[22] **viXra:1612.0405 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-30 11:44:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Russian

It is shown that the canonical antisymmetric tensor of the electromagnetic field can be associated with symmetric and asymmetric tensors, which are derived from decomposition of the antisymmetric tensor of general form into its elements: symmetric and antisymmetric parts. These tensors contain additional information about the electromagnetic field. d'Alembert wave equations for electromagnetic potential and derivatives of Lorenz gauge condition follow from antisymmetric tensor and Navier-Stokes dynamic equation for the electromagnetic potential follow from symmetric tensor. A harmonized system of field equations, including Maxwell's equations, follows from these three tensors.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[21] **viXra:1612.0404 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-30 11:57:30*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Russian

In this paper, a new consistent approach to theory of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. The tensor of energy-momentum tensor obtained from the tensor of the electromagnetic field and the induction field without the involvement of Maxwell's equations and Poynting theorem. Tensor of energy-momentum the equations of conservation of energy density, the flux density of energy, density and momentum of the wave equation for these energy values. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium. From tensor energy-momentum followed by expressions of electromagnetic forces for performances of density and momentum in the Minkowski form and in the form of Abraham, says about the equivalence of these representations the density of momentum for the description of electromagnetic forces in a continuous medium.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[20] **viXra:1612.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-21 01:38:23*

**Authors:** Yannan Yang

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Two types of electric currents and related magnetic fields were analyzed deeply in this paper. One is the current in a
neutral wire, which is very familiar to us. The other current is the result of directional motion of one type (positive or
negative) charges suspended in the space. The analysis results show that the two types of currents and related magnetic
fields have same properties to observers in stationary frame. But, to the observers in a moving frame, the two types of
currents and related magnetic field appear very different behaviors. In the second situation, it looks not sufficient to
determine a magnetic field to a given point in space only by its magnitude and direction. In order to sufficiently determine
the magnetic, the source of the magnetic field is also required to be considered into.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[19] **viXra:1612.0310 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 14:16:56*

**Authors:** M. E. Hassani

**Comments:** 4 Pages; 1Reference. This work is submitted to Astrophysics and Space Science

In a relatively recent article by F.A. Abd El-Salam et al. [Astrophys. Space Sci. 350, 507 (2014)], the authors claimed a new formulation of the two-body problem via the introduction of the continued fractional potential. Even if the idea of applying the continued fraction procedure to the gravitational physics is by itself a novelty, the study presented in their work suffers both from some mathematical and physical issues. These issues are discussed in this comment.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[18] **viXra:1612.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-20 12:21:56*

**Authors:** Donald Brown

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In the universe two common things seem to dictate a great deal of how things work: electromagnetic energy and gravity. If photons are responsible for all of the electromagnetic effects that we see, can neutrinos be responsible for all of the gravity we see? I believe the answer is yes and through this paper I will lay out the logic and observations I have used to arrive at this conclusion.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1612.0301 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-20 12:37:15*

**Authors:** Emil Junvik

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Unexpected correlations found in earth energy density

Abstract
I build a theoretical model of the relationship between the solarconstant and earth surface temperature by using temperature to obtain energy density instead of surface flux.
Earth behave as a standing wave in resonance, shown in the resulting energy levels.
Energy density of vacuum from the cosmological constant is added. The result is a function of pi that shows how earth is not only dependant of solar radiation for energy content, it is a three point exchange. Mass has no part at all in these calculations, temperature is accurately obtained for all points of interest. The speed of light in units of km/s is connected to the calculations.
The model seems to cover the whole earth system state, not only as a planet, but as a planet heated by the sun as it floats in vacuum with energy density 8πG. Earth mass can be ignored in all internal relationships.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:1612.0300 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-19 11:19:56*

**Authors:** Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus, Aurelian Has

**Comments:** 4 Pages. The authors intend to develop this paper in future, with necessary details

Here we briefly expose a new physics theory, which contains some explanations of physical phenomena in nature including some unexplained to date. The New Physics Theory 2016 (NPT16) is based on a new model of ether HM16 which lead to NPT16.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1612.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-19 03:08:08*

**Authors:** Carles R Paul

**Comments:** 4 Pages. in Spanish

The transformer relation is an electromagnetic law that arises as a consequence of the application of the electromagnetic induction between the primary and secondary electrical circuit. In this article we propose a relation transformer new demonstration without needing to resort to electromagnetic induction and even without resorting to electromagnetic principles. We deduce the law from fundamental mechanical principles, such as the law of conservation of angular momentum. With all this we show that the law of the transformer is the consequence of an inertial phenomenon

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1612.0239 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-25 08:44:41*

**Authors:** Calin Vasilescu

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

The initial idea that made me think about this new concept was that the wave nature of light must be the reason why no entity in this universe can exceed this propagation speed, but only if all other “particles” are waves as well. Assuming this was true it meant that all the effects described by relativity must be related to this wave nature of light and matter. If these effects can be explained that way, then the only option is that what we use as clocks don't measure the true time. We can define time as absolute and think that clocks don't measure the absolute time, but they have a tick rate that depends on the speed relative to the flat absolute space. The idea is a natural interpretation of what happens in the very popular thought experiment of Einstein's relativistic train. If the light beam is a light clock, it becomes clear that the trajectory of the light beam is the only thing that makes the tick rate change. The idea is that the same thing happens with all the clocks we use. This model assumes, by definition that space doesn't have a variable geometry and takes the other possibility, hence, complex particles inner geometry changes what we measure as time and space. The strong point of this concept is that it predicts a particle / wave construct model that perfectly matches the behaviour of internal OAM light beams. Analysing these waves, in this context, leads to a proper development of the concept.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1612.0237 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-05 03:20:05*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Introduction is increased

It is demonstrated that dielectric or magnetic, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave according to the canonical spin tensor of electrodynamics. Lorentz transformations are used for energy, momentum, and angular momentum flux density because a moving absorber is considered. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1612.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-13 12:47:59*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 74 Pages. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical E/M in an immediate and direct algebraic manner.

A new algebraic representation is used to immediately recover all the major results of classical electromagnetism. This new representation (‘Natural Vectors’) is based on Hamilton’s quaternions and completes the original attempt by Maxwell to use this powerful, non-commutative algebra in the final presentation of his theory in his Treatise.
The foundational hypothesis here is that the principal electromagnetic variables are best represented by Natural Vectors, rather than the conventional 3D vectors defined by ‘real numbers’. The present results avoid all use of the field concept and validate the retarded scalar and vector potentials approach first introduced by L. V. Lorenz, who combined Gauss’s 1845 suggestion of the finite speed of interaction with Newton’s action-at-a-distance model of physics into a charge-potential model of electromagnetism in 1867. This new approach demonstrates the primacy and physical significance of the ‘Lorenz gauge’. Not withstanding Maxwell’s aether theory, the present results are based on the artificial continuous charge-density substance model of electricity that is used today to develop and teach Maxwell’s Equations for classical electromagnetism. The present analysis also demonstrates that Helmholtz’s ‘fluid’ model of electricity is one of the few that can result in an electromagnetic ‘explanation’ for the phenomenon of light. Unlike algebraic Minkowski 4-vectors, the more powerful 4-dimensional covariant 'Natural Vectors' used here generate all the differential equations normally found in classical electro-magnetism in an immediate and direct algebraic manner. This new theory focuses on the remote interaction between charges, which then appears both as variations in the charge-density and the potentials “traveling at light-speed across space”. Surprisingly, this same result also
appears for the current-density; this suggests that the conventional interpretation of this major symbol in Maxwell’s Equations needs to be questioned further.
* SPSI, Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299 spsi99@telus.cnet
© H. J. Spencer Version 2.3 25-07-2012 Version 1.0 16-06-2007

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1612.0232 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 12:11:33*

**Authors:** Radi I. Khrapko

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Will be submitted to all scietific journals

It is demonstrated that a dielectric, which absorbs a circularly polarized plane electromagnetic wave, absorbs the angular momentum, which is contained in the wave, according to the canonical spin tensor. The given calculations show that spin occurs to be the same natural property of a plane electromagnetic wave, as energy and momentum.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1612.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 11:44:20*

**Authors:** M. J. Germuska

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

This paper presents a new formula found experimentally for the shape of the free surface of stable vortices. It is a generalisation of the theoretical formula for the irrotational vortex in the ideal fluid. The new formula applies to real vortices where viscosity and compression may be present. The experiments were carried out under laboratory conditions on water and air vortices that were produced in several different ways.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1612.0187 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 20:41:10*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Modeling the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is a challenging subject. Several approaches have been proposed to tackle this problem. These include continuum models, numerical methods, and pore-scale network modeling. The latter proved to be more successful and realistic than the rest. The reason is that it captures the essential features of the flow and porous media using modest computational resources and viable modeling strategies. In this article we present pore-scale network modeling techniques for simulating non-Newtonian flow in porous media. These techniques are partially validated by theoretical analysis and comparison to experimental data.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1612.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 20:44:06*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 99 Pages.

The study of flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media is very important and serves a wide variety of practical applications in processes such as enhanced oil recovery from underground reservoirs, filtration of polymer solutions and soil remediation through the removal of liquid pollutants. These fluids occur in diverse natural and synthetic forms and can be regarded as the rule rather than the exception. They show very complex strain and time dependent behavior and may have initial yield-stress. Their common feature is that they do not obey the simple Newtonian relation of proportionality between stress and rate of deformation. Non-Newtonian fluids are generally classified into three main categories: time-independent whose strain rate solely depends on the instantaneous stress, time-dependent whose strain rate is a function of both magnitude and duration of the applied stress and viscoelastic which shows partial elastic recovery on removal of the deforming stress and usually demonstrates both time and strain dependency. In this article, the key aspects of these fluids are reviewed with particular emphasis on single-phase flow through porous media. The four main approaches for describing the flow in porous media are examined and assessed. These are: continuum models, bundle of tubes models, numerical methods and pore-scale network modeling.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1612.0183 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 20:52:35*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 69 Pages.

The `no-slip' is a fundamental assumption and generally-accepted boundary condition in rheology, tribology and fluid mechanics with strong experimental support. The violations of this condition, however, are widely recognized in many situations, especially in the flow of non-Newtonian fluids. Wall slip could lead to large errors and flow instabilities, such as sharkskin formation and spurt flow, and hence complicates the analysis of fluid systems and introduces serious practical difficulties. In this article, we discuss slip at fluid-solid interface in an attempt to highlight the main issues related to this diverse complex phenomenon and its implications.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1612.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 05:09:55*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

In this paper we outline methods for calculating the pressure field inside flow conduits in the one-dimensional flow models where the pressure is dependent on the axial coordinate only. The investigation is general with regard to the tube mechanical properties (rigid or distensible), and with regard to the cross sectional variation along the tube length (constant or variable). The investigation is also general with respect to the fluid rheology as being Newtonian or non-Newtonian.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1612.0149 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 16:25:37*

**Authors:** Curtis J. Forsythe

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I propose a theoretical model of Universal Gravitation based upon hypothetical mass/energy resonance waves, the intensities of which I propose to be casually analogous with those of electromagnetic waves. Using said model, I derive the Newtonian gravitational expression, from which the Newtonian gravitational constant G factors as a combination of other physical constants, resulting in an apparent value of 6.662936 x 10-11m3/kg s2. A second resultant of the theory is a demonstration that the quantum energy states of the hydrogen atom appear related to the length of these waves, shown equal to twice the ground state orbital radius in a Bohr hydrogen atom. Additionally, I have determined apparent values for the Planck mass, length, and time independently of any determination of G.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1612.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-09 01:29:02*

**Authors:** Taha Sochi

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

In this paper, we address the issue of threshold yield pressure of yield-stress materials in rigid networks of interconnected conduits and porous structures subject to a pressure gradient. We compare the results as obtained dynamically from solving the pressure field to those obtained statically from tracing the path of the minimum sum of threshold yield pressures of the individual conduits by using the threshold path algorithms. We refute criticisms directed recently to our previous findings that the pressure field solution generally produces a higher threshold yield pressure than the one obtained by the threshold path algorithms. Issues related to the solidification of yield stress materials in their transition from fluid phase to solid state have also been investigated and assessed as part of the investigation of the yield point.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1612.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-02 19:09:43*

**Authors:** Roman Vinokur

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Although the classical theory of lumped mechanical systems employs the viscous friction mechanisms (dashpots), the loss factors of most solid structures are largely controlled by hysteresis. This paper presents new relationships for the dynamics of 2-DOF in-series systems with hysteresis damping. The most important among them is a close-form equation for the critical loss factor that was derived as the marginal condition for the degenerate case where the higher-frequency resonance peak fully vanishes in the vibration spectrum of the second mass. The critical loss factor can take values between 0 and 2-3/2 ≈ 0.354 and depends on the ratio of the natural frequencies of 2-DOF system: the closer the undamped natural frequencies, the lower the critical loss factor. The equation may help to interpret the vibration spectra for the second mass in the real 2-DOF systems, in particular on sweep-sine shaker tests. The single resonance peak in the degenerate case for a 2-DOF grows up notably as the natural frequencies get close to each other. By a formal analogy with 1-DOF systems, the peak magnitude can be reduced by increasing the loss factor. But in 2-DOF systems, the vibration can be effectively attenuated for the same loss factor by making the natural frequencies more different from each other (in particular, via increasing the stiffness of the second spring).

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1612.0007 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 08:21:12*

**Authors:** Alberto Coe

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Will analyze some physical concepts only using natural numbers. We assume a space discrete Physical variables such speed or momentum are considered as result of the sum of discrete contributions .Such discrete contributions can be calculated with natural numbers only . Elementary algebra is used in the analysis of physical subjects .

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1612.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 06:39:24*

**Authors:** Ioan Has, Simona Miclaus

**Comments:** 30 Pages. -

This paper is based on the results obtained in our previous articles where an error has been found in Michelson’s analysis of his interferometer experiment, even though Einstein relied on it, while developing the Special Relativity Theory, in which he eliminated ether from physics. Our own results imply that ether can exist. We have also validated the hypothesis that Coulomb’s law would better describe the complex reality, including ether, by adding other terms to the actual term in r-2. As such, the force that exists between two distant dipoles, when computed with a modified version Coulomb’s law, depends on r-2, as in Newton’s law. Numerically, the two forces were practically equal given that the gravitation consists of electromagnetic interactions.
For ether’s composition, we proposed the HM16 model, in which the constituents etherons α and β are placed in the nodes of a crystalline network with a cell of approximately 10-27m, then subject to manifesting forces of mutual attraction/rejection. Ether behaves as an ideal mechanism in the form of a perpetuum mobile.
The microparticles MPs consisted of local zones of ether where an energy intake induced a state of vibrating or vortex motion. The vibrant MPs, having electrical charges, will transmit fundamental vibrations FV in ether around the MPs, which have a finite velocity cF. Stationary FV vibrations do not transmit energy in the continuous infinite ether, but they do create interaction forces between MPs of an electric (modified Coulomb forces) and magnetic nature.
A MP passing through two energetic levels will expel (or absorb) a special MP, namely, the F photon, which moves through the ether at the speed of light c, which is a property granted by the ether, and forms electromagnetic EM waves that transmit energy in ether. The F photon can be constituted similar to an MP, which creates its own FV vibrations in ether.
It is likely that the two velocities cF and c will not be equal. As we consider that cF > c, velocity cF corresponds to the “gravitational” waves resulting from the interaction between the electric dipoles produced by the completed Coulomb’s law.
The HM16 model of ether can explain the nature of an electric field in terms of volumetric ε strains of ether, while the nature of the magnetic field can be explained by distortional γ strains of ether. The HM16 model can also explain the various interactions between EM waves and MPs, as well as collisions between MPs.

**Category:** Classical Physics