[2] **viXra:1711.0432 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 13:19:20*

**Authors:** Arsen A. Movsesyan

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

In the article, the Gauss’s problem on the number of integer points for a circle and a ball in the framework of an integer lattice is reformulated in an equivalent way and reduces to solving two combinatorial tasks for a circular and spherical "layer" in the framework of Quantum Discrete Space. These tasks are solved using trigonometric functions defined on a set of integers whose range of values is also integers, and other new mathematical tools. It comes not about evaluative solutions, but about exact solutions, which, if necessary, can be transferred to a circle and a ball. In doing so not only specific formulas for determine the exact number of solutions are presented, but also the formulas for enumerating the corresponding pairs and triples of integers. The importance of obtained solutions lies in the fact that they determine the analytical likenesses of not only the circumference and the sphere in the Quantum Discrete Space, but also point to the possibility of constructing of the likenesses of ellipse, cone, hyperboloid and other figures.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory

[1] **viXra:1711.0252 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-09 01:59:34*

**Authors:** Murugesan, Anitha

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The last theorem is the highlight of the paper

In the graph theory, two graphs are said to be isomorphic if there is a one-one, onto mapping defined between their set of vertices so as to preserving the adjacency between vertices. An isomorphism defined on a vertex set of a graph to itself is called automorphism of the given graph. Two vertices in a graph are said to be similar if there is an automorphism defined on its vertex set mapping one vertex to the other. In this paper, it has been discussed that every such automorphism defines an equivalence relation on the set of vertices and the number of equivalence classes is same as the number of rotations that the automorphism makes on the vertex set. The set of all automorphisms of a graph is a permutation group under the composition of permutations. This group is called automorphism group of the graph. A graph is said to be vertex transitive if its automorphism group acts transitively on its vertex set. The path degree sequence of a vertex in a graph is the list of lengths of paths having this particular vertex as initial vertex. The ordered set of all such sequences is called path degree sequence of the graph. It is conjectured that two graphs are isomorphic iff they have same path degree sequence. In this paper, it has been discussed that this conjecture holds good when both the graphs are vertex transitive. The notion of functional graph has been introduced in this paper. The functional graph of any two isomorphic graphs is a graph in which the vertex set is the union of vertex sets of isomorphic graphs and two vertices are connected by an edge iff they are connected in any one of the graph when they belong to the same graph or one vertex is the image of the other under the given isomorphism when they are in different set of vertices. It has been proved that the functional graphs obtained from two isomorphic complete bipartite graphs are vertex transitive.
Keywords : graph automorphism ; functional graph ; vertex transitive graph ; path degree sequence.

**Category:** Combinatorics and Graph Theory