# Geophysics

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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[187] viXra:1905.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-16 19:31:34

### Le Découpage Cartographique International

This note concerns the international cartographic division. It gives how is organized the numbering of sheets at different scales ranging from 1/500 to 1/50000 and their sizes and surfaces.
Category: Geophysics

[186] viXra:1905.0200 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-13 11:00:44

### Systèmes de Référence Systèmes Projectifs

Authors: Henri Marcel Dufour, Abdemajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 27 Pages. In French. It is an-update version of a paper dated 1979 with comments of the second author.

Many geodetic works currently exist on the surface of the globe, which have developed through regional networks, usually each having a fundamental point, where the astronomical data (\phi= latitude,\lambda= longitude,Az= azimuth) of a reference are confused with the counterparts geodetic data. The comparison of 2 networks, and, step by step, of all the connectable networks, can be done by the analysis of the coordinates of their common points. To this end, we can use 3 types of coordinates: - Geographical coordinates = simple method, but not very convenient for different ellipsoids. - Three-dimensional cartesian coordinates, the most rigorous method in the case where the so-called geoid correction has been made. - Coordinates in conformal projection. An analysis of the main formulas that can be used is studied by the author in this article.
Category: Geophysics

[185] viXra:1905.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 18:41:22

### A Note About Dufour-Fezzani Formula

In this note, we review the Dufour-Fezzani formula concerning the comparison of two geodetic networks. This formula is developed for ellipsoidal models.
Category: Geophysics

[184] viXra:1904.0560 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-28 06:46:06

### Collection of Exercises and Problems of Topography, Astronomy, Geodesy and Least Squares Theory

I have often received students in geomatic requests asking me to provide them with exercises or problems of geodesy, topography, astronomy or the application of the theory of least squares. The paper is a collection of exercises and problems that comes to fill the need of the students in this matter.
Category: Geophysics

[183] viXra:1904.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-22 12:09:56

### Short-Term Prognosis of Strong Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions According to Daily Indexis of Solar Activity

Authors: A.M.Eigenson, I.B.Bazylevych, M.S.Shevchenko

Recently one of the authors [1-6] has shown that when solar activity curve begins to go down, then in the vicinity of it's minimum earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. Analysis of data during the period 2010-2018 shows that the probability of false prognosis is no more 2 %. This feature could be used for forecasting these terrestrial events several days in advance. The "opposite" Forbush effect is proposed as possible reason for explanation of this phenomena. In our days, we see from Fig. 1 that the dangerous area lies between April 22 and May 2, 2019. (Addition: earthquakes 6+ are noted as circle’s, earthquakes 7+ as ellipsis and volcanic eruptions as crosses).
Category: Geophysics

[182] viXra:1904.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 07:37:55

### Numerical Solution of Master Equation Corresponding to Schumann Waves

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache
Comments: 7 Pages. This paper has not been submitted to a journal. Comments are welcome

Following a hypothesis by Marciak-Kozlowska, 2011, we consider one dimensional Schumann wave transfer phenomena. Numerical solution of that equation was obtained by the help of Mathematica.
Category: Geophysics

[181] viXra:1904.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 11:59:07

### Attractions of the Sun and the Moon on The Earth

This note gives the elements on the attraction of the sun and the moon. It was inspired by the reading of the book by Helmut Moritz and Ivan I. Muller entitled Earth Rotation: Theory and Observation which can be a tidal introductory course. \\ It includes the following chapters: - The lunar-solar tidal potential. - Zonal, sectoral and tesseral terms
Category: Geophysics

[180] viXra:1904.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 17:22:19

### Report of Spatial Geodesy on the Rapid Implementation of a Unified Geodetic System in Africa

Authors: Fezzani Chedly, Ben Hadj Salem Abdelmajid
Comments: 13 Pages. It is a numerical edition of the original paper dedicated to the memory of the first author who passed away on March 09, 2019. In French.

Having a unified reference system, established on a universally accepted and utilitarian basis, is an important contribution to the judicious use of geographic information to promote Africa's economic development at the national level, regional and continental. To do so, it is important today to make the best use of space technologies and to assimilate them, especially through Cartographic National Institutions. This paper: - is written for small African mapping institutions, - defines the organizational prerequisites for rapidly implementing the Unified Reference System at the continental level. - serves as a framework to guide the debate on the real questions to be asked in this area.
Category: Geophysics

[179] viXra:1903.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 14:06:17

### Nullspace and Mitigation in Seismic Imaging and Seismic Inversion

Authors: August Lau, Alfonso Gonzalez

Seismic inversion is the inverse problem in seismic data processing. Seismic inversion is normally used to recover the medium properties or reflectivity series given the input seismic traces. Nullspace is common in linearized inversion where many vectors could be mapped into the one vector. It is an indication that many models could fit the same data, regardless of the inversion method. Inversion could give odd geometric shapes that are not physical or geological. We will discuss mitigation of nullspace to yield results that are meaningful for interpretation of geologic layers for oil and gas exploration.
Category: Geophysics

[178] viXra:1903.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-17 09:56:44

### Proven Methods for Filtering SG Data

Authors: Herbert Weidner

Subject are different methods for noise-free data reduction of low-frequency geophysical data and identification of interference sources. The most important method is the selective compensation of strong spectral lines.
Category: Geophysics

[177] viXra:1903.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-07 09:44:20

### Non-Parametric Wavelet Functional Analysis for Horizontal and Vertical Displacements Derived from GPS Stations in Western Alaska During the Year 2012

Authors: Homayoon Zahmatkesh, Abbas Abedini
Comments: 19 Pages. Earth Science Research; Vol. 6, No. 2; 2017

In order to analyze the dynamic processes of the Earth interior and the effect of the propagation of the seismic waves to the surface, a comprehensive study of the Earth crust kinematics is necessary. Although the Global Positing System (GPS) is a powerful method to measure ground displacements and velocities both horizontally and vertically as well as to infer the tectonic stress regime generated by the subsurface processes (from local fault systems to huge tectonic plate movements and active volcanoes), the complexity of the deformation pattern generated during such movements is not always easy to be interpreted. Therefore, it is necessary to work on new methodologies and modifying the previous approaches in order to improve the current methods and better understand the crustal movements. In this paper, we focus on western Alaska area, where many complex faults and active volcanoes exist. In particular, we analyze the data acquired each 30 seconds by three GPS stations located in western Alaska (AC31, AB09 d AB11) from January 1, 2012 to December 31, 2012 in order to compute their displacements in horizontal and vertical components by vectorial summation of the average daily and annual velocities components. Furthermore, we design non-parametric DMeyer and Haar wavelets for horizontal and vertical velocities directions in order to identify significant and homogenous displacements during the year 2012. Finally, the non-parametric decomposition of total horizontal and vertical normalized velocities based on level 1 and level 2 coefficients have been applied to compute normal and cumulative probability histograms related to the accuracy and statistical evolution of each applied wavelet. The results present a very good agreement between the designed non-parametric wavelets and their decomposition functions for each of the three above mentioned GPS stations displacements and velocities during the year 2012.
Category: Geophysics

[176] viXra:1903.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 06:43:04

### A Peculiar Natural Resonance of the Earth at 46.265 µHz

Authors: Herbert Weidner

By carefully choosing the filter methods, the noise level of geophysical data could be reduced sufficiently to detect a hitherto unknown spectral line whose modulation is phase-locked to the duration of the year. The origin is enigmatic.
Category: Geophysics

[175] viXra:1903.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-02 07:06:21

### On the True Shape of the Earth

Authors: Royan Rosche

I show why the Earth does not have a geometric shape
Category: Geophysics

[174] viXra:1902.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-03 09:41:28

### Completing the Slichter Triplet

Authors: Herbert Weidner

Following the discovery of a spectral line with an unusually high quality factor, exactly two other lines with comparable characteristics were found in the frequency range 45 to 130 μHz. Maybe it is the desired Slichter triplett.
Category: Geophysics

[173] viXra:1901.0472 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-31 06:30:37

### Weak Signal Detection in Geophysical Data using Vector-FFT

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The gravimeter in CB measures at 50.65 μHz a hitherto unknown, amplitude-modulated and very weakly damped natural vibration of the earth, the cause of which is not recognizable. It could be a member of the famous "Slichter Triplet".
Category: Geophysics

[172] viXra:1901.0447 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-29 16:18:49

### Frequency Measurements in Noisy Records using Vector-FFT

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The search for weak spectral lines with SNR ≈ 1 in noisy gravitational data is difficult, since the analysis methods used so far do not exploit all available information. The vector FFT presented here reduces the noise level and narrows the FWHM of all spectral lines by taking advantage of the phase information of the FFT.
Category: Geophysics

[171] viXra:1901.0393 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-26 05:26:32

### Black Carbon Shuts Out Daylight in Soil

Authors: Magnus Carlsson, Olof Andrén

We tested the effects of charcoal addition on growth of Lepidium Sativum in soil.
Category: Geophysics

[170] viXra:1901.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-12 01:18:15

### Exploration Geophysics at Home: Search for Minerals.

Authors: Giuliano Bettini

Exploration geophysics is an applied branch of geophysics, which uses physical methods, such as seismic, gravitational, magnetic, electromagnetic etc, to measure the physical properties of the subsurface. It is most often used to detect or infer the presence and position of economically useful geological deposits, such as ore minerals. The paper shows the results of a mineral search at a feldspar mine with contact rocks wich are rich in peculiar minerals. Nickel and silver mineral were analyzed in this locality, some of them yet unidentified.
Category: Geophysics

[169] viXra:1812.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-30 03:08:43

### Två Markvetare

Authors: Magnus Carlsson

Two prominent soil scientists and their deeds are described.
Category: Geophysics

[168] viXra:1811.0446 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 16:23:02

### The Value of an Apple Core

Authors: Savior F. Eason

The nature of earth's core as a multi-particle fusor, comparing it to an apple, and how our planet's center could be an island of stability. Also goes a little into the proof of this, the elements that could be found in our planet's core, why it's so powerful and valuable, the possible economics of this, and how real millennium falcons could come from what we find in our planet's center, technology in quantum physics, and sunlight.
Category: Geophysics

[167] viXra:1811.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 11:41:20

### Эффекта Джанибекова, "кувырок" Земли и глобальные катастрофы. (Ru) /// Janibekov Effect," Somersault " of the Earth and Global Catastrophes.

Authors: A.V. Antipin

В статье рассматривается вопрос о возможности для Земли совершать «кувырки» в силу «эффекта Джанибекова». Показано, что Эффект Джанибекова ПОЛНОСТЬЮ объясняется классической механикой. Этот эффект является одним из допустимых режимов вращения свободного ассиметричного волчка вокруг средней по величине из трёх главных осей инерции. Представлены аргументы в пользу того, что такие кувырки не могли происходить в исторический период, т.е. в последние 500 – 1000 лет и, тем более, неоднократно. \\\ The article discusses the possibility for the Earth to make " somersaults "because of the" Janibekov effect". It is shown that the Janibekov Effect is fully explained by classical mechanics. This effect is one of the permissible modes of rotation of the free asymmetric gyroscope around the average of the three main axes of inertia Arguments are presented in favor of the fact that such somersaults could not occur in the historical period, i.e. in the last 500 – 1000 years and, especially, repeatedly.
Category: Geophysics

[166] viXra:1811.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-23 06:59:11

### The Effect of Geological Structures on Groundwater in Sedimentary Formation of Abuja. Nigeria.

Comments: 22 Pages. The work is on Groundwater development

Abuja sedimentary formation is located within the southern part of the federal capital territory which house Abaji and Kwali area councils. This area was investigated for ground water potential using the effect of the rock structures to determine the hydrology components of the studied area. Geophysical method and geological method of exploration involving the vertical electrical sounding was employed to prospect for groundwater in the Abuja sedimentary Formations. Vertical electrical sounding using the Schlumberger electrode array configuration were deployed along traverses within the area. The soundings were conducted at seven locations .The qualitative analysis of the resistivity data identified relatively high conductive regions indicating possible aquifer zones. The quantitative interpretation of the modelled sounding curves delineated between five and seven subsurface layers at different location within the Formation. These layers were inferred to be the top soil, sandy-clay/clayey-sand, laterite and coarse sandstone. The modelled VES curves characterized the topsoil/weathered basement with resistivity range of 4 to 10Ωm with an estimated depth to basement ranging from 45 m to 120m. The results of the study confirm that the VES methods are very suitable for development of groundwater in these communities within Abuja sedimentary formation. Geophysical method combined with geological logging should hence, form an integral part of groundwater exploration programmes in solving problems associated with groundwater prospecting to locate potential aquifers for the supply of potable water to communities within this Formation.
Category: Geophysics

[165] viXra:1811.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-23 13:09:18

### Crustal Diameter vs. Total Diameter in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 4 Pages. handwritten notes included

A paper is written to show that during stellar evolution according to stellar metamorphosis, the crustal diameter and the total diameter change in ways not predicted by the nebular hypothesis or plate tectonics. Explanation is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[164] viXra:1811.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-13 01:51:35

### Fast Sublithospheric Currents an Overlooked Cause of Biospheric Extinctions?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

In vortical world, direct exposure to “torsion” radiation from turbulent melted rocks should be dangerous
Category: Geophysics

[163] viXra:1810.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-28 09:57:21

### Phase Inversion of the 3S2 Oscillation of the Earth

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The analysis of the gravitational data from 2004 and 2011 consistently shows regular phase reversal at intervals of around 50 hours. The four-leaf directional pattern rotates in 200 hours westwards around the N-S axis of the earth. The supposed "anomalous splitting" of 3S2 is a measurement error, caused by wrongly chosen parameters of the Fourier transformation.
Category: Geophysics

[162] viXra:1810.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 08:24:57

### Co2 Flush Rates After Soil Crumbling as Related to Soil Carbon Pools and Soil Fragmentation Characteristics

Authors: Magnus Carlsson, Olof Andrén, Vera Kainiemi, Thomas Kätterer

Sensible use of tillage requires knowledge about different aspects of soil crumbling. Decisions of best management practices must be based on complex considerations regarding e.g. effective tractor use, long-term soil health, etc. Research on soil carbon fluxes in tilled soils is an area of investigation which has received much attention recently, but ideally it should be approached in a combined bio-physical manner. We conducted studies on respiration from freshly fragmented clay soil in different aggregate size fractions with help of a multi-channel respirometer. The fragmented soil was characterized in terms of different soil carbon pools. The physical fragmentation itself was characterized in a manner that should be relevant to the three existing ways of relating use of a specific tool configuration to physical outcome of the operation, namely soil mechanical tillage experiments in situ, tests in soil bins and computational soil mechanics. Linear regressions showed that higher specific aggregate surface area, more free organic C per dry soil and more occluded C per dry soil led to higher soil respiration rates.
Category: Geophysics

[161] viXra:1810.0404 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-24 22:26:33

### Ball Lightning as a Hot, Highly Charged, Sphere of Air.

Authors: Chris Allen Broka
Comments: 13 Pages. The Supplementary material may be accessed by emailing the author.

An exceptionally simple model of ball lightning is proposed that describes it as a highly charged sphere of hot, conductive, air surrounded by colder air. This conductive sphere possesses a net excess of charge. This charge will create a corona discharge that will heat the surrounding air thus maintaining the temperature of the ball itself. Numerical simulations are presented which give results that would appear to agree with what many witnesses have reported. It is argued that such spheres are likely positively charged.
Category: Geophysics

[160] viXra:1808.0152 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-13 02:11:41

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

Treasure-house of unexplained and uncomfortable facts in fascinating books of famous Siberian astrogeophysicist allows me to comment on wide range of cosmogeophysical problems, opposing mainstream „explanations”. More data in favour of liquid Earth’s mantle concept. Possibility to ease climatic and seismic stresses by manipulation of „smart energies” from Earth’s surface get some observational support and theoretic background.
Category: Geophysics

[159] viXra:1807.0480 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-28 14:58:34

### An Open Correction to James Hutton's Famous Quote Concerning Uniformitarianism as First Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

A quote is taken from the father of modern Geology and given correction, so that deeper fundamentals can have the flood gates opened concerning deep time. In effect, it is one of the ideals, deep time, that is supported while another conflicting belief is removed. Explanation is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[158] viXra:1807.0235 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-12 10:19:42

### Comprehensive Presentation and Analysis of All Flat Earth Evidence and Proof

Authors: Grothos Malachias

In this study I will attempt to provide all evidence and proofs related to our true realm the magnificent Flat Earth.
Category: Geophysics

[157] viXra:1806.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-22 15:30:55

### Quake Tomato: Strange Electrical Signals from a Tomato Plant in Taiwan Five Days Before the 2008 Sichuan M8.0 Earthquake

Authors: Dyson Lin

I observed strange electrical signals from a tomato plant in Taiwan five days before the 2008 Sichuan M8.0 Earthquake. That opened my door to quake forecast. Since then, I observed electrical signals of plants, tofu, soil, water or air to predict earthquakes. I successfully predicted a lot of quakes. Now I have about 30 quake forecast stations all over the world. I will publish a series of papers to describe my discoveries in the past 10 years. This paper is the start of the series. I am Founder and CEO of Taiwan Quake Forecast Institute.
Category: Geophysics

[156] viXra:1805.0420 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-24 05:38:24

### Global “geomagnetic” Field Without Iron

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

Global "geomagnetic" field could be effect of bosonic field from fast Earth’s mantle turbulence
Category: Geophysics

[155] viXra:1805.0336 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 14:50:02

### Geysers on Enceladus and Europa Prompt Water Rich Earth’s Interior Idea

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

Waterless Earth's interior concept is connected with one of large piece of iron in Earth's centre. Since latter concept is disproved, water rich Earth sounds logical.
Category: Geophysics

[154] viXra:1805.0169 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-08 10:02:15

### The Earth-Moon Collisions, Presenting Three Collisions in Detail

Authors: R. Winnubst

To verify the likelihood of a new solar system formation hypothesis, research was conducted into a possible low speed, shallow angled Earth-Moon collision at 4.1 billion years ago. Via a tailored set of indicators, not just one but three collisions were identified beyond a reasonable doubt. All are presented in great photographic and topographic detail in this paper. On the Moon, the three impact areas are: Aitkin basin (4.1Ga), a double string of major maria (3.9Ga) and wider Oceanus Procellarum (450Ma?). On Earth, the respective corresponding impact areas are identifed as: The Arctic, the Canadian shield and equatorial Gondwana (centred at current Antarctica). As a result, many issues in geology can now be explained, from the ‘faint young Sun paradox’ to Hadean geology and continental drift.
Category: Geophysics

[153] viXra:1804.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 02:12:24

### Water Content of Earth Underestimated

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

Next step for reform of geophysics after conclusion, that Earth’s density is overestimated, should be- reestimation of terrestrial internal water content. This could prompt new look to earthquakes phenomena, Expanding Earth theory and other geophysical oddities.
Category: Geophysics

[152] viXra:1804.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-20 14:07:50

### Probability Density Functions as Mathematical Tools to Probe Computational Aspects of Petroleum Sciences in the Context of Computational Fluid Dynamics & Petroleum Microbiology – A Novel Suggestion Using Higher Order Logic(HOL)/Scala/Scalalab/JikesRVM.

Authors: Nirmal Tej kumar

As stated in our TITLE we intend to focus on PDF based computational aspects of Petroleum Sciences and Engineering using HOL-Scala-Scalalab-JikesRVM.To the best of our knowledge we believe this is one of the pioneering short communications in this domain.
Category: Geophysics

[151] viXra:1804.0273 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-19 15:50:36

### Stormy 2018 from Perspective of Vortical Astrogeophysics

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

One level of acting forces of astrogeophysics are deciphered here in examples of July/August and September/October ephemerides.
Category: Geophysics

[150] viXra:1804.0175 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 13:45:09

### Expansion Tectonics – Is It All Wet?

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci

Expansion Tectonics postulates that the Earth has grown from a much smaller orb over its history, the size once being as low as 1/4 of today's radius at the extreme (more common estimates are around 60% of today's radius). Scientists have also long speculated as to the source of Earth's water, estimated today to be anywhere from 1.5 to 11 times the current volume of the oceans, with a rough agreement around three times today's ocean volume (implying 2/3 today is "within" the Earth). This paper examines some of the implications of Expansion Tectonics in conjunction with a total water volume three times today's ocean volume, with neither an increase in Earth's mass or water volume over time. Speculation at two extremes range from an early "saturated sponge" Earth, where all this water was retained within the Earth, with essentially none at the surface (the more common postulate of Expansion Tectonics) to a complete "waterworld," where all of the water was atop the surface, i.e., none within.
Category: Geophysics

[149] viXra:1804.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-13 01:16:01

### Earth’s Mass Overestimated

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

As method of calculation of Earth’s mass by analysis of movement of the Moon is disproved, mainstream hardly has other method to calculate Earth’s mass. Raw estimate of Earth’s density is possible, using data from vortical celestial mechanics.
Category: Geophysics

[148] viXra:1803.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 22:28:37

### The Geocentric Testimony of the Tides

Authors: Robert Bennett

Static gravity alone accounts for the observation of the double tides on opposite sides of the earth and the different range of the lunar and solar tides. When the centrifugal acceleration of the Earth’s orbital speed is added to the gravitational accelerations, the HelioC theory is exposed as fictitious. There is no evidence of a centrifugal acceleration ...or force... in the tidal behavior. This agrees with other GC tests, like Newton’s Bucket, Sagnac’s rotor and R. Wang’s linear Sagnac version. Conversely, there are no proofs by scientific method testing or realistic interpretation that the Earth orbits the Sun. The rise and fall of the tides around the world is a semi-diurnal repetitive demonstration of the Earth’s central position in the universe.
Category: Geophysics

[147] viXra:1802.0371 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-26 04:38:09

### Global Atmospheric Circulation in the Light of Liquid Turbulent Earth’s Interior Idea

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

Initial thoughts about possibility of Earth’s liquid turbulent interior and its influence to climate affairs are presented
Category: Geophysics

[146] viXra:1802.0170 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-14 06:25:55

### Earth Interior Theory Could be Wrong Completely

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

Alternative explanation for differences of propagation of seismic waves in Earth interior is presented in short.
Category: Geophysics

[145] viXra:1802.0161 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-13 06:55:10

### Tunguska Explosion Revisited

Authors: M. Kovalyov

A few aspects of the Tunguska explosion unnoticed until now are reviewed
Category: Geophysics

[144] viXra:1712.0574 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-24 00:22:32

### Wave and Tide Essay

Authors: Cres Huang

Wave is a fundamental action of the universe. Water waves when it is disturbed by internal or external force. And, there be higher water level when waves meet the shore. This study examines the driving forces of waving gas, liquid, and solid anew when gravity is not force of attraction.
Category: Geophysics

[143] viXra:1712.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-19 22:25:09

### Driving Force of Tectonic Plate

Authors: Cres Huang

Gravity is the inward force of keeping it's spherical shape. Force of tectonic motion has to fight against gravity to push the crust from the ocean floor to the top of mountain ranges. The only force that is persistently counteracting and can be stronger then gravity is the centrifugal force. It is likely the centrifugal acceleration made Earth oblate spheroid, and the main driving force of waving mantle along with crust, water and atmosphere.

This preliminary is only an open proposal for further study from the view of mantle/crust waves. Additionally, the added mass and energy of Solar particles and momentum could impact the crust. Like kneading Earth dough, the magnitude could be larger than we think by far. Further study is also recommended.

Category: Geophysics

[142] viXra:1709.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-19 12:14:34

### Cours de Géodésie Pour Les élèves Ingénieurs Option Géomatique

It a course notes of geodesy for the students of Geomatics Option of ESAT school.
Category: Geophysics

[141] viXra:1709.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-15 09:16:28

### Examination of MAXLOW’S Model for Expansion Tectonics – an Astronomical Perspective

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci

While not drawing any conclusion regarding the validity of the theory that Earth has undergone volumetric (and mass) expansion over the course of its geologic history, this paper examines one of the leading contenders' models for just such growth, that of James Maxlow ("Global Tectonic Data Modeling," Terella Press, Australia [2017]). Maxlow’s extensive analysis of (paleo-)geology, paleomagnetics, space geodetics, paleogeography, paleoclimatology, paleobiology, fossil fuels, past extinctions and metallogenics suggest that Earth’s radius has grown exponentially over the past 1.6 x 109 years by a factor of 3.75, with sufficient increase in mass to ensure that surface gravity has not decreased, and quite possibly has increased. A much more cursory examination of this assumption from the perspective of astronomical physics, particularly conservation of Earth’s orbital and rotational angular momentum, suggests a much more “modest” rate of increase, not necessarily exponential. And, while quite limited in comparison to Maxlow’s analysis, this simplified one still raises apparently valid discrepancies that should be addressed. Hopefully, further research and analysis, or validation of different assumptions, can bring these two competing arenas into closer agreement.
Category: Geophysics

[140] viXra:1709.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-13 18:25:56

### The Gravity Theory of Mass Extinction

Authors: John Stojanowski

The cause of mass extinctions is a subject that has been debated for well over a hundred years. Currently, the two prime suspects are bolide impact and volcanism, specifically flood basalt eruptions referred to as Large Igneous Provinces (LIPs). Bolide impact has only been associated with one of the Big Five mass extinctions at the end of the Cretaceous Period whereas four of the Big Five mass extinctions have unquestionably been associated with LIPs as is the case for other major extinctions. Based upon the above, volcanic association with mass extinction is hypothesized to have had its lethal effect via global warming, global cooling, anoxia and hypoxia. However, the problem with the volcanogenic extinction hypothesis is that the onset of eruptions in the mid-Phanerozoic eon slightly postdates the main phase of extinctions.09,14 This paper introduces a third theory to explain the mass extinctions, the Gravity Theory of Mass Extinction (GTME)01, which is able to explain the primary cause of the extinctions, which is not volcanogenic and not the result of bolide impact. It is also able to explain why LIPs are associated with most of the extinctions as well as geomagnetic reversals and massive changes in sea level. In addition, it offers a reason why a bolide impact occurred near the end of the Cretaceous Period.
Category: Geophysics

[139] viXra:1709.0024 [pdf] submitted on 2017-09-02 21:25:55

### Possible Source of The Earth’s Geomagnetic Field

Authors: Yuanjie Huang

The earth’s geomagnetic field provides a safe environment for the earth’s biology against solar wind. However, revealing source of geomagnetic field is very challenging and it has puzzled people for several hundred years. Here, based on the previously proposed Yuheng Zhang effect, I show a simple theory to account for generation of geomagnetic field. This theory only has two requisites, one is metallic core, the other is self-rotation of the earth. Based on this theory, several interesting points are concluded: 1) negative charges accumulate at a metallic thin layer (MTL) at core-mantle boundaries (CMB) and positive charges distribute within the earth’s core; 2) rotation of the separated charges would yield geomagnetic field and gives field strength for the Earth, Ganymede and Mercury, which are in agreement with measurement values; 3) misalignment of MTL rotation axis with the earth’s rotation axis causes geomagnetic declination and a quadrupole field; 4) for a planet, a solid metallic core will generate a geomagnetic field without magnetic declination and geomagnetic reversal, and geomagnetic declination suggests a liquid metallic core; 5) dynamic evolution processes of MTL dominate long-term geomagnetic variations and reversals, e.g., a slower MTL rotation causing a geomagnetic reversal and recovery of MTL rotation eliminating geomagnetic reversal; 6) at center of the earth’s inner core, the geomagnetic field would show a reversal at a critical radius, and geomagnetic fields point from the earth’s south pole to north pole; 7) the earth’s geomagnetic pole and some quadrupoles would exhibit the same angular velocity of westward drift; 8) even if geomagnetic dipole vanished, quadrupole fields would continue to sustain and protect biology from harmful ultraviolet radiation and the solar wind; 9) absence of internal magnetic field for the Venus, Moon and Mars implies non-existence of metallic core in these planets and moons. In all, this theory provide people a new sight to understand the source of the earth’s geomagnetic field.
Category: Geophysics

[138] viXra:1708.0151 [pdf] submitted on 2017-08-14 05:27:35

### On the Relationship of Lunar Events to Seismic Activity and Its Seasonality

Authors: Kovalyov, M.

A number of authors have proved the existence of a correlation between lunar phases and perigees on one hand and seismic activity on the other hand. A similar number have authors have disproved the existence of such a correlation. We show that such a correlation exists but only "seasonally".
Category: Geophysics

[137] viXra:1707.0346 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-26 09:35:57

### Plausibility of Earth Once Having a Thick Atmosphere – Examining the Rate of Impact Cratering

Authors: Raymond H.V. Gallucci

Theories abound as to how dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures could have grown to such immense sizes, inconsistent with the spectrum of sizes for today’s creatures and Earth’s living conditions. Some focus directly on changes in the governing physics of the universe, such as a different gravitational constant. Some postulate that, rather than this difference, the earlier Earth experienced lower gravity due to differences in its size and mass. The majority focus on biological and aerodynamical anomalies that may have prevailed to explain these gargantuan sizes. This paper focuses on the latter group, offering an independent means by which to test the hypothesis that a (much) thicker atmosphere provided the buoyancy needed by these creatures to exist on land. This means is astronomical, an examination of possible differences in the rate of impact cratering on Earth due to atmospheric differences. With the Earth’s atmosphere allegedly experiencing eras of much greater thickness than current, and alternating between these “thick” and “thin” atmospheric eras, it is postulated that, in addition to the biological and aerodynamical anomalies, a difference in the cratering rate from meteor impacts on Earth should be evident. Thicker atmosphere would “burn up” more meteors, reducing the cratering rate when compared to that during thinner atmospheric eras. This paper explores this, using the cratering rate from meteor impacts on the Moon as a “control” since it has no atmosphere to attenuate meteors but also is in Earth’s orbital vicinity and should have experienced a nearly equivalent rate of meteor influx per unit surface area.
Category: Geophysics

[136] viXra:1707.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-18 07:39:53

### Early Smoothness and Expansion/Contraction of the Earth

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

In Earth’s earlier history when it had an extremely thick atmosphere, on par with atmospheres thicker than Jupiter’s, the central core was very, very pressurized and essentially liquid. This means it was extremely comparatively smooth to Earth as it currently is with mountains and ocean trenches. A short explanation for how the transition to its varying surface from being at an initial smooth state is provided.
Category: Geophysics

[135] viXra:1707.0234 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 07:37:26

### The Rock Cycle Versus Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

All phases of matter exist in stars as they cool and evolve. This means the rock cycle has a closed loop between solid/liquid material and does not give the complete picture of stellar evolution (planet formation), nor does it explain the structures found on the Earth such as a giant iron nickel/core, which comprises a much larger portion of the Earth than just a thin lithosphere.
Category: Geophysics

[134] viXra:1706.0470 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-25 07:55:56

### Correlation Between Solar and Seismic Activity: Prognosis of Earthquakes and Volcanic Eruptions Based on Daily Solar Indexes

Authors: A. M. Eigenson

Large earthquakes and volcanic eruptions are compared with the epochs of minima of 11-year cycles of solar activity. We use the data from 405 earthquakes with magnitude 7 and more and 71 volcanic eruption during 260 years. Close correlation between years of these terrestrial events and years of minima of solar activity is shown. We also use also daily solar indexes SSp and compare them with terrestrial events, constituting the main novelty of this work. Here we use the data of earthquakes between December 856 and January 2016, as well as data of volcanic eruptions in the same period. We subsequently compare daily indexes SSp during 2016 and 4 months of 2017 with earthquakes and volcanic eruptions. An important results is demonstrated: as soon as solar activity curve begins to go down, on the same day or some days after the earthquakes and volcanic eruptions occur. Evidently, this circumstance could be used for prognosis of these terrestrial events for several days in advance. In all cases considered our prognosis is confirmed. This is the main result of this article.
Category: Geophysics

[133] viXra:1706.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 14:06:09

### Comment on "Estimating the Extent of Antarctic Summer Sea Ice During the Heroic Age of Antarctic Exploration" by Tom Edinburgh and Jonathan J. Day, the Cryosphere, 10, 2721–2730, 2016.

Authors: Krzysztof Sienicki

No Abstrect
Category: Geophysics

[132] viXra:1706.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-08 12:42:51

### Close Correlation Between Solar and Seismic Activities

Authors: A. M. Eigenson

Large earthquakes in the last 260 years are compared with the epochs of minima of 11-year cycles of Solar activity. We use the data from 352 earthquakes of magnitude 7 and larger. Close correlation between earthquakes and the minima of solar cycles is shown, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9998. Maximal number of earthquakes shows 11-year periodicity. The number of earthquakes increases with time and reaches its currently largest number in the last Solar cycles, corresponding to the decrease of Solar activity in cycle 23. Furthermore, we analyse the data of large volcanic eruptions in the last 400 years. Similarly to earthquakes, the volcanic eruptions show the correlation with the minima of Solar activity, with the correlation coefficient of 0.9994. The volcanic eruptions also tend to increase with time, corresponding to the decrease of Solar activity. The found correlation between solar and seismic activities opens the possibility of prognosis because the Solar activity may be predicted for many years forward.
Category: Geophysics

[131] viXra:1705.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-24 05:41:58

### Threat of Emergence of Accidents of Nuclear and Other Power Plants Because of Deep Underground Explosions

Authors: Korniienko V

In article it is shown that property of generators of power plants to develop S-radiations, cause formation of underground tunnels on which under power units hydrocarbons migrate and there is a synthesis of explosives from them. Their deep explosions cause severe accidents of power units about which reasons experts have no consensus. The provided schemes confirm this hypothesis, and growth of volumes of migration of hydrocarbons on tunnels which happens in recent years, increases probability of explosions under power units, increases probability of severe accidents, up to education on the place of reactors of huge holes in the earth. Measures which are capable to prevent such explosions are proposed.
Category: Geophysics

[130] viXra:1705.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 13:04:04

### The Prognostics Equation for Biogeochemical Tracers Has no Unique Solution.

Authors: Han Geurdes

In this paper a tracer prognostic differential equation related to the marine chemistry HAMOC model is studied. Recently, the present author found that the Navier Stokes equation has no exact solution. The following question can therefore be justified. Do numerical solutions from prognostic equations provide unique information about the distribution of nutrients in the ocean.
Category: Geophysics

[129] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 03:55:34

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 18 Pages. Please see the following version for a detailed description of this work.

A significant progress in the geophysics field in the last century is the confirmation of plate motion. But the force behind this motion remains unknown so far, regardless of the continuous efforts by scientific community. Here we propose, the daily tide loading yields a liquid pressure onto continental slope via ocean water, this pressure further contributes a horizontal force to push continent’s side and thus move continent and the plate it sites on. The resultant horizontal force based on ideal parameters determines a motion of 39.72, 48.98, and 53.26 mm/year respectively for African, Indian, and Australian plate, and a rotation of 6.84*10-9 rad/year for American plate.
Category: Geophysics

[128] viXra:1705.0182 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-11 05:51:50

### Earthquake Theory

Authors: Wan-Chung Hu

Earthquake is thought to be due to plate tectonic movement. However, this theory has several fetal defects which fail to lead successful earthquake prediction. First, sudden outset of earthquake in a certain point cannot be due to chronic continental drift in large scale. Second, continental drift is only proved between South America and Africa which cannot explain all the mechanisms of earthquakes. Third, plate movement theory cannot explain huge intraplate earthquakes. Fourth, the old crusts sunk into toughs after the generation of new crusts in mid-ocean ridge. Thus, it cannot be the driving crusting force for earthquakes. Fifth, we experience a first longitudinal P wave followed by a transverse S wave during earthquakes. If plate movement causes earthquakes, we should experience a transverse S wave first and majorly. Here, I propose that earthquakes are actually the abrupt release of electromagnetic radiation from the faults. There is high temperature which can generate radiation from inside earth, especially accumulation for several decades. This new theory can explain why earthquakes likely happen in hotspots such as Hawaii or in peri-pacific bands because of crust fissures and toughs. This new theory can explain possible huge intra-plate earthquakes. It can also explain the sunquakes or moonquakes which cannot be explained by plate movement theory. It will also explain why super-moon trends to induce earthquakes. The mechanism of earthquake is the gravity acceleration produced by outward light because light is electromagnetic wave as well as gravity wave. This mechanism can also explain earthquake light and ionosphere anomaly as well as EM field anomaly during earthquakes. This new theory will lead a successful earthquake prediction.
Category: Geophysics

[127] viXra:1704.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 08:30:11

### Decrease in Disaster Risks from Earthquakes and Explosions of Volcanoes by Extraction of the Hydrocarbons Coming to Them

Authors: V.Korniienko

The analysis of space pictures in a range of S-radiations has allowed us to find global network of breaks tunnels of crust on which from global Polar fields huge volumes of hydrocarbons (HC) migrate to the equator. On the way these tunnels cross all known fields of HC, and also zone of earthquakes, active volcanoes and huge holes in the earth. In these parts porous and jointed rocks in which there is a leak from HC tunnels that creates conditions for synthesis from them explosive substances which explosions cause these cataclysms prevail. We also have developed a method of search of places for drilling in tunnels of search wells that allows to get them unlimited volumes of HC that will cause decrease in number of earthquakes and explosions of volcanoes. It is offered to force production of UV from a tunnel which energy will save the population from the volcanic winter caused by explosion of the Yellowstone volcano.
Category: Geophysics

[126] viXra:1704.0148 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-11 13:40:31

### Way of Ten Times Increase Efficiency of Geological Branch and Row Stok Safety of Mankind

Authors: Feliks Royzenman

Because of exhaustion of stocks of deposits on the Earth's surface, new deposits can be discovered mainly in depth. But confidence of deep earth prognosis of industrial deposits in the modern geology is for most of the minerals just 5-10% (90-95% error!). It threatens the world economy and development of the mankind. To solve this crucial issue, the author developed and successfully used for 40 year a new system of high-precision deep earth prognosis of deposits [3]. This system of prognosis makes the mining and geological industry more than 10-fold efficient, provides mineral and raw-stock supply security and creates the basis for efficient development of civilization. Key words: deposits, deep earth prognosis, high confidence of prognosis, discovery of deposits.
Category: Geophysics

[125] viXra:1703.0190 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-19 23:22:53

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: shows a viewpoint with regards to Van Allen Radiation Belts.
Category: Geophysics

[124] viXra:1703.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-04 08:30:15

### Point de Laplace & Exemple de Calcul Géodésique et Analyse Des Résultats en Géodésie Tridimensionnelle

It is my thesis to obtain the diploma of Engineer from the French National School of Geographic Sciences(ENSG, IGN France), presented in October 1981. The first part of the thesis is concerned with the determination of the equation of the observation of Laplace point in the option of 3D geodesy. The second part is about a study of a 3D model of deformation of geodetic networks that was presented by the Senior Geodesist H.M. Dufour in two dimensions.
Category: Geophysics

[123] viXra:1701.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-25 05:25:09

### Why Don't Clouds Fall?

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

Based on gravitomagnetism theory, a mathematical model of cloud is suggested. It allows answering the question put in the header.
Category: Geophysics

[122] viXra:1701.0570 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-22 11:57:26

### Why do Clouds not Fall Down? \\ Почему облака не падают?

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

Based gravitoelectromagnetism theory, described by the mathematical model of the cloud , that allows you to answer the question posed in the title. \\ На основе теории гравитомагнетизма предлагается математическая модель облака, которая позволяет ответить на вопрос, поставленный в заглавии.
Category: Geophysics

[121] viXra:1701.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-07 04:07:08

### The Geometry of Non-Linear Adjustment of the Trisection Problem in the the Option of the 3-Dimensional Geodesy

In an article, E. Grafarend and B. Schaffrin studied the geometry of non-linear adjustment of the planar trisection problem using the Gauss Markov model and the method of the least squares. This paper develops the same method working on an example of the determination of a point by trilateration in the three-dimensional geodetic option for determining the coordinates (x, y, z) of an unknown point from measurements known distances to n points.
Category: Geophysics

[120] viXra:1701.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 08:12:02

### Geometric Theory of Inversion and Seismic Imaging II: Inversion + Datuming + Static + Enhancement

Authors: August Lau, Chuan Yin

The goal of seismic processing is to convert input data collected in the field into a meaningful image based on signal processing and wave equation processing and other algorithms. It is normally a global approach like tomography or FWI (full waveform inversion). Seismic imaging or inversion methods fail partly due to the thin-lens effect or rough surfaces. These interfaces are non-invertible. To mitigate the problem, we propose a more stable method for seismic imaging in 4 steps as layer stripping approach of INVERSION + DATUMING + STATIC + ENHANCEMENT.
Category: Geophysics

[119] viXra:1611.0278 [pdf] submitted on 2016-11-19 07:35:03

### Coherent Detection of Signals below Noise Level

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The search for a phase coherent signal near 50.93 µHz in the data set of the super­conducting gravimeter H1 indicates a weakly damped signal 14 dB below noise. It might belong to the long-sought Slichter triplet.
Category: Geophysics

[118] viXra:1610.0322 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-27 05:15:30

### Time to Dismantle the Megaliths?

Authors: Edgars Alksnis

Part of ~ 11 500 year old megaliths can be built with purpose- to influence astrogeophysics.
Category: Geophysics

[117] viXra:1610.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-14 05:26:47

### Pore-Scale Modeling of Non-Newtonian Flow in Porous Media

Authors: Taha Sochi

The thesis investigates the flow of non-Newtonian fluids in porous media using pore-scale network modeling. Non-Newtonian fluids show very complex time and strain dependent behavior and may have initial yield stress. Their common feature is that they do not obey the simple Newtonian relation of proportionality between stress and rate of deformation. They are generally classified into three main categories: time-independent, time-dependent and viscoelastic. Two three-dimensional networks representing a sand pack and Berea sandstone were used. An iterative numerical technique is used to solve the pressure field and obtain the flow rate and apparent viscosity. The time-independent category is investigated using two fluid models: Ellis and Herschel-Bulkley. The analysis confirmed the reliability of the non-Newtonian network model used in this study. Good results are obtained, especially for the Ellis model, when comparing the network model results to experimental data sets found in the literature. The yield-stress phenomenon is also investigated and several numerical algorithms were developed and implemented to predict threshold yield pressure of the network. An extensive literature survey and investigation were carried out to understand the phenomenon of viscoelasticity with special attention to the flow in porous media. The extensional flow and viscosity and converging-diverging geometry were thoroughly examined as the basis of the peculiar viscoelastic behavior in porous media. The modified Bautista-Manero model was identified as a promising candidate for modeling the flow of viscoelastic materials which also show thixotropic attributes. An algorithm that employs this model was implemented in the non-Newtonian code and the initial results were analyzed. The time-dependent category was examined and several problems in modeling and simulating the flow of these fluids were identified.
Category: Geophysics

[116] viXra:1610.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-10-07 12:47:28

### The Aqueous Geochemistry Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 3 Pages. 1 screenshot, 1 illustrative graph

A central tenant to stellar metamorphosis theory is the fact that the stages of the evolution of a star include aqueous material, and this aqueous material facilitates the chemical reactions that occur as the star evolves, cools and dies becoming the remnant or “planet/exoplanet” used in popular circles. This paper outlines a simple fact of geochemistry.
Category: Geophysics

[115] viXra:1608.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-25 13:37:23

### Earthquakes

Authors: Domenico Oricchio

A possible correlation between earthquake, electric fields and ionosphere
Category: Geophysics

[114] viXra:1608.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2016-08-17 03:36:07

### Candidates for the Slichter Triplet II

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The systematic search for coincident signals with a software-defined receiver in the data sets of fifteen superconducting gravimeters yields six striking signals in the frequency range 35 µHz to 100 µHz that can not be assigned to a known geophysical causes. Some might belong to the long-sought Slichter triplet.
Category: Geophysics

[113] viXra:1607.0436 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 12:10:47

### Gravitational Collapse Versus Plate Tectonics to Explain Earthquakes

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

It is presented sound reasoning that earthquakes are caused by buildup and release of huge amounts of pressure in rocks due to gravitational collapse of the Earth, and not moving plates.
Category: Geophysics

[112] viXra:1607.0429 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-23 03:36:35

### Gravity Waves and Mercury Revise Geodynamo

Authors: Rodney Bartlett

Most people have a rough idea of the cause of Earth's magnetic field, don't they? It's the geodynamo, also called the magnetic dynamo theory. The heat from the solid inner core puts the liquid outer core in motion, and the movements of the outer core's electrically conducting fluids (such as molten iron) generate the planet's magnetic field. Electrically conducting fluids occur in the Sun, other stars and most planets – and are the scientifically accepted mechanism for magnetic fields. However, the planet Mercury suggests this process is wrong. Is it possible to propose a plausible alternative? The proposal here has both Earthly and Space components - it is still linked to the nature of, and motions in, the core plus it refers to the phenomenon of zero electrical resistance known as superconductivity as well as the recent discovery of gravitational waves. It also refers to the Moon's attraction on Earth's oceans, binary stars, the Sun's coronal heating and mass ejections, sunspots and mini ice ages, and black holes. A proposal that has support from only one or two sources may indeed prove to be correct. But surely support from several additional sources must greatly improve that proposal's chances of success. It's the goal of this article to be comprehensive in presenting its approach to the geodynamo. It's important to properly understand our planet's magnetic field because it protects us from the charged particles of the solar wind and cosmic rays. Without this protection from the magnetosphere, Earth would be stripped of its ozone layer that keeps excess ultraviolet radiation from harming life. And no magnetic field also means no atmospheric light displays called auroras, as well as no direction-finding compasses.
Category: Geophysics

[111] viXra:1607.0115 [pdf] submitted on 2016-07-10 10:24:49

### Candidates for the Slichter Triplet

Authors: Herbert Weidner

During the last 55 years, there have been many attempts to measure the three frequencies of the 1S1 self-resonance, the vibration of the Earth's core. One reason for this failure could be the insufficient reduction of the background noise, caused by the earthquakes. This is just another attempt to solve the ancient mystery. This time, perhaps with more success ;-)
Category: Geophysics

[110] viXra:1606.0132 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 13:58:44

### SG Gravimeters Measure Toroidal Modes of the Earth

Authors: Herbert Weidner

In contrast to previous assumptions, gravimeters can measure not only radial movements of the earth's surface, but also horizontal movements. This is first shown on the mode 0T4.
Category: Geophysics

[109] viXra:1606.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2016-06-13 14:56:20

### Tidal Asymmetry

Authors: Raymond HV Gallucci
Comments: 16 Pages. Also published in the Proceedings of the John Chappell Natural Philosophy Society, Second Annual Conference, July 2016, University of Maryland

The Earth’s diametrically opposed, presumably symmetric, tides are due to the Moon’s differential gravitational force varying across the Earth. This is not intuitively obvious, but becomes clear when the physics is examined mathematically. The presumed symmetry is due to an approximation that holds when the radius of the affected body (e.g., The Earth) is much less than its center-to-center distance from the affecting body (e.g., the Moon). The exact solution indicates an asymmetry, which becomes more pronounced as the assumption loses its applicability.
Category: Geophysics

[108] viXra:1605.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-11 10:24:11

### More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated.
Category: Geophysics

[107] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-01 06:59:36

### More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[106] viXra:1604.0338 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-24 18:48:11

### Analyzing the 13S1, 13S2 and 13S3 Normal Modes

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The use of specialized filtering techniques allows the identification of three eigen­resonances of the earth near 4800 µHz, which are sensitive to the inner core. Careful programming prevents the formation of interfering intermodulation products and lowers the noise level. The accurately measured frequencies differ by about 1.1% from the PREM predictions.
Category: Geophysics

[105] viXra:1604.0236 [pdf] submitted on 2016-04-15 03:58:17

### Time Dependent Analysis of the 2S3 Normal Mode

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 2S3 near 1244 µHz allows a precise determination of phase and frequency and reveals a phase modulation with a strong geographical dependence. All measurements are performed by a phase-locked loop.
Category: Geophysics

[104] viXra:1603.0324 [pdf] submitted on 2016-03-22 12:24:54

### Time Dependent Analysis of the 3S2 Normal Mode

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 3S2 near 1102.8 µHz allows a precise determination of the frequency and reveals a surprising phase modulation. This phase flip was first observed with the 10S2 normal mode and, by careless use of FFT, it may be misinterpreted as a frequency splitting. The correct demodulation requires the very robust method of homodyn conversion.
Category: Geophysics

[103] viXra:1602.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-28 08:41:27

### Time Dependent Analysis of the 10S2 Quintet

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The time dependent analysis of the normal mode 10S2 near 4040 µHz allows a precise determination of the frequencies of the five singlets and reveals a frequency modulation by 23 µHz, probably generated by the moon. The results of the data from 18 stations distributed worldwide deliver very good matching results and may help to figure out some properties of the isotropic layer at the top of the inner core.
Category: Geophysics

[102] viXra:1602.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-09 07:45:55

### Evolutionary Earth Vs. Uniformitarianism

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

An alternative worldview of Earth's history is presented to replace outdated uniformitarianism philosophy.
Category: Geophysics

[101] viXra:1602.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-08 13:12:24

### The Electromagnetic Signatures Produced by Earthquakes

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages. The effects created by the electromagnetic signatures produced by earthquakes need extensive additional study.

For centuries, there was no reliable way to know whether an earthquake was eminent, even though strange animal behavior and odd lights in the sky had been observed before earthquakes. It was noted that long range radio skip was interrupted before the 1960 Valdavia, Chile earthquake and the same interruption occurred before the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Scientists took notice, primarily outside of the seismology community, and began inquiring what mechanism could cause such an interruption. In the 1960s, it was already known that certain types of sunspot activity could cause the same type of radio skip alteration. It is now known there is a prodigious amount of electromagnetic activity proceeding and during an earthquake. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that certain types of rock act like semiconductors when subjected to stress and produce an electric current that fluctuates. It is not known how many other earthquake related issues remain outside of our knowledge, especially the odd coincidence of human health problems just before and coincident to an earthquake.
Category: Geophysics

[100] viXra:1602.0060 [pdf] submitted on 2016-02-05 07:11:51

### Random Dynamics of Dikes

Authors: Han Geurdes

Inthis paper, random dynamic systems theory is applied to time series ($\Delta t=5$ minutes) of measurement of water level, $W$, temperature, $T$, and barometric pressure, $P$, in sea dikes. The time series were obtained from DDSC and are part of DMC systems dike maintenance program of the Ommelanderzeedijk in northern Netherlands. The result of numerical analysis of dike $(W,T,P)$ time series is that after the onset of a more or less monotone increase in barometric pressure, an unexpected relatively sharp increase or decrease in water level can occur. The direction of change is related to random factors shortly before the onset of the increase. From numerical study of the time series, we found that $\Delta W_{max}\approx \pm 0.5$ mNAP\footnote{NAP indicates New Amsterdam water level which is a zero determining water level well known in the Netherlands.}. The randomness in the direction of change is most likely explained by the random outcome of two competitive processes shortly before the onset of a continuous barometric pressure increase. The two processes are pore pressure compaction and expulsion of water by air molecules. An important cause of growing barometric pressure increase can be found in pressure subsidence following a decrease in atmospheric temperature. In addition, there is a diurnal atmospheric tide caused by UV radiation fluctuations. This can give an additional $\Delta P_{tide}\approx\pm 0.1$ kPa barometric fluctuation\footnote{1Pa=1Pascal=$1Nm^{-2} \approx 10kg s^{-2}m^{-1}$.} in the mid latitudes ($30^{\circ}N-60^{\circ}N$).
Category: Geophysics

[99] viXra:1601.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-23 04:06:55

### Note sur les Représentations Planes UTM et Gauss-Krüger

In this paper,we present the definitions and the mathematical formulas of the two cartographic mappings UTM and Gauss-Krüger.
Category: Geophysics

[98] viXra:1601.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-17 15:58:32

### Terraforming in Stellar Metamorphosis

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

Terraforming happens naturally as an end-product of stellar evolution as is covered via the General Theory of Stellar Metamorphosis.
Category: Geophysics

[97] viXra:1601.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-01-08 09:17:53

### Interconnectedness and Geo-Compatibility: A Paradigm Shift in the Perception of Planet Earth

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

Nonlinear Science has witnessed exponential growth in recent years, due to the enhanced ability it offers in understanding intricate patterns of system evolution. The present work purports to the application of such nonlinear analysis tools to obtain an enhanced perspective of the home planet earth. Specifically, nonlinear analyses of latitudinal and longitudinal altitude profiles reveal the presence of underlying chaotic dynamics and patterns. Interpretations of these results lead to the concept of interconnectedness of every location on earth to every other location, through space and time, where man and his evolutions and developments are seen as an integral part of nature’s transformation. Taking cue from this, the concept of “Geo-Compatibility” is introduced, given by the covariance of their chaotic signatures. Following this, Geo-Compatibilities of assorted location pairs are computed. From the results, it is seen that geographical similarities across and within continents show low and high Geo-Compatibilities respectively. However, the most interesting results are the high values of Geo-Compatibility obtained for pairings between Holy Sites suggesting that the development of civilizations and cultures, which are a result of man-nature interactions over hundreds of years, too possess intricate patterns. The entire work is thus a testimony to the concept of interconnectedness.
Category: Geophysics

[96] viXra:1512.0488 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 10:31:30

### A Note on the Errors in the Reduction of Distances

The papers presents the errors during the reduction of ellipsoid distances with the use of the radius of the earth.
Category: Geophysics

[95] viXra:1512.0486 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 12:32:56

### Geodetic Calculations

Ii is a powerpoint presentation of the geodetic calculations presented to the seminar "Intensif Calculations Week",27 november -1st december 2006, held at the ENIT school, Tunis.
Category: Geophysics

[94] viXra:1512.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 10:06:10

### The Application of Spatial Positioning at the OTC (1982-2004)

The paper is a review of the use of the spatial positioning technology during the years 1982-2004 at the OTC the Tunisian Institute of Surveying and Mapping.
Category: Geophysics

[93] viXra:1512.0483 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 05:26:29

### The Polynomial Transformations

We present the polynomial transformations between geodetic systems. Then we study the case of Conformal Polynomial transformations of order 1,2 and 3.
Category: Geophysics

[92] viXra:1512.0482 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:00:26

### A Note On The Unification of The Tunisian Geodetic Terrestrial Systems

It is a note about the unification of the Tunisian geodetic terrestrial systems used in Tunisia.This note was presented to the International Conference on the Cadastre, 25-26 october 2002, Tunis, Tunisia.
Category: Geophysics

[91] viXra:1512.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:09:43

### The Otc Contribution to the North African Reference Project Nafref

It the OTC contribution to the NORTH AFRICAN REFERENCE PROJECT - NAFREF - presented at the Second North African Geodetic Workshop On the Unification of the Geodetic References, held in Algiers, 26 - 27 May 2001.
Category: Geophysics

[90] viXra:1512.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:31:31

### Note Sur la Possibilité de L'Intégration Des Points Ados Dans le Projet Afref

It is a paper presented at the Second North African Geodetic Workshop On the Unification of the Geodetic References, held in Algiers, 26 - 27 May 2001. The paper concerns the integration of the geodetic points determined in ADOS Project in NAFREF Project.
Category: Geophysics

[89] viXra:1512.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:37:27

### The Model of Bursa-Wolf

The paper explains how we obtain the formulas of the transformation of Bursa-Wolf between two geodetic systems.
Category: Geophysics

[88] viXra:1512.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-30 06:46:29

### The Geometry of the Non-Linear Adjustment- Example of the Problem of Spatial Intersection

The paper concerns the adjustment of the non-linear method by the least squares method with the example of the spatial intersection.
Category: Geophysics

[87] viXra:1512.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-25 14:41:03

### Lecture: Introduction to GPS

Comments: 63 Pages. 63 Slides in French.

It is an introduction to GPS.
Category: Geophysics

[86] viXra:1512.0421 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-25 08:17:18

### The Determination of the Heights of the Geoïd Using the Method of Astro-Geodetic Levelling

The determination of the heights of the geoïd by the method of astro-geodetic levelling is described.
Category: Geophysics

[85] viXra:1512.0409 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-24 06:51:05

### The Evolution of the Tunisian Geodesy: from Laplace Points to GPS Stations

This paper concerns the evolution of the Tunisian geodesy from the Laplace geodetic points to the installation of GPS permanant stations in the new Tunisian geodetic network. The paper was prepared for the 120th anniversary of the creation of the Tunisian Topographic Service.
Category: Geophysics

[84] viXra:1512.0390 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-21 12:04:30

### The Unification of the Tunisian GeodeticTerrestrial Systems

Comments: 15 Pages. In French with an abstract.

It is the paper proposed to be presented at the FIG Working Week 2012 "Knowing to manage the territory, protect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage" Rome, Italy, 6-10 May 2012. The paper descried the unification of the Tunisian terrestrial geodetic systems.
Category: Geophysics

[83] viXra:1512.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-18 12:05:26

### A Memoir of Mathematical Cartography

It is a memoir of mathematical cartography concerning the traduction of the paper '' A Conformal Mapping Projection With Minimum Scale Error” de W.I. Reilly, published in Survey Review, Volume XXII, n°168, april 1973.
Category: Geophysics

[82] viXra:1512.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-18 08:55:36

### A Course of Mathematical Cartography

This is a the numerical version of the manuscript of a course of mathematical cartography given by the General Geographe Engineer A. Commiot in the 1980's, at the ENSG, IGN France. The author has brought some developpment.
Category: Geophysics

[81] viXra:1512.0349 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-17 05:19:04

### Unification the Terrestrial Geodetic Systems by GPS

The paper presents a method to unify many terrestrial geodetic systems using GPS observations.
Category: Geophysics

[80] viXra:1512.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-11 10:16:16

### Selected Papers de L'Ingénieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem Tome II

Comments: 261 Pages. Key words: Geodesy, Mapping, Differential geometry of the ellipsoïde, Geostatistique. In French.

It is the second part of the selected papers of the Senior Geodesist Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem.
Category: Geophysics

[79] viXra:1512.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-10 14:39:13

### Note on Quasi-Conformal Mappings

We give the definition of a quasi-conformal mapping and we present one example.
Category: Geophysics

[78] viXra:1512.0269 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-09 02:48:59

### Selected Papers DE L'ingenieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem

Comments: 297 Pages. In French. Geodesy, Mapping, Theory of Errors, Differential Geometry of the Ellipsoïd, Geophysics.

This the first part of the Selected Papers of the Senior Engineer Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Category: Geophysics

[77] viXra:1512.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2015-12-03 19:17:29

### Homogeneous Nucleation of Iron/Nickel Vapor During Early Stellar Evolution and the Principle of Differentiation

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski
Comments: 1 Page. 1 diagram, 1 video reference

It is hypothesized that stars undergo homogeneous nucleation (crystal growth in similar patterns) of iron/nickel vapor during early stellar evolution. The evidence is provided in meteorites and inside of all ancient stars which possess these iron/nickel crystal cores.
Category: Geophysics

[76] viXra:1511.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-29 13:28:51

### The Stereographic Projection

The paper concerns the streographic projection or mapping. Its proprieties are described.
Category: Geophysics

[75] viXra:1511.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-28 13:07:15

### Détermination D'un Géoide de Haute Précision Par L'approche D'a. Ardalan I: Rappels de la Théorie de Pizzetti-Somigliana

This paper gives a rappel of the theory of Pizzetti-Somigliana for the determination of a geoid. It is the first part of an investigation to use the approch of A. Ardalan for the calcul of a regional géoid of high resolution to determine a tunisian geoid.
Category: Geophysics

[74] viXra:1511.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-26 04:31:56

### Combinaison of Doppler and Terrestrial Observations in the Adjustment of Geodetic Networks

Comments: 129 Pages. It is my graduate thesis(numerical version) submitted in October 1986 to obtain the Diploma of "Ingénieur Civil Géographe", ENSG, IGN France. In French.

The investigation concerns the combination of Doppler data and terrestrial classical observations for the adjustment of geodetic networks and the determination of the 7 parameters (translation, rotation and scale) between terrestrial geodetic and Doppler networks. Models of adjustment are presented. They are part of two groups : 1- a combined adjustment, 2- a commun adjustment. Bursa-Wolf’s model and Molodensky formulas are used to determine the parameters. Systematic errors in orientation and scale of geodetic terrestrial networks are studied.
Category: Geophysics

[73] viXra:1511.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-24 06:28:32

### The Second Structure of Constant Current

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

Here we explore the structure of DC and the flow of electromagnetic energy in a wire. We show that the flow of electromagnetic energy is spreading inside the wire along a spiral. For a constant current value the density of spiral trajectory decreases with decreasing remaining load resistivity.
Category: Geophysics

[72] viXra:1511.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-23 10:09:23

### Analyse de Structure D'un Réseau Géodésique de Base:aspect Tridimensionnel

Cette étude permettra d'analyser les fondements d'un réseau géodésique de base ou primordial et de comparer les déformations que subit le réseau en des points séparés par de longues distances.
Category: Geophysics

[71] viXra:1511.0219 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-23 01:51:30

### Cours de Cartographie Mathématique et Les Transformations de Passage Entre Les Systèmes Géodésiques

Comments: 86 Pages. in French, with an index.

A course of mathematical cartography and transformations between geodetic systems, given to the students of Geomatic department of the ESAT school, the first semester of 2015.
Category: Geophysics

[70] viXra:1511.0174 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-20 03:27:09

### Note Sur la Méthode Des Référentiels Inverses Régionaux en Géodésie

In this paper, a review of the regional inverse referential is presented with application on geodesy for the determination of the parameters of the passage from a geodetic system to another. An numerical exemple is also given.
Category: Geophysics

[69] viXra:1511.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-16 05:05:07

### Eléments de Géodésie et de la Théorie Des Moindres Carrés

It is a preliminary version of a book on " Geodesy and the Theory of Least Squares". The book contains two parts. The first part is about geomtric and spatial geodesy. The second part concerns the theory of errors of least squares, we give an idea of the theory when we use non-linear models.
Category: Geophysics

[68] viXra:1511.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-07 14:02:13

### Traduction of the paper "Equilibrium Figures In Geodesy And Geophysics" of Helmut Mortiz (1988)

Ce papier représente la traduction de la communication du Professeur Helmut Moritz (1988) intitulée " Equilibrium Figures In Geodesy And Geophysics". Il étudie le problème des figures d'équilibre hydrostatique terrestre. L'auteur passe en revue les publications à ce sujet.
Category: Geophysics

[67] viXra:1511.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-07 11:28:09

### Calcul Des Lignes Géodésiques de L'ellipsoide de Révolution

Après avoir défini les lignes géodésiques d'une surface, on établit les équations des géodésiques pour une surface donnée. Comme application, nous détaillons celles de l'ellipsoïde de révolution. On fera l'intégration de ces équations.
Category: Geophysics

[66] viXra:1511.0010 [pdf] submitted on 2015-11-01 23:55:28

### Nonlinear Analysis in Satellite Imagery of India

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

The development of Satellite Imagery and associated analysis has opened up avenues in applications as diverse as meteorology, navigation, warfare and biodiversity. Motivated by this trend, the present article explores the application of nonlinear analysis tools such as entropy and fractal dimension in satellite imagery of the 29 states of India. It is seen that sharp and rich variations in terrain from green to arid or snow-clad mountainous regions contribute to high entropy, while rich variations in borders and varying scales of vegetation patches correspond to high fractal dimensions. The results obtained thus illustrate the significance and relevance of nonlinear analysis tools such as entropy and fractal dimension in satellite imagery.
Category: Geophysics

[65] viXra:1510.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2015-10-27 21:24:09

### A SpatioTemporal Rogue Wave Generator

Authors: Sai Venkatesh Balasubramanian

Rogue Waves are highly unstable waves extremely localized in space and time, appearing from nowhere and disappearing without leaving a trace. The observation of such waves in oceanography has led to increased interest in the physics community where optical rogue waves generated using microstructured fibers are studied for their interactions and the underlying physical phenomena. In the present article, an extremely simple rogue wave generator is proposed, where a hyperbolic secant based temporal profile evolves according to a hyperbolic secant square spatial profile. The derivative of this spatial profile gives the spatial evolution equation, and this is implemented using FPGA. It is seen that a single rogue wave exponentially rising to its peak amplitude at mid time instant and then quickly decaying is formed. The extremely simple signal-oriented design of rogue wave generator, effectively capturing the spatial and temporal propagation properties of such rogue waves, coupled with the potential applications it enables using the generated electrical rogue waves forms the novelty of the present work.
Category: Geophysics

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[46] viXra:1905.0200 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-14 08:30:24

### Systèmes de Référence, Systèmes Projectifs

Authors: Henri Marcel Dufour, Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 27 Pages. In French. It is an-update version of a paper dated 1979 with comments of the second author.

Many geodetic works currently exist on the surface of the globe, which have developed through regional networks, usually each having a fundamental point, where the astronomical data (\phi= latitude,\lambda=longitude,Az=azimuth) of a reference are confused with the counterparts geodetic data. The comparison of 2 networks, and, step by step, of all the connectable networks, can be done by the analysis of the coordinates of their common points. To this end, we can use 3 types of coordinates: - Geographical coordinates = simple method, but not very convenient for different ellipsoids. - Three-dimensional cartesian coordinates, the most rigorous method in the case where the so-called geoid correction has been made. - Coordinates in conformal projection. An analysis of the main formulas that can be used is studied by the first author in this article.
Category: Geophysics

[45] viXra:1904.0221 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-12 08:42:52

### Report of Spatial Geodesy on the Rapid Implementation of a Unified Geodetic System in Africa

Authors: Fezzani Chedly, Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem
Comments: 13 Pages. It is a numerical edition of the original paper dedicated to the memory of the first author who passed away on March 09, 2019. In French.

Having a unified reference system, established on a universally accepted and utilitarian basis, is an important contribution to the judicious use of geographic information to promote Africa's economic development at the national level, regional and continental. To do so, it is important today to make the best use of space technologies and to assimilate them, especially through Cartographic National Institutions. This paper: - is written for small African mapping institutions, - defines the organizational prerequisites for rapidly implementing the Unified Reference System at the continental level. - serves as a framework to guide the debate on the real questions to be asked in this area.
Category: Geophysics

[44] viXra:1902.0224 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-05 17:43:25

### From Hilbert to Dilbert: a Non-Orthodox Approach to Gravitation, Psychosynthesis, Economics, Cosmology and Other Issues

Authors: Victor Christianto, Florentin Smarandache, Robert Neil Boyd, Yunita Umniyati, Daniel Chandra

This book took an unconventional theme because we submit an unorthodox theme too. Karl Popper’s epistemology suggests that when the theory is refuted by observation, then it is time to look for a set of new approaches. In the first chapter, it is shown that Hilbert’s axiomatic program has failed not only by experiment (Mie theory does not agree with experiment) but also in terms of logic (Gödel theorem). Therefore we set out a new approach, starting from an old theory of Isaac Newton. Dilbert cartoon series often offer surprising for old problems, especially in this era of corporatocracy. Now we would call such an out-of-the-box solution to the old Hilbert axiomatic program as Dilbert way (or Dilbertian, if you wish). Readers may ask : but what can physicists learn from Dilbert cartoons? While it seems not obvious at first glance, yes we believe there is a great character of Dilbert cartoon, i.e. to put it in one phrase: “out-of-the box and brutally honest.” We do think that such a brutal honesty is also needed in many fields of physics: from theoretical physics to applied physics, as will be discussed throughout this book.
Category: Geophysics

[43] viXra:1806.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-07 04:45:34

### Quake Tomato: Strange Electrical Signals from a Tomato Plant in Taiwan Five Days Before the 2008 Sichuan M8.0 Earthquake

Authors: Dyson Lin
Comments: 5 Pages. I fixed two English grammar errors. Now I think the paper is in its final form.

Five days before the 2008 Sichuan M8.0 Earthquake, I observed strange electrical signals from a tomato plant in Yilan, Taiwan. That opened my door to quake forecast. Since then, I observed electrical signals of plants, tofu, soil, water or air to predict earthquakes. I successfully predicted a lot of quakes. Now I have about 30 quake forecast stations all over the world. I will publish a series of papers for my discoveries in the past 10 years. This paper is the start of the series. I am Founder and CEO of Taiwan Quake Forecast Institute.
Category: Geophysics

[42] viXra:1806.0323 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-02 15:05:02

### Quake Tomato: Strange Electrical Signals from a Tomato Plant in Taiwan Five Days Before the 2008 Sichuan M8.0 Earthquake

Authors: Dyson Lin
Comments: 5 Pages. I added Chinese translation to my original English paper. Now the paper is in English and Chinese.

Five days before the 2008 Sichuan M8.0 Earthquake, I observed strange electrical signals from a tomato plant in Yilan, Taiwan. That opened my door to quake forecast. Since then, I observed electrical signals of plants, tofu, soil, water or air to predict earthquakes. I successfully predicted a lot of quakes. Now I have about 30 quake forecast stations all over the world. I will publish a series of papers for my discoveries in the past 10 years. This paper is the start of the series. I am Founder and CEO of Taiwan Quake Forecast Institute.
Category: Geophysics

[41] viXra:1805.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-08 06:47:05

### The Earth Moon Collisions: Presenting Three Collisions in Detail

Authors: R. Winnubst

To verify the likelihood of a new solar system formation hypothesis, research was conducted into a possible low speed, shallow angled collision between an ice-covered Earth and Moon, 4.1 billion years ago. Via a tailored set of indicators, not just one but three collisions were identified beyond a reasonable doubt. All are presented in great photographic and topographic detail in this paper. On the Moon, the three impact areas are: Aitkin basin, a double string of major maria and wider Oceanus Procellarum. On Earth, the respective corresponding impact areas are: The Arctic, the Canadian Shield and equatorial Gondwana (centred at current Antarctica). As a result, many issues in geology can now be explained, from the ‘faint young Sun paradox’ to Hadean geology and continental drift.
Category: Geophysics

[40] viXra:1805.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-22 15:29:46

### The Earth Moon Collisions: Presenting Three Collisions in Detail

Authors: R. Winnubst

To verify the likelihood of a new solar system formation hypothesis, research was conducted into a possible low speed, shallow angled collision between an ice-covered Earth and Moon, 4.1 billion years ago. Via a tailored set of indicators, not just one but three collisions were identified beyond a reasonable doubt. All are presented in great photographic and topographic detail in this paper. On the Moon, the three impact areas are: Aitkin basin, a double string of major maria and wider Oceanus Procellarum. On Earth, the respective corresponding impact areas are: The Arctic, the Canadian Shield and equatorial Gondwana (centred at current Antarctica). As a result, many issues in geology can now be explained, from the ‘faint young Sun paradox’ to Hadean geology and continental drift.
Category: Geophysics

[39] viXra:1805.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-23 10:05:19

### The Earth Moon Collisions: Presenting Three Collisions in Detail

Authors: R. Winnubst

To verify the likelihood of a new solar system formation hypothesis, research was conducted into a possible low speed, shallow angled collision between an ice-covered Earth and Moon, 4.1 billion years ago. Via a tailored set of indicators, not just one but three collisions were identified beyond a reasonable doubt. All are presented in great photographic and topographic detail in this paper. On the Moon, the three impact areas are: Aitkin basin, a double string of major maria and wider Oceanus Procellarum. On Earth, the respective corresponding impact areas are: The Arctic, the Canadian Shield and equatorial Gondwana (centred at current Antarctica). As a result, many issues in geology can now be explained, from the ‘faint young Sun paradox’ to Hadean geology and continental drift.
Category: Geophysics

[38] viXra:1805.0169 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-11 09:52:53

### The Earth Moon Collisions: Presenting Three Collisions in Detail

Authors: R. Winnubst

To verify the likelihood of a new solar system formation hypothesis, research was conducted into a possible low speed, shallow angled collision between an ice-covered Earth and Moon, 4.1 billion years ago. Via a tailored set of indicators, not just one but three collisions were identified beyond a reasonable doubt. All are presented in great photographic and topographic detail in this paper. On the Moon, the three impact areas are: Aitkin basin, a double string of major maria and wider Oceanus Procellarum. On Earth, the respective corresponding impact areas are: The Arctic, the Canadian Shield and equatorial Gondwana (centred at current Antarctica). As a result, many issues in geology can now be explained, from the ‘faint young Sun paradox’ to Hadean geology and continental drift.
Category: Geophysics

[37] viXra:1802.0161 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-23 01:10:09

### Tunguska Explosion Revisited

Authors: Mikhail Kovalyov

In this paper we discuss the previously unnoticed connection of the Tunguska explosion to natural events decades or even centuries long: 1) the third geomagnetic maximum appeared not too far from the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion in the 19th century and has been moving towards the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion along a straight line since 1908; 2) the magnetic North Pole is moving along the path leading to the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion, 3) all magnitude > or = 7.6 earthquakes sufficiently far from the ocean form an arrow pointing towards the epicenter of the Tunguska explosion; 4) the Tunguska explosion occurred at the end of the twisted portion in the path of the magnetic North Pole and at the time when magnitude > or =8.2 earthquakes and VEI > or = 5 volcanic eruptions recovered correlation with syzygies.
Category: Geophysics

[36] viXra:1708.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-01 08:36:31

### On the Correlation of Seismic Activity to Syzygies

Authors: Mikhail Kovalyov
Comments: 23 Pages. the articles replaces the previous versions which had an arithmetical mistake

The effect of lunar syzygies on powerful seismic events is studied.
Category: Geophysics

[35] viXra:1708.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2017-09-14 06:17:59

### On the Relationship of Seismic Activity to Lunar Motion.

Authors: Mikhail Kovalyov

We discuss the correlation of seismic activity on Earth with the closest/2nd closest perigees and New/Full Moon. We show that the time and nature of correlation depend on the type of earthquakes and on the time interval considered.
Category: Geophysics

[34] viXra:1707.0346 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-09 15:08:34

### Plausibility of Earth Once Having a Thick Atmosphere – Examining the Rate of Impact Cratering

Authors: Raymond H Gallucci
Comments: 20 Pages. Now includes presentation.

Theories abound as to how dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures could have grown to such immense sizes, inconsistent with the spectrum of sizes for today’s creatures and Earth’s living conditions. Some focus directly on changes in the governing physics of the universe, such as a different gravitational constant. Some postulate that, rather than this difference, the earlier Earth experienced lower gravity due to differences in its size and mass. The majority focus on biological and aerodynamical anomalies that may have prevailed to explain these gargantuan sizes. This paper focuses on the latter group, offering an independent means by which to test the hypothesis that a (much) thicker atmosphere provided the buoyancy needed by these creatures to exist on land. This means is astronomical, an examination of possible differences in the rate of impact cratering on Earth due to atmospheric differences. With the Earth’s atmosphere allegedly experiencing eras of much greater thickness than current, and alternating between these “thick” and “thin” atmospheric eras, it is postulated that, in addition to the biological and aerodynamical anomalies, a difference in the cratering rate from meteor impacts on Earth should be evident. Thicker atmosphere would “burn up” more meteors, reducing the cratering rate when compared to that during thinner atmospheric eras. This paper explores this, using the cratering rate from meteor impacts on the Moon as a “control” since it has no atmosphere to attenuate meteors but also is in Earth’s orbital vicinity and should have experienced a nearly equivalent rate of meteor influx per unit surface area.
Category: Geophysics

[33] viXra:1707.0346 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-12 13:13:08

### Plausibility of Earth Once Having a Thick Atmosphere – Examining the Rate of Impact Cratering

Authors: Raymond H.V. Gallucci

Theories abound as to how dinosaurs and other prehistoric creatures could have grown to such immense sizes, inconsistent with the spectrum of sizes for today’s creatures and Earth’s living conditions. Some focus directly on changes in the governing physics of the universe, such as a different gravitational constant. Some postulate that, rather than this difference, the earlier Earth experienced lower gravity due to differences in its size and mass. The majority focus on biological and aerodynamical anomalies that may have prevailed to explain these gargantuan sizes. This paper focuses on the latter group, offering an independent means by which to test the hypothesis that a (much) thicker atmosphere provided the buoyancy needed by these creatures to exist on land. This means is astronomical, an examination of possible differences in the rate of impact cratering on Earth due to atmospheric differences. With the Earth’s atmosphere allegedly experiencing eras of much greater thickness than current, and alternating between these “thick” and “thin” atmospheric eras, it is postulated that, in addition to the biological and aerodynamical anomalies, a difference in the cratering rate from meteor impacts on Earth should be evident. Thicker atmosphere would “burn up” more meteors, reducing the cratering rate when compared to that during thinner atmospheric eras. This paper explores this, using the cratering rate from meteor impacts on the Moon as a “control” since it has no atmosphere to attenuate meteors but also is in Earth’s orbital vicinity and should have experienced a nearly equivalent rate of meteor influx per unit surface area.
Category: Geophysics

[32] viXra:1707.0234 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-24 14:08:05

### The Rock Cycle Versus Stellar Metamorphosis: The Rock Cycle is Outdated

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

All phases of matter exist in stars as they cool and evolve. This means the rock cycle has a closed loop between solid/liquid material and does not give the complete picture of stellar evolution (planet formation), nor does it explain the structures found on the Earth such as a giant iron nickel/core, which comprises a much larger portion of the Earth than just a thin lithosphere.
Category: Geophysics

[31] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-29 05:33:42

### What Drives Plate Motions ?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang

Plate motion is an amazing feature on the Earth and is widely ascribed to several driving forces like ridge push, slab pull, and basal drag. However, an in-depth investigation shows these forces incomplete. Here we propose, the deep oceans are generating pressures everywhere, the application of these pressures over the walls of ocean basins, which consists of the sides of continents, may yield enormous horizontal forces (i.e., the ocean-generating forces), the net effect of these forces provides lateral push to the continents and may cause them to move horizontally, further, the moving continents drag the crusts that they connect to move, these totally give birth to plate motion. A roughly estimation shows that the ocean-generating forces may give South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents a movement of respectively 2.8, 4.2, 5.7, and 6.3 cm/yr, and give Pacific Plate a movement of 8.9 cm/yr.
Category: Geophysics

[30] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-18 04:38:37

### What Drives Plate Motions ?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang

Plate motion is an amazing feature on the Earth and is widely ascribed to several driving forces like ridge push, slab pull, and basal drag. However, an in-depth investigation shows these forces incomplete. Here we propose, the deep oceans are generating pressures everywhere, the application of these pressures over the walls of ocean basins, which consists of the sides of continents, may yield enormous horizontal forces (i.e., the ocean-generating forces), the net effect of these forces provides lateral push to the continents and may cause them to move horizontally, further, the moving continents drag the crusts that they connect to move, these totally give birth to plate motion. A roughly estimation shows that the ocean-generating forces may give South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents a movement of respectively 2.8, 4.2, 5.7, and 6.3 cm/yr, and give Pacific Plate a movement of 8.9 cm/yr.
Category: Geophysics

[29] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-28 12:46:32

### What Drives Plate Motion?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang

Plate motion was widely thought to be a manifestation of mantle dynamics. However, an in-depth investigation shows this understanding incompetent. Here we propose, the tide-related oceans yield varying pressures between them, the application of these pressures to the continent's sides forms enormously unequal horizontal forces (i.e., the ocean-generating forces), the net effect of these forces provides lateral push to the continent and may cause it to move horizontally, further, the travelling continent works its adjacent crusts to move, these totally form plate motion. A roughly estimation shows that the ocean-generating force may give South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents a movement of respectively 2.8, 4.2, 5.7, and 6.3 cm/yr, and give Pacific Plate a movement of 8.9 cm/yr. Some torque effects of the ocean-generating force contributes to rotate North American and Eurasian continents.
Category: Geophysics

[28] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2018-01-13 06:42:58

### What Drives Plate Motion?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang

Plate motion was widely thought to be a manifestation of mantle dynamics. However, an in-depth investigation shows this understanding incompetent. Here we propose, the daily tides yield varying pressures between oceans, the application of these pressures to the continent's sides forms enormously unequal horizontal forces, the net effect of these forces provides lateral push to the continent and may cause it to move horizontally, further, the moving continent by basal drag entrains its adjacent crust to move, these totally give birth to plate motion. A roughly estimation shows that the oceanic tide-generating force may independently give South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents a movement of respectively 2.8, 4.2, 5.6, and 6.3 cm/yr. Some torque effects may rotate North American and Eurasian continents, and a combination of two lateral pushes offers Pacific Plate unusual motion (nearly orthogonal to Australian plate’s motion).
Category: Geophysics

[27] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-14 15:05:52

### What Drives Plate Motions?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang

Plate motion was widely thought to be a manifestation of mantle dynamics. However, an in-depth investigation shows this understanding incompetent. Here we propose, the daily tides yield varying pressures between oceans, the application of these pressures to the continent's sides forms enormously unequal horizontal forces, the net effect of these forces provides lateral push to the continent and may cause it to move horizontally, further, the moving continent by basal drag entrains its lower lithosphere to move, these totally form plate motion. Quantitatively estimation shows that the tide generating force give South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents a movement of respectively 2.8, 4.2, 5.6, and 6.3 cm/yr. A torque effect may independently rotate North American and Eurasian continents, and the combination of two lateral pushes offers Pacific Plate unusual motion (nearly orthogonal to Australian plate’s motion).
Category: Geophysics

[26] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-20 02:07:58

### What Drives Plate Motions?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang

Plate tectonics that principally describes earth’s plate motion and terrestrial features was long thought to be a manifestation of mantle dynamics. However, an in-depth investigation finds the convection currents incompetent in explaining plate motion. Here we propose, the daily tide loadings around the margins of continents yield unequal pressures onto continental slopes, the net effect of these pressures is to push continents to horizontally move. The travelling continents, by means of basal friction, moderately entrain the continental crusts beneath them and adjoining oceanic crusts, creating weaker motions and terrestrial features for the latter. Quantitatively estimation shows that the pressures yielded due to tide loadings provide South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents respectively a motion of 33, 20, 64, and 71 mm/year. A torque effect likely contributes rotation to North American and Eurasian continents, while the combination of two lateral push forces respectively from North American Plate and from Australian Plate gives Pacific Plate unusual motion (nearly orthogonal to the Australian Plate’s).
Category: Geophysics

[25] viXra:1705.0260 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-19 03:12:42

### What Drives the Earth’s Plates ?

Authors: Yongfeng Yang
Comments: 20 Pages. Significant revision in this version.

Plate tectonic theory that comprehensively describes the earth’s plate motion and terrestrial features represents one of the most significantly achievements in the past 100 years. However, an indisputable fact around this theory is the force behind plate motion is still unknown. Here we propose, the daily tide loadings around continents yield pressures onto continental slopes, the net effect combined from these pressures pushes the continents to globally move. These moving continents, representing the upper parts of the continental crusts, by means of basal friction, moderately entrain the crusts beneath them and the adjoining oceanic crusts, creating various terrestrial features. Quantitatively estimation shows that tide loadings provide South American, African, Indian, and Australian continents respectively a nearly straight motion of 28.44, 41.11, 55.63, and 61.60 mm/year. A torque effect likely contributes rotation to North American and Eurasian continents.
Category: Geophysics

[24] viXra:1701.0605 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-07 03:28:33

### Why Don't Clouds Fall?

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

Based on gravitomagnetism theory, a mathematical model of cloud is suggested. It allows answering the question put in the header.
Category: Geophysics

[23] viXra:1701.0570 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-07 03:29:37

### Why do Clouds not Fall Down? \\ Почему облака не падают?

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

Based gravitoelectromagnetism theory, described by the mathematical model of the cloud , that allows you to answer the question posed in the title. \\ На основе теории гравитомагнетизма предлагается математическая модель облака, которая позволяет ответить на вопрос, поставленный в заглавии.
Category: Geophysics

[22] viXra:1701.0570 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-25 05:17:54

### Why do Clouds not Fall Down? \\ Почему облака не падают?

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

Based gravitoelectromagnetism theory, described by the mathematical model of the cloud , that allows you to answer the question posed in the title. \\ На основе теории гравитомагнетизма предлагается математическая модель облака, которая позволяет ответить на вопрос, поставленный в заглавии.
Category: Geophysics

[21] viXra:1611.0278 [pdf] replaced on 2016-11-20 15:06:08

### Coherent Detection of Signals below Noise Level

Authors: Herbert Weidner

The search for a phase coherent signal near 50.93 µHz in the data set of the super­conducting gravimeter H1 indicates a weakly damped signal 14 dB below noise. It might belong to the long-sought Slichter triplet.
Category: Geophysics

[20] viXra:1610.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2017-11-19 12:42:35

### The Aqueous Geochemistry Principle

Authors: Jeffrey Joseph Wolynski

The stages of the evolution of a star include aqueous material, and this aqueous material facilitates the chemical reactions that occur as the star evolves, cools and dies becoming the remnant or “planet/exoplanet” used in popular circles. This paper outlines a simple fact of geochemistry.
Category: Geophysics

[19] viXra:1607.0429 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-14 00:15:14

### Gravitational Waves Explain Planetary Magnetic Fields

Authors: Rodney Bartlett

The cause of Earth's magnetic field is said to be the geodynamo, also called the magnetic dynamo theory. The heat from the solid inner core puts the liquid outer core in motion, and the movements of the outer core's electrically conducting fluids (such as molten iron) generate the planet's magnetic field. Electrically conducting fluids occur in the Sun, other stars and most planets – and are the scientifically accepted mechanism for magnetic fields. However, the planets Mercury and Venus suggest this process is only partly correct.
Category: Geophysics

[18] viXra:1607.0115 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-11 08:01:55

### Candidates for the Slichter Triplet

Authors: Herbert Weidner

During the last 55 years, there have been many unsuccessful attempts to measure the three frequencies of the 1S1 self-resonance, the vibration of the Earth's core. One reason for this failure could be the insufficient reduction of the background noise, caused by the earthquakes. This is just another attempt to solve the ancient mystery. This time, perhaps with more success ;-)
Category: Geophysics

[17] viXra:1605.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-28 06:37:34

### More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated.
Category: Geophysics

[16] viXra:1605.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-23 15:16:54

### More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated.
Category: Geophysics

[15] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-28 06:35:49

### More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[14] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-23 15:08:00

### More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[13] viXra:1605.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-06 13:59:37

### More About the Nature of the Earth's Magnetism \\ Еще о природе Земного магнетизма

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik

A hypothesis of the Earth magnetism nature is presented and debated. \\ Предлагается и обсуждается гипотеза о природе Земного магнетизма.
Category: Geophysics

[12] viXra:1602.0099 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-18 23:43:00

### The Electromagnetic Signatures Produced by Earthquakes

Authors: Frank H. Makinson
Comments: 6 Pages. The effects created by the electromagnetic signatures produced by earthquakes need extensive additional study.

For centuries, there was no reliable way to know whether an earthquake was eminent, even though strange animal behavior and odd lights in the sky had been observed before earthquakes. It was noted that long range radio skip was interrupted before the 1960 Valdavia, Chile earthquake and the same interruption occurred before the 1964 Alaska earthquake. Scientists took notice, primarily outside of the seismology community, and began inquiring what mechanism could cause such an interruption. In the 1960s, it was already known that certain types of sunspot activity could cause the same type of radio skip alteration. It is now known there is a prodigious amount of electromagnetic activity proceeding and during an earthquake. It has been demonstrated in the laboratory that certain types of rock act like semiconductors when subjected to stress and produce an electric current that fluctuates. It is not known how many other earthquake related issues remain outside of our knowledge, especially the odd coincidence of human health problems just before and coincident to an earthquake.
Category: Geophysics

[11] viXra:1512.0390 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-23 06:04:01

### The Unification of the Tunisian Terrestrial Geodetic Systems

Comments: 15 Pages. In French with an abstract

It is the paper proposed to be presented at the FIG Working Week 2012 "Knowing to manage the territory, protect the environment, evaluate the cultural heritage" Rome, Italy, 6-10 May 2012. The paper described the unification of the Tunisian terrestrial geodetic systems.
Category: Geophysics

[10] viXra:1512.0269 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-09 05:20:13

### Selected Papers de L'Ingénieur Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem Tome I

Comments: 297 Pages. In French. Key words: Geodesy, Mapping, Theory of Errors, Differential Geometry of the ellipsoïd, Geophysics.

This is the first part of the Selected Papers of the Senior Engineer Abdelmajid Ben Hadj Salem.
Category: Geophysics

[9] viXra:1511.0231 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-28 11:33:59

### The Second Structure of Constant Current

Authors: Solomon I. Khmelnik