics

[535] viXra:1810.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 06:35:59

Ether Theory of Everything

Authors: Aleksei Morozov
Comments: 109 Pages.

Ether Theory of Everything (aka Ether Theory) is Ether Theory of Relativity of Gravity and Magnetism, HyperAtomic Model, Ether Quantum Mechanics, Ether Cosmology, HyperAtomic Reactor, Ether Neural Network.
Category: Classical Physics

[534] viXra:1810.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-16 02:32:20

Эфирная Теория Всего

Authors: Aleksei Morozov
Comments: 157 Pages. In Russian

Эфирная Теория Всего (или Эфирная Теория) - это Эфирная Теория Относительности Гравитации и Магнетизма, ГиперАтомная Модель, Эфирная Квантовая Механика, Эфирная Космология, ГиперАтомный Реактор, Эфирная Нейронная Сеть.
Category: Classical Physics

[533] viXra:1810.0371 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 06:38:06

Эфирная Теория Всего

Authors: Aleksei Morozov
Comments: Pages.

Эфирная Теория Всего (или Эфирная Теория) - это Эфирная Теория Относительности Гравитации и Магнетизма, ГиперАтомная Модель, Эфирная Квантовая Механика, Эфирная Космология, ГиперАтомный Реактор, Эфирная Нейронная Сеть.
Category: Classical Physics

[532] viXra:1810.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-11 04:25:00

Consideration of Parallel Universe

Authors: Toshiro Takami
Comments: 5 Pages.

I put memos and letters in the Tesla coil and I am hoping that it will fly in the past and change the present. It might be like a dream. However, since there is only this method, I am challenging it.
Category: Classical Physics

[531] viXra:1810.0123 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-11 14:19:52

From Maxwell’s Equations to Electro-Magnetic Waves

Authors: Sjaak Uitterdijk
Comments: 5 Pages. Version 2 contains a minor change in References

This article shows how Electro-Magnetic source and wave are related and why the propagation velocity of light in vacuum is c, exclusively relative to its source.
Category: Classical Physics

[530] viXra:1809.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-30 23:03:37

The Theories Of The Graviton, Part One: The Classical Framework of the Particle’s Nature and Mechanics

Authors: Noah MacKay, Aaron Bain
Comments: 18 Pages.

Gravitons are the quantum particles of gravity that, if proven to exist, would potentially connect quantum mechanics with gravitation. This particular paper, however, mostly describes the particle’s nature and mechanics in the framework of classical physics: the same framework in which General Relativity was formulated. Although a classically-dominant perspective of gravitonic nature and mechanics, both quantum and classical physics are used to propose theorems, and to suppose two main considerations of the graviton: 1) The roles of the quantum graviton are vital in the overall nature of classical gravitation, 2) the particles contribute to the formation and potential energy of gravitational waves.
Category: Classical Physics

[529] viXra:1809.0154 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-10 17:07:47

What is Mass?

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

mass from an unconventional but coherent view
Category: Classical Physics