Condensed Matter

1701 Submissions

[19] viXra:1701.0654 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-28 13:52:43

Estudo Computacional do Phenalenyl (Computational Study of Phenalenyl)

Authors: Ricardo Gobato, Marilene Turini Piccinato, Eduardo Di Mauro, André Tsutomu Ota, M. F. Costa
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented the First Brazilian School of Bioinformatics (EBB-2008), from August 25 to 28, 2008, at the Federal University of ABC (UFABC)

Phenalenyl or perinaphthenyl (C13H9) is an organic component that can be used as a spin probe. One of the co-authors characterized the phenalenyl experimentally through the technique of electronic resonance spin (EPR). When the temperature is less than 250 C, the EPR signal disappears because dimerization occurs through a chemical bond eliminating the unpaired spin. In the middle also degradation occurs due to oxidation. In this work we present the results of the geometry optimization calculations obtained through the method of the functional density (DFT) / B3LYP in the base 6-311+G(2d, p), with load -1 and multiplicity 3. The best results, compared with The experimental data, spin densities and hyperfine coupling constants were obtained using the base 6-311+G(3df,3pd), with loads varying from -1 to 1.
Category: Condensed Matter

[18] viXra:1701.0628 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 13:37:52

First-ever Time Crystals

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

Are time crystals just a mathematical curiosity, or could they actually physically exist? Physicists have been debating this question since 2012, when Nobel laureate Frank Wilczek first proposed the idea of time crystals. He argued that these hypothetical objects can exhibit periodic motion, such as moving in a circular orbit, in their state of lowest energy, or their "ground state." [28] Researchers from the Foundation for Fundamental Research on Matter and the University of Amsterdam (the Netherlands), together with researchers from the Institute for Materials Science in Tsukuba (Japan), have discovered an exceptional new quantum state within a superconducting material. This exceptional quantum state is characterised by a broken rotational symmetry – in other words, if you turn the material in a magnetic field, the superconductivity isn't the same everywhere in the material. [27], and collaborators have produced the first direct evidence of a state of electronic matter first predicted by theorists in 1964. The discovery, described in a paper published online April 13, 2016, in Nature, may provide key insights into the workings of high-temperature superconductors. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[17] viXra:1701.0625 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 14:24:39

Electricity Flows Without Heat

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

According to a new study led by scientists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and at the University of California, Berkeley, electrons in vanadium dioxide can conduct electricity without conducting heat. [14] Paint these days is becoming much more than it used to be. Already researchers have developed photovoltaic paint, which can be used to make "paint-on solar cells" that capture the sun's energy and turn it into electricity. Now in a new study, researchers have created thermoelectric paint, which captures the waste heat from hot painted surfaces and converts it into electrical energy. [13] Scientists at Aalto University, Finland, have made a breakthrough in physics. They succeeded in transporting heat maximally effectively ten thousand times further than ever before. The discovery may lead to a giant leap in the development of quantum computers. [12] Maxwell's demon, a hypothetical being that appears to violate the second law of thermodynamics, has been widely studied since it was first proposed in 1867 by James Clerk Maxwell. But most of these studies have been theoretical, with only a handful of experiments having actually realized Maxwell's demon. [11] In 1876, the Austrian physicist Ludwig Boltzmann noticed something surprising about his equations that describe the flow of heat in a gas. Usually, the colliding gas particles eventually reach a state of thermal equilibrium, the point at which no net flow of heat energy occurs. But Boltzmann realized that his equations also predict that, when gases are confined in a specific way, they should remain in persistent non-equilibrium, meaning a small amount of heat is always flowing within the system. [10] There is also connection between statistical physics and evolutionary biology, since the arrow of time is working in the biological evolution also. From the standpoint of physics, there is one essential difference between living things and inanimate clumps of carbon atoms: The former tend to be much better at capturing energy from their environment and dissipating that energy as heat. [8] This paper contains the review of quantum entanglement investigations in living systems, and in the quantum mechanically modeled photoactive prebiotic kernel systems. [7] The human body is a constant flux of thousands of chemical/biological interactions and processes connecting molecules, cells, organs, and fluids, throughout the brain, body, and nervous system. Up until recently it was thought that all these interactions operated in a linear sequence, passing on information much like a runner passing the baton to the next runner. However, the latest findings in quantum biology and biophysics have discovered that there is in fact a tremendous degree of coherence within all living systems. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the Relativistic Quantum Theory and making possible to understand the Quantum Biology.
Category: Condensed Matter

[16] viXra:1701.0623 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-26 14:52:51

Metallic Hydrogen

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Nearly a century after it was theorized, Harvard scientists have succeeded in creating the rarest-and potentially one of the most valuable-materials on the planet. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Until quite recently, creating a hologram of a single photon was believed to be impossible due to fundamental laws of physics. However, scientists at the Faculty of Physics, University of Warsaw, have successfully applied concepts of classical holography to the world of quantum phenomena. A new measurement technique has enabled them to register the first-ever hologram of a single light particle, thereby shedding new light on the foundations of quantum mechanics. [19] A combined team of researchers from Columbia University in the U.S. and the University of Warsaw in Poland has found that there appear to be flaws in traditional theory that describe how photodissociation works. [18] Ultra-peripheral collisions of lead nuclei at the LHC accelerator can lead to elastic collisions of photons with photons. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light)
Category: Condensed Matter

[15] viXra:1701.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-23 21:19:17

Study of the Molecular Geometry of Caramboxin Toxin Found in Star Flower (Averrhoa Carambola L.)

Authors: Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 9 Pages. PJSE, v.3, n.1. 1-9 (2017). Parana Journal of Science and Education.

The present work describes the equilibrium configuration of the caramboxin molecule studied using the Hartree-Fock (HF) and Density functional theory (DFT) calculations. With the DFT calculations, the total energy for the singlet state of caramboxin molecule has been estimated to be -933.3870701 a.u. Furthermore, the binding energy of the caramboxin molecule has been estimated to be 171.636 kJ/mol. The carambola or star fruit is a fruit used for human consumption in juices, desserts, pastries, custards, jellies, or even in natural consumption. Recent research indicates that it has great toxicity for people with kidney failure, and may even lead to death. Experiments demonstrated that it has glutamatergic effects, which means that it affects the function of the neurotransmitter glutamate, thus explaining the neurological effects. Our calculations indicate that the main active sites in carambox are the -OH (alcohols) groups, and the two carboxyl (-COOH) groups.
Category: Condensed Matter

[14] viXra:1701.0552 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-20 11:16:46

Graphene's Superconductivity Awakens

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 17 Pages.

Researchers have found a way to trigger the innate, but previously hidden, ability of graphene to act as a superconductor-meaning that it can be made to carry an electrical current with zero resistance. [28] Researchers in Japan have found a way to make the 'wonder material' graphene superconductive-which means electricity can flow through it with zero resistance. The new property adds to graphene's already impressive list of attributes, like the fact that it's stronger than steel, harder than diamond, and incredibly flexible. [27] Superconductivity is a rare physical state in which matter is able to conduct electricity—maintain a flow of electrons—without any resistance. It can only be found in certain materials, and even then it can only be achieved under controlled conditions of low temperatures and high pressures. New research from a team including Carnegie's Elissaios Stavrou, Xiao-Jia Chen, and Alexander Goncharov hones in on the structural changes underlying superconductivity in iron arsenide compounds—those containing iron and arsenic. [26] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the superconductive current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the Higgs Field, the changing Relativistic Mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Condensed Matter

[13] viXra:1701.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-17 15:18:42

Laser Creating Quasiparticle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Technion researchers have demonstrated, for the first time, that laser emissions can be created through the interaction of light and water waves. This "water-wave laser" could someday be used in tiny sensors that combine light waves, sound and water waves, or as a feature on microfluidic "lab-on-a-chip" devices used to study cell biology and to test new drug therapies. [18] Researchers led by EPFL have built ultra-high quality optical cavities for the elusive mid-infrared spectral region, paving the way for new chemical and biological sensors, as well as promising technologies. [17] The research team led by Professor Hele Savin has developed a new light detector that can capture more than 96 percent of the photons covering visible, ultraviolet and infrared wavelengths. [16] A promising route to smaller, powerful cameras built into smartphones and other devices is to design optical elements that manipulate light by diffraction-the bending of light around obstacles or through small gaps-instead of refraction. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or " topolariton " : a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[12] viXra:1701.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 13:27:51

Golden Mystery Feynman's Approach

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

Gold is prized for its preciousness and as a conductor in electronics, but it is also important in scientific experimentation. [23] When the temperature of the material changes, both the electronic and the magnetic properties of the materials change with it. [22] In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[11] viXra:1701.0512 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-16 07:18:40

Phase Transition Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

When the temperature of the material changes, both the electronic and the magnetic properties of the materials change with it. [22] In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[10] viXra:1701.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 08:20:23

Magnetic Properties in Nonmagnetic Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 31 Pages.

In a proof-of-concept study published in Nature Physics, researchers drew magnetic squares in a nonmagnetic material with an electrified pen and then "read" this magnetic doodle with X-rays. [21] Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge.
Category: Condensed Matter

[9] viXra:1701.0490 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 08:36:16

Viscosidade Anisotrópica Dos Cristais Líquidos (Anisotropic Viscosity of Liquid Crystals)

Authors: Manuel Simões F., Ricardo Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Panel presented at the XV Week of Physics of the State University of Londrina, Paraná, Brazil, September 2010.

The anisotropic viscosity of the liquid crystals (CL) is one of the most challenging properties of these materials, it was discovered in 1935 by Miesowicz, when he showed that CLs are non-Newtonian fluids, exhibiting viscosities that are direction dependent when subjected to an external field . Over this time, a tremendous amount of experimental and theoretical research has been devoted to the subject, but a microscopic theory satisfactory to it has never been found. The kinetic approach of Doi had for some time been the most accepted microscopic theory for nematic viscosity, but even having the great merit of producing a free expression of the adjustable parameters, which captures the essence of the phenomena, providing a semimicroscopic explanation for the origin of Its anisotropy, there are well documented divergences with the experimental data, being unable to describe the essential aspects of the phenomenology observed in these systems, especially when considering the range of the nematic phase. The objective of this work is to study the contribution of the characteristic geometry of the nematic / molecule micelle to the viscosity of the nematic liquids. Throughout this work, we use the word geometry of the nematic grain, or simple geometry of the grain, to designate the geometry that a nematic micelle / molecule acquires under the thermal vibration. This concept does not appear to be common in the theory of NCLs, but arises naturally from Gennes's theory of parameters for NLCs. In addition, to increase the contribution of grain geometry to nematic viscosity we will use the Hess and Balls conforming approach to formulate the fundamentals of nematic viscosity.
Category: Condensed Matter

[8] viXra:1701.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-13 06:52:10

First 2D Electride Material

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Researchers have brought electrides into the nanoregime by synthesizing the first 2D electride material. Electrides are ionic compounds, which are made of negative and positive ions. But in electrides, the negative "ions" are simply electrons, with no nucleus. [20] Microelectromechanical systems, or MEMS, are tiny machines fabricated using equipment and processes developed for the production of electronic chips and devices. [19] Researchers from the Harvard John A. Paulson School of Engineering and Applied Sciences have made the world's smallest radio receiver-built out of an assembly of atomic-scale defects in pink diamonds. [18] Smart phones have shiny flat AMOLED displays. Behind each single pixel of these displays hide at least two silicon transistors which were mass-manufactured using laser annealing technologies. [17] Bumpy surfaces with graphene between would help dissipate heat in next-generation microelectronic devices, according to Rice University scientists. [16] Scientists at The University of Manchester and Karlsruhe Institute of Technology have demonstrated a method to chemically modify small regions of graphene with high precision, leading to extreme miniaturisation of chemical and biological sensors. [15] A new method for producing conductive cotton fabrics using graphene-based inks opens up new possibilities for flexible and wearable electronics, without the use of expensive and toxic processing steps. [14] A device made of bilayer graphene, an atomically thin hexagonal arrangement of carbon atoms, provides experimental proof of the ability to control the momentum of electrons and offers a path to electronics that could require less energy and give off less heat than standard silicon-based transistors. It is one step forward in a new field of physics called valleytronics. [13] In our computer chips, information is transported in form of electrical charge. Electrons or other charge carriers have to be moved from one place to another. For years scientists have been working on elements that take advantage of the electrons angular momentum (their spin) rather than their electrical charge. This new approach, called "spintronics" has major advantages compared to common electronics. It can operate with much less energy. [12]
Category: Condensed Matter

[7] viXra:1701.0312 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 14:58:00

Estudo Das Propriedades Físico-Químicas e Farmacológicas da Argemone Mexicana L.

Authors: R. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo, A. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese

Argemone Mexicana L. popularly known as: Mexican poppy, thorny Mexican poppy, thistle or cardo santo is a species of poppy found in Mexico and widespread in many parts of the world. It is an extremely resistant plant, tolerant to drought and poor soils, being often the only vegetation cover present in the soil. It has bright yellow latex, and although toxic to grazing animals, it is rarely ingested. From the family Papaveraceae, informally known as poppies, it is an important ethnopharmacological family of 44 genera and about 760 species of flowering plants. The plant is the source of several types of chemical compounds, such as flavonoids, although alkaloids are the most commonly found. In addition to pharmaceutical efficacy, certain parts of the plant also show toxic effects. It is used in different parts of the world for the treatment of various diseases including tumors, warts, skin diseases, rheumatism, inflammation, jaundice, leprosy, microbial infections, malaria, agrobacteria, among others and as a larvicide against Aedes aegypti, vector Of dengue.
Category: Condensed Matter

[6] viXra:1701.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 15:12:15

Cristais Inorgânicos do Arranjo Berílio, Lítio, Selênio e Silício

Authors: R. Gobato, D. F. G. Fedrigo, A. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese

The use of inorganic crystals in the technology comes from ample date. From quartz crystals to receiver radios common to computer chips with new semiconductor materials. Elements such as Se, Li, Be, and Si, are of great use in technology. The use of new inorganic crystals in technology has been widely studied. The development of new compounds coming from this arrangement can bring technological advances in the most diverse areas of knowledge. The probable difficulty of finding such crystals in nature or synthesized suggest an advanced study of the theme. A preliminary literature search did not indicate any compounds of said arrangement of these chemical elements. From this fact our study may lead to obtaining new crystals to be used in the materials industry. For this, a computational study using software with Molecular Mechanics, ab initio, DFT, and empirical methods with microscopic and conoscopic analysis can lead to the obtaining of such crystals.
Category: Condensed Matter

[5] viXra:1701.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 11:36:01

Espectroscopia Por Mapeamento RGB de Fontes Primárias de Luz

Authors: M. Simões F., R. Gobato
Comments: 1 Page. Portuguese

Spectroscopy is a technique for collecting physicochemical data through the transmission, absorption or reflection of incident radiant energy in a sample. It is much employed to be used in their spectra, which is difficult to access equipment because of its high cost, found in research surveys. Our work is used in common low cost and easy access devices that have a CCD reader, which is replaced by these spectrometers. We determine mathematical parameters that characterize by mapping the images obtained by common cameras such as: cell phones, smartphone, tablet, iphone, ipad, webcam, etc. As filming obtained by optical CCD reader theses hardware, form decoded and separated into their quantified RGB E color channels. Our technique consists of the analysis of the pixels of the images of primary light sources, such as: the sun, incandescent lamps, fire, candle flames, matchestick flame, wood combustion, etc.
Category: Condensed Matter

[4] viXra:1701.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 08:47:32

Opposite Spin in Topological Insulator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Scientists at the U.S. Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) have reported the first direct comparison of the spin polarization generated in the topologically protected Dirac states of a topological insulator (TI) bismuth selenide (Bi2Se3) and the trivial 2-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) states at the surface of indium arsenide (InAs). [22] Topological insulators, an exciting, relatively new class of materials, are capable of carrying electricity along the edge of the surface, while the bulk of the material acts as an electrical insulator. Practical applications for these materials are still mostly a matter of theory, as scientists probe their microscopic properties to better understand the fundamental physics that govern their peculiar behavior. [21] A Florida State University research team has discovered a new crystal structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that could open the door to new applications for optoelectronic devices like light-emitting diodes and lasers. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14]
Category: Condensed Matter

[3] viXra:1701.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-04 11:30:13

Quantum Simulation Topological Soliton State

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 29 Pages.

Topological insulators, an exciting, relatively new class of materials, are capable of carrying electricity along the edge of the surface, while the bulk of the material acts as an electrical insulator. Practical applications for these materials are still mostly a matter of theory, as scientists probe their microscopic properties to better understand the fundamental physics that govern their peculiar behavior. [21] A Florida State University research team has discovered a new crystal structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that could open the door to new applications for optoelectronic devices like light-emitting diodes and lasers. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13]
Category: Condensed Matter

[2] viXra:1701.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 20:01:55

Is Microcanonical Ensemble Stable?

Authors: Yichen Huang
Comments: 4 Pages.

No, in a rigorous sense specified below.
Category: Condensed Matter

[1] viXra:1701.0240 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-04 05:00:02

Lego Crystal Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 27 Pages.

A Florida State University research team has discovered a new crystal structure of organic-inorganic hybrid materials that could open the door to new applications for optoelectronic devices like light-emitting diodes and lasers. [20] Researchers have built a record energy-efficient switch, which uses the interplay of electricity and a liquid form of light, in semiconductor microchips. The device could form the foundation of future signal processing and information technologies, making electronics even more efficient. [19] The magnetic structure of a skyrmion is symmetrical around its core; arrows indicate the direction of spin. [18] According to current estimates, dozens of zettabytes of information will be stored electronically by 2020, which will rely on physical principles that facilitate the use of single atoms or molecules as basic memory cells. [17] EPFL scientists have developed a new perovskite material with unique properties that can be used to build next-generation hard drives. [16] Scientists have fabricated a superlattice of single-atom magnets on graphene with a density of 115 terabits per square inch, suggesting that the configuration could lead to next-generation storage media. [15] Now a researcher and his team at Tyndall National Institute in Cork have made a 'quantum leap' by developing a technical step that could enable the use of quantum computers sooner than expected. [14] A method to produce significant amounts of semiconducting nanoparticles for light-emitting displays, sensors, solar panels and biomedical applications has gained momentum with a demonstration by researchers at the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory. [13] A source of single photons that meets three important criteria for use in quantum-information systems has been unveiled in China by an international team of physicists. Based on a quantum dot, the device is an efficient source of photons that emerge as solo particles that are indistinguishable from each other. The researchers are now trying to use the source to create a quantum computer based on "boson sampling". [11] With the help of a semiconductor quantum dot, physicists at the University of Basel have developed a new type of light source that emits single photons.
Category: Condensed Matter