Economics and Finance

1302 Submissions

[5] viXra:1302.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2013-03-21 22:06:06

Clan Capitalism, Graph Distance, and Other Issues

Authors: Florentin Smarandache, Victor Christianto
Comments: 97 Pages.

This book consists of 6 papers focusing on social and economic issues. The topics covered include graph distance and optimal communication, migration in Jaipur, urbanization, clan capitalism, world population growth rate, and scientific inquiry. These papers were written in the period between 2009-2010. This book is suitable for economists and also physicists who want to know more about economics issues. Hopefully the readers will find some new insights in this collection of papers.
Category: Economics and Finance

[4] viXra:1302.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-19 13:09:01

Great Minds of Economics

Authors: Andrew Nassif
Comments: 6 Pages.

A history of three hand picked rich CEOs and theorizations on how they achieved to get where they are today. This also includes information on the definition of assets, and keys to using SEO in your business.
Category: Economics and Finance

[3] viXra:1302.0052 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-09 11:46:12

Loss of Self-Control in Intertemporal Choice May be Attributable to Logarithmic Time-Perception

Authors: Taiki Takahashi
Comments: 7 Pages.

Impulsivity and loss of self-control in drug-dependent patients have been associated with the manner in which they discount delayed rewards. Although drugs of abuse have been shown to modify perceived time duration, little is known regarding the relationship between impulsive decision-making in intertemporal choice and estimation of time-duration. In classical economic theory, it has been hypothesized that people discount future reward value exponentially. In exponential discounting, a temporal discounting rate is constant over time, which has been referred to as dynamic consistency. However, accumulating empirical evidence in biology, psychopharmacology, behavioral neuroscience, and neuroeconomics does not support the hypothesis. Rather, dynamically inconsistent manners of discounting delayed rewards, e.g., hyperbolic discounting, have been repeatedly observed in humans and non-human animals. In spite of recent advances in neuroimaging and neuropsychopharmacological study, the reason why humans and animals discount delayed rewards hyperbolically is unknown. In this study, we hypothesized that empirically-observed dynamical inconsistency in intertemporal choice may result from errors in the perception of time duration. It is proposed that perception of temporal duration following Weber's law might explain the dynamical inconsistency. Possible future study directions for elucidating neural mechanisms underlying inconsistent intertemporal choice are discussed.
Category: Economics and Finance

[2] viXra:1302.0031 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-05 23:29:10

Molecular Neuroeconomics of Crime and Punishment: Implications for Neurolaw.

Authors: Taiki Takahashi
Comments: 18 Pages.

Criminal behaviors have been associated with risk, time and social preferences in economics (Becker, 1968; Davis, 1988), criminology (Chamlin and Cochran, 1997), and neurolaw (Goodenough and Tucker, 2010). This study proposes a molecular neuroeconomic framework for the investigation into crime and punishment. Neuroeconomic parameters (e.g., risk-attitude, probability weighting, time discounting in intertemporal choice, loss aversion, and social discounting) are predicted to be related to criminal behavior. Neurobiological and neuroendocrinological substrates such as serotonin, dopamine, norepinephrine, cortisol (a stress hormone), sex hormones (e.g., testosterone), and oxytocin in brain regions such as the orbitofrontal cortex, the amygdala, and the cingulate may be related to the neuroeconomic parameters governing criminal behaviors. The present framework may help us develop “neurolaw” based on molecular neuroeconomics of criminal and antisocial decision-making processes.
Category: Economics and Finance

[1] viXra:1302.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2013-02-05 23:39:25

Time Discounting: Psychophysics of Intertemporal and Probabilistic Choices

Authors: Taiki Takahashi, Ruokang Han, Fumihiko Nakamura
Comments: 11 Pages.

Intertemporal and probabilistic choices have been attracting attention in behavioral neuroeconomics. Although recent advances in neuroeconomics demonstrated neural processes underlying intertemporal and probabilistic choices, the roles of psychophysical effects on the choices have largely been understudied. In this paper, we review the roles of psychophysical effects in time and risk attitudes. It is shown that Loewenstein-Prelec’s generalized hyperbolic temporal discount function (Loewenstein and Prelec, 1992) and Prelec’s probability weighting function (Prelec, 1998) are naturally derived from psychophysical laws of time-perception.
Category: Economics and Finance