Classical Physics

1301 Submissions

[11] viXra:1301.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-30 13:38:30

Bacteria Identification by Phage Induced Impedance Fluctuation Analysis (BIPIF)

Authors: Gabor Schmera, Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 5 Pages. Submitted for publication. US Navy - TAMU patent pending.

We present a new method for detecting and identifying bacteria by measuring impedance fluctuations (impedance noise) caused by ion release by the bacteria during phage infestation. This new method significantly increases the measured signal strength and reduces the negative effects of drift, material aging, surface imperfections, 1/f potential fluctuations, thermal noise, and amplifier noise. Comparing BIPIF with another well-known method, bacteria detection by SEnsing of Phage Triggered Ion Cascades (SEPTIC), we find that the BIPIF algorithm is easier to implement, more stable and significantly more sensitive (by several orders of magnitude). We project that by using the BIPIF method detection of a single bacterium will be possible.
Category: Classical Physics

[10] viXra:1301.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-26 18:05:43

Biot-Savart's Companion

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 4 Pages.

We introduce a law that we believe is a natural companion to the Biot-Savart Law of classical electrodynamics. The forces resulting from these two laws compliment one another: the force due to the Biot-Savart Law changes the direction of the velocity of a test particle, but not its magnitude; the force due to the companion law changes the magnitude of the velocity, but not its direction.
Category: Classical Physics

[9] viXra:1301.0156 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-25 21:15:46

Action-Reaction Paradox Resolution

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 4 Pages.

According to Newton's Third Law, in a collision between two isolated particles `action equals reaction'. However, in classical electrodynamics, this law is violated. In general, in a collision between two isolated charged particles, the momentum of the particles is not conserved. Typically, it is necessary to combine the field momentum with the particle momentum in order to `balance the scales'. A paradox arises from the fact that, generally, particle momentum is conserved in the center of mass (cm) frame, but not in the lab frame. Here, we offer a resolution to this paradox in which the Third Law remains valid for collisions between charged particles, in all situations and in all frames, without the need to invoke the momentum of the field.
Category: Classical Physics

[8] viXra:1301.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-24 01:29:28

Energy Density Correction

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 3 Pages.

We show that the energy density of a continuous charge distribution must be twice the conventionally accepted value. This conclusion is qualified through logical argument and quantified using conventional mathematical methods.
Category: Classical Physics

[7] viXra:1301.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-24 01:37:21

``4/3 Problem'' Resolution

Authors: David E. Rutherford
Comments: 3 Pages.

The ``4/3 problem'' of electrodynamics arose from the attempt to describe the mass of the electron as entirely electromagnetic in origin. Unfortunately, in the conventional treatment, there has been no acceptable solution offered. We present, here, a simple resolution to the `problem' and show, by considering a previously overlooked part of the `electromagnetic' field, that the mass of the electron is entirely `electromagnetic' in origin.
Category: Classical Physics

[6] viXra:1301.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-20 06:20:11

Matrix Transformation and Solutions of Wave Equation of Free Electromagnetic Field

Authors: Xianzhao Zhong
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, the generalized differential wave equation for free electromagnetic field is transformed and formulated by means of matrixes. Then Maxwell wave equation and the second form of wave equation are deduced by matrix transformation. The solutions of the wave equations are discussed . Finally, two differential equations of vibration are established and their solutions are discussed .
Category: Classical Physics

[5] viXra:1301.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-19 08:21:57

Electromagnetism Explained by the Theory of Informatons

Authors: Antoine Acke
Comments: 47 Pages.

The "theory of informatons" explains the electromagnetic interactions by the hypothesis that "e-information" is the substance of E.M. fields. The constituent element of that substance is called "an informaton". The theory starts from the idea that any material object manifests itself in space by the emission of informatons: granular mass and energy less entities rushing away with the speed of light and carrying information about the position, the velocity and the electrical status of the emitter. In this article the E.M. field in a point is characterized as the macroscopic manifestation of the presence of a cloud of informatons near that point; Maxwell's laws are mathematically deduced from the dynamics of the informatons; the electromagnetic interactions are explained as the effect of the trend of an electrically charged object to become blind for flows of e-information generated by other charged objects; and photons are identified as informatons carrying a quantum of energy, what helps us to understand the strange behaviour of light as described by QEM.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1301.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-16 15:35:58

Universe (Part 2): Rolling of Space (Volume, Distance), Time, and Matter into a Point

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 8 Pages.

Previously [1], this author developed a theory which allows derivation of the unknown relations between main parameters in a given field of nature. Using this theory, the outcomes of the derived formulas to estimate some values of our Universe uncovered both well-known and new unknown relations. That paper [1] which should be considered part 1 of this series offers possibly valid relations between time, matter, volume, distance, and energy. The net picture derived is that there exists in the Universe ONLY one primary factor – ENERGY. Time, matter, volume, fields are all evidence of the energy and can be transformed one to other, such as the transformation in the famous formula E = mc2. In this paper, part 2 of that series, the author shows that the parameters of space (volume, distance) and time have limits (maximal values). The volume (distance), time contract (collapse) into a point under the specific density of the energy, matter, pressure, frequency, temperature, intensity of electric, magnetic, acceleration fields. The maximal temperature and force are independent from other conditions.
Category: Classical Physics

[3] viXra:1301.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-14 04:36:58

Angular Momentum of Light with Plane Phase Front

Authors: Khrapko R. I.
Comments: 12 Pages. The material is submitted to www.cleoconference.org

We consider two different types of angular momentum of electromagnetic radiation. 1) Moment of linear momentum, which we consider as orbital angular momentum. 2) Spin, which is not a moment of momentum; its origin is a circular polarization. We show that a circularly polarized light beam with plane phase front carries angular momentum of both types, spin and orbital angular momentum, contrary to the standard electrodynamics. Because of the conservation laws of momentum and total angular momentum, spin and moment of momentum have concrete values. These two types of angular momentum are spatially separated. Flux of spin and flux of moment of momentum act on an absorber independently. An experiment is described, which can verify this supposition.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:1301.0061 [pdf] replaced on 2014-07-02 01:17:55

Are Photons Massless or Massive?

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 10 Pages.

Prevailing and conventional wisdom as drawn from both Professor Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity and our palatable experience, holds that photons are massless particles and that, every particle that travels at the speed of light must -- accordingly, be massless. Amongst other important but now resolved problems in physics, this assumption led to the Neutrino Mass Problem -- namely, ``Do neutrinos have mass?'' Neutrinos appear very strongly to travel at the speed of light and according to the afore-stated, they must be massless. Massless neutrinos have a problem in that one is unable to explain the phenomenon of neutrino oscillations because this requires massive neutrinos. Experiments appear to strongly suggest that indeed, neutrinos most certainly are massive particles. While this solves the problem of neutrino oscillation, it directly leads to another problem, namely that of ``How can a massive particle travel at the speed of light? Is not this speed a preserve and prerogative of only massless particles?'' We argue herein that in principle, it is possible for massive particles to travel at the speed of light. In presenting the present letter, our hope is that this may aid or contribute significantly in solving the said problem of ``How can massive particles travel at the speed of light?
Category: Classical Physics

[1] viXra:1301.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2013-01-08 09:21:47

Hypersonic Ground Electric AB Engine

Authors: Alexander Bolonkin
Comments: 17 Pages.

At the present time, rocket launch systems, flight passenger-transport and ground passenger systems have reached their peak of development. In the last 30 years there has been no increase in speed or reductions in trip costs and space launch. The space launch and air and ground transportation industry needs revolutionary ideas, which allow a jump in speed and delivery capability, and a dramatic drop in space launch and trip price. This idea (kinetic aviation and space launch) was offered and developed in a series of the author researches [1]-[7], but an important facet of this method – the ground electric hypersonic engine - was insufficiently developed. Rail Gun idea was unfit for low acceleration and long rails. All energy is spent into creating a powerful magnetic field produces a strong flash when the apparatus is disconnected from rails. When the rail length is increased, the efficiency of low speed railgun engine approaches zero. The main idea of the offered ground hypersonic electric engine is segmentation of the acceleration track on small special closed-loop sections (12.5 – 100 m) and a system of special switches which allow return of the magnetic energy to the system transferring it to apparatus movement. This increases the efficiency of hypersonic engine up 0.9, avoids the burning of rails and using the engine for long periods of time. The same idea may be used in a conventional Rail Gun. Author designed and computed the feasibility and practability of this invention which he designed for the purpose of using it as a space launcher for astronauts and space load, as method for hypersonic long distance aviation and as method for supersonic passenger ground rail transportation. The offered system will be significantly cheaper than the currently used MagLev (Magnetic Levitation) systems, because the vehicle employs conventional wings for levitation and the hypersonic engine is very simple. The offered system may be also used for mass launch of projectiles in war.
Category: Classical Physics