[18] **viXra:1701.0677 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-06 13:21:42*

**Authors:** Hervé Le Cornec

**Comments:** 6 Pages. A "coquille" corrected

Considering the electron in the hydrogen atom as classical, and bound to the proton like a planet is bound to the sun, we are led to consider that it is in free fall and therefore that we can apply the Einstein's equivalence principle, thus the special relativity can be used to study its motion. Doing so, we are able to demonstrate that the electron's charge-to-mass ratio is the subsequent relativistic frequency that appears to the observer in the laboratory. We also show that a magnetic moment, very similar to the one of the quantum mechanics, must appear, although we stay in the fields of classical and relativistic physics.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[17] **viXra:1701.0666 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-29 23:37:06*

**Authors:** Xiaodong Liu, Yu Liang, Qichang Liang

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this work, a parasitic dipole was mounted inside a waveguide cavity. The amplitude of the oscillating wave through the waveguide was amplified 15% by the negative impedance reflected from the parasitic resonator to the waveguide.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[16] **viXra:1701.0624 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-26 14:52:05*

**Authors:** Fu Yuhua

**Comments:** 125 Pages.

Consider all possible situations, won the best ending. This is our starting point for establishing New Newton Mechanics and for solving many complicated problems. Practice has proved that this idea is successful.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[15] **viXra:1701.0610 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-25 09:25:59*

**Authors:** Leonid Kanevskyy

**Comments:** 12 Pages. The paper contains the introduction and the abstract in English, the rest of the paper - in German

This paper’s aim is to establish existence of the new phenomenon – Turbo Self-Injection. It is a new type of circulation of liquid flow that appears inside cylindrical, conical or spherical hollow rotationally symmetrical solid-bodies.Throttling water jet turns into the circular, vortex flow of liquid, for example water, in such solid-bodies and creates a static pressure drop that increases suction capacity of injectors several fold; the injectors also have much smaller sizes and consume considerably less energy than any known models.
To achieve that, I created a mixing chamber in a pipe with a throttling disk on one end and a dead impact wall on another end and with an outlet sideways in front of the impact wall. The mixing chamber had two more holes: one for air intake and one for liquid soap.As it turned out, the water was not coming out of the holes for air and for soap even when the throttling water jet was hitting the dead flat perpendicular wall in the pipe. Instead, the water was rotating in a vortical manner around the mixing chamber longitudinal axis which is parallel to the throttling water jet. In this process, sucked-in air increases volume and velocity of the circular vortex flow several fold, and suction pressure is created which is 20 to 30 times higher than in previously known injectors. Because of this, simultaneous suction of both air and liquid soap is possible. In the process a homogenous fine soap foam is created with air bubbles of 1-2 millimetre diameter. This sub-mission is a brief summary of the experimental research that I have been conducting on my own for 14 years.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[14] **viXra:1701.0596 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-24 08:29:10*

**Authors:** Wan-Chung Hu

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Charge relativity means that charge can cause space-time vortex. Using this concept, we can solve the puzzle of dark matter. Charge causes spacetime torsion. By combining Einstein field equation and Faraday electromagnetic torsion tensor, we can get a complete universe field equation including gravity, light pressure, and electromagnetism.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[13] **viXra:1701.0590 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-04 11:43:56*

**Authors:** Yurii A. Spirichev

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The article deals with the choice of the energy-momentum tensor in electrodynamics. Considered the electromagnetic force in a continuous medium of the following Minkowski and Abraham tensors. From Minkowski tensor the equations of conservation of energy-momentum density, density of electromagnetic force balance in a continuous medium and the equation for the Abraham force. It is shown that it is equal to zero when choosing a canonical material equations. It is shown that the equivalence of the Minkowski momentum density and Abraham. Arguments in favor of a unique choice of the tensor of the Minkowski and Abraham tensor incomplete.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[12] **viXra:1701.0541 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 07:15:53*

**Authors:** Manik Dawar

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Contact information: manikdawar@live.com

The entirety of this document assumes the existence of a maximum speed with which any entity in the universe can travel from a set of points in space to any other set of points in space. The consequences on the motion of the constituents of a typical system of particles, when the system is travelling at a speed which is close to the speed limit of the universe, are initially subjected to a qualitative analysis, the conclusions of which hint at a mechanical definition of time. A quantitative analysis of the same reveals the Lorentz Transformation Factor. The fact that the Lorentz transformation factor is derived on applying the definition of time, which was hinted from the qualitative analysis, supports that definition. The quantitative analysis, however, also revealed a different value (transformation factor*). Both the transformation factors are combined to form one transformation factor, which, given that n (the number of spatial dimensions in the universe through which any moving object traverses) is large enough, approximately equates to the Lorentz Transformation Factor. Thus, using the results derived here, the value of n might be revealed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[11] **viXra:1701.0537 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-18 13:20:25*

**Authors:** Gary R. Prok

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

There has been disagreement about the validity of Landauer's Principle, which places a limitation on computational energy efficiency. The Principle is predicated on a finite entropy increase associated with every erasure of a memory register. Existence of a reversible memory register reduces Landauer' Principle to a disproven conjecture.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[10] **viXra:1701.0536 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-18 13:23:54*

**Authors:** Gary R. Prok

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Maxwell’s demon challenges our interpretation of thermodynamics and our understanding of the Second Law of thermodynamics. The Szilard engine is a gedanken instantiation of Maxwell’s Demon that is amenable to standard thermodynamic analysis. The paradox of Maxwell’s demon as presented by the Szilard engine is considered to have been solved by Landauer’s principle. A classical analysis of the Szilard engine, presented here, shows that Landauer’s principle is not needed to resolve the paradox of the demon. Classical thermodynamics is all that is needed.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[9] **viXra:1701.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 20:26:55*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

via conservative forces. These forces can be of gravitational origin (celestial mechanics),
inter-molecular origin (molecular dynamics), or representing (structural biology). In
The n-body problem as a classic astronomical and physical problem that naturally follows from the two- body problem first solved by Newton in his Principia in 1687. The efforts of many famous mathematicians have been devoted to this difficult problem, including Euler and Lagrange (1772), Jacobi (1836), Hill (1878), Poincaré (1899), Levi-Civita (1905), and Birkhoff (1915). However, despite centuries of exploration, there is no clear structure of the solution of the general n- or even three-body problem as there are no coordinate transformations that can simplify the problem, and there are more and more evidences that, in general, the solutions of n-body problems are chaotic. Failure to find a general analytical structure of the solution shifted the effort towards numerical methods. Many ODE solvers offer a variety of advance numerical methods for the solution.
2. Chaos in classical dynamics
We start this section with revisiting mathematical formalism of chaos in a non-traditional way that is based upon the concept of orbital instability.
The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [4], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [5]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems illustrated by chaos in inertial systems
a. Orbital instability as a precursor of chaos.
Chaos is a special type of instability when the system does not have an alternative stable state and displays an irregular aperiodic motion. Obviously this kind of instability can be associated only with ignorable variables, i.e. with such variables that do not contribute into energy of the system. In order to demonstrate this kind of instability, consider an inertial motion of a particle M of unit mass on a smooth pseudosphere S having a constant negative curvature G0, Fig. 1.
The n-body problem is the problem of predicting the individual motions of a group of objects
1
interacting
with each other
the most common version, the trajectories of the objects are determined by numerically solving the Newton's equations of motion for a system of interacting particles. Non-conservative version of the interaction forces became important in case of the n-body problem that incorporates the effects of
the Coulomb potential
radiation pressure, Poynting-Robertson (P-R) drag, and solar wind drag.
The general method of numerical solution of the corresponding system
of ODE was originally conceived within theoretical physics in the late 1950s,,[1,2], but is applied today
mostly in chemical physics, materials science and the modeling of biomolecules.
The most significant “side effect “of the existing numerical methods for n-body problems becomes chaos when different numerical runs with the same initial conditions result in different trajectories. Although numerical errors can contribute to chaos, nevertheless the primary origin of chaos is physical instability,
[3].
In this work, a general approach to probabilistic description of chaos in n-body problem with conservative

**Category:** Classical Physics

[8] **viXra:1701.0522 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-16 16:29:56*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The concept of randomness entered Newtonian dynamics almost a century ago: in 1926, Synge, J. introduced a new type of instability - orbital instability- in classical mechanics, [1], that can be considered as a precursor of chaos formulated a couple of decades later, [2]. The theory of chaos was inspired by the fact that in recent years, in many different domains of science (physics, chemistry, biology, engineering), systems with a similar strange behavior were frequently encountered displaying irregular and unpredictable behavior called chaotic. Currently the theory of chaos that describes such systems is well established. However there are still two unsolved problem remain: prediction of chaos (without numerical runs), and analytical description of chaos in term of the probability density that would formally follow from the original ODE. This paper proposes a contribution to the solution of these problems.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[7] **viXra:1701.0517 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-16 13:55:40*

**Authors:** Michail Zak

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

This paper presents a non-traditional approach to theory of turbulence. Its objective is to prove that Newtonian mechanics is fully equipped for description of turbulent motions without help of experimentally obtained closures. Turbulence is one of the most fundamental problems in theoretical physics that is still unsolved. The term “unsolved “ here means that turbulence cannot be properly formulated, i.e. reduced to standard mathematical procedure such as solving differential equations. In other words, it is not just a computational problem: prior to computations, a consistent mathematical model must be found. Although applicability of the Navier-Stokes equations as a model for fluid mechanics is not in question, the instability of their solutions for flows with supercritical Reynolds numbers raises a more general question: is Newtonian mechanics complete?
The problem of turbulence (stressed later by the discovery of chaos) demonstrated that the Newton’s world is far more complex than those represented by classical models. It appears that the Lagrangian or Hamiltonian formulations do not suggest any tools for treating postinstability motions, and this is a major flaw of the classical approach to Newtonian mechanics. The explanation of that limitation is proposed in this paper: the classical formalism based upon the Newton’s laws exploits additional mathematical restrictions (such as space–time differentiability, and the Lipchitz conditions) that are not required by the Newton’s laws. The only purpose for these restrictions is to apply a powerful technique of classical mathematical analysis. However, in many cases such restrictions are incompatible with physical reality, and the most obvious case of such incompatibility is the Euler’s model of inviscid fluid in which absence of shear stresses are not compensated by a release of additional degrees of freedom as required by the principles of mechanics.
It has been recently demonstrated, [3], that according to the principle of release of constraints, absence of shear stresses in the Euler equations must be compensated by additional degrees of freedom, and that led to a Reynolds-type enlarged Euler equations (EE equations) with a doublevalued velocity field that do not require any closures. In the first part of the paper, the theory is applied to turbulent mixing and illustrated by propagation of mixing zone triggered by a tangential jump of velocity. A comparison of the proposed solution with the Prandtl’s solution is performed and discussed. In the second part of the paper, a semi-viscous version of the Navier-Stokes equations is introduced. The model does not require any closures since the number of equations is equal to the number of unknowns.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[6] **viXra:1701.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-12 16:01:36*

**Authors:** Declan Traill

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The original mathematical treatment used in the analysis of the Fizeau experiment of 1851, which measured the relative speed of light in a moving medium, assumes that light travels through the water in a smooth continuous flow, at a speed less than the speed of light in a vacuum (relative to the water). Thus it assumes that the water’s velocity vector can simply be added to that of the light. However, light is transmitted through optical media, such as water, by a continuous process of absorption and re-emission by the water molecules; but travels between them at the full speed of light (in a vacuum). Thus the mathematics describing the process of Fresnel dragging must be formulated differently and can then be explained by classical Physics

**Category:** Classical Physics

[5] **viXra:1701.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-09 15:20:14*

**Authors:** Desire Francine Gobato

**Comments:** 95 Pages. Portuguese.

The flight safety is one of the main concerns related to the current aviation and through the prevention it is gotten to avoid countless incidents and accidents. The work has as objective demonstrates through norms, patterns and documents, that a safe way exists of accomplishing acrobatic maneuvers. The focus from work will have as reference the operational safety in the acrobatic maneuvers involving the current acrobatic aircrafts inside of the Brazilian air space. It gave way a bibliographical consultation it was elaborated through virtual libraries, where were books that they are correlated with the flight safety and the acrobatic flight, besides the norms and patterns of ANAC. It was verified like this that several ways exist of accomplishing a flight with acrobatics in a safe way, and for that they were developed several norms that owe her they be followed in the aerial demonstrations, shows or in any event that executes maneuvers or acrobatics in a risky way, where the aircraft is exposed to your own limits.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[4] **viXra:1701.0336 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-09 12:13:24*

**Authors:** Desire Francine Gobato Fedrigo, Ricardo Gobato

**Comments:** 1 Page. Portuguese. Panel presented in the XVII Physics Week of the State University of Londrina, October 22 to 26, 2012.

To begin a study related to the High Speed Theory, it is necessary to know that the aircraft are classified according to the being: subsonic, transonic, hypersonic or supersonic. Directly related to there are still the so-called pressure waves, which are concentric waves printed in the air by any object that produces sound or which travels in the Earth's atmosphere, these propagate at a speed of 340 m/s or 1224 km/h at the mean sea level. The Aircraft in flight produces these waves, which are formed around them and move 360º around it. In this study, the
nose of the aircraft and the area of greater curvature in the extrados of the wing as expansion waveformers, in order to study the wave of Shock, Mach number and critical Mach number.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[3] **viXra:1701.0327 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 01:29:36*

**Authors:** Sergey G. Fedosin

**Comments:** 69 pages. Journal of Fundamental and Applied Sciences, Vol. 9, No. 1, pp. 411-467 (2017). http://dx.doi.org/10.4314/jfas.v9i1.25

It is shown that the angular frequency of the photon is nothing else than the averaged angular frequency of revolution of the electron cloud’s center during emission and quantum transition between two energy levels in an atom. On assumption that the photon consists of charged particles of the vacuum field (of praons), the substantial model of a photon is constructed. Praons move inside the photon in the same way as they must move in the electromagnetic field of the emitting electron, while internal periodic wave structure is formed inside the photon. The properties of praons, including their mass, charge and speed, are derived in the framework of the theory of infinite nesting of matter. At the same time, praons are part of nucleons and leptons just as nucleons are the basis of neutron stars and the matter of ordinary stars and planets. With the help of the Lorentz transformations, which correlate the laboratory reference frame and the reference frame, co-moving with the praons inside the photon, transformation of the electromagnetic field components is performed. This allows us to calculate the longitudinal magnetic field and magnetic dipole moment of the photon, and to understand the relation between the transverse components of the electric and magnetic fields, connected by a coefficient in the form of the speed of light. The total rest mass of the particles making up the photon is found, it turns out to be inversely proportional to the nuclear
charge number of the hydrogen-like atom, which emits the photon. In the presented
picture the photon composed of praons moves at a speed less than the speed of light,
and it loses the right to be called an elementary particle due to its complex structure.

**Category:** Classical Physics

[2] **viXra:1701.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-06 04:09:40*

**Authors:** Domenico Oricchio

**Comments:** 1 Page.

An attempt to universal definition of phase transition

**Category:** Classical Physics

[1] **viXra:1701.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-30 11:42:37*

**Authors:** Don Brown

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This paper creates a model that unifies Gravity, Inertia, and Centripetal Force and shows how they are all created by the same mechanical properties. Some additions to the opening statements and some Practical Applications for this theory have been added to the end of the paper.

**Category:** Classical Physics