Condensed Matter

1502 Submissions

[8] viXra:1502.0248 [pdf] replaced on 2015-04-06 08:00:34

Schwinger Pd-D Zeolite Quantum Fusion Process

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 20 Pages.

Julian Schwinger in 1990 lecture at Universite de Bourgogne said:
“... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”. Current Science 108 (25 Feb 2015) LENR Special Section Preface says: “... Analysts have described LENR as an emergent ‘disruptive technology’ and have predicted that it has the potential to upset the world economic order. ... Arata ... demonstrated ... direct deuterium gas loading of ... Pd black powder ...[ with Pd cluster size on the order of 147-atom Sandia-UNM Pd Clusters ]... McKubre’s group at SRI International ... demonstrated that unless and until the ... Pd-D ... loading ratio exceeds a threshold value of about 0.88, no excess heat is observed ... excess heat ... is due primarily to the occurrence of (d–d) fusion reaction forming He4 (inert helium gas). ... The 23.4 MeV energy released ... appears to be transmitted directly to the Pd lattice as phonons ... Akito Takahashi ... propos[es] a ...[ quantum ]... structure ... that ... concentrates the electron population between the protons or deuterons. Thus, the Coulomb barrier is eliminated and ... four ... nuclei can simultaneously interact and fuse ... Peter Hagelstein ... use[s] ... phonon models ...[ for Relativistic Coupling Between Lattice Vibrations and Nuclear Excitation, enabled by Foldy-Wouthuysen transformation break-down due to 8-15 THz Lattice Vibration Modes, deuterons being responsible for fractionating the nuclear quanta in operation with excited optical phonon modes ]...”. Iraj Parchamazad and Melvin Miles embedded Pd clusters in Sodium Zeolite Y and found that Deuterium gas produced heat in 10 out of 10 experimental runs with Heat Energy produced on the scale of kiloWatts of power per milligram of Palladium ... the Zeolite Cages have large internal electrostatic fields, on the order of 3 V/nm, whereby the Energy of the Excited Optical Phonon Modes of the Pd Clusters is transferred to the Zeolite as stored Heat to be accessed by Zeolite-Water reaction. Klee Irwin’s Jitterbug Transformation studies show that the stable Icosahedral phase of 147-atom Pd clusters enables TSC Pd-D Fusion which thereby expands to its metastable cuboctahedral phase, ejecting the 4He Fusion Product and reloading 2D Fusion Fuel, and then goes back to its stable icosahedral phase for another round of TSC Fusion. Version 2 (v2) updates chart on page 2 and corrects viXra number. Version 3 (v3) updates graphics to make clear that Zeolite water must be Deuterated Heavy Water. Version 4 (v4) further corrects viXra number.
Category: Condensed Matter

[7] viXra:1502.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-22 21:01:58

Potential Clean Energy by Condesed Cluster Fusion

Authors: Akito Takahashi
Comments: 42 Pages. Submittal to energy journals 2010, but never published

Clean distributable energy source is expected to develop for the sustainable societies in the 21st century. Recent research development of condensed matter nuclear science (CMNS), which is the descendant new research filed of past controversial “cold fusion” saga, is now revealing the new possibility of potential clean nuclear energy in portable size devices, although the stage of research is still basic and fundamental. This review paper describes; 1) Brief experimental results of anomalous excess heat generation with 4He ash without visible neutron and gamma-ray emission by the two methods of deuterium loading into Pd-nano-metal reactor samples based on D2O electrolysis and the one method of gas-phase deuterium loading. Key issues for further engineering-phase development are discussed. 2) For the physical understanding of this “new phenomena”, as new-type of deuteron-related fusion reactions in the ordering and constraint dynamics of deuterium clustering in condensed matter as PdDx lattice or surface, brief review on the theoretical progress of condensed cluster fusion, typically 4D multi-body fusion by the tetrahedral symmetric condensate (TSC), is given with easier physical explanations. Key issues as reproducibility and increment of power density are summarized.
Category: Condensed Matter

[6] viXra:1502.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-20 14:52:49

Protons in Water as a Fermi Gas

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 08 pages, 13 references

Hydrogen-bond kinetics plays an important role in the establishment of the transport properties of water. In this paper we propose to consider protons in water as a Fermi gas. We use the Fermi statistics to determine the Fermi energy, the averaged time between collisions of the protons, and the speed of sound in liquid water. This time is also used to interpret the response in frequency of the cytoplasm to an applied external electric field.
Category: Condensed Matter

[5] viXra:1502.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-19 04:31:14

Origin of the Optimal Doping in High-Tc Cuprates

Authors: A. Messad
Comments: 1 Page.

Doping an insulator to make it a BCS-type superconductor, is equivalent to creating states in the Debye shell on both sides of the Fermi level. This doping is, therefore, equal to twice the product between the density of states at the Fermi level and the Debye energy. This formula works well for optimally doped cuprates suggesting a major role for phonons behind the superconductivity of these materials.
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:1502.0096 [pdf] replaced on 2015-05-02 10:12:16

TSC Pd-D Fusion and Zeolite-Heat-Water

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion with 147-atom Palladium clusters containing Deuterium in Sodium Zeolite Y cages produces energy that can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D20 to form steam. If the Water that is initially in the Zeolite and released as the Zeolite is heated by fusion is Hydrogen water, then the Hydrogen could contaminate the Pd cluster Deuterium and impair the TSC fusion process so all Zeolite used for TSC-Jitterbug Pd-D fusion should be of the form AmXpO2p · nD2O that is, all the water in the Zeolite used for Pd-D fusion should be Heavy Water D2O which can be accomplished by taking ordinary Zeollte, then heating it to flush out all the Ordinary Water H2O and then cooling it with Heavy Water D2O to give AmXpO2p · nD2O. Version 2 (v2) adds viXra number and Zeolite heat capacity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1502.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-11 11:00:43

Fermi Energy of Metals: a New Derivation

Authors: P. R. Silva
Comments: 05 pages, 07 references

Two different ways of computing the time between collisions related to the electrical conductivity of metals are presented. The combination of them leads to the formula for the Fermi energy of metals.
Category: Condensed Matter

[2] viXra:1502.0069 [pdf] replaced on 2015-02-14 22:48:18

TSC Pd-D Fusion, Effective Electron Mass, Muon Fusion

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 12 Pages.

Muon fusion is a known process based on the high muon / electron mass ratio enabling a muon of a Deuterium atom to screen the positive charge of its Deuterium nucleus and allow two Deuterium nuclei to approach one another close enough for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place. Julian Schwinger, who said “... in the very low energy cold fusion, one deals essentially with a single state, described by a single wave function, all parts of which are coherent ...”, encouraged Simons and Walling to propose that Deuterium nuclei and electrons in Palladium could get increased effective mass through Palladium structure quantum processes to screen Deuterium nuclei enough for fusion D + D -> 4He + 23.8 MeV to take place and for the “heavy electrons” to carry away most of the 23.8 MeV fusion energy into Palladium structure electron system and for the entire process to be “... enhanced ... by high electron density contributed by ... Pd centers” located near the point of fusion. Akito Takahashi proposed that the structure of Palladium would encourage a tetrahedral configuration of 4 Deuterium nuclei and 4 Deuterium electrons as a coherent quantum Tetrahedral Symmetric Condensate (TSC) that would collapse ( with the 4 electrons screening the 4 D nuclei ) and fuse D + D + D + D -> 8Be + 47.6 MeV -> 4He + 4He + 47.6 MeV. Palladium clusters of 147 atoms ( about 1.5 nanometers ) have a ground state icosahedral configuration that encourages TSC fusion and a metastable cuboctahedral configuration that allows reloading of ambient Deuterium into the Palladium cluster by a Jitterbug transformation with, for each TSC configuration, a central Palladium atom to enhance the process. If each 147-atom Palladium cluster is embedded into a Zeolite cage then the fusion energy can be carried from the Deuterium electrons to the Palladium electrons to the Zeolite electrons, thus heating the Zeolite, which heat can be released as needed by reacting with D2O to form steam. Version 2 (v2) corrects typo, adds reference, and adds recipe for Zeolite Pd-D fusion experiment.
Category: Condensed Matter

[1] viXra:1502.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2015-02-06 07:22:35

Debye Length Cannot be Interpreted as Screening or Shielding Length

Authors: Rajib Chakraborty
Comments: 4 Pages.

We show the existing solution of Poisson-Boltzmann equation (PBE) to violate charge conservation principle, and then derive the correct formula for charge density distribution $(\rho_e)$ in a fluid. We replaced unphysical old boundary conditions with some conditions that have never been used. Our result demonstrates that PBE cannot explain the formation of `Electric Double Layer' (EDL); it follows that the present physical interpretation of `Debye length' $(\lambda_D)$ is wrong, too.
Category: Condensed Matter