Classical Physics

1512 Submissions

[12] viXra:1512.0487 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-18 11:45:02

Electromagnetic Radiation Can Affect the Lift Force

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 6 Pages.

Here we show that, under certain circumstances, electromagnetic radiations can strongly reduce the lift force. An aircraft for example, can be shot down when reached by a flux of specific electromagnetic radiation. This discovery can help the aircraft pilots to avoid regions where there are electromagnetic radiations potentially dangerous. Not only the flight of the aircrafts are affected by the electromagnetic radiation, but also the flight of any flying object whose flight depends on the lift force, including birds and flying insects.
Category: Classical Physics

[11] viXra:1512.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-22 02:31:47

Multi-wavelength, Tabletop EUV Microscope

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 13 Pages.

A compact and inexpensive EUV source using high harmonic generation can provide illumination for a tabletop EUV microscope, but such microscopes typically use only one of the source’s available harmonic wavelengths. This paper outlines a microscopy system that focuses multiple harmonic wavelengths onto distinct, spatially-separated focal spots on an inspection sample, which is scanned to generate multi-spectral, diffraction-limited EUV images of the sample. The system uses diffraction optics to separate the EUV harmonics and also to separate the source’s IR wavelength out of the EUV illumination.
Category: Classical Physics

[10] viXra:1512.0360 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-18 05:41:42

Equation of Energy Conversion

Authors: Vedat Tanrıverdi
Comments: 15 Pages. Classical mechanic, energy, conservation of energy, equation of motion

We have obtained the equation of energy conversion, an alternative equation to the equations of motion, from the total time derivative of energy. Using this equation, we solved some familiar cases, including gravitational rotation, coupled pendula and Lorenz force. In these familiar cases, we obtained the same results as the Euler-Lagrange equations, except for the Lorenz force in the time-dependent situation. We also obtained Jefimenko equations for electric and magnetic field in time-dependent case and we showed that these can not be obtained from Euler-Lagrange equations. Jefimonko equations describe the electromagnetic interaction in the time-dependent situation and the general case for electromagnetic interaction can be obtained by using these equations. So obtaining them in a correct way is important for the generalization and this work can be a step towards the generalization.
Category: Classical Physics

[9] viXra:1512.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-14 06:51:22

Science the Failed Hypothesis: How Science Shows that Certainty Does not Exist

Authors: Manjunath.R
Comments: 143 Pages.

Subaltern notable – built on the work of the great astronomers Galileo Galilei, Nicolaus Copernicus (who took the details of Ptolemy, and found a way to look at the same construction from a slightly different perspective and discover that the Earth is not the center of the universe) and Johannes Kepler – which take us on a journey from the time when Aristotle and the world of that era believed that Earth was the center of the universe and supported on the back of a giant tortoise to our contemporary age when we know better − regards body of knowledge as painterly truth. Rather it is absolutely-absolutely false. The word “certainty” in the Game of Science is a misleading term. The history of science, from Copernicus and Galileo to the present, is replete with examples that belie the charge of uncertainism in science. Despite the fact that science (which is guided by natural law and is testable against the empirical world) has revolutionized every aspect of human life and greatly clarified our understanding of the world, it has weighty limitations and it’s a journey not a destination and the advance of knowledge is an infinite progression towards a goal that forever recedes. And it's our main ingredient for understanding − a means of accepting what we've learned, challenging what we (a hoard of talking monkeys who’s consciousness is from a collection of connected neurons − hammering away on typewriters and by pure chance eventually ranging the values for the (fundamental) numbers that would allow the development of any form of intelligent life) think, and knowing that in some of the things that we think, there may be something to modify and to change. We now have considerable empirical data and highly successful scientific interpretations that bear on the question of certainty. The time has come to examine what those data and models tell us about the validity of the scientific hypothesis.The word “certainty” in the Game of Science is a misleading term which confirm the Richard Feynman’s statement: “Scientific knowledge is a body of statements of varying degrees of certainty -- some most unsure, some nearly sure, none absolutely certain.” In fact, science can never establish "truth" or "fact" in the sense that the investigation of scientific equations provides unwitting support for the assertion that science is dogmatically correct. If a plausible scientific model or an equation consistent with all existing knowledge can be found, then the above claim fails. That model or equation need not be proven to be correct, just not proven to be incorrect. In the end, all of our scientific implications are an attempt to make sense of this fabulous and fleeting existence we find ourselves in. However, science is guided by natural law; has to be explained by reference to natural law; testable against the empirical world; its conclusions are tentative, that is, are not necessarily the final word; it can be falsifiable.
Category: Classical Physics

[8] viXra:1512.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 16:19:58

General Classical Electrodynamics, a New Foundation of Modern Physics and Technology

Authors: Koen J. van Vlaenderen
Comments: 31 pages, 2 figures, 45 references, English

Maxwell's Classical Electrodynamics (MCED) shows several related inconsistencies, as the consequence of a single false premise. The Lorentz force law of MCED violates Newton's Third Law of Motion (N3LM) in case of General Magnetostatics (GMS) current distributions, that are not necessarily divergence free. A consistent GMS theory is defined by means of Whittaker's force law, which requires a scalar magnetic force field, $B_L$. The field $B_L$ mediates a longitudinal Ampère force, similar to the vector magnetic field, $\B_T$, that mediates a \textit{transverse} Ampère force. The sum of transverse- and longitudinal Ampère forces obeys N3LM for stationary currents in general. The scalar field, $B_\Phi$, is also a physical, as a consequence of charge continuity. MCED does not treat the induction of the electric field, $\E_L$, by a time varying $B_L$ field, so MCED does not cover the reason for adding $E_L$ to the superimposed electric field, $E$. The exclusion of $E_L$ from $E$ simplifies MCED to Classical Electrodynamics (CED). The MCED Jefimenko fields show a far field contradiction, that is not shown by the CED fields. CED is based on the Lorentz force and therefore violates N3LM as well. Hence, we define a General Classical Electrodynamics (GCED) as a generalization of GMS and CED. GCED describes three types of far field waves: the longitudinal $\Phi$-wave, the longitudinal electromagnetic (LEM) wave and the transverse electromagnetic (TEM) wave, with vacuum phase velocities respectively $a$, $b$ and $c$. GCED power- and force theorems are derived. The general force theorem obeys N3LM only if the three phase velocities satisfy the Coulomb premise: a >> c and b=c. GCED with Coulomb premise is far field consistent, and resolves the classical $\frac{4}{3}$ energy-momentum problem of a moving charged sphere. GCED with the Lorentz premise (a=c and b=c) reduces to the inconsistent MCED. Many experimental results verify GCED with Coulomb premise, and falsify MCED. GCED can replace MCED as a new foundation of modern physics (relativity theory and wave mechanics). It might be the inspiration for new scientific experiments and electrical engineering, such as new wave-electronic effects based on $\Phi$-waves and LEM waves, and the conversion of natural $\Phi$-waves and LEM wave energy into useful electricity, in the footsteps of Nikola Tesla and Thomas Henry Moray.
Category: Classical Physics

[7] viXra:1512.0295 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-26 01:07:45

EUV Spectral Purity Filter for Full IR-to-VUV Out-of-Band Rejection, With IR Power Recycling

Authors: Kenneth C. Johnson
Comments: 23 Pages. v5 changes: Revised Fig. 6 and discussion; patent pending notice.

A plasma light source for EUV lithography can be spectrally filtered by a phase-Fresnel collector mirror to reject all out-of-band radiation in the IR-to-VUV spectral range, leaving only pure EUV in the filtered output. EUV collection efficiency is not significantly compromised, and EUV conversion efficiency can be enhanced by recycling rejected or uncollected IR back to the plasma via retroreflection. [Patent Pending PCT/US16/34172.]
Category: Classical Physics

[6] viXra:1512.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-09 19:09:56

Vacuum Partition Theory Putting A Limit On Energy In Space

Authors: Jerry L. Decker
Comments: 9 Pages. Putting a theoretical limit on vacuum energy

A theory is published for partition of vacuum energy into different types of energy that oppose each other in control of curvature in space. Both general relativity and quantum field theory are accommodated by allowing the energy in space to be large, but finite while the cosmological constant is small. Partition puts a limit on the energy in vacuum space, large enough for quantum mechanics, but not infinite. An argument is made that part of the energy can be borrowed according to Heisenberg Uncertainty, but must be repaid promptly one way or another. The result leads to modification of polarizable vacuum theory.
Category: Classical Physics

[5] viXra:1512.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-09 11:30:55

Current Injection Attack Against the KLJN Secure Key Exchange

Authors: Hsien-Pu Chen, Muneer Mohammad, Laszlo B. Kish
Comments: 10 Pages.

The Kirchhoff-law-Johnson-noise (KLJN) scheme is a statistical/physical secure key exchange system based on the laws of classical statistical physics to provide unconditional security. We used the LTSPICE industrial cable and circuit simulator to emulate one of the major active (invasive) attacks, the current injection attack, against the ideal and a practical KLJN system, respectively. We show that two security enhancement techniques, namely, the instantaneous voltage/current comparison method, and a simple privacy amplification scheme, independently and effectively eliminate the information leak and successfully preserve the system's unconditional security.
Category: Classical Physics

[4] viXra:1512.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-07 21:40:45

A Simple Derivation of the Stationary Action Formulation of Classical Mechanics Using Differential Forms

Authors: Andrew Grieco
Comments: 9 Pages.

This manuscript describes the stationary action formulation of classical mechanics as a constrained extremization problem using differential forms. The general method entails treating the parameterization relationship as a constraint applied to the action integral, and the conditions that arise from writing the equivalent unconstrained action are then associated with the force law to derive the Lagrangian and Hamiltonian terms.
Category: Classical Physics

[3] viXra:1512.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-06 10:58:04

Coplanar Forces

Authors: Nainan K. Varghese
Comments: 11 Pages.

Abstract: All physical actions are caused, initiated and accomplished by work. Relation between magnitude of work, done about a macro body and its displacement during work is ‘force’. Hence, ‘force’ is a mathematical aspect related to work and work is the real entity. However, the term ‘force’ is usually understood as a ‘cause’ or ‘effort’ required for an action. Actions are effects of efforts due to causes. Action by an effort results in definite effect on or about a 3D matter-body. Certain mechanism is essential to perform an action. Generally, all physical actions are understood by displacement (motion) of macro bodies in space. ‘Action at a distance through empty space’ is an impossible proposition. To accomplish motion in space, four things are essential. They are; a macro body that is being moved, an entity that is instrumental to the motion, a mechanism of motion and a reason or cause for the motion. Although mechanism of motion is basically the same in all conditions, there are slight differences in its actions, when causes of motion are in different relative directions or in different planes. This article briefly describes mechanism of motion (by universal medium that is instrumental to motion of a macro body), when causes in a plane are involved.
Category: Classical Physics

[2] viXra:1512.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-05 12:51:39

Расшифруя силы небесной механики / Deciphering Forces of Celestial Mechanics

Authors: Edgars Alksnis
Comments: 8 Pages. In Russian

Draft calculation of balance of forces, which determine mean orbital distances of rocky planets in the spirit of Beeckman, Bullialdus, DesCartes and Newton lead to logical results. Short history of topic is discussed.
Category: Classical Physics

[1] viXra:1512.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-12 05:08:27

Sagnac Experiment Analyzed with the "Emission & Regeneration" UFT

Authors: Osvaldo Domann
Comments: 15 Pages. Copyright. All rights reserved. The content of the present work, its ideas, axioms, postulates, definitions, derivations, results, findings, etc., can be reproduced only by making clear reference to the author.

The results of the Sagnac experiment analyzed with the Standard Model (SM) are easily explained with non relativistic equations assuming that light moves with light speed independent of its source, but the results are not compatible with Special Relativity. The Sagnac results analyzed with the ``Emission \& Regeneration'' UFT present no incompatibilities within the theory which postulates that light is emitted with light speed relative to the emitting source. Electromagnetic waves that arrive with any speed to mirrors, optical lenses and electric antenas are absorbed by the level electrons and subsequently emitted with light speed "c" relative to their nuclei, explaining why light speed "c" is always measured in all inertial frames. Relativity derived in the frame of the ``E \& R'' UFT has absolute time and absolute space resulting in a theory without paradoxes..
Category: Classical Physics