Condensed Matter

1004 Submissions

[2] viXra:1004.0082 [pdf] submitted on 16 Apr 2010

Morphology, Linear and Nonlinear Optical Response of Octopolar Chromophores Embedded in a Silica Sonogel Matrix

Authors: V. Torres-Zúñiga, O.G. Morales-Saavedra, G. Hennrich, J.O. Flores-Flores, R. Ortega-Martínez
Comments: 15 pages. Manuscript submitted and accepted for publication as an article in Mol. Cryst. Liq. Cryst.

In this work, a liquid crystalline octopolar molecule 1,3,5-tris(ethynylphenyl)benzene-(1) was successfully embedded as dopant chromophore within a SiO2 based sonogel network in order to prepare stable solid state hybrid materials with intense second harmonic generation (SHG). This recently synthesized octopolar compound exhibit a centrosymmetric C3-symmetry structure, which is constituted by an electron-rich core and electron-poor periphery groups. The sonogel method, induced by energetic ultrasonic (US) waves applied at the TEOS/H2O reactant mixture interface has proven to be a suitable route in the manufacture of monolithic hybrid systems suitable for optical characterizations. The octopolar-based hybrid samples were comprehensively studied in their morphology, spectroscopic, linear and second-order nonlinear optical (NLO) properties, according to several characterization techniques: epimicroscopy, AFM, UV-Vis- and fluorescence (PL) spectroscopies, and the NLO-SHG-technique. Epimicroscopy, photoluminiscent and absorption spectra evidence an optimal and homogeneous inclusion of the octopolar compounds within the glassy sonogel network. Without necessity of molecular poling processes, the effective quadratic-NLO susceptibility χeffS(2) of the hybrid was estimated to 13.6x10-3 pm/V at 1064 nm by SHG-transmission experiments recorded far-off of the resonance regime.
Category: Condensed Matter

[1] viXra:1004.0080 [pdf] replaced on 21 Apr 2010

The Tsallis Entropy and the Boltzmann Entropy Applicable to the Same Classical Generalized System

Authors: Xiangjun Feng
Comments: 3 pages and 3 figures. This paper has been published in the on-line journal of World Chinese Forum On Science of General Systems (WCFSGS), ISSN 1936-7260. The paper has also been included in the NONEXTENSIVE STATISTICAL MECHANICS AND THERMODYNAMICS: BIBLIOGRAPHY edited by Prof. Constantino Tsallis . Report Number: 300-P-10-04-01 Journal Reference: WCFSGS VOL 6, NO. S1 ( A SPECIAL EDITION ON NONEXTENSIVE MECHANICS ), APRIL 2010, ISSN 1936 - 7260.

It is demonstrated clearly that for the same classical generalized system the Tsallis power-laws with both the q > 1 and the q < 1 can be induced by the constraint of the constant harmonic mean for the so-called reciprocal energies Er and at the same time the Boltzmann distribution or the negative exponential probability distribution can be generated with the constraint of the constant arithmetic mean for the generalized energies E . The author thus argues that there might be no definite "extensive system" or "classical system" and there are only "classical physical parameters" and "classical constraints". For any physical system or generalized system, it is the non-natural constraints which determine both the forms of the entropies and the nonuniform equilibrium distributions.
Category: Condensed Matter