Condensed Matter

1003 Submissions

[5] viXra:1003.0054 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

A Note of Extended Proca Equations and Superconductivity

Authors: V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Frank Lichtenberg
Comments: 4 pages

It has been known for quite long time that the electrodynamics of Maxwell equations can be extended and generalized further into Proca equations. The implications of introducing Proca equations include an alternative description of superconductivity, via extending London equations. In the light of another paper suggesting that Maxwell equations can be written using quaternion numbers, then we discuss a plausible extension of Proca equation using biquaternion number. Further implications and experiments are recommended.
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:1003.0053 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

On Emergent Physics, "Unparticles" and Exotic "Unmatter" States

Authors: Ervin Goldfain, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 6 pages

Emergent physics refers to the formation and evolution of collective patterns in systems that are nonlinear and out-of-equilibrium. This type of large-scale behavior often develops as a result of simple interactions at the component level and involves a dynamic interplay between order and randomness. On account of its universality, there are credible hints that emergence may play a leading role in the Tera-ElectronVolt (TeV) sector of particle physics. Following this path, we examine the possibility of hypothetical highenergy states that have fractional number of quanta per state and consist of arbitrary mixtures of particles and antiparticles. These states are similar to "un-particles", massless fields of non-integral scaling dimensions that were recently conjectured to emerge in the TeV sector of particle physics. They are also linked to "unmatter", exotic clusters of matter and antimatter introduced few years ago in the context of Neutrosophy. The connection between 'unmatter' and 'unparticle' is explained in details in this paper. Unparticles have very odd properties which result from the fact that they represent fractional field quanta. Unparticles are manifested as mixed states that contain arbitrary mixtures of particles and antiparticles (therefore they simultaneously evolve "forward" and "backward" in time). From this, the connection with unmatter. Using the fractal operators of differentiation and integration we get the connection between unparticle and unmatter. 'Unmatter' was coined by F. Smarandache in 2004 who published three papers on the subject.
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1003.0035 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

A New Form of Matter-Unmatter, Composed of Particles and Anti-Particles

Authors: Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 3 pages

Besides matter and antimatter there must exist unmatter (as a new form of matter) in accordance with the neutrosophy theory that between an entity <A> and its opposite <AntiA> there exist intermediate entities <NeutA>. Unmatter is neither matter nor antimatter, but something in between. An atom of unmatter is formed either by (1): electrons, protons, and antineutrons, or by (2): antielectrons, antiprotons, and neutrons. At CERN it will be possible to test the production of unmatter. The existence of unmatter in the universe has a similar chance to that of the antimatter, and its production also difficult for present technologies.
Category: Condensed Matter

[2] viXra:1003.0024 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

Hadron Models and Related New Energy Issues

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, V. Christianto
Comments: 476 pages

The present book covers a wide-range of issues from alternative hadron models to their likely implications in New Energy research, including alternative interpretation of lowenergy reaction (coldfusion) phenomena.
Category: Condensed Matter

[1] viXra:1003.0022 [pdf] submitted on 6 Mar 2010

A Study of the Schrödinger-Langevin Equation with PT-Symmetric Periodic Potential and its Application to Deuteron Cluster, and Relation to the Self-Organized Criticality Phenomena

Authors: V. Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 5 pages

One of the most reported problem related to the CMNS (condensed matter nuclear science, or LENR), is the low probability of Coulomb barrier tunneling. It is supposed by standard physics that tunneling is only possible at high enough energy (by solving Gamow function). However, a recent study by A. Takahashi (2008, 2009) and experiment by Arata etc. (2008) seem to suggest that it is not impossible to achieve a working experiment to create the CMNS process. In accordance with Takahashi's EQPET/TSC model [1][2][3], the proposed study will find out some analytical and numerical solutions to the problem of barrier tunneling for cluster deuterium, in particular using Langevin method to solve the time-independent Schrödinger equation. It is hoped that the result can answer some of these mysteries.
Category: Condensed Matter