Condensed Matter

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[391] viXra:1702.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 07:08:35

Plasmonic Metamaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Engineers at the University of California San Diego have developed a material that could reduce signal losses in photonic devices. The advance has the potential to boost the efficiency of various light-based technologies including fiber optic communication systems, lasers and photovoltaics. [18] Research led by ANU on the use of magnets to steer light has opened the door to new communications systems which could be smaller, cheaper and more agile than fibre optics. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[390] viXra:1702.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-17 07:27:51

{temperature Effects in Second Stokes' Problem

Authors: V.V. Dudko, A. A. Yushkanov
Comments: 8 Pages.

Considered the second Stokes's problem about the behavior of rarefied gas filling half-space, when limiting the half-space the plane performs harmonic oscillations in its plane. Continuum mechanics equations with the slip are used. It is shown that in quadratic in the velocity of wall approximation in gas have taken place the temperature effects due to influence of viscous dissipation. In this case there is a temperature difference between the surface of the body and the gas away from the surface.
Category: Condensed Matter

[389] viXra:1702.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-16 10:13:28

Light Signals Carried by Solitons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Research led by ANU on the use of magnets to steer light has opened the door to new communications systems which could be smaller, cheaper and more agile than fibre optics. [17] Members of the Faculty of Physics at the Lomonosov Moscow State University have elaborated a new technique for creating entangled photon states. [16] Quantum mechanics, with its counter-intuitive rules for describing the behavior of tiny particles like photons and atoms, holds great promise for profound advances in the security and speed of how we communicate and compute. [15] University of Oregon physicists have combined light and sound to control electron states in an atom-like system, providing a new tool in efforts to move toward quantum-computing systems. [14] Researchers from the Institute for Quantum Computing at the University of Waterloo and the National Research Council of Canada (NRC) have, for the first time, converted the color and bandwidth of ultrafast single photons using a room-temperature quantum memory in diamond. [13] One promising approach for scalable quantum computing is to use an all-optical architecture, in which the qubits are represented by photons and manipulated by mirrors and beam splitters. So far, researchers have demonstrated this method, called Linear Optical Quantum Computing, on a very small scale by performing operations using just a few photons. In an attempt to scale up this method to larger numbers of photons, researchers in a new study have developed a way to fully integrate single-photon sources inside optical circuits, creating integrated quantum circuits that may allow for scalable optical quantum computation. [12] Spin-momentum locking might be applied to spin photonics, which could hypothetically harness the spin of photons in devices and circuits. Whereas microchips use electrons to perform computations and process information, photons are limited primarily to communications, transmitting data over optical fiber. However, using the spin of light waves could make possible devices that integrate electrons and photons to perform logic and memory operations. [11] Researchers at the University of Ottawa observed that twisted light in a vacuum travels slower than the universal physical constant established as the speed of light by Einstein's theory of relativity. Twisted light, which turns around its axis of travel much like a corkscrew, holds great potential for storing information for quantum computing and communications applications. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[388] viXra:1702.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-11 07:53:07

Multivalued Logic for Neuromorphic Computing

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Research published Wednesday, in Nature Scientific Reports lays out a theoretical map to use ferroelectric material to process information using multivalued logic-a leap beyond the simple ones and zeroes that make up our current computing systems that could let us process information much more efficiently. [15] A pair of physicists with ETH Zurich has developed a way to use an artificial neural network to characterize the wave function of a quantum many-body system. [14] A team of researchers at Google's DeepMind Technologies has been working on a means to increase the capabilities of computers by combining aspects of data processing and artificial intelligence and have come up with what they are calling a differentiable neural computer (DNC.) In their paper published in the journal Nature, they describe the work they are doing and where they believe it is headed. To make the work more accessible to the public team members, Alexander Graves and Greg Wayne have posted an explanatory page on the DeepMind website. [13] Nobody understands why deep neural networks are so good at solving complex problems. Now physicists say the secret is buried in the laws of physics. [12] A team of researchers working at the University of California (and one from Stony Brook University) has for the first time created a neural-network chip that was built using just memristors. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they built their chip and what capabilities it has. [11] A team of researchers used a promising new material to build more functional memristors, bringing us closer to brain-like computing. Both academic and industrial laboratories are working to develop computers that operate more like the human brain. Instead of operating like a conventional, digital system, these new devices could potentially function more like a network of neurons. [10] Cambridge Quantum Computing Limited (CQCL) has built a new Fastest Operating System aimed at running the futuristic superfast quantum computers. [9] IBM scientists today unveiled two critical advances towards the realization of a practical quantum computer. For the first time, they showed the ability to detect and measure both kinds of quantum errors simultaneously, as well as demonstrated a new, square quantum bit circuit design that is the only physical architecture that could successfully scale to larger dimensions. [8] Physicists at the Universities of Bonn and Cambridge have succeeded in linking two completely different quantum systems to one another. In doing so, they have taken an important step forward on the way to a quantum computer. To accomplish their feat the researchers used a method that seems to function as well in the quantum world as it does for us people: teamwork. The results have now been published in the "Physical Review Letters". [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[387] viXra:1702.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 10:20:46

Terahertz Chips

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Electromagnetic pulses lasting one millionth of a millionth of a second may hold the key to advances in medical imaging, communications and drug development. But the pulses, called terahertz waves, have long required elaborate and expensive equipment to use. [20] A widely held understanding of electromagnetic radiation has been challenged in newly published research led at the University of Strathclyde. [19] Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[386] viXra:1702.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 11:23:15

Quantum State in Insulating Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers from Brown University have shown experimentally how a unique form of magnetism arises in an odd class of materials called Mott insulators. [17] Physicists from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Warsaw have developed a holographic atomic memory device capable of generating single photons on demand in groups of several dozen or more. The device, successfully demonstrated in practice, overcomes one of the fundamental obstacles towards the construction of a quantum computer. [16] Random number generators are crucial to the encryption that protects our privacy and security when engaging in digital transactions such as buying products online or withdrawing cash from an ATM. For the first time, engineers have developed a fast random number generator based on a quantum mechanical process that could deliver the world's most secure encryption keys in a package tiny enough to use in a mobile device. [15] Researchers at the University of Rochester have moved beyond the theoretical in demonstrating that an unbreakable encrypted message can be sent with a key that's far shorter than the message—the first time that has ever been done. [14] Quantum physicists have long thought it possible to send a perfectly secure message using a key that is shorter than the message itself. Now they've done it. [13] What once took months by some of the world's leading scientists can now be done in seconds by undergraduate students thanks to software developed at the University of Waterloo's Institute for Quantum Computing, paving the way for fast, secure quantum communication. [12] The artificial intelligence system's ability to set itself up quickly every morning and compensate for any overnight fluctuations would make this fragile technology much more useful for field measurements, said co-lead researcher Dr Michael Hush from UNSW ADFA. [11] Quantum physicist Mario Krenn and his colleagues in the group of Anton Zeilinger from the Faculty of Physics at the University of Vienna and the Austrian Academy of Sciences have developed an algorithm which designs new useful quantum experiments. As the computer does not rely on human intuition, it finds novel unfamiliar solutions. [10]
Category: Condensed Matter

[385] viXra:1702.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-09 11:33:29

Poisson Boltzmann Equation Cannot be Solved Using Dirichlet Boundary Condition

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 2 Pages.

The Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) gives us very simple formula for charge density distribution $(\rho_e)$ within ionic solutions. PBE is widely solved by specifying values to electrostatic potential ($\psi$) at different boundaries; this type of boundary condition (BC) is known as Dirichlet condition (DC). Here we show that DC cannot be used to solve the PBE, because it leads to unphysical consequences. For example, when we change the reference for $\psi$, the functional forms of $\psi$ and $\rho_e$ change in non-trivial ways i.e. it changes the physics, which is not acceptable. Our result should have far reaching effects on many branches of physical, chemical and biological sciences.
Category: Condensed Matter

[384] viXra:1702.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-07 07:49:15

Coupled Diffusion of Impurity Atoms and Point Defects in Silicon Crystals. Context and Preliminary

Authors: O.I. Velichko
Comments: In Russian, 274 pages, 90 figures, 551 references

A theory describing the processes of atomic diffusion in a nonequilibrium state with nonuniform distributions of components in a defect?impurity system of silicon crystals is proposed. Based on this theory, partial diffusion models are constructed, and simulation of a large number of experimental data are curried out. A comparison of the simulation results with the experiment confirms the correctness and importance of the theory developed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[383] viXra:1702.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-06 13:30:06

Helium Compounds

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Can helium bond with other elements to form a stable compound? Students attentive to Utah State University professor Alex Boldyrev's introductory chemistry lectures would immediately respond "no." And they'd be correct – if the scholars are standing on the Earth's surface. [11] Using a Bose-Einstein condensate composed of millions of sodium atoms, researchers at the Georgia Institute of Technology have observed a sharp magnetically-induced quantum phase transition where they expect to find entangled atomic pairs. The work moves scientists closer to an elusive entangled state that would have potential sensing and computing applications beyond its basic science interests. [10] A team of researchers at the University of Cambridge has succeeded in creating turbulence in a Bose–Einstein condensate (BEC) and in the process, have possibly opened the door to a new avenue of research. In their paper published in the journal Nature, the team describes how they achieved this feat and the evidence they found for a cascade. Brian Anderson with the University of Arizona offers a News & Views piece describing the work done by the team in the same journal issue and offers a brief overview of the characteristic distribution of kinetic energy in turbulent fluids. [9] Bose-Einstein condensates (BECs) are macroscopic systems that have quantum behaviour, and are useful for exploring fundamental physics. Now researchers at the Gakushuin University and the University of Electro-Communications have studied how the miscibility of multicomponent BECs affects their behaviour, with surprising results. [8] Particles can be classified as bosons or fermions. A defining characteristic of a boson is its ability to pile into a single quantum state with other bosons. Fermions are not allowed to do this. One broad impact of fermionic antisocial behavior is that it allows for carbon-based life forms, like us, to exist. If the universe were solely made from bosons, life would certainly not look like it does. Recently, JQI theorists have proposed an elegant method for achieving transmutation—that is, making bosons act like fermions. This work was published in the journal Physical Review Letters. [7] Quantum physics tell us that even massive particles can behave like waves, as if they could be in several places at once. This phenomenon is typically proven in the diffraction of a matter wave at a grating. Researchers have now carried this idea to the extreme and observed the delocalization of molecules at the thinnest possible grating, a mask milled into a single layer of atoms. [6] Researchers in Austria have made what they call the "fattest Schrödinger cats realized to date". They have demonstrated quantum superposition – in which an object exists in two or more states simultaneously – for molecules composed of up to 430 atoms each, several times larger than molecules used in previous such experiments1. [5] Patrick Coles, Jedrzej Kaniewski, and Stephanie Wehner made the breakthrough while at the Centre for Quantum Technologies at the National University of Singapore. They found that 'wave-particle duality' is simply the quantum 'uncertainty principle' in disguise, reducing two mysteries to one. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Condensed Matter

[382] viXra:1702.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-06 10:54:06

Silicon Solitonics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

In their most recent paper they demonstrated that solitons can be manipulated and outlined how to use them for logical operations. Their experiments and models are published in Nature Physics and pave the way to a new field of electronics: Solitonics. [14] Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. [13] A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12] To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Condensed Matter

[381] viXra:1702.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-04 08:01:40

Potential of Metal Grids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 12 Pages.

Scientists from the Helmholtz Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf (HZDR) have shown how a cobalt grid can be reliably programmed at room temperature. [13] A team of theoretical physicists has proposed a way to simulate black holes on an electronic chip. Additionally, the technology used to create these lab-made black holes may be useful for quantum technologies. [12] To carry out this experiment, Chen and Mourou suggest a laser pulse could be sent through a plasma target. [11] Jeff Steinhauer, a physicist at the Israel Institute of Technology, has published a paper in the journal Nature Physics describing experiments in which he attempted to create a virtual black hole in the lab in order to prove that Stephen Hawking's theory of radiation emanating from black holes is correct —though his experiments are based on sound, rather than light. In his paper, he claims to have observed the quantum effects of Hawking radiation in his lab as part of a virtual black hole—which, if proven to be true, will be the first time it has ever been achieved. New Research Mathematically Proves Quantum Effects Stop the Formation of Black Holes. By merging two seemingly conflicting theories, Laura Mersini-Houghton, a physics professor at UNC-Chapel Hill in the College of Arts and Sciences, has proven, mathematically, that black holes can never come into being in the first place. The works not only forces scientists to reimagining the fabric of space-time, but also rethink the origins of the universe. Considering the positive logarithmic values as the measure of entropy and the negative logarithmic values as the measure of information we get the Information – Entropy Theory of Physics, used first as the model of the computer chess program built in the Hungarian Academy of Sciences. Applying this model to physics we have an understanding of the perturbation theory of the QED and QCD as the Information measure of Physics. We have an insight to the current research of Quantum Information Science. The generalization of the Weak Interaction shows the arrow of time in the associate research fields of the biophysics and others. We discuss also the event horizon of the Black Holes, closing the information inside.
Category: Condensed Matter

[380] viXra:1701.0654 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 13:52:43

Estudo Computacional do Phenalenyl (Computational Study of Phenalenyl)

Authors: Ricardo Gobato, Marilene Turini Piccinato, Eduardo Di Mauro, André Tsutomu Ota, M. F. Costa
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented the First Brazilian School of Bioinformatics (EBB-2008), from August 25 to 28, 2008, at the Federal University of ABC (UFABC)

Phenalenyl or perinaphthenyl (C13H9) is an organic component that can be used as a spin probe. One of the co-authors characterized the phenalenyl experimentally through the technique of electronic resonance spin (EPR). When the temperature is less than 250 C, the EPR signal disappears because dimerization occurs through a chemical bond eliminating the unpaired spin. In the middle also degradation occurs due to oxidation. In this work we present the results of the geometry optimization calculations obtained through the method of the functional density (DFT) / B3LYP in the base 6-311+G(2d, p), with load -1 and multiplicity 3. The best results, compared with The experimental data, spin densities and hyperfine coupling constants were obtained using the base 6-311+G(3df,3pd), with loads varying from -1 to 1.
Category: Condensed Matter

[379] viXra:1701.0628 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 13:37:52

First-ever Time Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[378] viXra:1701.0625 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 14:24:39

Electricity Flows Without Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

According to a new study led by scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and at the University of California, Berkeley, electrons in vanadium dioxide can conduct electricity without conducting heat. [14] Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[377] viXra:1701.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 14:52:51

Metallic Hydrogen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Nearly a century after it was theorized, Harvard scientists have succeeded in creating the rarest-and potentially one of the most valuable-materials on the planet. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light)
Category: Condensed Matter

[376] viXra:1701.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-23 21:19:17

Study of the Molecular Geometry of Caramboxin Toxin Found in Star Flower (Averrhoa Carambola L.)

Authors: Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 9 Pages. PJSE, v.3, n.1. 1-9 (2017). Parana Journal of Science and Education.

The present work describes the equilibrium configuration of the caramboxin molecule studied using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density functional theory (DFT) calculations. With the DFT calculations, the total energy for the singlet state of caramboxin molecule has been estimated to be -933.3870701 a.u. Furthermore, the binding energy of the caramboxin molecule has been estimated to be 171.636 kJ/mol. The carambola or star fruit is a fruit used for human consumption in juices, desserts, pastries, custards, jellies, or even in natural consumption. Recent research indicates that it has great toxicity for people with kidney failure, and may even lead to death. Experiments demonstrated that it has glutamatergic effects, which means that it affects the function of the neurotransmitter glutamate, thus explaining the neurological effects. Our calculations indicate that the main active sites in carambox are the -OH (alcohols) groups, and the two carboxyl (-COOH) groups.
Category: Condensed Matter

[375] viXra:1701.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 11:16:46

Graphene's Superconductivity Awakens

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[374] viXra:1701.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-17 15:18:42

Laser Creating Quasiparticle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[373] viXra:1701.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 13:27:51

Golden Mystery Feynman's Approach

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Gold is prized for its preciousness and as a conductor in electronics, but it is also important in scientific experimentation. [23] When the temperature of the material changes, both the electronic and the magnetic properties of the materials change with it. [22] In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[372] viXra:1701.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 07:18:40

Phase Transition Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

When the temperature of the material changes, both the electronic and the magnetic properties of the materials change with it. [22] In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[371] viXra:1701.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 08:20:23

Magnetic Properties in Nonmagnetic Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge.
Category: Condensed Matter

[370] viXra:1701.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 08:36:16

Viscosidade Anisotrópica Dos Cristais Líquidos (Anisotropic Viscosity of Liquid Crystals)

Authors: Manuel Simões F., Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented at the XV Week of Physics of the State University of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, September 2010.

The anisotropic viscosity of the liquid crystals (CL) is one of the most challenging properties of these materials, it was discovered in 1935 by Miesowicz, when he showed that CLs are non-Newtonian fluids, exhibiting viscosities that are direction dependent when subjected to an external field . Over this time, a tremendous amount of experimental and theoretical research has been devoted to the subject, but a microscopic theory satisfactory to it has never been found. The kinetic approach of Doi had for some time been the most accepted microscopic theory for nematic viscosity, but even having the great merit of producing a free expression of the adjustable parameters, which captures the essence of the phenomena, providing a semimicroscopic explanation for the origin of Its anisotropy, there are well documented divergences with the experimental data, being unable to describe the essential aspects of the phenomenology observed in these systems, especially when considering the range of the nematic phase. The objective of this work is to study the contribution of the characteristic geometry of the nematic / molecule micelle to the viscosity of the nematic liquids. Throughout this work, we use the word geometry of the nematic grain, or simple geometry of the grain, to designate the geometry that a nematic micelle / molecule acquires under the thermal vibration. This concept does not appear to be common in the theory of NCLs, but arises naturally from Gennes's theory of parameters for NLCs. In addition, to increase the contribution of grain geometry to nematic viscosity we will use the Hess and Balls conforming approach to formulate the fundamentals of nematic viscosity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[369] viXra:1701.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-13 06:52:10

First 2D Electride Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[368] viXra:1701.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 14:58:00

Estudo Das Propriedades Físico-Químicas e Farmacológicas da Argemone Mexicana L.

Authors: R. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo, A. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese

Argemone Mexicana L. popularly known as: Mexican poppy, thorny Mexican poppy, thistle or cardo santo is a species of poppy found in Mexico and widespread in many parts of the world. It is an extremely resistant plant, tolerant to drought and poor soils, being often the only vegetation cover present in the soil. It has bright yellow latex, and although toxic to grazing animals, it is rarely ingested. From the family Papaveraceae, informally known as poppies, it is an important ethnopharmacological family of 44 genera and about 760 species of flowering plants. The plant is the source of several types of chemical compounds, such as flavonoids, although alkaloids are the most commonly found. In addition to pharmaceutical efficacy, certain parts of the plant also show toxic effects. It is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases including tumors, warts, skin diseases, rheumatism, inflammation, jaundice, leprosy, microbial infections, malaria, agrobacteria, among others and as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti, vector Of dengue.
Category: Condensed Matter

[367] viXra:1701.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 15:12:15

Cristais Inorgânicos do Arranjo Berílio, Lítio, Selênio e Silício

Authors: R. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo, A. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese

The use of inorganic crystals in the technology comes from ample date. From quartz crystals to receiver radios common to computer chips with new semiconductor materials. Elements such as Se, Li, Be, and Si, are of great use in technology. The use of new inorganic crystals in technology has been widely studied. The development of new compounds coming from this arrangement can bring technological advances in the most diverse areas of knowledge. The probable difficulty of finding such crystals in nature or synthesized suggest an advanced study of the theme. A preliminary literature search did not indicate any compounds of said arrangement of these chemical elements. From this fact our study may lead to obtaining new crystals to be used in the materials industry. For this, a computational study using software with Molecular Mechanics, ab initio, DFT, and empirical methods with microscopic and conoscopic analysis can lead to the obtaining of such crystals.
Category: Condensed Matter

[366] viXra:1701.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 11:36:01

Espectroscopia Por Mapeamento RGB de Fontes Primárias de Luz

Authors: M. Simões F., R. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese

Spectroscopy is a technique for collecting physicochemical data through the transmission, absorption or reflection of incident radiant energy in a sample. It is much employed to be used in their spectra, which is difficult to access equipment because of its high cost, found in research surveys. Our work is used in common low cost and easy access devices that have a CCD reader, which is replaced by these spectrometers. We determine mathematical parameters that characterize by mapping the images obtained by common cameras such as: cell phones, smartphone, tablet, iphone, ipad, webcam, etc. As filming obtained by optical CCD reader theses hardware, form decoded and separated into their quantified RGB E color channels. Our technique consists of the analysis of the pixels of the images of primary light sources, such as: the sun, incandescent lamps, fire, candle flames, matchestick flame, wood combustion, etc.
Category: Condensed Matter

[365] viXra:1701.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 08:47:32

Opposite Spin in Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have reported the first direct comparison of the spin polarization generated in the topologically protected Dirac states of a topological insulator (TI) bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) and the trivial 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) states at the surface of indium arsenide (InAs). [22] Topological insulators, an exciting, relatively new class of materials, are capable of carrying electricity along the edge of the surface, while the bulk of the material acts as an electrical insulator. Practical applications for these materials are still mostly a matter of theory, as scientists probe their microscopic properties to better understand the fundamental physics that govern their peculiar behavior. [21] A Florida State University research team has discovered a new crystal structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that could open the door to new applications for optoelectronic devices like light-emitting diodes and lasers. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[364] viXra:1701.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-04 11:30:13

Quantum Simulation Topological Soliton State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Topological insulators, an exciting, relatively new class of materials, are capable of carrying electricity along the edge of the surface, while the bulk of the material acts as an electrical insulator. Practical applications for these materials are still mostly a matter of theory, as scientists probe their microscopic properties to better understand the fundamental physics that govern their peculiar behavior. [21] A Florida State University research team has discovered a new crystal structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that could open the door to new applications for optoelectronic devices like light-emitting diodes and lasers. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[363] viXra:1701.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 20:01:55

Is Microcanonical Ensemble Stable?

Authors: Yichen Huang
Comments: 4 Pages.

No, in a rigorous sense specified below.
Category: Condensed Matter

[362] viXra:1701.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-04 05:00:02

Lego Crystal Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A Florida State University research team has discovered a new crystal structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that could open the door to new applications for optoelectronic devices like light-emitting diodes and lasers. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons.
Category: Condensed Matter

[361] viXra:1612.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-28 19:15:36

Life Evolves in Half-Chaos of not Fully Random Systems

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 15 Pages. Polish version

Important for modeling of products of life, of technology and culture using complex networks, the famous Kauffman's hypothesis „life on the edge of chaos and order” is here deeply reinterpreted in effect of the model extension by functions and states correlation. The presented discovery of “half-chaos” – a state more adequate for describing life, significantly alter the existing basis of many considerations. Half-chaotic systems have the same parameters as chaotic random systems but they exhibit the characteristics of order and chaos simultaneously, previously considered to be mutually exclusive. As superheating, in effect of a large change (after a small disturbance) they become chaotic. Small change, defined by lack of immediate changes, does not lead out of half-chaos. The basis of half-chaos is a short attractor. Discovered “semimodularity” - a form of the half-chaos, gives the image “small lakes of activity in the ice”, similar as for systems in Kauffman's “liquid area” on the edge of chaos. There is much more half-chaotic systems than in “liquid area”.
Category: Condensed Matter

[360] viXra:1612.0367 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 07:04:17

Nano System Operates with Interacting Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Illustrating the unusual way things work on the nanoscale, scientists have designed a new nanoelectromechanical system (NEMS) that produces mechanical motion due to the interactions between electrons—yet unlike similar systems, this system does not require any electric current. Instead, the electron-electron interactions couple two electron reservoirs of different temperatures, which generates a heat flow between them that causes a suspended carbon nanotube to vibrate. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons
Category: Condensed Matter

[359] viXra:1612.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-26 05:04:02

Self-Healing Material Electrically Activated

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Scientists, including several from the University of California, Riverside, have developed a transparent, self-healing, highly stretchable conductive material that can be electrically activated to power artificial muscles and could be used to improve batteries, electronic devices, and robots. [11] The same researchers who pioneered the use of a quantum mechanical effect to convert heat into electricity have figured out how to make their technique work in a form more suitable to industry. [10] Systems out of thermodynamic equilibrium are very common in nature. In recent years they have attracted constantly growing attention because of their relevance for fundamental physics as well as for modern nanotechnology. [9] A team of physicists at ANU have used a technique known as 'ghost imaging' to create an image of an object from atoms that never interact with it. [8] For centuries, scientists believed that light, like all waves, couldn't be focused down smaller than its wavelength, just under a millionth of a metre. Now, researchers led by the University of Cambridge have created the world's smallest magnifying glass, which focuses light a billion times more tightly, down to the scale of single atoms. [7] A Purdue University physicist has observed a butterfly Rydberg molecule, a weak pairing of two highly excitable atoms that he predicted would exist more than a decade ago. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Condensed Matter

[358] viXra:1612.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-25 03:51:56

Acoustic Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Yale scientists have shown how to enhance the lifetime of sound waves traveling through glass—the material at the heart of fiber optic technologies. [16] Electron microscopy of a manganese dioxide nanowire in cross-section shows its tunnelled atomic structure, stabilized by potassium ions. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[357] viXra:1612.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-25 04:23:34

Fluorescence Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Scientists around the Nobel laureate Stefan Hell at the Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry in Göttingen have now achieved what was for a long time considered impossible – they have developed a new fluorescence microscope, called MINFLUX, allowing, for the first time, to optically separate molecules, which are only nanometers (one millionth of a millimeter) apart from each other. [19] Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[356] viXra:1612.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-24 07:10:15

Flat Optical Lenses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Engineers at Caltech have developed a system of flat optical lenses that can be easily mass-produced and integrated with image sensors, paving the way for cheaper and lighter cameras in everything from cell phones to medical devices. [15] University of Illinois Electrical & Computer Engineering and Bioengineering Professor Brian Cunningham's Nano Sensors group has invented a novel live-cell imaging method that could someday help biologists better understand how stem cells transform into specialized cells and how diseases like cancer spread. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[355] viXra:1612.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-22 07:06:55

Existence of Majorana Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A low-temperature material made from the elements praseodymium, osmium, and antimony should be able to host subatomic particles known as Majorana fermions, MIT researchers have shown in a theoretical analysis. [28] Princeton University scientists have observed an exotic particle that behaves simultaneously like matter and antimatter, a feat of math and engineering that could yield powerful computers based on quantum mechanics. This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[354] viXra:1612.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 12:42:14

Atomic Clock Mimics Synthetic Magnetic State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Using their advanced atomic clock to mimic other desirable quantum systems, JILA physicists have caused atoms in a gas to behave as if they possess unusual magnetic properties long sought in harder-to-study solid materials. Representing a novel "off-label" use for atomic clocks, the research could lead to the creation of new materials for applications such as "spintronic" devices and quantum computers. [21] New material with ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism may lead to better computer memory. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another.
Category: Condensed Matter

[353] viXra:1612.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-21 09:33:08

Ferroelectricity and Ferromagnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

New material with ferroelectricity and ferromagnetism may lead to better computer memory. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage.
Category: Condensed Matter

[352] viXra:1612.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 09:10:33

Microelectromechanical Systems

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons
Category: Condensed Matter

[351] viXra:1612.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-17 04:19:09

Two Atoms Radio Receiver

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[350] viXra:1612.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-14 22:01:42

Anomalous Heat Effects by Interaction of Nano-Metals and H(D)-Gas

Authors: A. Takahashi, A. Kitamura, K. Takahashi, R. Seto, T. Yokose, A. Taniike, Y. Furuyama
Comments: 12 Pages. pre-print of ICCF20 Proceedings paper

Brief review of Technova-Kobe study (2008-2015) on anomalous heat effects (AHE) by interaction of nano-metals and D(H)-gas is presented in three parts. Part-I) D(H) isotopic effect by twin gas loading and calorimetry at room temperature is reviewed. Part-II) AHE by interaction of binary Ni-based nano-metals and H(D)-gas at 200-300 deg C is reviewed. Part-III) Theoretical explanation by advanced TSC-models is briefly reviewed. AHE at room temperature was significant only in dynamic evolution of D-absorption, cf. H-absorption, and considerable D(H)-isotopic effect for integrated heat values. AHE lasting for several days has been observed at elevated temperatures in the range of 200-300 deg C. AHE has been confirmed by repeated observation of excess heat-power. AHE was lasting for long time span as several days for CNS, PNZ and CNZ samples. AHE has been seen after D(H) loading ratios saturated. AHE is therefore some catalytic surface sited effect by in/out of D(H)-gas. Observed long lasting heat gave order of GJ/mol-H(D) (or several keV/atom-H(D)) in a few days span. Level is not of H(D) chemical absorption energy, so far. AHE at 200-300 deg C is almost impossible to explain by known chemical reactions. Pd-only nano-metals did not work at higher temperatures than 100 deg C. AHE were observed both for H- and D-charging at 200-300 deg C.
Category: Condensed Matter

[349] viXra:1612.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 04:07:58

Graphene Beat the Heat in Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[348] viXra:1612.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 04:32:27

Laser Production of Ultrathin Nanomaterials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[347] viXra:1612.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-12 05:20:34

New Principle for Graphene Use

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Fujitsu Laboratories today announced the world's first successful development of an exquisitely sensitive gas sensor based on a new principle that takes advantage of graphene, a material in which carbon atoms are arranged in a sheet one atom thick. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[346] viXra:1612.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 10:45:45

Graphene Nano-Calligraphy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law.
Category: Condensed Matter

[345] viXra:1612.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-11 11:12:16

Polysilicone Sensitive Sensors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

State of the art sensors made from graphene and children's toy silly putty. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9]
Category: Condensed Matter

[344] viXra:1612.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-10 04:14:35

Hidden Images

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have developed a way to use commercial inkjet printers and readily available ink to print hidden images that are only visible when illuminated with appropriately polarized waves in the terahertz region of the electromagnetic spectrum. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[343] viXra:1612.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 10:23:47

Exotic or Classical Magnetoresistance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Physicists from the Nijmegen High Field Magnet Laboratory (HFML) and the ETH in Zürich have demonstrated that a simple physical model is sufficient to explain the phenomenon of linear magnetoresistance. [17] Researchers at the Division of Solid-State Physics and the Division of Materials Physics at Uppsala University have shown how the collective dynamics in a structure consisting of interacting magnetic nano-islands can be manipulated. [16] An international team led by University of Arkansas physicists has discovered drastic changes in material properties occurring in a group of two-dimensional materials that are being investigated as candidates to power the next generation of opto-electronic devices. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[342] viXra:1612.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 12:44:46

Atom-Sized Tunnels

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Electron microscopy of a manganese dioxide nanowire in cross-section shows its tunnelled atomic structure, stabilized by potassium ions. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[341] viXra:1612.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 08:44:54

Structural Phase Transitions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

An international team led by University of Arkansas physicists has discovered drastic changes in material properties occurring in a group of two-dimensional materials that are being investigated as candidates to power the next generation of opto-electronic devices. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[340] viXra:1612.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 09:55:34

Magnetic Nano-Structures

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Researchers at the Division of Solid-State Physics and the Division of Materials Physics at Uppsala University have shown how the collective dynamics in a structure consisting of interacting magnetic nano-islands can be manipulated. [16] An international team led by University of Arkansas physicists has discovered drastic changes in material properties occurring in a group of two-dimensional materials that are being investigated as candidates to power the next generation of opto-electronic devices. [15] Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[339] viXra:1612.0162 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-09 05:01:05

Electron Highway

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Physicists of the University of Würzburg have made an astonishing discovery in a specific type of topological insulators. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[338] viXra:1612.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 10:57:55

Super-Resolution Microscopy

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Dipole orientation provides new dimension in super-resolution microscopy [18] Fluorescence is an incredibly useful tool for experimental biology and it just got easier to tap into, thanks to the work of a group of University of Chicago researchers. [17] Molecules that change colour can be used to follow in real-time how bacteria form a protective biofilm around themselves. This new method, which has been developed in collaboration between researchers at Linköping University and Karolinska Institutet in Sweden, may in the future become significant both in medical care and the food industry, where bacterial biofilms are a problem. [16] Researchers led by Carnegie Mellon University physicist Markus Deserno and University of Konstanz (Germany) chemist Christine Peter have developed a computer simulation that crushes viral capsids. By allowing researchers to see how the tough shells break apart, the simulation provides a computational window for looking at how viruses and proteins assemble. [15] IBM scientists have developed a new lab-on-a-chip technology that can, for the first time, separate biological particles at the nanoscale and could enable physicians to detect diseases such as cancer before symptoms appear. [14] Scientists work toward storing digital information in DNA. [13] Leiden theoretical physicists have proven that DNA mechanics, in addition to genetic information in DNA, determines who we are. Helmut Schiessel and his group simulated many DNA sequences and found a correlation between mechanical cues and the way DNA is folded. They have published their results in PLoS One. [12] We model the electron clouds of nucleic acids in DNA as a chain of coupled quantum harmonic oscillators with dipole-dipole interaction between nearest neighbours resulting in a van der Waals type bonding. [11] Scientists have discovered a secret second code hiding within DNA which instructs cells on how genes are controlled. The amazing discovery is expected to open new doors to the diagnosis and treatment of diseases, according to a new study. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also.
Category: Condensed Matter

[337] viXra:1612.0134 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 11:28:40

Archimedean Tilings

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Particles self-assemble into these networks, which produce Archimedean tilings when lines are drawn between the particle centers. [25] Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Condensed Matter

[336] viXra:1612.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-08 06:40:27

Catalytic Nanoparticles in 3-D

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Catalysts are at the heart of fuel cells-devices that convert hydrogen and oxygen to water and enough electricity to power vehicles for hundreds of miles. But finding effective, inexpensive catalysts has been a key challenge to getting more of these hydrogen-powered, emission-free vehicles out on the road. [25] Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[335] viXra:1612.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 14:17:46

Deep-Frozen Helium Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Helium atoms are loners. Only if they are cooled down to an extremely low temperature do they form a very weakly bound molecule. In so doing, they can keep a tremendous distance from each other thanks to the quantum-mechanical tunnel effect. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[334] viXra:1612.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 10:49:28

Dynamic Facilitation Theory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Multiple theoretical models have been developed to explain the relaxation dynamics of materials that form glasses. One such model is the dynamic facilitation theory, which predicts that the dynamics of systems are heterogeneous and relaxation displays parabolic behavior. [24] A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible.
Category: Condensed Matter

[333] viXra:1612.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 11:32:26

Radiation Knocks Electrons Out

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Researchers are investigating novel ways by which electrons are knocked out of matter. Their research could have implications for radiation therapy. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[332] viXra:1612.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 13:15:44

Photonic Crystal Microscope

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Professor Brian Cunningham's Nano Sensors group has invented a novel live-cell imaging method that could someday help biologists better understand how stem cells transform into specialized cells and how diseases like cancer spread. [14] Inside a new exotic crystal, physicist Martin Mourigal has observed strong indications of "spooky" action, and lots of it. The results of his experiments, if corroborated over time, would mean that the type of crystal is a rare new material that can house a quantum spin liquid. [13] An international team of researchers have found evidence of a mysterious new state of matter, first predicted 40 years ago, in a real material. This state, known as a quantum spin liquid, causes electrons-thought to be indivisible building blocks of nature-to break into pieces. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[331] viXra:1612.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-07 04:09:38

Transistor Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

In 2004, electrical engineering pioneers Nick Holonyak, Jr. and Milton Feng at the University of Illinois invented the transistor laser—a three-port device that incorporated quantum-wells in the base and an optical cavity—increasing its capacity to transmit data one hundred-fold. [15] The propagating optical signals along the silver nanowire can be also transformed and detected as electrical signals by an optical signal detector. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[330] viXra:1612.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-03 10:39:18

Optical Transistors and Multiplexors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

The propagating optical signals along the silver nanowire can be also transformed and detected as electrical signals by an optical signal detector. [14] Now researchers at Tokyo Institute of Technology use dendrimers that mimic the electron valency of atoms and link them into arrays using molecules that coordinate with the dendrimer as they would form a covalent electron pair in their valence shell-"electron pair mimicry". [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[329] viXra:1612.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-02 06:57:58

Water Molecule Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Scientists have taken spectroscopic snapshots of nature's most mysterious relay race: the passage of extra protons from one water molecule to another during conductivity. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[328] viXra:1611.0407 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 08:27:51

Walking Proteins in Soft Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

Tiny "walking" proteins could be used to investigate mechanical deformations in soft materials according to Hokkaido University researchers. [25] Water has profound implications in our world. From its known, yet not fully understood role in mediating protein folding dynamics and proton transport in membranes, water is a key player, influencing the mechanics of many biological and synthetic processes. [24] A team of mechanical engineers at the University of California San Diego has successfully used acoustic waves to move fluids through small channels at the nanoscale. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[327] viXra:1611.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-30 04:59:17

Water-Wave Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[326] viXra:1611.0398 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:02:24

Existence of Polarons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Many people picture electrical conductivity as the flow of charged particles (mainly electrons) without really thinking about the atomic structure of the material through which those charges are moving. But scientists who study "strongly correlated electron" materials such as high-temperature superconductors and those with strong responses to magnetism know that picture is far too simplistic. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[325] viXra:1611.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-29 14:29:22

Making a Crystal Lattice

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

The treatment, described this week in Applied Physics Letters, creates the effect known as piezoelectricity, where electricity results from mechanical stress, in the material which did not originally see piezoelectric effects. [14] Many people picture electrical conductivity as the flow of charged particles (mainly electrons) without really thinking about the atomic structure of the material through which those charges are moving. But scientists who study "strongly correlated electron" materials such as high-temperature superconductors and those with strong responses to magnetism know that picture is far too simplistic. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[324] viXra:1611.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-28 10:29:05

Mystery of Glass

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

A glass is a curious material in between liquid and solid states of matter, but eventually glass always yields to its solid proclivity by settling into the ordered patterns of a crystal. Or so it was thought. [23] A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[323] viXra:1611.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-27 08:42:07

Capillarity Effects in Ideal Gases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A Mathematician from the University of Leicester, Alexander Gorban, along with a physicist from ETH Zürich, Ilya Karlin, have challenged traditional concepts of micro and macro worlds and demonstrated how ideal gas unexpectedly exhibits capillarity properties. [13] Post-doctoral researchers, Karim Essafi, Owen Benton and Ludovic Jaubert in the Theory of Quantum Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[322] viXra:1611.0361 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 08:14:32

Graphene Textiles for Wearable Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[321] viXra:1611.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 01:27:50

Integer, Fractional, and Anomalous Quantum Hall Effect Explained with Eyring's Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 16 pages

The Hall effect, especially integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effect, has been addressed with the Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as e^2/h with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems
Category: Condensed Matter

[320] viXra:1611.0353 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-26 04:52:17

Photonic Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

A new technique developed by MIT researchers reveals the inner details of photonic crystals, synthetic materials whose exotic optical properties are the subject of widespread research. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[319] viXra:1611.0339 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-24 14:01:00

Super-Fast Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Following a decade of intensive research into graphene and two-dimensional materials a new semiconductor material shows potential for the future of super-fast electronics. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[318] viXra:1611.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-23 11:20:55

Haptic Interfaces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Haptic interfaces have been readily adopted because of their intuitive ease of use and convenience. Obvious examples are the screens for your mobile phone or other computing devices where keyboards have been eliminated. [21] In the September 23th issue of the Physical Review Letters, Prof. Julien Laurat and his team at Pierre and Marie Curie University in Paris (Laboratoire Kastler Brossel-LKB) report that they have realized an efficient mirror consisting of only 2000 atoms. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[317] viXra:1611.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 05:19:12

Valence Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost “valence” electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[316] viXra:1611.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 06:00:30

High-Temperature Superconductivity Pseudogap

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

An artistic representation of the data showing the breaking of spatial inversion and rotational symmetries in the pseudogap region of superconducting materials-evidence that the pseudogap is a distinct phase of matter. [31] Superconductivity is a state in a material in which there is no resistance to electric current and all magnetic fields are expelled. This behavior arises from a so-called "macroscopic quantum state" where all the electrons in a material act in concert to move cooperatively through the material without energy loss. [30] Harvard researchers found a way to transmit spin information through superconducting materials. [29] Researchers at the National Institute of Information and Communications Technology, in collaboration with researchers at the Nippon Telegraph and Telephone Corporation and the Qatar Environment and Energy Research Institute have discovered qualitatively new states of a superconducting artificial atom dressed with virtual photons. [28] A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[315] viXra:1611.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-22 06:53:33

Interactions Between Electrons in Solids and Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Researchers at the University of Jyväskylä in collaboration with research groups in Italy, England and Germany have developed a new method to study interactions between electrons in solids and molecules. [22] In experiments at SLAC, intense laser light (red) shining through a magnesium oxide crystal excited the outermost " valence " electrons of oxygen atoms deep inside it. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[314] viXra:1611.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-21 08:27:36

Can We Split the Quantum?

Authors: Ilija Barukčić
Comments: 7 Pages. Copyright © 2016 by Ilija Barukčić, Jever, Germany. PUBLISHED BY: ...

Today's mass production of antimatter (current, electrons (negatively charged matter) ) has changed the way we live and communicate. Still, the same is to some extent very simple and primitive. A question of far reaching importance is can we split the quantum to develop a more powerful technology to enable a more effective industrial mass production of antimatter?
Category: Condensed Matter

[313] viXra:1611.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 02:45:02

Wet Molecules Change Shape

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Water has profound implications in our world. From its known, yet not fully understood role in mediating protein folding dynamics and proton transport in membranes, water is a key player, influencing the mechanics of many biological and synthetic processes. [24] A team of mechanical engineers at the University of California San Diego has successfully used acoustic waves to move fluids through small channels at the nanoscale. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[312] viXra:1611.0270 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-18 14:03:40

Diamonds are Forever

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

They say diamonds are forever, but diamonds in fact are a metastable form of carbon that will slowly but eventually transform into graphite, another form of carbon. [12] Scientists at Lehigh University, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have demonstrated the fabrication of what they call a new class of crystalline solid by using a laser heating technique that induces atoms to organize into a rotating lattice without affecting the macroscopic shape of the solid. [11] The geometry and topology of electronic states in solids plays a central role in a wide range of modern condensed-matter systems including graphene or topological insulators. However, experimentally accessing this information has proven to be challenging, especially when the bands are not well-isolated from one another. As reported in last week's issue of Science, an international team of researchers has devised a straightforward method to probe the band geometry using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[311] viXra:1611.0227 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-15 04:42:50

Acoustic Waves Move Fluids

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

A team of mechanical engineers at the University of California San Diego has successfully used acoustic waves to move fluids through small channels at the nanoscale. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[310] viXra:1611.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-10 11:50:43

Note on Electromagnetic Superconducting Mass Gap Origin

Authors: Paris S. Miles-Brenden
Comments: 5 Pages. Philosophically Oriented Approach to Understanding Superconductivity

None.
Category: Condensed Matter

[309] viXra:1611.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-09 08:37:10

Chemical Vapor Deposition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers at the NYU Tandon School of Engineering have pioneered a method for growing an atomic scale electronic material at the highest quality ever reported. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[308] viXra:1611.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-08 13:47:26

Spin Liquid Peak

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[307] viXra:1611.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 06:20:08

New Class of Crystalline Solid

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

Scientists at Lehigh University, in collaboration with Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, have demonstrated the fabrication of what they call a new class of crystalline solid by using a laser heating technique that induces atoms to organize into a rotating lattice without affecting the macroscopic shape of the solid. [11] The geometry and topology of electronic states in solids plays a central role in a wide range of modern condensed-matter systems including graphene or topological insulators. However, experimentally accessing this information has proven to be challenging, especially when the bands are not well-isolated from one another. As reported in last week's issue of Science, an international team of researchers has devised a straightforward method to probe the band geometry using ultracold atoms in an optical lattice. [10] Researchers at the University of Chicago's Institute for Molecular Engineering and the University of Konstanz have demonstrated the ability to generate a quantum logic operation, or rotation of the qubit, that-surprisingly—is intrinsically resilient to noise as well as to variations in the strength or duration of the control. Their achievement is based on a geometric concept known as the Berry phase and is implemented through entirely optical means within a single electronic spin in diamond. [9] New research demonstrates that particles at the quantum level can in fact be seen as behaving something like billiard balls rolling along a table, and not merely as the probabilistic smears that the standard interpretation of quantum mechanics suggests. But there's a catch-the tracks the particles follow do not always behave as one would expect from "realistic" trajectories, but often in a fashion that has been termed "surrealistic." [8] Quantum entanglement—which occurs when two or more particles are correlated in such a way that they can influence each other even across large distances—is not an all-or-nothing phenomenon, but occurs in various degrees. The more a quantum state is entangled with its partner, the better the states will perform in quantum information applications. Unfortunately, quantifying entanglement is a difficult process involving complex optimization problems that give even physicists headaches. [7] A trio of physicists in Europe has come up with an idea that they believe would allow a person to actually witness entanglement. Valentina Caprara Vivoli, with the University of Geneva, Pavel Sekatski, with the University of Innsbruck and Nicolas Sangouard, with the University of Basel, have together written a paper describing a scenario where a human subject would be able to witness an instance of entanglement—they have uploaded it to the arXiv server for review by others. [6] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[306] viXra:1611.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-05 06:49:19

Outside the Equilibrium

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Disturbing a mix of two liquids can yield some surprising effects. For example, if one portion of the mixture is brought to a different composition, it starts a process called diffusion, which continues until the liquid mix reverts to the resting point, which physicists refer to as equilibrium. [12] In a single particle system, the behavior of the particle is well understood by solving the Schrödinger equation. Here the particle possesses wave nature characterized by the de Broglie wave length. In a many particle system, on the other hand, the particles interact each other in a quantum mechanical way and behave as if they are "liquid". This is called quantum liquid whose properties are very different from that of the single particle case. [11] Quantum coherence and quantum entanglement are two landmark features of quantum physics, and now physicists have demonstrated that the two phenomena are "operationally equivalent"—that is, equivalent for all practical purposes, though still conceptually distinct. This finding allows physicists to apply decades of research on entanglement to the more fundamental but less-well-researched concept of coherence, offering the possibility of advancing a wide range of quantum technologies. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[305] viXra:1610.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-29 11:32:21

Change Thermal Energy to Electricity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

It's a small change that makes a big difference. Researchers have developed a method that uses a one-degree change in temperature to alter the color of light that a semiconductor emits. The method, which uses a thin-film semiconductor layered on top of a heat-sensitive substrate material, offers a path to electronically triggering changes in the properties of semiconductor materials. [14] Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[304] viXra:1610.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-28 08:14:06

Electronic Topological Transition

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Materials scientists at Caltech have discovered a new way that heat tweaks the physical properties of a material. [13] That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[303] viXra:1610.0305 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 13:11:26

Fiber Optics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 39 Pages.

Glass fibres do everything from connecting us to the internet to enabling keyhole surgery by delivering light through medical devices such as endoscopes. But as versatile as today's fiber optics are, scientists around the world have been working to expand their capabilities by adding semiconductor core materials to the glass fibers. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[302] viXra:1610.0304 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-25 13:46:05

3-D Printed Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

That is, until now, thanks to the new solution devised at TU Wien: for the first time ever, permanent magnets can be produced using a 3D printer. This allows magnets to be produced in complex forms and precisely customised magnetic fields, required, for example, in magnetic sensors. [12] For physicists, loss of magnetisation in permanent magnets can be a real concern. In response, the Japanese company Sumitomo created the strongest available magnet—one offering ten times more magnetic energy than previous versions—in 1983. [11] New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[301] viXra:1610.0292 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 13:06:55

Logical Stochastic Resonance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Mankind has long been peering into the depths of the sea. From finding fish to avoiding rocks, the ability to see as far as possible through turbid water has been important for thousands of years. More recently, scientists are using sophisticated cameras to study sea floor geology and deep-sea animal behaviors but are continually challenged to get a clear picture of the remote fathoms of the ocean. [16] Entangled photon pairs, termed as biphotons, have been the benchmark tool for experimental quantum optics. The quantum-network protocols based on photon-atom interfaces have stimulated a great demand for single photons with bandwidth comparable to or narrower than the atomic natural linewidth. [15] Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[300] viXra:1610.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 11:10:39

Nonlinear Phononics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Controlling functional properties by light is one of the grand goals in modern condensed matter physics and materials science. A new study now demonstrates how the ultrafast light-induced modulation of the atomic positions in a material can control its magnetization. An international research team led by Andrea Cavalleri from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter at CFEL in Hamburg used terahertz light pulses to excite pairs of lattice vibrations in a magnetic crystal. [22] Professor Park Je-Geun of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and colleagues have created a new theoretical model of the coupling of two forms of collective atomic excitation, known as magnons and phonons in crystals of the antiferromagnet manganite (Y,Lu)MnO3, a mineral made of manganese oxide and the rare-earth elements yttrium (Y) and lutetium (Lu). [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[299] viXra:1610.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 04:06:12

Invisible Surfaces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for Intelligent Systems took a page out of the design book for moth cornea. The corneas of these mostly nocturnal insects reflect almost no incoming light. There is no glow of light bouncing off the moth's eyes to betray their presence to potential predators. Less reflected light also means that moths are able to use practically all the scarce night-time light to see. [25] For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17]
Category: Condensed Matter

[298] viXra:1610.0279 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-24 07:13:14

Polymer Photodetectors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Photodetectors, which are used in a wide range of systems and devices from smartphones to space stations, are typically only sensitive to light within a certain narrow bandwidth. This presents numerous challenges to product developers. Together with their colleagues from China and Saudi Arabia, scientists at MIPT have found a way to address this. According to their study, published in Advanced Functional Materials, treating an ordinary photodetector with UV light can turn it into a high-bandwidth device. [20] By using a clever approach to increase the sensitivity of the optical fibers to small index changes within the surrounding environment, small concentrations of molecules on or near the fiber's surface can be detected. While the general idea is well known, this particular approach solves an existing sensitivity problem. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[297] viXra:1610.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-23 09:49:43

Proton Escaping the Molecule

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Imagine what it would be like to watch how the individual atoms of molecules rearrange during a chemical reaction to form a new substance, or to see the compounds of DNA move, rearrange and replicate. Such capability would give unprecedented insight to understand and potentially control the processes. [8] In order to explain the intricacies of hydrogen activation above and beyond experimental findings, quantum chemical calculations were carried out in cooperation with Professor Max Holthausen (Goethe University Frankfurt). [7] In a combination of experiments and theory the diffusion of individual atoms in periodic systems was understood for the first time. The interaction of individual atoms with light at ultralow temperatures close to the absolute zero temperature point provides new insights into ergodicity, the basic assumption of thermodynamics. [6] In a scientific first, a team of researchers from Macquarie University and the University of Vienna have developed a new technique to measure molecular properties – forming the basis for improvements in scientific instruments like telescopes, and with the potential to speed up the development of pharmaceuticals. [5] In the quantum world, physicists study the tiny particles that make up our classical world-neutrons, electrons, photons-either one at a time or in small numbers because the behaviour of the particles is completely different on such a small scale. If you add to the number of particles that are being studied, eventually there will be enough particles that they no longer act quantum mechanically and must be identified as classical, just like our everyday world. But where is the line between the quantum world and the classical world? A group of scientists from Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) explored this question by showing what was thought to be a quantum phenomenon can be explained classically. [4] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: Condensed Matter

[296] viXra:1610.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-22 07:06:02

Quantum Liquid on Crystal Surface

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

For the first time, an experiment has directly imaged electron orbits in a high-magnetic field, illuminating an unusual collective behavior in electrons and suggesting new ways of manipulating the charged particles. [24] Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory and Uppsala University, Sweden. The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[295] viXra:1610.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 21:52:05

The Influence of the Demagnetizing Energy on Conventional Amorphous WIRES’ Magnetic Anisotropy

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper we initiate a study concerning the influence of demagnetizing energy on conventional amorphous wires’ (CAW) magnetic anisotropy. Normally, if we want to calculate the magnetic anisotropy of CAW we must take into account the magnetoelastic energy as the most influent energy in the expression of magnetic anisotropy. The importance of this energy is determinant in domain walls creation and, consequently, in amorphous material magnetic behavior. There is a critical value of radius/length ratio for which the effects of demagnetizing field, the field depending on wire form, can’t be no more neglected. We have established this ratio. It exhibits a great importance, especially when we wish to avoid these demagnetizing effects and to have a better control of final magnetization. What it counts, undoubtedly, in all applications involving CAW.
Category: Condensed Matter

[294] viXra:1610.0241 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 14:00:26

Neutron Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 34 Pages.

For the first time, a team including scientists from the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have used neutron beams to create holograms of large solid objects, revealing details about their interiors in ways that ordinary laser light-based visual holograms cannot. [24] Schematic of the design of 360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display, the design concept of which allows several persons to enjoy the hologram contents simultaneously. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16]
Category: Condensed Matter

[293] viXra:1610.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-20 07:00:18

Atomic-Scale Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 38 Pages.

Scientists can now detect magnetic behavior at the atomic level with a new electron microscopy technique developed by a team from the The researchers took a counterintuitive approach by taking advantage of optical distortions that they typically try to eliminate. [23] Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[292] viXra:1610.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 14:25:24

Quantum Electronic Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Researchers at the Nanoscale Transport Physics Laboratory from the School of Physics at the University of the Witwatersrand have found a technique to improve carbon superlattices for quantum electronic device applications. [22] The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[291] viXra:1610.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 11:22:28

Doppler Biphotons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Entangled photon pairs, termed as biphotons, have been the benchmark tool for experimental quantum optics. The quantum-network protocols based on photon-atom interfaces have stimulated a great demand for single photons with bandwidth comparable to or narrower than the atomic natural linewidth. [15] Measurement of the twisting force, or torque, generated by light on a silicon chip holds promise for applications such as miniaturized gyroscopes and sensors to measure magnetic field, which can have significant industrial and consumer impact. [14] A new technique detects spatial coherence in light at smaller scales than had been possible. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[290] viXra:1610.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-19 11:27:04

Convert Phonons into Magnons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Professor Park Je-Geun of the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) and colleagues have created a new theoretical model of the coupling of two forms of collective atomic excitation, known as magnons and phonons in crystals of the antiferromagnet manganite (Y,Lu)MnO3, a mineral made of manganese oxide and the rare-earth elements yttrium (Y) and lutetium (Lu). [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[289] viXra:1610.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 09:40:48

On the Magnetic Anisotropy Distribution in the Surface Region of the Conventional Amorphous Wires

Authors: Mugur B. Răuţ
Comments: 11 Pages.

In-water quenching technique, which is the preparation procedure of conventional amorphous wires (CAW), induces internal stresses in the material. These stresses, coupled with magnetostriction, give rise to large magnetoelastic anisotropies. Using the calculated distribution of internal stresses, the aim of this work is to evaluate the theoretical distribution of magnetoelastic anisotropies of CAW with positive, negative and nearly zero magnetostriction. The anisotropy constants were calculated as functions of wire dimensions, taking into account that the influence of wire length is neglected. Consequently, we elaborate two simple calculation programs which enable us to calculate the magnetoelastic distribution in every point of wire radius, for any magnetostriction, positive, negative or nearly zero, and any values of parameters and physical quantities involved.
Category: Condensed Matter

[288] viXra:1610.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-18 13:02:55

Computer-Generated Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Schematic of the design of 360-degree tabletop electronic holographic display, the design concept of which allows several persons to enjoy the hologram contents simultaneously. [23] Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[287] viXra:1610.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-17 09:13:40

Light Move Electrons and Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[286] viXra:1610.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-16 07:58:07

Acoustic Holograms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

Research Triangle engineers have developed a simple, energy-efficient way to create three-dimensional acoustic holograms. The technique could revolutionize applications ranging from home stereo systems to medical ultrasound devices. [22] Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[285] viXra:1610.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-13 06:45:16

Improve Thermoelectric Devices

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The researchers have found that these previously underestimated interactions can play a significant role in preventing heat dissipation in microelectronic devices. [21] LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[284] viXra:1610.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-12 07:06:49

Producing Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

The new materials system consists of regular arrays of superconducting YBaCuO-dots covered with an extremely thin permalloy film. A shortly applied external magnetic field leads to the creation of supercurrents within the superconducting dots. These currents produce a complex magnetic field pattern, which is inscribed into the permalloy film above. The results are published in Advanced Science. [17] If you chop a magnet in half, you end up with two smaller magnets. Both the original and the new magnets have "north" and "south" poles. But what if single north and south poles exist, just like positive and negative electric charges? These hypothetical beasts, known as "magnetic monopoles," are an important prediction in several theories. [16] A new study by researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Argonne National Laboratory determined that magnetic skyrmions – small electrically uncharged circular structures with a spiraling magnetic pattern – do get deflected by an applied current, much like a curveball getting deflected by air. [15] Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11]
Category: Condensed Matter

[283] viXra:1610.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 12:13:42

Contact Mechanics of Elastic Complex-Shaped Slightly Wavy Profiles

Authors: Ivan Y. Tsukanov
Comments: 30 Pages.

The contact problems, associated with wavy profiles of complex shape, are considered. The analytical solutions for normal and partial slip problems, involving parametric wavy profile with single wavelength, and for normal contact, involving two-wavelength cosine profile, are obtained and discussed. The evolution of contact parameters and possible approximations are analyzed. Analysis shows that at high loads contact parameters are strongly sensitive to the shape of the profile and can be controlled. The results also show, that nonlinearity of pressure distribution is related to nonlinearity of the profile slope, but it can lead to quasilinear dependence between contact length and asymptotic pressure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[282] viXra:1610.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 12:52:56

Optically-Driven Mechanical Oscillator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

An optically-driven mechanical oscillator fabricated using a plasmomechanical metamaterial. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[281] viXra:1610.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-10 07:37:58

Exotic States of Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

The 2016 Nobel Prize in physics has been awarded to David Thouless, Duncan Haldane and Michael Kosterlitz, three theoretical physicists whose research used the unexpected mathematical lens of topology to investigate phases of matter and the transitions between them. [14] A team of researchers with members from several institutions in China has developed a new means for studying topological matter in cold-atom systems that involves using a single laser source. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[280] viXra:1610.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-08 04:26:01

Topological Matter in Laser

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from several institutions in China has developed a new means for studying topological matter in cold-atom systems that involves using a single laser source. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[279] viXra:1610.0072 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 14:20:33

Quasiparticles in Real Time

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The formation of quasiparticles, such as polarons, in a condensed-matter system usually proceeds in an extremely fast way and is very difficult to observe. In Innsbruck, Rudolf Grimm's physics research group, in collaboration with an international team of theoretical physicists, has simulated the formation of polarons in an ultracold quantum gas in real time. The researchers have published their findings in the journal Science. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[278] viXra:1610.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-06 12:51:57

Cryptic Puzzle from a Hologram

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A recent discovery published in Nature Physics provides an innovative technique for calculating the shapes of electrons. This finding will help scientists gain a better and faster understanding of the properties of complex materials. Dr. Emanuele Dalla Torre, from Bar-Ilan University, together with Dr. Yang He and Prof. Eugene Demler, from Harvard University, used holographic logic to compile an algorithm for visualizing the shape of an electron in a superconducting material. This successful collaboration clarified the puzzling results of a series of experiments performed in the past 15 years, resolving a mysterious scientific enigma. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[277] viXra:1610.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 13:10:38

Soliton Solution

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Solitary waves called solitons are one of nature's great curiosities: Unlike other waves, these lone wolf waves keep their energy and shape as they travel, instead of dissipating or dispersing as most other waves do. In a new paper in Physical Review Letters (PRL), a team of mathematicians, physicists and engineers tackles a famous, 50-year-old problem tied to these enigmatic entities. [13] Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[276] viXra:1610.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-04 07:54:09

Quick Magnetic Recording

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A terahertz wave excites electronic transitions between quantum orbits thereby driving the elementary magnets to wobble. [13] A research group in Japan successfully developed room temperature multiferroic materials by a layer-by-layer assembly of nanosheet building blocks. Multiferroic materials are expected to play a vital role in the development of next-generation multifunctional electronic devices. [12] Solid state physics offers a rich variety of intriguing phenomena, several of which are not yet fully understood. Experiments with fermionic atoms in optical lattices get very close to imitating the behaviour of electrons in solid state crystals, thus forming a well-controlled quantum simulator for these systems. Now a team of scientists around Professor Immanuel Bloch and Dr. Christian Groß at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have observed the emergence of antiferromagnetic order over a correlation length of several lattice sites in a chain of fermionic atoms. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[275] viXra:1610.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-01 07:36:27

Multiferroic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A research group in Japan successfully developed room temperature multiferroic materials by a layer-by-layer assembly of nanosheet building blocks. Multiferroic materials are expected to play a vital role in the development of next-generation multifunctional electronic devices. [12] Solid state physics offers a rich variety of intriguing phenomena, several of which are not yet fully understood. Experiments with fermionic atoms in optical lattices get very close to imitating the behaviour of electrons in solid state crystals, thus forming a well-controlled quantum simulator for these systems. Now a team of scientists around Professor Immanuel Bloch and Dr. Christian Groß at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have observed the emergence of antiferromagnetic order over a correlation length of several lattice sites in a chain of fermionic atoms. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[274] viXra:1609.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 14:40:23

Proton Beams with Laser Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[273] viXra:1609.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:27:41

Neutron-Scattering for High-Temp Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Hundreds of tiny samples of unconventional superconductors called heavy fermions had to be aligned and glued onto aluminum plates for imaging in inelastic neutron scattering experiments. [29] In a recent breakthrough, scientists at the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory got one step closer to understanding how to make that possible. The research, led by physicist Ivan Bozovic, involves a class of compounds called cuprates, which contain layers of copper and oxygen atoms. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[272] viXra:1609.0432 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-30 07:57:27

Optical Forces and Holographic Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers have used the pressure of light—also called optical forces or sometimes "tractor beams"—to create a new type of rewritable, dynamic 3D holographic material. Unlike other 3D holographic materials, the new material can be rapidly written and erased many times, and can also store information without using any external energy. The new material has potential applications in 3D holographic displays, large-scale volumetric data storage devices, biosensors, tunable lasers, optical lenses, and metamaterials. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[271] viXra:1609.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 13:42:10

Room Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

In a recent breakthrough, scientists at the Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory got one step closer to understanding how to make that possible. The research, led by physicist Ivan Bozovic, involves a class of compounds called cuprates, which contain layers of copper and oxygen atoms. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[270] viXra:1609.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-29 12:06:37

Antiferromagnetic Correlations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Solid state physics offers a rich variety of intriguing phenomena, several of which are not yet fully understood. Experiments with fermionic atoms in optical lattices get very close to imitating the behaviour of electrons in solid state crystals, thus forming a well-controlled quantum simulator for these systems. Now a team of scientists around Professor Immanuel Bloch and Dr. Christian Groß at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics have observed the emergence of antiferromagnetic order over a correlation length of several lattice sites in a chain of fermionic atoms. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[269] viXra:1609.0343 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-24 02:20:58

Magnetic Field in Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A world record for a trapped field in a superconductor, was achieved in 2014 by a team of engineers led by Professor David Cardwell. [28] The first practical proposal was formulated 50 years ago by the American physicist Richard Garwin. He proposed that a transmission line of 1000 km, transporting 100 Gigawatt (at that time, all the energy produced in the U.S.) could be transmitted through a single underground superconductive cable, just a mere 30 cm wide, including its cooling system. The drawback was that cooling the wire down to a few degrees above absolute zero would have been too costly. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[268] viXra:1609.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 14:48:45

Electron-Phonon Interactions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

LCLS works like an extraordinary strobe light: Its ultrabright X-rays take snapshots of materials with atomic resolution and capture motions as fast as a few femtoseconds, or millionths of a billionth of a second. For comparison, one femtosecond is to a second what seven minutes is to the age of the universe. [20] A ‘nonlinear’ effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC’s LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom - for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[267] viXra:1609.0319 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-22 01:13:11

Silicene Superconductivity Due to the Kapitza-Dirac Effect

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 7 Pages. The original ideas

We consider the Kapitza-Dirac configuration for the generation of the standing waves. Electrons are then diffracted by standing waves and Bragg equation is valid. The situation is considered also in a plane and in the three dimensions. The electron-photon system forms the electron-photon superconductor. The Kapitza-Dirac effect is then applied to silicene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[266] viXra:1609.0300 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 11:51:06

Melting Frozen Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

For the first time, physicists have visualized the 'melting' of electrons inside a special class of insulators that allows electrons to move freely; the process turns the insulator into a metal and possibly later into a superconductor. The results have been published in Nature Physics. [29] Scientists at the National University of Singapore (NUS) have demonstrated a new way of controlling electrons by confining them in a device made out of atomically thin materials, and applying external electric and magnetic fields. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[265] viXra:1609.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-20 01:18:03

Propagation of Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[264] viXra:1609.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-17 06:33:22

Material Interfaces on Atomic Scale

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Interfaces between different materials and their properties are of key importance for modern technology. Together with an international team, physicists of Würzburg University have developed a new method that allows them to closely analyze these interfaces and to model their properties. [20] Physicists at MIT have now cooled a gas of potassium atoms to several nanokelvins—just a hair above absolute zero—and trapped the atoms within a two-dimensional sheet of an optical lattice created by crisscrossing lasers. Using a high-resolution microscope, the researchers took images of the cooled atoms residing in the lattice. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[263] viXra:1609.0226 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-15 07:57:19

Magnetic Polaron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 25 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University and Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory have demonstrated that polaron formation also occurs in a system of magnetic charges, and not just in a system of electric charges. Being able to control the transport properties of such charges could enable new devices based on magnetic rather than electric charges, for example computer memories. [14] The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[262] viXra:1609.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-14 10:32:09

Metal Chain Conductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The electronic energy states allowed by quantum mechanics determine whether a solid is an insulator or whether it conducts electric current as a metal. Researchers at ETH have now theoretically predicted a novel material whose energy states exhibit a hitherto unknown peculiarity. [13] Quantum magnetism, in which – unlike magnetism in macroscopic-scale materials, where electron spin orientation is random – atomic spins self-organize into one-dimensional rows that can be simulated using cold atoms trapped along a physical structure that guides optical spectrum electromagnetic waves known as a photonic crystal waveguide. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[261] viXra:1609.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-09 15:09:53

Chemical Reaction Paths in Classical Potentials

Authors: Asaf Farhi
Comments: 2 Pages.

Chemical reaction dynamics are usually tackled within the framework of Quantum Mechanics which can be computationally demanding. Here we suggest to use the energy-dependent Hamilton-Jacobi description with a classical reactive force field to obtain the most probable path. This may enable to calculate the reaction rate.
Category: Condensed Matter

[260] viXra:1609.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 10:29:08

Optical Soliton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

Applied scientists led by Caltech's Kerry Vahala have discovered a new type of optical soliton wave that travels in the wake of other soliton waves, hitching a ride on and feeding off of the energy of the other wave. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump.
Category: Condensed Matter

[259] viXra:1609.0088 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 05:10:46

Ultrasensitive Optical Microfiber Coupler Sensor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

By using a clever approach to increase the sensitivity of the optical fibers to small index changes within the surrounding environment, small concentrations of molecules on or near the fiber's surface can be detected. While the general idea is well known, this particular approach solves an existing sensitivity problem. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[258] viXra:1608.0410 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 11:57:55

Materials Transparent in X-rays

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

A 'nonlinear' effect that seemingly turns materials transparent is seen for the first time in X-rays at SLAC's LCLS. [19] Leiden physicists have manipulated light with large artificial atoms, so-called quantum dots. Before, this has only been accomplished with actual atoms. It is an important step toward light-based quantum technology. [18] In a tiny quantum prison, electrons behave quite differently as compared to their counterparts in free space. They can only occupy discrete energy levels, much like the electrons in an atom-for this reason, such electron prisons are often called "artificial atoms". [17] When two atoms are placed in a small chamber enclosed by mirrors, they can simultaneously absorb a single photon. [16] Optical quantum technologies are based on the interactions of atoms and photons at the single-particle level, and so require sources of single photons that are highly indistinguishable – that is, as identical as possible. Current single-photon sources using semiconductor quantum dots inserted into photonic structures produce photons that are ultrabright but have limited indistinguishability due to charge noise, which results in a fluctuating electric field. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons. For the first time, the researchers have managed to create a stream of identical photons. [10] Optical photons would be ideal carriers to transfer quantum information over large distances. Researchers envisage a network where information is processed in certain nodes and transferred between them via photons. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer with the help of Quantum Information.
Category: Condensed Matter

[257] viXra:1608.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 07:51:37

Wide-Range Diode Temperature Sensor Based on DH Ingan/algan/gan

Authors: A. N. Demenskiy, V. A. Krasnov, S. V. Shutov, S. Yu. Yerochin
Comments: 1 Page.

Diode temperature sensors for applications in automatic satellites and space stations
Category: Condensed Matter

[256] viXra:1608.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-30 00:53:19

Color of Electrons in Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[255] viXra:1608.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-28 10:36:21

Dynamic Stimulation of Superconductivity with Resonant Terahertz Ultrasonic Waves

Authors: Alan M. Kadin, Steven B. Kaplan
Comments: 5 Pages. Submitted to Applied Superconductivity Conference, Denver, Colorado, USA, Sept. 2016

An experiment is proposed to stimulate a superconducting thin film with terahertz (THz) acoustic waves, which is a regime not previously tested. For a thin film on a piezoelectric substrate, this can be achieved by coupling the substrate to a tunable coherent THz electromagnetic source. Suggested materials for initial tests are a niobium film on a quartz substrate, with a BSCCO intrinsic Josephson junction (IJJ) stack. This will create acoustic standing waves on the nm scale in the thin film. A properly tuned standing wave will enable electron diffraction across the Fermi surface, leading to electron localization perpendicular to the substrate. This is expected to reduce the effective dimensionality, and enhance the tendency for superconducting order parallel to the substrate, even well above the superconducting critical temperature. This enhancement can be observed by measuring the in-plane critical current and the perpendicular tunneling gap. A similar experiment may be carried out for a cuprate thin film, although the conduction electrons might be more responsive to spin waves than to acoustic waves. These experiments address a novel regime of large momentum transfer to the electrons, which should be quite distinct from the more traditional regime of large energy transfer obtained from direct electromagnetic stimulation. The experiments are also motivated in part by novel theories of the superconducting state involving dynamic charge-density waves and spin-density waves. Potential device applications are discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[254] viXra:1608.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-27 03:46:04

Electrons Speed Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

Electronic components have become faster and faster over the years, thus making powerful computers and other technologies possible. Researchers at ETH Zurich have now investigated how fast electrons can ultimately be controlled with electric fields. Their insights are of importance for the petahertz electronics of the future. [11] The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[253] viXra:1608.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 03:20:39

How Atoms are Arranged in Materials

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers from North Carolina State University, the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) and Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) have developed a novel approach to materials characterization, using Bayesian statistical methods to glean new insights into the structure of materials. The work should inform the development of new materials for use in a variety of applications. [20] Scientists from Russia and Australia have proposed a simple new way of counting microscopic particles in optical materials by means of a laser. [19] A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[252] viXra:1608.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 07:19:18

Elusive Weyl Fermion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Researchers at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory have discovered a new type of Weyl semimetal, a material that opens the way for further study of Weyl fermions, a type of massless elementary particle hypothesized by high-energy particle theory and potentially useful for creating high-speed electronic circuits and quantum computers. [9] An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of several previously unknown types of quantum particles in materials. The particles— which belong to the class of particles known as fermions—can be distinguished by several intrinsic properties, such as their responses to applied magnetic and electric fields. In several cases, fermions in the interior of the material show their presence on the surface via the appearance of electron states called Fermi arcs, which link the different types of fermion states in the material's bulk. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[251] viXra:1608.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-12 04:19:41

Room-Temperature Supercurrent

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A room-temperature "supercurrent" has been identified in a Bose–Einstein condensate of quasiparticles called magnons. That's the finding of an international team of researchers, which says the work opens the door to using magnons in information processing. Other researchers, however, believe the claim is premature, arguing that less-novel explanations have not been ruled out. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[250] viXra:1608.0109 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 07:24:36

Superstrong Magnetic Fields

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

New method of superstrong magnetic fields' generation proposed by Russian scientists in collaboration with foreign colleagues. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[249] viXra:1608.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-10 07:49:42

Counting Microscopic Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

Scientists from Russia and Australia have proposed a simple new way of counting microscopic particles in optical materials by means of a laser. [19] A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[248] viXra:1608.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 13:14:26

Coupled Light and Electron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

New research suggests that it is possible to create a new form of light by binding light to a single electron, combining the properties of both. [14] It is called the pseudospin and it determines the probability to find electrons on neighbouring carbon atoms. The possibility to control this degree of freedom would allow for new types of experiments, but potentially also enable to use it for electronic applications. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[247] viXra:1608.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-05 08:58:33

Electron's Pseudospin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

It is called the pseudospin and it determines the probability to find electrons on neighbouring carbon atoms. The possibility to control this degree of freedom would allow for new types of experiments, but potentially also enable to use it for electronic applications. [13] In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[246] viXra:1607.0563 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-31 09:57:42

Strongly Interacting Bose Polarons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

Researchers have used impurities within a Bose-Einstein condensate to simulate polarons—electron-phonon combinations in solid-state systems. [15] A team of engineering researchers from the University of Victoria (UVic) and the University of Rochester (UR) has developed a way to detect single molecules using a light-based technology inspired by the "whispering gallery" effect, first discovered in London's iconic St. Paul's Cathedral. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[245] viXra:1607.0550 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-29 08:47:27

Spin-Thermoelectric Effects

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Thermally excited spin waves carry a spin current from the ferromagnet (YIG in this case) into the metal layer. Depending on the YIG thickness and the interface condition the amplitude of the spin current as well as transmission properties change. [13] Publishing in Nature Physics April 25, the scientists, led by Professor of Physics Mingzhong Wu in CSU's College of Natural Sciences, are the first to demonstrate using non-polarized light to produce in a metal what's called a spin voltage-a unit of power produced from the quantum spinning of an individual electron. Controlling electron spins for use in memory and logic applications is a relatively new field called spin electronics, or spintronics, and the subject of the 2007 Nobel Prize in Physics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[244] viXra:1607.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-28 10:04:59

Whispering Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of engineering researchers from the University of Victoria (UVic) and the University of Rochester (UR) has developed a way to detect single molecules using a light-based technology inspired by the "whispering gallery" effect, first discovered in London's iconic St. Paul's Cathedral. [14] Experiment suggests it might be possible to control atoms entangled with the light they emit by manipulating detection. [13] Now, researchers have come up with a rather simple scheme for providing quantum error controls: entangle atoms from two different elements so that manipulating won't affect the second. Not only is this highly effective, the researchers show that they can construct quantum logic gates with the setup. And while they were at it, they demonstrate the quantum nature of entanglement with a precision that's 40 standard deviations away from classic physical behavior. [12] A team of quantum physicists from Harvard University measured a property called entanglement entropy, which quantifies the apparent randomness that comes with observing just a portion of an entangled whole. Markus Greiner and colleagues used lasers to create an optical cage with four compartments, each of which held a rubidium atom chilled to nearly absolute zero. The researchers could tweak the laser settings to adjust the height of the walls between compartments. If the walls were low enough, atoms could exploit their strange quantum ability to occupy multiple compartments at once. As the four atoms jumped around, they interacted and established a state of entanglement. [11] Physicists in the US and Serbia have created an entangled quantum state of nearly 3000 ultracold atoms using just one photon. This is the largest number of atoms ever to be entangled in the lab, and the researchers say that the technique could be used to boost the precision of atomic clocks. [10] The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Condensed Matter

[243] viXra:1607.0523 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-27 10:23:52

Beyond Dirac and Weyl Fermions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

An international team of researchers has predicted the existence of several previously unknown types of quantum particles in materials. The particles— which belong to the class of particles known as fermions—can be distinguished by several intrinsic properties, such as their responses to applied magnetic and electric fields. In several cases, fermions in the interior of the material show their presence on the surface via the appearance of electron states called Fermi arcs, which link the different types of fermion states in the material's bulk. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[242] viXra:1607.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-25 06:15:20

Nonlinear Scaling Corrections of the BaTiO3-Ceramics Microstructures

Authors: Z. B. Vosika
Comments: 9 Pages.

A new approach, based on nonlinear scaling corrections fractal geometry and dimension for doped BaTiO3-ceramics, is applied. The main conclusion was that intergranular capacities have various positive values then expected which is induced by contact surfaces sizes augmentation as a consequence of their new nonlinear fractal based nature, which includes the box size dependence of scaling. Also, introduced new model for intergaranular non-ideal capacitor, generalized Cole impedance element in conection with the parallel parasite capacity, resistivity and inductivity
Category: Condensed Matter

[241] viXra:1607.0448 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-24 08:52:52

Charge Density Wave

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Newly discovered material property may lead to high temp superconductivity. [32] Superconductivity (SC) and ferromagnetism (FM) are mutually antagonistic collective phenomena in solids. Macroscopically, a superconductor expels magnetic fluxes from its interior below the superconducting critical temperature TSC. By contrast, a ferromagnet magnetizes itself (for a single magnetic domain) spontaneously below the ferromagnetic transition temperature TFM. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[240] viXra:1607.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-20 09:32:40

Topology and Spin

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

In the pursuit of material platforms for the next generation of electronics, scientists are studying new compounds such as topological insulators (TIs), which support protected electron states on the surfaces of crystals that silicon-based technologies cannot. Dramatic new physical phenomena are being realized by combining this field of TIs with the subfield of spin-based electronics known as spintronics. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[239] viXra:1607.0180 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-15 09:17:51

Extreme Light-Matter Interaction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

A new MIT study could open up new areas of technology based on types of light emission that had been thought to be "forbidden," or at least so unlikely as to be practically unattainable. The new approach, the researchers say, could cause certain kinds of interactions between light and matter, which would normally take billions of years to happen, to take place instead within billionths of a second, under certain special conditions. [18] Researchers from North Carolina State University have developed a new tool for detecting and measuring the polarization of light based on a single spatial sampling of the light, rather than the multiple samples required by previous technologies. The new device makes use of the unique properties of organic polymers, rather than traditional silicon, for polarization detection and measurement. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[238] viXra:1607.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-12 11:47:17

Complex-Dynamical Nanobiotechnology Paradigm and Intrinsically Creative Evolution

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 26 pages, 19 refs, 40 eqs; Journal-ref: Nanosystems, Nanomaterials, Nanotechnologies 14 (1) (2016) 1-26

Complex nanosystem dynamics is analysed by the unreduced solution of arbitrary many-body interaction problem, leading to the fundamental dynamic multivaluedness and universal definition of dynamic complexity in terms of the number of system realisations. We show that genuine quantum and classical chaos can only be strong for a free-interaction nanoscale system providing exponentially huge, “magic” efficiency of such unreduced interaction dynamics, which underlies the properties of life, intelligence and consciousness. Various more or less chaotic regimes of irreducibly complex nanosystem dynamics are reviewed, as well as the rigorously specified transitions between them. The obtained unified formalism for description of the unreduced complex nanosystem dynamics is based on the universal symmetry (conservation and transformation) of complexity unifying the extended versions of all usual laws and principles. We summarise the main principles of thus obtained new, complex-dynamical nanobiotechnology paradigm and show that it is the only viable way of further sustainable nanotechnology and society development in the spirit of coevolution of natural and artificial system complexity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[237] viXra:1607.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 08:44:11

Topological Plexcitons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

New types of particles called 'topological plexcitons' have been engineered by researchers in the US, and they could help pave the way for more efficient energy transfers in solar cells and other forms of photonic circuits. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[236] viXra:1607.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-09 05:22:19

New Ferromagnetic Superconductor

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Superconductivity (SC) and ferromagnetism (FM) are mutually antagonistic collective phenomena in solids. Macroscopically, a superconductor expels magnetic fluxes from its interior below the superconducting critical temperature TSC. By contrast, a ferromagnet magnetizes itself (for a single magnetic domain) spontaneously below the ferromagnetic transition temperature TFM. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[235] viXra:1607.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-02 16:06:01

Unstable Ice Lens Growth in Freezing Saline Porous Media

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin, R. W. Style, A. Anderson, J. S. Wettlaufer, M. G. Worster
Comments: 11 Pages.

We report on experimental and theoretical studies of ice lenses in saline porous media. We find that at slow freezing rates a single ice lens can grow stably. At faster rates the ice lens becomes unstable, and complex structures such as multiple lenses and cellular or dentritic ice appear within the porous medium. A linear stability analysis is employed to predict conditions for the onset of the instability. Solute diffusion is found to substantially enhance the instability, consistent with the experimental observations.
Category: Condensed Matter

[234] viXra:1606.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-30 10:15:19

Colloidal Mushy Layers

Authors: S. S. L. Peppin, S. Deville, R. W. Style, J. S. Wettlaufer, M. G. Worster
Comments: 12 Pages.

We describe and examine theoretically a model of a mushy layer that forms during the solidification of an aqueous colloidal suspension from a cooled boundary. The model accounts for the formation of three regions: a frozen layer containing both pore ice and segregated ice, a mushy layer containing segregated ice but no pore ice, and a boundary layer of particles ahead of the mushy layer. Diffusion of the colloidal particles in the mushy layer is shown to be equivalent to thermal regelation of the particles through ice. The behaviour of the system is sensitive to the size and initial concentration of the colloidal particles. The model is in good qualitative agreement with experimental results on aqueous alumina suspensions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[233] viXra:1606.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 10:37:41

Soliton in Ultracold Gases

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Theoretical physicists studying the behavior of ultra-cold atoms have discovered a new source of friction, dispensing with a century-old paradox in the process. Their prediction, which experimenters may soon try to verify, was reported recently in Physical Review Letters. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[232] viXra:1606.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-27 04:51:39

Molecular Photoswitch

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers with members from institutions in China and the U.S. has successfully created a photoswitch from a single photosensitive molecule. In their paper published in the journal Science, the team describes the changes they made to earlier versions of the switch that allowed it to operate successfully for an entire year. [13] University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[231] viXra:1606.0281 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-26 05:24:11

The Cause and Mechanism of Superconductivity

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity in a new perspective and according to a new atomic theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[230] viXra:1606.0237 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-22 02:35:12

Superconductive Charge Density Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Physicists at BESSY II of Helmholtz-Zentrum Berlin studied an artificial structure composed of alternating layers of ferromagnetic and superconducting materials. Charge density waves induced by the interfaces were found to extend deeply into the superconducting regions, indicating new ways to manipulate superconductivity. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[229] viXra:1606.0216 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-21 06:32:06

Room Temperature Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A research group in Japan found a new compound H5S2 that shows a new superconductivity phase on computer simulation. Further theoretical and experimental research based on H5S2 predicted by this group will lead to the clarification of the mechanism behind high-temperature superconductivity, which takes place in hydrogen sulfide. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[228] viXra:1606.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-19 06:03:53

Formation of Cooper Pairs as a Consequence of Exchange Interaction

Authors: Stanislav Dolgopolov
Comments: 10 Pages.

The singlet state of two conduction electrons and the full overlap of their wave functions in the real space may minimize the energy of the electrons. This can be shown analyzing the energy of each conduction electron in the field of every particle of a crystal by use of exchange terms. It is possible that the exchange energy of two conduction electrons in the crystal is negative and, thus, the singlet state is favorable. Thus the Pauli Exclusion Principle and the exchange interaction cause a bond between two conduction electrons. The superconductivity in a metallic crystal occurs only if conduction electrons before the pairing are put closely on the Fermi surface in the momentum space. The motion of conduction electrons in the crystal may prevent the formation of Cooper pairs, because the kinetic energy of the motion is usually much larger than the binding energy in the pair. The conduction electrons as standing waves have a zero momentum, hence their momenta are synchronous; therefore the formation of Cooper pairs is more probable than in case of nonzero momenta. The approach of standing waves explains the inverse isotope effect, behavior at high pressures and many other facts about superconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[227] viXra:1606.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 09:36:13

Electron Model in Complex Molecules

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

University of Milan have experimentally confirmed a model to detect electron delocalization in molecules and crystals. [12] A unique rapid-fire electron source—originally built as a prototype for driving next-generation X-ray lasers—is helping scientists at the) study ultrafast chemical processes and changes in materials at the atomic scale. This could provide new insight in how to make materials with custom, controllable properties and improve the efficiency and output of chemical reactions. [11] A new scientific instrument at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory promises to capture some of nature's speediest processes. It uses a method known as ultrafast electron diffraction (UED) and can reveal motions of electrons and atomic nuclei within molecules that take place in less than a tenth of a trillionth of a second – information that will benefit groundbreaking research in materials science, chemistry and biology. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[226] viXra:1606.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 05:04:39

Surface Plasmons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Leiden physicists describe a new method to measure so-called surface plasmons, which could lead to new light-based technologies, including faster internet. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[225] viXra:1606.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-04 03:19:34

Skyrmions for IT

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Magnetic vortices-so-called skyrmions-were predicted theoretically more than 25 years ago, but it has only been possible to observe them experimentally in magnetic materials in recent years. Skyrmions are stable, can have a diameter of just a few nanometers, and can be moved efficiently by electrical currents. [11] Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[224] viXra:1606.0029 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-03 04:03:44

Spinon Control Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Some three-dimensional materials can exhibit exotic properties that only exist in "lower" dimensions. For example, in one-dimensional chains of atoms that emerge within a bulk sample, electrons can separate into three distinct entities, each carrying information about just one aspect of the electron's identity—spin, charge, or orbit. The spinon, the entity that carries information about electron spin, has been known to control magnetism in certain insulating materials whose electron spins can point in any direction and easily flip direction. Now, a new study just published in Science reveals that spinons are also present in a metallic material in which the orbital movement of electrons around the atomic nucleus is the driving force behind the material's strong magnetism. [10] Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[223] viXra:1605.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 20:38:21

How to Treat Directly Magnetic Fields in First-Principle Calculations and the Possible Shape of the Lagrangian

Authors: Yoshiro Nohara
Comments: 3 Pages.

This work checks the Pauli equation with the description of the magnetic field and found a possible missing term in it. We propose a fixed Pauli equation, where the application in density functional theory explains the observed magnetic susceptibilities for Al, Si, and Au with applying directly magnetic fields. The possible shape of the Lagrangian describing the charged particle with an external magnetic field is also discussed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[222] viXra:1605.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-25 06:33:21

Next-Generation Electronics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

The National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, with facilities in Florida and New Mexico, offers scientists access to enormous machines that create record-setting magnetic fields. The strong magnetic fields help researchers probe the fundamental structure of materials to better understand and manipulate their properties. Yet large-scale facilities like the MagLab are scarce, and scientists must compete with others for valuable time on the machines. [10] By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[221] viXra:1605.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 06:21:47

Attosecond Physics

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Light waves could in principle be used to drive future transistors. Since the electromagnetic waves of light oscillate approximately one million times in a billionth of a second, i.e. at petahertz (PHz) frequencies, optoelectronic computers could attain switching rates 100,000 times higher than current digital electronic systems. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[220] viXra:1605.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-17 06:52:04

Quantum Spin Chains Entanglement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Currently studying entanglement in condensed matter systems is of great interest. This interest stems from the fact that some behaviors of such systems can only be explained with the aid of entanglement. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[219] viXra:1605.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 23:11:51

Minor Alloying During Surface Oxidation of Stainless Steel

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya
Comments: 02 Pages. Working Paper

A passive oxide layer forms on the surface of the stainless steel which protects it from corrosion.Alloying elements influence this passive layer. The rate of recovery and thickness of the film are significant factors.These films also posses semiconducting properties.
Category: Condensed Matter

[218] viXra:1605.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 02:26:21

Neutrons Magnetic Diffraction

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A multi-institutional team of researchers has discovered novel magnetic behavior on the surface of a specialized material that holds promise for smaller, more efficient devices and other advanced technology. [14] When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the
Category: Condensed Matter

[217] viXra:1605.0074 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-07 04:11:44

Quantum Filter Josephson Junctions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

A team of researchers at CSIRO Manufacturing, in Australia has created several test quantum filters with arrays having as many as 20,000 Josephson junctions. In their paper published in Superconductor Science and Technology, the team describes their filters, how they were constructed, tuned and tested and several applications that they believe may benefit from their use. [27] Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[216] viXra:1605.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-07 02:24:05

X-ray Polaritons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

When light interacts with matter, it may be deflected or absorbed, resulting in the excitation of atoms and molecules; but the interaction can also produce composite states of light and matter which are neither one thing nor the other, and therefore have a name of their own – polaritons. These hybrid particles, named in allusion to the particles of light, photons, have now been prepared and accurately measured for the first time in the field of hard X-rays by researchers of DESY, ESRF in Grenoble, Helmholtz Institute in Jena and University of Jena. In the journal Nature Photonics, they describe the surprising discoveries they made in the process. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[215] viXra:1605.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-05 10:21:54

Life Evolves in Half-Chaos ( Draft of Deductive Theory of Life Part IV )

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 27 Pages. in Polish

Kauffman hypothesis ‘Life on the edge of chaos’ is here deeply reinterpreted and takes a new form ‘Life evolves in half-chaos’. Criticism of interpretative assumptions of Kauffman model is expressed. Also basis of expectation that living objects should be modeled as chaotic systems with strongly increased stability, mainly by negative feed backs, are shown. Using simulation is proved, that such systems exist and may be constructed. They simultaneously express with similar degree ordered and chaotic reaction on small perturbation. Using acceptation only small effected changes, evolution do not take out of this state.
Category: Condensed Matter

[214] viXra:1604.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-29 01:57:36

Optical Nonlinearity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Photonics applications rely greatly on what physicists call nonlinear optics-the different way in which materials behave depending on the intensity of light that passes through them. The greater the nonlinearity, the more promising the material for real-life applications. Now a team, led by Robert W. Boyd, Professor of Optics and Physics at the University of Rochester and the Canada Excellence Research Chair in Quantum Nonlinear Optics at the University of Ottawa, has demonstrated that the transparent, electrical conductor indium tin oxide can result in up to 100 times greater nonlinearity than other known materials. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[213] viXra:1604.0325 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-23 16:45:15

Significance of Fitting Parameters in Indentation

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Mandal
Comments: 05 Pages. Addition to a previous communication

The fitting relations for Vickers’s indentation for SiCN films as obtained previously. The parameter P’s are the ones which quantify the thin film hardness and substrate effect. The Variation of Hardness with thickness for different P1 values was given in our previous publication. Here we provide the variation of hardness with other parameters.
Category: Condensed Matter

[212] viXra:1604.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-21 07:41:20

Exotic 'Spin Nematic' Phase

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Neutron scattering at ANSTO has contributed to building evidence for the existence of a highly exotic and elusive state of matter, known as a magnetic 'spin nematic' phase in a natural mineral called linarite. [13] Post-doctoral researchers, Karim Essafi, Owen Benton and Ludovic Jaubert in the Theory of Quantum Matter Unit at the Okinawa Institute of Science and Technology Graduate University (OIST) are on a quest to find out as much as they can about unusual states of matter called spin liquids and if these spin liquids could generate advances in the field of physics. The results could lead to the development of quantum computing, which require an exploration of new materials to become a reality. [12] Scientists have achieved the ultimate speed limit of the control of spins in a solid state magnetic material. The rise of the digital information era posed a daunting challenge to develop ever faster and smaller devices for data storage and processing. An approach which relies on the magnetic moment of electrons (i.e. the spin) rather than the charge, has recently turned into major research fields, called spintronics and magnonics. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[211] viXra:1604.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 12:18:14

Optical and Material Science Properties of Aranmula Metal Mirror from Kerala

Authors: E.A Nazimudeen, T.E.Girish
Comments: 12 Pages. Presented in International Conference on Quantum Optics and Photonic during Feb 2016 at Ernakulam,Kerala India

Aranmula mirror is a typical speculum metal mirror, cast and polished according to traditional techniques from Kerala in Southern India. We report our experimental investigations on detailed elemental chemical compositions, chemical surface structure, surface morphology, thermal stability, and optical reflectance of Aranmula metal mirror. The results of EDS based elemental chemical composition studies at the reflecting surface of cast, thin film coated and powder form of mirror samples have revealed the use of Arsenic (As), Silver (Ag), Gold (Au), Iron (Fe), Phosphorous (P), Sulphur (S) and Zinc (Zn) as minor constituents in Aranmula mirror making. The detailed surface structure and morphology of the mirror sample is studied for the first time using XRD and AFM. The Combined use of EDS, AFM and XRD analysis of the mirror samples reveal the presence of a transparent, non-metallic, corrosion resistant, smooth, nano structured thin film layer mainly consisting of a tin enriched delta phase (Cu_31 Sn_8) on the mirror surface, which is amorphous in nature. It also suggests that Aranmula metal mirror contains nano-particles that are considered to be quasi-crystalline in nature. We could prepare thin films of cast Aranmula mirror material with significantly higher optical reflectance for the first time. The average optical reflectance of the cast Aranmula mirror sample in the visible region is found to increase by 10 % when it is prepared in the form of thin film.
Category: Condensed Matter

[210] viXra:1604.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-20 02:18:31

Epitaxial Growth of Solid State Ionics Materials

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, P.Prabhakar, R. Praveen Kumar, S.Sharma
Comments: Pages. published in Material Science : Material Review

Epitaxial thin films of materials used in solid state ionics like Yttrium Stabilized Zirconia (YSZ), Rare Earth Oxides (REO) are suitable systems to study the interfacial ion transport. YSZ is an efficient oxygen ion conductor, vacancy present are responsible for ionic transport. By altering the structure we can increase the ionic conductivity. An attempt was made to computationally mock the sputtering process and deposit these films and study the diffusion of the adatom on the surface. There exists a strong interaction of the ions formed in the plasma during the sputtering process
Category: Condensed Matter

[209] viXra:1604.0268 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-18 12:04:38

Electricity from Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[208] viXra:1604.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 13:26:33

Cooper-Pair Density Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Department of Energy's Brookhaven National Laboratory, Cornell University, and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[207] viXra:1604.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-13 10:37:01

Two Kinds of Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Iron selenide films peppered with potassium atoms exhibit a high-temperature superconducting phase that emerges separately from a low-temperature superconducting phase. [31] A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[206] viXra:1604.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-12 03:06:33

Magnetoresistance

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Magnetoresistance Insights from pure mathematics are lending new insights to material physics, which could aid in development of new devices and sensors. Now an international team of physicists has discovered that applying a magnetic field to a non-magnetic metal made it conduct 70% more electricity, even though basic physics principles would have predicted the opposite. [9] Scientists at the U.S Department of Energy's (DOE) Brookhaven National Laboratory and Stony Brook University have discovered a new way to generate very low-resistance electric current in a new class of materials. The discovery, which relies on the separation of right-and left-"handed" particles, points to a range of potential applications in energy, quantum computing, and medical imaging, and possibly even a new mechanism for inducing superconductivity—the ability of some materials to carry current with no energy loss. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[205] viXra:1604.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-11 01:50:32

Water Ionization

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[204] viXra:1604.0153 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-09 10:33:58

Light-to-Current Conversion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[203] viXra:1604.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-08 14:19:22

Magnetism and Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

A research team led by the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Argonne National Laboratory has discovered that only half the atoms in some iron-based superconductors are magnetic, providing a conclusive demonstration of the wave-like properties of metallic magnetism in these materials. [30] Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[202] viXra:1604.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-03 05:21:46

Hydroxyapatite for Water Treatment

Authors: Shruti Sharma, A.S.Bhattacharyya
Comments: 04 Pages. Working Paper

Hydroxyapatite (HAp) was prepared from egg shells by various routes using hexane and acetic acid followed by heat treatment. Hap has a wide application in water treatment by removal of metal ions. XRD of the samples showed use of acetic acid followed by high temperature sintering leads to formation crystalline phases of HAp. Strong evidence of CaCO3 in calcite phase was obtained in other samples.
Category: Condensed Matter

[201] viXra:1603.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 07:47:59

Bismuth Thin Films: Polar Angle and Ion Fluence

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar, Rishideo Kumar, Vikrant Raj
Comments: 06 Pages. Unpublished

Computational epitaxial thin film deposition of Bi thin films with variation of polar angle and ion fluence was presented.Specific polar angles giving higher deposition rate were observed.
Category: Condensed Matter

[200] viXra:1603.0419 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-31 08:15:02

Superconductivity in a New Light

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers from the University of Geneva (UNIGE) in Switzerland and the Technical University Munich in Germany have lifted the veil on the electronic characteristics of high-temperature superconductors. Their research, published in Nature Communications, shows that the electronic densities measured in these superconductors are a combination of two separate effects. As a result, they propose a new model that suggests the existence of two coexisting states rather than competing ones postulated for the past thirty years, a small revolution in the world of superconductivity. [29] A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[199] viXra:1603.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-20 12:16:48

Unexpected Twist on Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team led by scientists at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory combined powerful magnetic pulses with some of the brightest X-rays on the planet to discover a surprising 3-D arrangement of a material's electrons that appears closely linked to a mysterious phenomenon known as high-temperature superconductivity. [28] Advanced x-ray technique reveals surprising quantum excitations that persist through materials with or without superconductivity. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[198] viXra:1603.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-19 01:01:07

On the Possible new High Temperature Superconductors

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 6 Pages.

It shows that the hybrid graphene may be the high temperature superconductor based on a simple superconductivity theory. However the pure graphene cannot be the high temperature superconductor. The efforts to make the graphene to be superconductors are to use the Graphene-Boron Nitride or other graphene-ceramics sandwich structure. Calculations show that this sandwich structure can satisfy the demanding of high temperature superconductivity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[197] viXra:1603.0242 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-17 03:18:14

Rapid Superconducting Memory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A group of scientists from Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology and from the Moscow State University has developed a fundamentally new type of memory cell based on superconductors – this type of memory works hundreds of times faster than the memory devices commonly used today, according to an article published in the journal Applied Physics Letters. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[196] viXra:1603.0220 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-15 09:47:30

Report of Simulation Investigations, a Base of Statement that Life Evolves in the Half-Chaos

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: Version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, over 400 graphs and tables. English version will be also in viXra.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic, described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties. Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity, however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations.
Category: Condensed Matter

[195] viXra:1603.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-11 07:30:38

Electronic Weyl Momentum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Researchers at Princeton University have observed a bizarre behavior in a strange new crystal that could hold the key for future electronic technologies. Unlike most materials in which electrons travel on the surface, in these new materials the electrons sink into the depths of the crystal through special conductive channels. [8] An international team led by Princeton University scientists has discovered an elusive massless particle theorized 85 years ago. The particle could give rise to faster and more efficient electronics because of its unusual ability to behave as matter and antimatter inside a crystal, according to new research. The researchers report in the journal Science July 16 the first observation of Weyl fermions, which, if applied to next-generation electronics, could allow for a nearly free and efficient flow of electricity in electronics, and thus greater power, especially for computers, the researchers suggest. [7] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to build the Quantum Computer.
Category: Condensed Matter

[194] viXra:1603.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-10 03:56:06

Topological Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Finland's Aalto University researchers have theorized that superconducting surfaces can become topological superconductors when magnetic iron atoms are deposited on the surface in a regular pattern. They used the latest mathematical and physical models to predict the existence of a topological superconducting state on metallic superconducting surfaces and thin films. [28] Since the 1930s scientists have been searching for particles that are simultaneously matter and antimatter. Now physicists have found strong evidence for one such entity inside a superconducting material. The discovery could represent the first so-called Majorana particle, and may help researchers encode information for quantum computers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[193] viXra:1603.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-06 22:20:18

Cold Fusion Deuterium in 147-Atom Pd Nanoclusters Embedded in Zeolite Cages

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 46 Pages.

147-atom Palladium clusters embedded in Zeolite cavities enable Cold Fusion when exposed to Deuterium gas by Klein Paradox Tunnelling of D+D+D+D producing He + He + 47.6 MeV. Cold Fusion Energy goes to Optical Mode Phonons in the Pd clusters and then to the Zeolite where it is stored as Heat that is released by D2O Heavy Water to produce useful energy. Ejection of He + He and reloading of D+D+D+D is done by Jitterbug transformation between Icosahedral Ground State and Cuboctahedral Metastable State of 147-atom Pd clusters. Synthesis of 147-atom Pd clusters has been done by Burton, Boyle, and Datye at Sandia / U. New Mexico, USA. Zeolite synthesis has been discussed by Sharma, Jeong, Han and Cho at Chungnam Nat. Un., Korea. Based on prior experimental results of Arata and Zhang (replicated by McKubre at SRI) and of Parchamazad the expected energy production is on the order of kilowatts per milligram of Palladium.
Category: Condensed Matter

[192] viXra:1603.0064 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-04 11:05:33

Thermoelectric Current

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Researchers have observed spin-dependent thermoelectric currents in superconductors—a finding that could lead to precise cryogenic thermometers. [29] A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[191] viXra:1603.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 07:16:15

Pseudogap in High-Temperature Superconductors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A German-French research team has constructed a new model that explains how the so-called pseudogap state forms in high-temperature superconductors. The calculations predict two coexisting electron orders. Below a certain temperature, superconductors lose their electrical resistance and can conduct electricity without loss. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[190] viXra:1603.0023 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-03 01:04:44

Ising Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

Strong enough magnetic field can break electron pairs and destroy superconductivity. Surprisingly, experimental groups led by Prof. Ye and Prof. Zeitler in Groningen and Nijmegen found that superconductivity in thin films of MoS2 could withstand an applied magnetic field as strong as 37 Tesla. [28] New findings from an international collaboration led by Canadian scientists may eventually lead to a theory of how superconductivity initiates at the atomic level, a key step in understanding how to harness the potential of materials that could provide lossless energy storage, levitating trains and ultra-fast supercomputers. [27] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the superconductivity is basically a quantum mechanical phenomenon and some entangled particles give this opportunity to specific matters, like Cooper Pairs or other entanglements, as strongly correlated materials and Exciton-mediated electron pairing, we can say that the secret of superconductivity is the quantum entanglement.
Category: Condensed Matter

[189] viXra:1602.0259 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-21 03:55:08

On the Electrodynamics of Charge Density Waves: Classical vs. Quantum Formulations

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 34 Pages.

We show that the classical random pinning model, if simulated numerically using a phase evolution scheme pioneered by Littlewood, gives dispersion relationships that are inconsistent with experimental values near threshold. These results suggest the need for a revision of contemporary classical models of charge density wave transport phenomena. Classical phase evolution equations have the same form as driven harmonic oscillators. We provide a different formulation of charge density transport using a tunneling Hamiltonian, motivated by Sidney Colemans’s false vacuum hypothesis, to model solition anti-soliton pair transport through a pinning gap. We thereby derive an analytical expression for charge density wave transport that agrees with experimental data both above and below the threshold field.
Category: Condensed Matter

[188] viXra:1602.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-17 14:52:20

Superconductive Graphene

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[187] viXra:1601.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-29 09:18:19

Heavy Fermions Nuclear Superconductivity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

In a surprising find, physicists from the United States, Germany and China have discovered that nuclear effects help bring about superconductivity in ytterbium dirhodium disilicide (YRS), one of the most-studied materials in a class of quantum critical compounds known as "heavy fermions." [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[186] viXra:1601.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-12 03:04:40

Sedeonic Equations of Ideal Fluid

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.
Category: Condensed Matter

[185] viXra:1601.0100 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-09 22:13:59

Liquid Metal Jetting Stream Triggered Arc Discharge Plasma in Liquid

Authors: Yang Yu, Qian Wang, Xuelin Wang, Yuhang Wu, Jing Liu
Comments: 11 pages, 4 figures, 1 table.

We discovered for the first time a fundamental phenomenon that arc discharge plasma can be easily triggered in liquid through jetting liquid metal stream to the electrode under only very small voltage. Along with the liquid metal stream, repetitive plasmas with light emission were generated which could last for several milliseconds each time, yet with a consistent current. The principal peaks of such optical emission spectrum lie in the ultraviolet and visible blue and violet sections, which are mainly caused by the plasma of gallium and indium. Some micro/sub-micro metal droplets and other arbitrary-shaped products such as “liquid metal pea” were also fabricated via the process. A series of critical factors to affect such fundamental events were experimentally clarified and interpreted. This finding opens an extremely easy and unconventional way to generate plasma at room temperature which would offer diverse applications such as serving as a light emitter for either optical or ultraviolet illuminations, as an electroacoustic source, or fabricating micro or particles of the liquid metal and other compounds.
Category: Condensed Matter

[184] viXra:1512.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-24 17:22:53

Chaotic End-State Oscillation of 4H/TSC and WS Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 23 Pages. Preprint of submittal to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).
Category: Condensed Matter

[183] viXra:1512.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-05 00:56:39

Thermal Conductivity of Zincblende Crystals

Authors: Amelia Carolina Sparavigna
Comments: 8 Pages. Published in Mechanics, Materials Science & Engineering, October 2015 – ISSN 2412-5954

Among materials having zincblende lattices, we find some that are characterized by a high thermal conductivity. This is a quite important feature for their application in semiconductor technologies and related devices. In this paper, we will discuss the thermal conductivity of two zincblende crystals (SiC and GaAs), stressing the role of lattice vibrations in producing high values of conductivity and of lattice defects in reducing it. In the framework of a model dealing with phonon dispersions and reliable scattering mechanisms, we will show how lattice thermal conductivity can be estimated from the Boltzmann Transport Equation in the case of any zincblende crystal.
Category: Condensed Matter

[182] viXra:1511.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 12:27:42

Entropy Constant and Superfluidity of Time

Authors: Arghyadeep Chatterjee
Comments: 1 Page. Read it and give your opinion

Based on my latest calculations and concepts . It is just a initial paper. I will post an updated paper soon
Category: Condensed Matter

[181] viXra:1511.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 12:45:35

Solution to Poisson Boltzmann Equation in Semi-Infinite and Cylindrical Geometries

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 5 Pages.

Linearized Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) gives us simple expressions for charge density distribution (ρe) within fluids or plasma. A recent work of this author shows that the old boundary conditions (BC), which are usually used to solve PBE, have serious defects. The old solutions turned out to be non-unique, and violates charge conservation principle in some cases. There we also derived the correct formula of ρe for a finite, rectangular geometry, using appropriate BCs. Here we consider some other types of geometries and obtain formula of ρe, which may be useful to analyse different experimental conditions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[180] viXra:1511.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-06 06:10:59

Phonons are 'Bosonic' Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

A team of researchers working at Osaka University in Japan has devised an experiment that gave results showing that phonons mix in such a way that they can be now be classified as 'bosonic' particles. Dave Kielpinski with Hewlett Packard Laboratories, offers a News & Views piece on the work done by the team and explains how it relates to work done with photons and other quantum particles. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[179] viXra:1511.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-04 10:34:53

The Structure of Graphene

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the arrangement structure of the atoms in Graphene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[178] viXra:1511.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 23:43:54

Origin of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Heavy Fermion Systems: a Conceptual View

Authors: Swapnil Patil
Comments: Total 15 pages including the supplementary information. The supplementary information is at the end of the manuscript. This is an update of arXiv:1409.7156v3

We critically examine the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in heavy fermion systems located close to a magnetic instability and suggest a conceptual advance in physics in order to explain its origin. We argue that the treatment of electronic states responsible for magnetism near the Quantum Critical Point (QCP), should not be accomplished within the quantum mechanical formalism; instead they should be treated semi-classically. The observed NFL behavior can be explained within such a scenario. As a sequel we attempt to discuss its consequences for the explanation of high-TC superconductivity observed in Cuprates.
Category: Condensed Matter

[177] viXra:1511.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-03 01:48:56

Can CDW Physics Explain Ultra Fast Transitions, and Current Vs. Applied Electric Field Values Seen in the Laboratory?

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 4 Pages.

The tunneling Hamiltonian is a proven method to treat particle tunneling between different states represented as wavefunctions in many-body physics. Our problem is how to apply a wave functional formulation of tunneling Hamiltonians to a driven sine-Gordon system. We apply a generalization of the tunneling Hamiltonian to charge density wave (CDW) transport problems in which we consider tunneling between states that are wavefunctionals of a scalar quantum field. We present derived I-E curves that match Zenier curves used to fit data experimentally with wave-functionals congruent with the false vacuum hypothesis. The open question is whether the coefficients picked in both the wave-functionals and the magnitude of the coefficients of the driven sine Gordon physical system should be picked by topological charge arguments that in principle appear to assign values that have a tie in with the false vacuum hypothesis first presented by Sidney Coleman. Our supposition is that indeed this is useful and that the topological arguments give evidence as to a first order phase transition which gives credence to the observed and calculated I-E curve as evidence
Category: Condensed Matter

[176] viXra:1510.0415 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 06:22:46

A Brief Discussion on the Physical Properties of One Dimensional Periodic Structures

Authors: Francesco Scotognella
Comments: 7 Pages. 8 figures

In this paper we present a brief discussion on the properties of one-dimensional (1D) photonic structures. We will show the light transmission through periodic structures, i.e. photonic crystals, random structures, and quasicrystals. We will discuss the possibility to describe other types of 1D structures.
Category: Condensed Matter

[175] viXra:1510.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-19 14:00:53

Titanium Nitride: Sputter Modeling

Authors: A.S.Bhattacharyya, R. Praveen Kumar
Comments: 02 Pages. Working Paper

A model for sputter based deposition of TiN films was developed by simulations. The rate of change of partial sputtering yield with coverage was considered. The deposition pressure and time were varied to get films of different thickness.
Category: Condensed Matter

[174] viXra:1510.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-09 03:26:20

Quantum Phase Transition and Quantum Critical Point

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point
Category: Condensed Matter

[173] viXra:1510.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-07 17:59:25

Dendritic Growth in Si-(CN) Thin Films

Authors: Dendritic growth in Si- thin films
Comments: 02 Pages. Short Communication (unpublished)

A rare dendritic growth in sputter deposited SiCN and CVD deposited CN were observed. The rapid rate of nucleation and growth process led to instabilities in the growth pattern and the surface energy release rate was more through convection than diffusion It opens up new field of fractal study in the case of CN and SiCN based materials and thin films.
Category: Condensed Matter

[172] viXra:1510.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-03 09:54:34

Levitation of an Object with Static Electric Charge by use of the Earth’s Electric Field

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper I present the theoretical calculation of net electrical charge required in order to levitate a material object with the Earth’s electric field. I also discuss the practical uses of this effect in producing an elevation device.
Category: Condensed Matter

[171] viXra:1509.0199 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-21 23:44:01

Klein Paradox Tunnelling and TSC Fusion of D in Pd Nano-Clusters

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 23 Pages.

Klein Paradox Tunnelling is a key element in TSC Fusion of Deuterium in Palladium Nano-Clusters. The electron shell structure of Palladium allows formation of a Dirac Fermion Band that is analogous to the Dirac Fermion Band in Carbon Graphene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[170] viXra:1509.0196 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-21 12:19:50

Bulk Semiconductor Levitation by use of Electrical Current and the Earth’s Magnetic Field

Authors: Thomas Alexander Meyer
Comments: 7 Pages.

In this paper I present a method for the levitation of a bulk semiconductor by use of the Earth’s magnetic field acting on an electrical current through the semiconductor. The theory is simplified to the case of a large semiconducting sample with a strong electrical current and specific examples are discussed for different elemental semiconductors.
Category: Condensed Matter

[169] viXra:1509.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-20 11:12:10

The Structure, State and Properties of Matter in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according to a new theory of atomic structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[168] viXra:1508.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-26 00:59:39

Analogous Viscosity Equations of Granular Powders Based on Eyring’s Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: Pages. published RSC Advances , 2015, 5, 95318-95333

Granular powders can be successfully treated with kinetic theory and statistical mechanics that are typically applicable to thermal systems, though the granular powders are athermal systems and the conventional environmental temperature is too weak to drive particles to move. Once the granular temperature is analogously defined in line with that in thermodynamics, viscosity concept of thermal systems is naturally borrowed to describe the flowability of granular powders in this article. Eyring’s rate process theory and free volume concept, which have been proved to be very powerful in dealing with many thermally activated phenomena in a wide variety of fields, are utilized to derive viscosity equations of granular powders under a simple shear. The obtained viscosity equations are examined only with empirical experimental observations in describing powder flowability, due to the lack of instruments and methodology for directly determining the viscosity of granular materials. The continuous shear thickening rather than the discontinuous shear thickening are predicted and found to be dependent on shear rate, the cohesive energy between particles, and the particle volume fraction, though the discontinuous shear thickening may still occur if certain conditions are met during shear, such as local particle volume fractions approach to the jamming point created by the shear induced inhomogeneity. A fundamental mechanism on how dry granular powders flow is proposed on the basis of what are demonstrated from the viscosity equations.The work presented in this article may lay a foundation to scale powder flowability in a more fundamental and consistent manner, at least providing an approach to consistently define the viscosity of granular powders. Since the same approaches are employed to derive the viscosity equations of granular powders as used to derive viscosity equations of liquids, colloidal suspensions, and polymeric materials, both athermal and thermal systems are thus unified with a single methodology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[167] viXra:1508.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-17 13:26:06

Simulation of Angular Dependence of Exchange Bias in Nife-Femn Bilayers Based on Mauri Model

Authors: Bojian Xu, Ya Zhai
Comments: 14 Pages.

We have investigated the bias field(He) and the coercivity(Hc) of the exchange bias effect in the Ni80Fe20/Fe50Mn50 bilayers and the simulated experimental data based on Mauri model. It is found that the simulation is to some extent consistent with the experiment on the whole variation trend of the coercivity, whereas the calculated result is smaller than the experimental data. On the other hand, the simulation indicates that the coercivity drops down sharply with the deflection of the applied magnetic field from the unidirectional axis to its perpendicular orientation, while it decreases slower in the experiments.
Category: Condensed Matter

[166] viXra:1508.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-17 06:01:13

London-Proca-Hirsch Equations for Electrodynamics of Superconductors on Cantor Sets

Authors: Victor Christianto
Comments: 11 Pages. This paper has been submitted to Prespacetime Journal for review. Your comments are welcome

In a recent paper published at Advances in High Energy Physics (AHEP) journal, Yang Zhao et al. derived Maxwell equations on Cantor sets from the local fractional vector calculus. It can be shown that Maxwell equations on Cantor sets in a fractal bounded domain give efficiency and accuracy for describing the fractal electric and magnetic fields. However, so far there is no derivation of equations for electrodynamics of superconductor on Cantor sets. Therefore, in this paper I present for the first time a derivation of London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets. The name of London-Proca-Hirsch is proposed because the equations were based on modifying Proca and London-Hirsch’s theory of electrodynamics of superconductor. Considering that Proca equations may be used to explain electromagnetic effects in superconductor, I suggest that the proposed London-Proca-Hirsch equations on Cantor sets can describe electromagnetic of fractal superconductors. It is hoped that this paper may stimulate further investigations and experiments in particular for fractal superconductor. It may be expected to have some impact to fractal cosmology modeling too.
Category: Condensed Matter

[165] viXra:1508.0126 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-16 12:33:45

Point Mass Model for Predicting 2-D Particles Motion Modes in Vertical Rotation Drum

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Yulia Yopy Mardiansyah
Comments: 4 pages, 5 figures, conference paper

Motion modes of pseudo 2-d granular particles in vertical rotation drum is modeled using point mass motion considering only friction, normal, and gravitation forces. Two schemes in evaluating the forces are used, i.e. dynamics in 2-d linear and 1-d angular motions. Finite difference method implementing Euler scheme is used to solve the equation of motion.
Category: Condensed Matter

[164] viXra:1508.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2015-08-04 10:14:29

Thermalization Hypothesis Classical and Quantum

Authors: Aritra Sinha, Shinjan Mandal
Comments: 5 Pages.

In this article we make an introduction to the Eigenstate Thermalization Hypothesis.We have first reviewed thermalization mechanism in classical systems, then introduce eigen-state thermalization as a possible explanation for thermal behavior in quantum systems.
Category: Condensed Matter

[163] viXra:1507.0012 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-02 05:17:19

Quasiparticles Topolariton

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[162] viXra:1507.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2015-07-01 13:43:35

Magnetism Control Heat and Sound

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Phonons—the elemental particles that transmit both heat and sound—have magnetic properties, according to a landmark study supported by Ohio Supercomputer Center (OSC) services and recently published by a researcher group from The Ohio State University. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[161] viXra:1506.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-24 03:54:38

New Electron Spin Secrets Revealed

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[160] viXra:1506.0150 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-19 17:45:27

Is Gamma-Less Transmutation Possible?

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 11 Pages. This is a very specullative paper to be published in Proc. JCF15, JCFRS

Very speculative modeling and discussions are made for considering a nuclear physics possibility of Iwamura-type (A, Z)-selective transmutation without hard gamma-rays. The BOLEP (burst-of-low-energy-photons) energy damping mechanism from very highly excited intermediate nucleus by the 4D/TSC-min capture to host metal nucleus is basic idea, after the analogy of 8Be* nucleon halo model for the BOLEP energy damping to 8Be ground state. The very highly excited intermediate nucleus 141Pr*(Ex = 50.49 MeV) by 4D + 133Cs capture reaction may have a two-alpha-halo rotation-vibration deformed state, which would make avalanche energy damping via BOLEP.
Category: Condensed Matter

[159] viXra:1506.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-16 13:31:36

Theory of Harmonic Propagation of Condensed Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).
Category: Condensed Matter

[158] viXra:1506.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-13 20:48:21

Memory's Retention Time and Holography in Two Dimensions

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 08 pages, 20 references

The holographic principle is extended to take in account a two-dimensional spherical universe. Applied to the frontier of the memory device, the working memory retention time is estimated. By considering the surface of the oxygen nucleus, the fusion temporal threshold is calculated. The long term memory duration is also evaluated, by combining the present results with previous ones worked out by this author. Water with its protons and oxygen constituents, plays a fundamental role in accomplishing these tasks.
Category: Condensed Matter

[157] viXra:1506.0089 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-11 12:25:54

New Mathematics of Complexity and Its Biomedical Applications

Authors: Andrei P. Kirilyuk
Comments: 25 pages, 42 eqs, 37 refs; presented at the International Conference "Arithmetic Methods in Mathematical Physics and Biology" (3-8 August 2014, Bedlewo, Poland), http://ammpb.wmi.amu.edu.pl/

We show that the unreduced, mathematically rigorous solution of the many-body problem with arbitrary interaction, avoiding any perturbative approximations and "exact" models, reveals qualitatively new mathematical properties of thus emerging real-world structures (interaction products), including dynamic multivaluedness (universal non-uniqueness of ordinary solution) giving rise to intrinsic randomness and irreversible time flow, fractally structured dynamic entanglement of interaction components expressing physical quality, and dynamic discreteness providing the physically real space origin. This unreduced interaction problem solution leads to the universal definition of dynamic complexity describing structure and properties of all real objects. The united world structure of dynamically probabilistic fractal is governed by the universal law of the symmetry (conservation and transformation) of complexity giving rise to extended versions of all particular (correct) laws and principles. We describe then the unique efficiency of this universal concept and new mathematics of complexity in application to critical problems in life sciences and related development problems, showing the urgency of complexity revolution.
Category: Condensed Matter

[156] viXra:1506.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2015-06-10 06:28:56

Elastisitas Batang Lurus Komposit Biner Dengan Model Pegas-Titik Massa Dalam Serat Lurus Sejajar Tak Berinteraksi: Studi Awal Kasus Serat Tunggal

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Wida yani, Siti Nurul Khotimah
Comments: 4 pages, 5 figures, 1 table, Indonesian language

Material komposit biner berbentuk batang, yang tersusun atas material A dan B, disederhanakan dengan serat-serat lurus sejajar, yang masing-masingnya dalam bentuk 1-d dan dimodelkan dengan menggunakan Ns titik massa. Dua titik massa berurutan dihubungkan dengan pegas berkonstanta tertentu kAA, kAB, atau kBB bergantung pada jenis titik massa yang mengapitnya. Tiga jenis ikatan komposit dibahas di sini, yaitu untuk ikatan komposit lebih lemah dari [kAB < min(kAA, kBB)], berada di antara [min(kAA, kBB) < kAB < max(kAA, kBB)], dan lebih kuat dari [kAB < max(kAA, kBB)] ikatan masing-masing material penyusunnya, yang masing-masing dinyatakan dengan jenis I, II, dan III, berturut-turut. Aturan elastisitas material komposit isostrain menyatakan EAB = (1 - c) EA + c EB, dengan c adalah konsentrasi material B. Jenis II memiliki kesesuaian dengan aturan tersebut, sedangkan kedua jenis lainnya menghasilkan sedikit deviasi darinya. Kata kunci: material komposit, satu dimensi, pegas, kombinasi, urutan. PACS: 46.25.-y, 62.20.D-. 81.40.Jj, 88.30.mj.
Category: Condensed Matter

[155] viXra:1505.0213 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-28 04:33:05

Superconductive and Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[154] viXra:1505.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-26 14:22:13

The Gravitational Scanner

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

In medicine, scanning is to be examined by a scanner, to determine if a patient has a problem with your body. Here, we show a new type of scanner, which is absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature. It can be widely used in medicine in order to observe noninvasively the interior of a human body.
Category: Condensed Matter

[153] viXra:1505.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-25 10:38:32

Pengaruh Posisi Intruder Terhadap Bentuk Permukaan Bed Granular Pada Efek Kacang Brasil Dua-Dimensi

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Siti Nurul Khotimah, Hari Anggit Cahyo Wibowo, Trise Nurul Ain, Dimas Praja Purwa Aji
Comments: 5 Pages. Spektra: Jurnal Fisika dan Aplikasinya 16 (1), 18-22 (2015)

Two-dimension Brazil-nut effect using acrylic plate as intruder and bed particles is observed under non-continuous sinusoidal vibration in order to obtain sufficient image quality for further process. Vibration parameters are f = 13 Hz and Γ = 2. In this work time series of intruder position is presented, which shows that it has rise time Trise = 67 steps, with initial position defined as lower side of intruder in touch with bottom of the container and final position is defined as upper side of intruder is on the bed particle surface. Initial height and width of bed particles are 21 and 92 particles, respectively. Ratio of intruder and bed particle diameter is about 2.545. Most curved of bed particle surface is observed while intruder position is about in the middle between its initial and final configurations.
Category: Condensed Matter

[152] viXra:1505.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-05 17:14:51

Holographic Principle and Darwin's Time

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 07 pages, 16 references

The Holographic Principle (HP) is used as a means to put the concept of Darwin’s Time (DT) in a sound basis. We find again that DT is proportional to certain volume of the memory device (MD). Interestingly enough, applying HP to the oxygen nucleus, we obtain a horizon-time which reproduces the DT related to a typical volume (1.8 cm3)of the memory device.
Category: Condensed Matter

[151] viXra:1505.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-04 10:05:20

The Basic Cause of Superconductivity

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 11 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2015, 6, 26-36

This paper posits an extra force field, “super force field”, as the short-distance additional force field to ordinary force fields (gravitational, weak, electromagnetic, and strong) at absolute zero or extremely high density. The short distance super force field accounts for quantum phase transition at absolute zero, and provides the basic cause of superconductivity above absolute zero by quantum fluctuation. At absolute zero or extremely high density, to prevent inactivation and singularity, respectively, the short-distance super force field emerges in between the core particle and the ordinary force field, resulting in the super ordinary force field. In the super ordinary force field, the short-distance super force field excludes the long-distance ordinary force field. At absolute zero, the super ordinary force field emerges to account for quantum phase transition at absolute zero. Through quantum fluctuation, the super ordinary force appears above absolute zero as in superconductivity. Through quantum fluctuation, superconducting electric current is “super current” as one giant quantum state with the super force field that does not interact with ordinary forces, resulting in zero resistance.
Category: Condensed Matter

[150] viXra:1505.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2015-05-01 06:52:14

Icosahedral Islands in Pd Film for TSC Jitterbug Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

Icosahedral Island Pd nanoclusters in Palladium Film are described and an experiment is proposed to measure heat produced by TSC Jitterbug Fusion upon exposure to Deuterium gas.
Category: Condensed Matter

[149] viXra:1504.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-26 19:26:07

Towards the Complete Relational Graph of Fundamental Circuit Elements

Authors: Dashan Shang, Yisheng Chai, Zexian Zao, Jun Lu, Young Sun
Comments: 16 pages, 3 figures, accepted by Chin. Phys. B

In addition to resistor, capacitor and inductor which are defined in terms of a linear relationship between the charge q, the current i, the voltage v, and the magnetic flux , Chua proposed in 1971 the fourth linear circuit element to directly relate  and q. A non-linear resistive device defined in memory i-v relation and dubbed memristor, was later attributed to such an element and has been realized in various material structures. Here we clarify that the memristor is not the true fourth fundamental element but the memory extension to the concept of resistor, in analogy to the extension of memcapacitor to capacitor and meminductor to inductor. Instead, a two-terminal device employing the linear magnetoelectric effects, termed transtor, possesses the function of relating directly  and q and should take the position of the fourth linear element. Moreover, its memory extension, termed memtranstor, is proposed and analyzed. Based on these newly defined elements, a complete and harmonized fundamental circuit relational graph with four linear and four memory elements is constructed, which provides a guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future.
Category: Condensed Matter

[148] viXra:1504.0191 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-23 23:26:34

Fundamental of Rate Theory for CMNS

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 19 Pages. Preprint of ICCF19 Proceedings paper, to be published by J. Condensed Matter Nucl. Sci.

The condensed matter nuclear reactions (CMNR) are thought to happen for trapped H(D) particles within some chemical (electro-magnetic) potential well with finite life time. As the life time is much longer than the collision time of two-body interaction of free particles, CMNR reaction rates are significantly (on the order of 19-20 in magnitude) enhanced if we compare with estimated reactions rates by the two-body collision formula. The basis of CMNR rate theory is reviewed in this paper by extracting essence of the TSC theory tools developed until now. Derivation of Fermi’s golden rule with nuclear optical potential, rate formulas by Born-Oppenheimer wave function separation, estimation of bracket integral of inter-nuclear strong interaction rate, estimation of time dependent barrier penetration probability by the HMEQPET method for dynamic D(H)-cluster condensation/collapse process, and DD fusion power levels as functions of inter-nuclear d-d distance and effective existing (life) time are given. A DD fusion power level of 10 kW/mol-dd-pairs is possible for a 1 pm inter-nuclear d-d distance with 10 ato-seconds life time. The level of 2.8 nano-mol 4D/TSC formations/sec may release 10 kW neutron-free heat-power with 4He ash.
Category: Condensed Matter

[147] viXra:1504.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2015-04-06 08:07:16

Palladium in Methanol as Realization of Icosahedral Colloidal QuasiCrystal

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 7 Pages.

147-atom clusters of Palladium colloidal in methanol are suggested as a possible physical realization of the one-component computer simulation icosahedral colloidal quasicrystals described by Engel, Damasceno, Phillips, and Glotzer in Nature Materials 14 (2015) 109-116.
Category: Condensed Matter

[146] viXra:1503.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-28 14:41:27

The Intrinsic Magnetic Field of Magnetic Materials and Gravitomagnetization

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 5 Pages.

Magnetic materials are composed of microscopic regions called magnetic domains that act like tiny permanent magnets. Before an external magnetic field to be applied on the material, the domains' magnetic fields are oriented randomly. Most of the domains’ magnetic fields cancel each other out, and so the resultant magnetic field is very small. Here we derive the expression of this intrinsic magnetic filed, which can be used to calculate the magnitude of the Earth’s magnetic field at the center of the Earth’s inner core. In addition, it is also described a magnetization process using gravity. This is gravitational magnetization process (or gravitomagnetization process) since the magnetization is produced starting from gravity. It is absolutely new and unprecedented in the literature.
Category: Condensed Matter

[145] viXra:1503.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-26 02:19:25

Formulation of Porosity Calculation for Three-Dimension Granular Materials in the Case of Spherical Particles

Authors: Sparisoma Viridi, Supri jadi, Reza Rendian Septiawan
Comments: 4 pages, 4 figures, technical report

A derivation of formulation for calculating porosity of three-dimension granular materials is presented in this work, where granular particles are assumed spherical. Overlapping area problem is solved in two-dimension using geometry in two overlapping circles. The three-dimension overlap is formulated through numeric integration from the two dimension overlap.
Category: Condensed Matter

[144] viXra:1503.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 14:07:53

Darwin's Time and the Volume of the Memory's Device

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: short note, 02 pages, 05 references

It is proposed that the Darwin's time, the time elapsed since the birth of the first living being until now, is proportional to the volume of the memory device of the mammals. The proportionality constant depends only on the proton mass, of the speed of light in vacuum and of the Planck constant.
Category: Condensed Matter

[143] viXra:1503.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2015-03-12 12:08:48

Microscope Can See Down to Individual Atoms

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

As our devices get ever smaller, so do the materials we use to make them. And that means you have to get really close to see them. Really close. A new electron microscope unveiled at the UK’s national SuperSTEM facility images objects at an unprecedented resolution, right down to the individual atoms. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[142] viXra:1502.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-28 11:32:17

Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion.
Category: Condensed Matter

[141] viXra:1502.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 21:01:58

Potential Clean Energy by Condesed Cluster Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 42 Pages. Submittal to energy journals 2010, but never published

Clean distributable energy source is expected to develop for the sustainable societies in the 21st century. Recent research development of condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS), which is the descendant new research filed of past controversial “cold fusion” saga, is now revealing the new possibility of potential clean nuclear energy in portable size devices, although the stage of research is still basic and fundamental. This review paper describes; 1) Brief experimental results of anomalous excess heat generation with 4He ash without visible neutron and gamma-ray emission by the two methods of deuterium loading into Pd-nano-metal reactor samples based on D2O electrolysis and the one method of gas-phase deuterium loading. Key issues for further engineering-phase development are discussed. 2) For the physical understanding of this “new phenomena”, as new-type of deuteron-related fusion reactions in the ordering and constraint dynamics of deuterium clustering in condensed matter as PdDx lattice or surface, brief review on the theoretical progress of condensed cluster fusion, typically 4D multi-body fusion by the tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC), is given with easier physical explanations. Key issues as reproducibility and increment of power density are summarized.
Category: Condensed Matter

[140] viXra:1502.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 14:52:49

Protons in Water as a Fermi Gas

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 08 pages, 13 references

Hydrogen-bond kinetics plays an important role in the establishment of the transport properties of water. In this paper we propose to consider protons in water as a Fermi gas. We use the Fermi statistics to determine the Fermi energy, the averaged time between collisions of the protons, and the speed of sound in liquid water. This time is also used to interpret the response in frequency of the cytoplasm to an applied external electric field.
Category: Condensed Matter

[139] viXra:1502.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 04:31:14

Origin of the Optimal Doping in High-Tc Cuprates

Authors: A. Messad
Comments: 1 Page.

Doping an insulator to make it a BCS-type superconductor, is equivalent to creating states in the Debye shell on both sides of the Fermi level. This doping is, therefore, equal to twice the product between the density of states at the Fermi level and the Debye energy. This formula works well for optimally doped cuprates suggesting a major role for phonons behind the superconductivity of these materials.
Category: Condensed Matter

[138] viXra:1502.0096 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-12 18:34:17

TSC Pd-D Fusion and Zeolite-Heat-Water

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion with 147-atom Palladium clusters containing Deuterium in Sodium Zeolite Y cages produces energy that can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D20 to form steam. If the Water that is initially in the Zeolite and released as the Zeolite is heated by fusion is Hydrogen water, then the Hydrogen could contaminate the Pd cluster Deuterium and impair the TSC fusion process so all Zeolite used for TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion should be of the form AmXpO2p · nD2O that is, all the water in the Zeolite used for Pd-D fusion should be Heavy Water D2O which can be accomplished by taking ordinary Zeollte, then heating it to flush out all the Ordinary Water H2O and then cooling it with Heavy Water D2O to give AmXpO2p · nD2O
Category: Condensed Matter

Replacements of recent Submissions

[94] viXra:1612.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-31 14:12:01

Life Evolves in Half-Chaos of not Fully Random Systems

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 12 Pages. v1 - version in Polish; v2 and later - in English.

Important for modeling of products of life, of technology and culture using complex networks, the famous Kauffman's hypothesis „life on the edge of chaos and order” is here deeply reinterpreted in effect of the model extension by functions and states correlation. The presented discovery of “half-chaos” – a state more adequate for describing life, significantly alter the existing basis of many considerations. Half-chaotic systems have the same parameters as chaotic random systems but they exhibit the characteristics of order and chaos simultaneously, previously considered to be mutually exclusive. As superheating, in effect of a large change (after a small disturbance) they become chaotic. Small change, defined by lack of immediate changes, does not lead out of half-chaos. The basis of half-chaos is a short attractor. Discovered “semimodularity” - a form of the half-chaos, gives the image “small lakes of activity in the ice”, similar as for systems in Kauffman's “liquid area” on the edge of chaos. There is much more half-chaotic systems than in “liquid area”.
Category: Condensed Matter

[93] viXra:1612.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-29 15:00:55

Life Evolves in Half-Chaos of not Fully Random Systems

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 12 Pages. v1 - version in Polish; v2- in English.

Important for modeling of products of life, of technology and culture using complex networks, the famous Kauffman's hypothesis „life on the edge of chaos and order” is here deeply reinterpreted in effect of the model extension by functions and states correlation. The presented discovery of “half-chaos” – a state more adequate for describing life, significantly alter the existing basis of many considerations. Half-chaotic systems have the same parameters as chaotic random systems but they exhibit the characteristics of order and chaos simultaneously, previously considered to be mutually exclusive. As superheating, in effect of a large change (after a small disturbance) they become chaotic. Small change, defined by lack of immediate changes, does not lead out of half-chaos. The basis of half-chaos is a short attractor. Discovered “semimodularity” - a form of the half-chaos, gives the image “small lakes of activity in the ice”, similar as for systems in Kauffman's “liquid area” on the edge of chaos. There is much more half-chaotic systems than in “liquid area”.
Category: Condensed Matter

[92] viXra:1611.0357 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-05 13:56:34

Integer, Fractional, and Anomalous Quantum Hall Effect Explained with Eyring's Rate Process Theory and Free Volume Concept

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Hall effect, especially integer, fractional and anomalous quantum Hall effect, has been addressed with the Eyring's rate process theory and free volume concept. The basic assumptions are that the conduction process is a common rate controlled "reaction" process that can be described with Eyring's absolute rate process theory; the mobility of electrons should be dependent on the free volume available for conduction electrons. The obtained Hall conductivity is clearly quantized as e^2/h with prefactors related to both the magnetic flux quantum number and the magnetic quantum number via azimuthal quantum number, with and without an externally applied magnetic field. This article focuses on two dimensional (2D) systems, but the approaches developed in this article can be extended to 3D systems
Category: Condensed Matter

[91] viXra:1609.0305 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-30 07:14:11

The Gravelectric Generator

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 8 Pages.

The electrical current arises in a conductor when an outside force acts upon the free electrons of the conductor. This force is called, in a generic way, of electromotive force (EMF). Usually, it has electrical nature. Here, we show that it can have gravitational nature (Gravitational Electromotive Force). This fact led us to propose an unprecedented system to convert Gravitational Energy directly into Electrical Energy. This system, here called of Gravelectric Generator, can have individual outputs powers of several tens of kW or more. It is easy to be built, and can easily be transported from one place to another, on the contrary of the hydroelectric plants, which convert Gravitational Energy into Hydroelectric energy.
Category: Condensed Matter

[90] viXra:1606.0281 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-26 23:47:42

The Cause and Mechanism of Superconductivity

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Re-explanation the causes and mechanism of Superconductivity in a new perspective and according to a new atomic theory.
Category: Condensed Matter

[89] viXra:1605.0063 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-02 15:22:33

Life Evolves in Half-Chaos ( Draft of Deductive Theory of Life Part IV )

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 29 Pages. in Polish.

Kauffman hypothesis “Life on the edge of chaos” is here deeply reinterpreted and takes a new form “Life evolves in half-chaos”. Criticism of interpretative assumptions of Kauffman model is expressed. Also basis of expectation that living objects should be modelled as chaotic systems with strongly increased stability (“half-chaotic”), mainly by negative feedbacks, are shown. Using simulation is proved, that such systems exist and may be constructed. They simultaneously express in similar degree ordered and chaotic reaction on small perturbation. In this state there are only a very small and very large changes, there are no middle changes which defines a small change in a natural way. Using acceptation only a small changes of system functioning, evolution does not drive out of this state which defines the identity of the evolving object.
Category: Condensed Matter

[88] viXra:1604.0268 [pdf] replaced on 2016-04-18 14:10:27

Electricity from Magnetism

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

By showing that a phenomenon dubbed the "inverse spin Hall effect" works in several organic semiconductors-including carbon-60 buckyballs-University of Utah physicists changed magnetic "spin current" into electric current. The efficiency of this new power conversion method isn't yet known, but it might find use in future electronic devices including batteries, solar cells and computers. [9] Researchers from the Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU) and the University of Cambridge in the UK have demonstrated that it is possible to directly generate an electric current in a magnetic material by rotating its magnetization. [8] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[87] viXra:1603.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-14 13:41:02

Report of Simulation Investigations, a Base of Statement that Life Evolves in the Half-Chaos

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: v3 & 1 - version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, v4 & 2 - version in English, 170 pages, over 400 graphs and tables.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic, described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties. Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity, however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations. Keywords: chaos; complex networks; dynamic networks; deterministic networks; Kauffman networks; computer simulation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[86] viXra:1603.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-14 12:58:30

Report of Simulation Investigations, a Base of Statement that Life Evolves in the Half-Chaos

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: v3 & 1 - version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, v4 & 2 - version in English, 170 pages, over 400 graphs and tables.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic, described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties. Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity, however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations. Keywords: chaos; complex networks; dynamic networks; deterministic networks; Kauffman networks; computer simulation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[85] viXra:1603.0220 [pdf] replaced on 2016-03-16 03:17:58

Report of Simulation Investigations, a Base of Statement that Life Evolves in the Half-Chaos

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: v1 - version in Polish. Title: Raport z badań symulacyjnych, podstawa stwierdzenia, że życie ewoluuje w półchaosie. 185 pages, v2 - version in English, 170 pages, over 400 graphs and tables.

Half-chaos is a specific state of deterministic dynamic networks with parameters which random network make strongly chaotic. In the half-chaos small disturbance may give chaotic or ordered reaction in similar probability. Existence of such network state was up till now problematic, described investigations prove it existence and show methods to create and its properties. Version of half-chaos called “semimode” based on “semimodularity” mechanism is especially interesting. Both these terms are here introduced. Semimodularity is similar to modularity, however, it is not based on heterogeneity of connections but on specific assembling of node states and functions. Half-chaos is kept while small changes are accumulated but vanish when one large change is accepted. Half-chaos state is much more adequate for living objects description, therefore known Kauffman hypothesis “life on the edge of chaos” may be deepen and reinterpreted to “life in the half-chaos”, which is the main purpose of the investigations. Keywords: chaos; complex networks; dynamic networks; deterministic networks; Kauffman networks; computer simulation.
Category: Condensed Matter

[84] viXra:1603.0098 [pdf] replaced on 2016-06-09 13:42:40

Cold Fusion Deuterium in 147-Atom Pd Nanoclusters Embedded in Zeolite Cages

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 49 Pages.

147-atom Palladium clusters embedded in Zeolite cavities enable Cold Fusion when exposed to Deuterium gas by Klein Paradox Tunnelling of D+D+D+D producing He + He + 47.6 MeV. Cold Fusion Energy goes to Optical Mode Phonons in the Pd clusters and then to the Zeolite where it is stored as Heat that is released by D2O Heavy Water to produce useful energy. Ejection of He + He and reloading of D+D+D+D is done by Jitterbug transformation between Icosahedral Ground State and Cuboctahedral Metastable State of 147-atom Pd clusters. Synthesis of 147-atom Pd clusters has been done by Burton, Boyle, and Datye at Sandia / U. New Mexico, USA. Zeolite synthesis has been discussed by Sharma, Jeong, Han and Cho at Chungnam Nat. Un., Korea. Based on prior experimental results of Arata and Zhang (replicated by McKubre at SRI) and of Parchamazad the expected energy production is on the order of kilowatts per milligram of Palladium. Version 2 (v2) adds some details of fusion energy transfer to Pd cluster.
Category: Condensed Matter

[83] viXra:1601.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-18 06:37:11

Sedeonic Equations of Ideal Fluid

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 8 Pages. revised version

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.
Category: Condensed Matter

[82] viXra:1601.0119 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-12 05:19:30

Sedeonic Equations of Ideal Fluid

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov
Comments: 8 Pages.

In the present paper we develop the description of ideal liquid on the basis of space-time algebra of sixteen-component sedeons. We demonstrate that the dynamics of isentropic fluid is described by the first-order sedeonic wave equation. The second-order relations for the potentials analogues to the Pointing theorem in electrodynamics are derived. The plane wave solution of sedeonic equation for sound in liquid is disused.
Category: Condensed Matter

[81] viXra:1512.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-27 18:05:22

Chaotic End-State Oscillation of 4H/TSC and WS Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 25 Pages. Preprint of draft paper to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).
Category: Condensed Matter

[80] viXra:1512.0418 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-25 23:51:50

Chaotic End-State Oscillation of 4H/TSC and WS Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 24 Pages. Preprint of draft paper to JCF16 Proceedings

As a model mechanism to explain anomalous excess heat results observed by nano-Ni-H systems, the weak-strong (WS) fusion rate estimation during the unresolved effective life time of end state for the 4H/TSC condensation/collapse motion is of key issue. The effective life of collapsed end state on the order of 1 fs is expected. Computer simulation study was done in this work using the HME-Langevin program, using several key conditions as time-dependent TSC trapping potential, fix-up at 2.4 fm p-p distance of proton hard core collision, and the DDL (deep Dirac level) component effect by relativistic motion of electrons. Computer simulation generated chaotic oscillation of p-p distance of 4H/TSC in the range of 3-100 fm, behaving as near stable (strange attractor) lasting for rather long time ( a few fs or more may be expected).
Category: Condensed Matter

[79] viXra:1511.0045 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-05 05:02:53

The Structure of Graphene

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: giving the arrangement structure of the atoms in Graphene.
Category: Condensed Matter

[78] viXra:1511.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-11 19:37:33

Origin of Non-Fermi Liquid Behavior in Heavy Fermion Systems: a Conceptual View

Authors: Swapnil Patil
Comments: Total 16 pages. The replacement elaborates the supplementary information of our previous version and refines the language of presentation. Many of our ideas should become very clear after reading this version (also published as arXiv:1409.7156v5).

We critically examine the non-Fermi liquid (NFL) behavior observed in heavy fermion systems located close to a magnetic instability and suggest a conceptual advance in physics in order to explain its origin. We argue that the treatment of electronic states responsible for magnetism near the Quantum Critical Point (QCP), should not be accomplished within the quantum mechanical formalism; instead they should be treated semi-classically. The observed NFL behavior can be explained within such a scenario. As a sequel we attempt to discuss its consequences for the explanation of high-TC superconductivity observed in Cuprates.
Category: Condensed Matter

[77] viXra:1510.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-10 04:19:34

Quantum Phase Transition and Quantum Critical Point

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point
Category: Condensed Matter

[76] viXra:1510.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-09 07:52:01

Quantum Phase Transition and Quantum Critical Point

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 2 Pages.

Abstract: Discussing quantum phase transition and quantum critical point
Category: Condensed Matter

[75] viXra:1510.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-05 11:00:15

Dendritic Growth in Si-(CN) Thin Films

Authors: A.S. Bhattacharyya, S.K.Raj, R.Ratn, Parameshwar Kommu
Comments: Pages. published in Material Science : Material Review

A rare dendritic growth in sputter deposited SiCN and CVD deposited CN were observed. The rapid rate of nucleation and growth process led to instabilities in the growth pattern and the surface energy release rate was more through convection than diffusion It opens up new field of fractal study in the case of CN and SiCN based materials and thin films.
Category: Condensed Matter

[74] viXra:1510.0053 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-12 18:00:50

The Gravitational Invisibility

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

The possible obtention of invisibility by means of a gravitational method is shown in this work. This method is based on a gravity control process patented on 2008 (BR Patent Number: PI0805046-5). It goes far beyond the known methods of invisibility and camouflage, which use the principles of light refraction to allow light to pass right through an object (metamaterials).
Category: Condensed Matter

[73] viXra:1509.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-22 00:47:45

The Structure, State and Properties of Matter in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according to a new theory of atomic structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[72] viXra:1509.0184 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-20 22:49:04

The Structure, State and Properties of Matter in Bose-Einstein Condensate

Authors: Yibing Qiu
Comments: 1 Page.

Abstract: Shows the fundamental structure, state and properties of matter in Bose-Einstein condensate in a new perspective and according to a new theory of atomic structure.
Category: Condensed Matter

[71] viXra:1508.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-01 23:55:08

Defining Temperatures of Granular Powders Analogously with Thermodynamics to Understand the Jamming Phenomena

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 34 Pages.

For the purpose of applying laws or principles originated from thermal systems to granular athermal systems, we may need to properly define the critical “temperature” concept in granular powders. The conventional environmental temperature in thermal systems is too weak to drive movements of particles in granular powders and cannot function as a thermal energy indicator. For maintaining the same functionality as in thermal systems, the temperature in granular powders is defined analogously and uniformly in this article. The newly defined granular temperature is utilized to describe and explain one of the most important phenomena observed in granular powders, the jamming transition, by introducing jamming temperature and jamming volume fraction concepts. The predictions from the equations of the jamming volume fractions for several cases like granular powders under shear or vibration are in line with experimental observations and empirical solutions in powder handlings. The goal of this article is to establish similar concepts in granular powders, allowing granular powders to be described with common laws or principles we are familiar with in thermal systems. Our intention is to build a bridge between thermal systems and granular powders to account for many similarities already found between these two systems.
Category: Condensed Matter

[70] viXra:1508.0182 [pdf] replaced on 2015-08-22 09:25:23

Defining Temperatures of Granular Powders Analogously with Thermodynamics to Understand the Jamming Phenomena

Authors: Tian Hao
Comments: 24 Pages.

For the purpose of applying laws or principles extracted from thermal systems to granular powders, we may need to define temperature properly in granular powders. The conventional environmental temperature in thermal systems is too weak to drive particles in granular powders move around and cannot function as a thermal energy indicator. Several common scenarios in granular powder systems are discussed in this article and the corresponding analogous temperatures are defined in a similar way that the temperature of granular powders can have a same functionality as in thermal systems. For differentiating those two temperatures, the temperature in granular powders is named granulotemperature and expressed as T gp rather than T g in order to avoid confusion with the glass transition temperature expression. The jamming transition temperature is defined analogously in a uniformed manner, too. The particle volume fractions at jamming points are thus obtained by assuming that the ratio of the granulotemperature to the jamming temperature equals to one. The predictions from the equations of the jamming volume fractions at several cases like granular powders under a shear or a vibration are in line with experimental observations and empirical solutions in powder handlings. The goal of this article is to lay a foundation for establishing similar concepts in granular powders and then the granular powders can be described with common laws or principles we are familiar with in thermal systems. Our intention is to build up a bridge between thermal systems and granular powders for accommodating many similarities already found between those two systems.
Category: Condensed Matter

[69] viXra:1506.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-25 05:57:47

Theory of Harmonic Propagation of Condensed Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).
Category: Condensed Matter

[68] viXra:1506.0130 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-17 11:24:28

Theory of Harmonic Propagation of Condensed Matter

Authors: Solomon Budnik
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this article we offer to enhance the standard model of a bosonic superconducting cosmic string (fig 1) and model it in our quantum harmonic system (fig. 2).
Category: Condensed Matter

[67] viXra:1506.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-06 18:27:04

Proof of Zero Johnson Noise at Zero Temperature

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 7 Pages. text slightly refined

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that Callen-Welton disregarded the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and, in this way, they produced the zero-point noise artifact. Following Kleen's proposal, the possible origin of the heterodyne (Koch - van Harlingen - Clark) experimental results are also discussed in terms of Heffner theory of quantum noise of frequency/phase-sensitive linear amplifiers.
Category: Condensed Matter

[66] viXra:1506.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2015-06-02 12:03:23

Proof of Zero Johnson Noise at Zero Temperature

Authors: Laszlo B. Kish, Gunnar Niklasson, Claes-Goran Granqvist
Comments: 7 Pages. references expanded, additional authors joined

The Callen-Welton formula (fluctuation-dissipation theorem) of voltage and current noise of a resistance are the sum of Nyquist's classical Johnson noise equations and a (quantum) zero-point term with power density spectrum proportional to frequency and independent of temperature. At zero temperature, the classical Nyquist term vanishes however the zero-point term produces non-zero noise voltage and current. We show that the claim of zero-point noise directly contradicts to the Fermi-Dirac distribution, which defines the thermodynamics of electrons according to quantum-statistical physics. As a consequence, the Johnson noise must be zero at zero temperature, which is in accordance with Nyquist's original formula. Further investigation shows that Callen-Welton disregarded the Pauli principle during calculating the transition probabilities and, in this way, they produced the zero-point noise artifact.
Category: Condensed Matter

[65] viXra:1504.0208 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-05 20:19:36

Towards the Complete Relational Graph of Fundamental Circuit Elements

Authors: Dashan Shang, Yisheng Chai, Zexian Cao, Jun Lu, Young Sun
Comments: 16 Pages. Chin. Phys. B vol 24, No. 6 (2015) 068402

A complete and harmonized fundamental circuit relational graph with four linear and four memory elements is constructed based on newly defined elements, which provides a guide to developing novel circuit functionalities in the future. In addition to resistor, capacitor and inductor which are defined in terms of a linear relationship between the charge q, the current i, the voltage v, and the magnetic flux , Chua proposed in 1971 the fourth linear circuit element to directly relate flux and q. A non-linear resistive device defined in memory i-v relation and dubbed memristor, was later attributed to such an element and has been realized in various material structures. Here we clarify that the memristor is not the true fourth fundamental circuit element but the memory extension to the concept of resistor, in analogy to the extension of memcapacitor to capacitor and meminductor to inductor. Instead, a two-terminal device employing the linear magnetoelectric effects, termed transtor, possesses the function of relating directly flux and q and should take the position of the fourth linear element. Moreover, its memory extension, termed memtranstor, is proposed and analyzed here.
Category: Condensed Matter

[64] viXra:1502.0248 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-06 08:00:34

Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number. Version 3 (v3) updates graphics to make clear that Zeolite water must be Deuterated Heavy Water. Version 4 (v4) further corrects viXra number.
Category: Condensed Matter

[63] viXra:1502.0248 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-05 04:44:23

Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number. Version 3 (v3) updates graphics to make clear that Zeolite water must be Deuterated Heavy Water.
Category: Condensed Matter

[62] viXra:1502.0248 [pdf] replaced on 2015-03-01 09:07:30

Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number.
Category: Condensed Matter

[61] viXra:1502.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-02 10:12:16

TSC Pd-D Fusion and Zeolite-Heat-Water

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion with 147-atom Palladium clusters containing Deuterium in Sodium Zeolite Y cages produces energy that can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D20 to form steam. If the Water that is initially in the Zeolite and released as the Zeolite is heated by fusion is Hydrogen water, then the Hydrogen could contaminate the Pd cluster Deuterium and impair the TSC fusion process so all Zeolite used for TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion should be of the form AmXpO2p · nD2O that is, all the water in the Zeolite used for Pd-D fusion should be Heavy Water D2O which can be accomplished by taking ordinary Zeollte, then heating it to flush out all the Ordinary Water H2O and then cooling it with Heavy Water D2O to give AmXpO2p · nD2O. Version 2 (v2) adds viXra number and Zeolite heat capacity.
Category: Condensed Matter