High Energy Particle Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1482] viXra:1907.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:20:45

Quantum Chromodynamics Simulations

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

Over the last few decades, the exponential increase in computer power and accompanying increase in the quality of algorithms has enabled theoretical and particle physicists to perform more complex and precise simulations of fundamental particles and their interactions. [26] A collaboration of scientists from five of the world's most advanced x-ray sources in Europe, Japan and the US, has succeeded in verifying a basic prediction of the quantum-mechanical behavior of resonant systems. [25] This achievement is considered as an important landmark for the realization of practical application of photon upconversion technology. [24] Considerable interest in new single-photon detector technologies has been scaling in this past decade. [23] Engineers develop key mathematical formula for driving quantum experiments. [22] Physicists are developing quantum simulators, to help solve problems that are beyond the reach of conventional computers. [21] Engineers at Australia's University of New South Wales have invented a radical new architecture for quantum computing, based on novel 'flip-flop qubits', that promises to make the large-scale manufacture of quantum chips dramatically cheaper-and easier-than thought possible. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1481] viXra:1907.0383 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-19 09:35:10

Cracks in Magnetic Mirrors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Referred to as 'magnetic mirrors', these devices have been known to be a relatively easy way to confine plasma since the 1950s, but they have also proven to be inherently leaky. [44] If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1480] viXra:1907.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 10:20:16

Non-Interactive Mechanics

Authors: Nishant kumar sharma
Comments: 26 Pages.

The theory of new type of particles called non-intractable particles, these are the particles which attend every mass state in universe, These Particle Explains The Contraction Of Fermions In Fermi-Dirac Statics These Particles Moves In Straight Line And Remain Same In Quantum ,Classical And Relativistic Systems, with it defining the statistic of Non-Intractable particles, The relation Of Particle-Matter Union N+M = 0 ,the equations of Non-Interactive Mechanics, For Matter Particle Relation And Nucleus Energy , Mass , Radius Detection , Ramanujan Entering The Way By Which Non-Intractable Particles Emit, Ramanujan Effect Way Of Exchange Of Particles By Matter. structure of Nucleus and Atom according to Non-Interactive Mechanics, proof of Dirac Particle-Antiparticle theory, Nishant Effect -The process by which Non-Interactive particles react with matter And Need Of Improvement In Equations Where Mass Is Mentioned Such As N+M In Place Of M Only. with this the proofs of Nishant effect 1. Linear harmonic oscillator 2. Plank’s Quantum Hypothesis 3. Mass- energy relation E=mc^2 4.Non-Intractable Particles 20817.22 m/sec Faster Than The Detected velocity of light 5. The Relativistic relation E^2=P^2C^2+m^2c^4 , A Proof Of Equations where Mass Is Mentioned Should Be Written As E = (N+M) C^2.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1479] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 13:12:47

Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas
Comments: 21 Pages.

Abstract. The basic motive of the five dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e2, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1478] viXra:1907.0326 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 10:26:22

Charge Asymmetry in Top-Quark Pairs

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 40 Pages.

This allowed ATLAS to detect and measure an unprecedented number of events involving top-antitop quark pairs, providing ATLAS physicists with a unique opportunity to gain insight into the top quark's properties. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1477] viXra:1907.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-16 12:21:41

IceCube Research Upgrade

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

The IceCube Neutrino Observatory in Antarctica is about to get a significant upgrade. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos-the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe-have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1476] viXra:1907.0302 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-17 05:59:16

A Note on Jordan Algebras, Three Generations and Exceptional Periodicity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 11 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

It is shown that the algebra $ {{\bf J } }_3 [ { \bf C \otimes O } ] \otimes {\bf Cl(4,C) } $ based on the Exceptional Jordan algebra of the complexified octonions, and the complex Clifford algebra in $ {\bf 4D}$, is rich enough to describe all the spinorial degrees of freedom of three generations of fermions in ${\bf 4D}$, and include additional fermionic dark matter candidates. We extend these results to the Magic Star algebras of Exceptional Periodicity developed by Marrani-Rios-Truini and based on the Vinberg cubic $ {\bf T } $ algebras which are generalizations of exceptional Jordan algebras. It is found that there is a one-to-one correspondence among the real spinorial degrees of freedom of ${\bf 4}$ generations of fermions in $ {\bf 4D}$ with the off-diagonal entries of the spinorial elements of the $pair$ $ {\bf T}_3^{ 8, n}, ( {\bf {\bar T}}_3^{ 8, n } ) $ of Vinberg matrices at level $n = 2$. These results can be generalized to higher levels $ n > 2 $ leading to a higher number of generations beyond $ {\bf 4 } $. Three $pairs$ of ${\bf T}$ algebras and their conjugates $ {\bf {\bar T} }$ were essential in the Magic Star construction of Exceptional Periodicity \cite{Alessio} that extends the $ {\bf e}_8$ algebra to $ {\bf e}_8^{ (n) } $ with $ n $ integer.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1475] viXra:1907.0187 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-12 05:32:11

Experimental Mini-Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Scientists at DESY have achieved a new world record for an experimental type of miniature particle accelerator: For the first time, a terahertz powered accelerator more than doubled the energy of the injected electrons. [43] Electrical engineers in the accelerator physics group at TU Darmstadt have developed a design for a laser-driven electron accelerator so small it could be produced on a silicon chip. [42] Using short laser pulses, a research team led by Misha Ivanov of the Max Born Institute in Berlin, together with scientists from the Russian Quantum Center in Moscow, has shed light on the extremely rapid processes taking place within these novel materials. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1474] viXra:1907.0176 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-10 07:24:54

Quantum Entanglement Inside Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 74 Pages.

Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [44] A German-Austrian research team is now presenting the largest entangled quantum register of individually controllable systems to date, consisting of a total of 20 quantum bits. [43] Neill is lead author of the group's new paper, "A blueprint for demonstrating quantum supremacy with superconducting qubits," now published in the journal Science. [42] Physicists at ETH Zurich have now demonstrated an elegant way to relax this intrinsic incompatibility using a mechanical oscillator formed by a single trapped ion, opening up a route for fundamental studies and practical uses alike. [41] Physical experiments were performed by Schiffer's team at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign and were funded by the U.S. Department of Energy's Office of Science. [40] Novel insight comes now from experiments and simulations performed by a team led by ETH physicists who have studied electronic transport properties in a one-dimensional quantum wire containing a mesoscopic lattice. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1473] viXra:1907.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-09 10:09:07

Laser-Driven Microbubbles Vacuum

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

A vacuum is generally thought to be nothing but empty space. But in fact, a vacuum is filled with virtual particle-antiparticle pairs of electrons and positrons that are continuously created and annihilated in unimaginably short time-scales. [44] If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1472] viXra:1907.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-08 22:38:51

The Geometry of Spacetime and the Unification of the Electromagnetic, Gravitational and Strong Forces

Authors: Jeff Yee, Lori Gardi
Comments: 26 pages

In this paper, a spacetime structure consisting of a body-centered cubic lattice is modeled classically as a spring-mass system, where the components of each unit cell in the lattice are based on the fundamental units discovered by Max Planck, and the common forces that govern the motion of particles in spacetime is defined and unified by geometric shapes as the spacetime lattice oscillates.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1471] viXra:1907.0038 [pdf] submitted on 2019-07-02 15:39:43

Leptoquarks and Charged Higgs Using Preon Model #9

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 14 Pages.

A CERN article of May 2019 hints at a possible use of two non-Standard Model bosons in decays of the bottom quark (b --> c τ ν'). Three paths are explored in the present paper and exact properties of the hypothetical charged higgs and leptoquark are derived using Preon Model #9 which is a minor adaption of Preon Model #6 (Fearnley, May 2015). Finding these structures does not guarantee the existence of these new particles nor their use in the bottom decay paths as the preon model says nothing about energy requirements. The leptoquark found here has electric charge +2/3, spin zero, weak isospin +0.5, and a strong colour charge (red, green or blue). The charged higgs found here has electric charge -1, spin zero, weak isospin -0.5 and no colour charge. The leptoquark has as many preons as the higgs (16 preons in Model #9) whereas the charged higgs has 24 preons: which makes this charged higgs occupy a higher generation category than the higgs.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1470] viXra:1906.0514 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:21

Speculations on Composite Quarks

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 1-74.

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark-hadron bootstrap is the new feature of the model. States like N*(1470) and p'(1600) are interpreted as containing quark excitations. The ratio sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) should grow with energy but not necessarily indefinitely. Remarks on proton-proton diffraction dissociation at the ISR energy range are made.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1469] viXra:1906.0513 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-26 12:41:29

Quark Model Without Scaling Property

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 19 Pages. Scanned copy of the old preprint RITP 12-74. [In title, 'without Scaling' should read 'with Approximate Scaling'.]

We propose a simple field theoretic quark model in which the quarks are composite. This quark bootstrap is the new feature of the model. Applications to spectroscopy and deep inelastic processes are considered. A number of testable predictions are given. In particular, the ratio R = sigma(e+e- -> hadrons)/sigma(e+e- -> mu+mu-) is predicted to grow linearly with Q^2 at least until Q^2 ~ 36 GeV^2, where R is about 7, and drop thereafter towards a value of about one.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1468] viXra:1906.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 00:38:21

A New Unified Electro-Gravity Theory for the Electron

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 11 Pages.

A rigorous model for an electron is presented by generalizing the Coulomb's Law or Gauss's Law of electrostatics, using a unified theory of electricity and gravity. The permittivity of the free-space is allowed to be variable, dependent on the energy density associated with the electric field at a given location, employing generalized concepts of gravity and mass/energy density. The electric field becomes a non-linear function of the source charge, where concept of the energy density needs to be properly defined. Stable solutions are derived for a spherically symmetric, surface-charge distribution of an elementary charge. This is implemented by assuming that the gravitational field and its equivalent permittivity function is proportional to the energy density, as a simple first-order approximation, with the constant of proportionality referred to as the Unifield Electro-Gravity (UEG) constant. The stable solution with the lowest mass/energy is assumed to represent a ``static'' electron without any spin. Further, assuming that the mass/energy of a static electron is half of the total mass/energy of an electron including its spin contribution, the required UEG constant is estimated. More fundamentally, the lowest stable mass of a static elementary charged particle, its associated classical radius, and the UEG constant are related to each other by a dimensionless constant, independent of any specific value of the charge or mass of the particle. This dimensionless constant is numerologically suspected to be closely related to the the fine structure constant. This finding may carry greater fundamental significance, with scope of the UEG theory covering other elementary particles in the standard model of particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1467] viXra:1906.0439 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:03:31

A Generalized Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Model Applicable to All Elementary Particles

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model an electron, is generalized to model a variety of composite charged as well as neutral particles, which may constitute all known elementary particles of particle physics. A direct extension of the UEG theory for the electron is possible by modifying the functional dependence between the electro-gravitational field and the energy density, which would lead to a general class of basic charged particles carrying different levels of mass/energy, with the electron mass at the lowest level. The basic theory may also be extended to model simple composite neutral particles, consisting of two layers of surface charges of equal magnitudes but opposite signs. The model may be similarly generalized to synthesize more complex structures of composite charged or neutral particles, consisting of increasing levels of charged layers. Depending upon its specific basic or composite structure, a particle could be highly stable like an electron or a proton, or relatively unstable in different degrees, which may be identified with other known particles of the standard model of particle physics. The generalized UEG model may provide a new unified paradigm for particle physics, as a substitute for the standard model currently used, making the weak and strong forces of the standard model redundant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1466] viXra:1906.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 01:13:56

Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) Theory and Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Nirod K. Das
Comments: 13 Pages.

The Unified Electro-Gravity (UEG) theory, originally developed to model a stable static charge, is extended to a spinning charge using a ``quasi-static'' UEG model. The results from the new theory, evaluated in comparison with concepts and parameters from basic quantum mechanics (QM) and quantum electrodynamics (QED), show that the QM and the QED trace their fundamental origins to the UEG theory. The fine structure constant and the electron g-factor, which are key QED parameters, can be directly related to the proportionality constant (referred to as the UEG constant) used in the UEG theory. A QM wave function is shown to be equivalent to a space-time ripple in the permittivity function of the free space, produced by the UEG fields surrounding a spinning charge, and the basic QM relationships between energy and frequency naturally emerge from the UEG model. Further extension and generalization of the theory may also explain all other quantum mechanical concepts including particle-wave duality, frequency shift in electrodynamic scattering, and charge quantization, leading to full unification of the electromagnetics and gravity with the quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1465] viXra:1906.0435 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-24 04:16:00

A Molecular Structure of an Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this work we extend our work on a quantum dynamics of beta decay to show that an atomic nucleus can be described as a molecule which is supposed to be formed by bonding atoms as described in molecular physics. However, there is only one type of atom in our formulation and that atom is the neutron which has been shown to possess the physical structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom under the influence of a generalised Yukawa MGESCP potential rather than the Coulomb potential as in the case of the normal hydrogen atom. We construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuteron as a molecular ion which has similar physical structure to the molecular ion of the hydrogen molecule. We also construct Schrödinger wave equation to describe the deuterium and obtain the corresponding energy spectrum, by showing that the deuterium has a similar physical structure to that of a helium atom. As a further discussion, we suggest possible structures for nuclei with high numbers of protons and neutrons and show that these nuclei may form narrow lattices therefore they could fold to form three-dimensional spherical structures by layers of shells by bonding similar to hydrogen bonding.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1464] viXra:1906.0400 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-21 02:00:39

Proton Radius Problem

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

Ten years ago, just about any nuclear physicist could tell you the approximate size of the proton. But that changed in 2010, when atomic physicists unveiled a new method that promised a more precise measurement. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1463] viXra:1906.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 09:52:01

The Mass vs Nothingness12

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

as a hypothesis a mass takes more volume outside of itself than inside of itself and that this mass(an accumulation of photons) which have seperation between themselves inside a mass
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1462] viXra:1906.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-18 08:33:45

Supercomputers aid Gamma Ray Research

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

UC San Diego mechanical and aerospace engineering graduate student Tao Wang recently demonstrated how an extremely strong magnetic field, similar to that on the surface of a neutron star, can be not only generated but also detected using an X-ray laser inside a solid material. [33] Combining principles from computational fluid dynamics and acoustics, researchers at the TU Berlin have developed an analytical model that could simplify the process of designing Helmholtz resonators, a type of noise cancelling structure used in airplanes, ships, and ventilation systems. [32] During this run, from 2015 to 2018, LHC experiments produced unprecedented volumes of data with the machine's performance exceeding all expectations. [31] The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1461] viXra:1906.0331 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-19 02:28:58

Walk Through CERN Corridors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 85 Pages.

Forty years ago, in 1979, experiments at the DESY laboratory in Germany provided the first direct proof of the existence of gluons—the carriers of the strong force that "glue" quarks into protons, neutrons and other particles known collectively as hadrons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1460] viXra:1906.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-17 13:30:48

An Attempt to Colour Confinement

Authors: Deep Jyoti Dutta
Comments: 2 Pages.

This note is presented with a single aim; the aim is to deduce a mathematical method to simply interpret the phenomena of color confinement. The derivation is something that arises from profound theoretical mechanisms of strong interaction.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1459] viXra:1906.0254 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 01:57:34

Laser Produces Terahertz Pulses

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

A team of scientists from DESY and the University of Hamburg has achieved an important milestone in the quest for a new type of compact particle accelerator. [14] A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1458] viXra:1906.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-15 02:12:16

Intense X-ray and Gamma-ray Radiation

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 53 Pages.

International group of researchers including scientists from Skoltech have invented a new method for the generation of intense X-ray and gamma-ray radiation based on nonlinear Compton scattering. [37] This is where the concept of X-ray communications (XCOM) come into play, which offer even more in the way of advantages than lasers. For one, X-rays have much shorter wavelengths than both radio waves and lasers and can broadcast in tighter beams. [36]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1457] viXra:1906.0206 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 18:36:00

The Magnitude of Electromagnetic Time Dilation.

Authors: Howard A. Landman
Comments: 8 Pages.

Theories unifying gravity and electromagnetism naturally give rise to the question of whether there might be a time dilation associated with the electromagnetic 4-potential. We show here that the magnitude of EM time dilation can be computed from elementary considerations that are independent of specific unified theories. We further show that the electrostatic part of the effect is well within reach of experiment, while the magnetic part is not.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1456] viXra:1906.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-11 20:39:30

Core Issues in "Foundations of QFT: 2019 Annual Philosophy of Physics Conference"

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron
Comments: 2 Pages.

This year's workshop is focused on three core issues. Paraphrasing and rearranging their order, we examine optimal mathematical formalisms for the wavefunction and its interactions (particularly in light of the problem of renormalization), phenomenological foundations, and relativistic extensions of quantum mechanics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1455] viXra:1906.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-12 05:08:16

A Quantum Dynamics of Beta Decay

Authors: Vu B Ho
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this work we re-examine a model of the nucleons that involve the weak interaction which was once considered by Heisenberg; that is a neutron may have the structure of a dwarf hydrogen-like atom. We formulate a quantum dynamics for the associated interaction that involves the beta decay in terms of a mixed Coulomb-Yukawa potential and the More General Exponential Screened Coulomb Potential (MGESCP), which has been studied and applied to various fields of physics. We show that all the components that form the MGESCP potential can be derived from Dirac equation which in turns can be derived from a general system of linear first order partial differential equations. There are many interesting features that emerge from the MGESP potential, such as the MGESP potential can be reduced to the potential that has been proposed to describe the interaction between the quarks for strong force in particle physics, and the energy spectrum of the bound states of the dwarf hydrogen-like atom is continuous with respect to distance. This result leads to an unexpected implication that a proton and an electron may also interact strongly at short distances. We also show that the Yukawa potential when restrained can generate and determine the mathematical structures of fundamental particles associated with the strong and weak fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1454] viXra:1906.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 15:52:03

Derivation of the Sum-of-Squares Relationship

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

The sum-of-squares relationship connects the square of elementary particle masses to the square of the Fermi scale. It constrains the spectrum of free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) and it suggests a straightforward resolution to the hierarchy problem. Here we show that this relationship follows from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near the Fermi scale and supports the view that Dark Matter behaves as long-range multifractal replica of the SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1453] viXra:1906.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-10 05:03:24

Waltz of LHC Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Major endeavors are underway in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) over the past few weeks, with the extraction of magnets from the accelerator tunnel. [46] The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1452] viXra:1906.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-07 09:50:24

Pentaquark Molecule-Like Structure

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

A team of researchers working on the LHCb collaboration has found evidence showing that a pentaquark they have observed has a molecule-like structure. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1451] viXra:1906.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 09:33:34

Laser Boost Proton-Beam Energies

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

The energies of proton beams produced by laser-driven particle accelerators could be doubled, without any increase in laser intensity. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1450] viXra:1906.0067 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-06 02:07:25

Plasma Using Nanowires

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Physicists at Friedrich Schiller University in Jena have now managed to solve some of these problems, and they have reported on their results in the renowned research journal Physical Review X. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1449] viXra:1906.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-04 08:10:10

Model Heavy Nuclei

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 45 Pages.

Modelling the properties of atomic nuclei is a demanding task. It requires a theory that we can apply to a large variety of nuclear species regardless of their masses. [31] A careful re-analysis of data taken at the Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility has revealed a possible link between correlated protons and neutrons in the nucleus and a 35-year-old mystery. [30] The nuclear force that holds protons and neutrons together in the center of atoms has a non-central component-the tensor force, which depends on the spin and relative position of the interacting particles. [29] Physicists at the TU Darmstadt and their collaboration partners have performed laser spectroscopy on cadmium isotopes to confirm an improved model of the atomic nucleus. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1448] viXra:1906.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2019-06-01 03:45:36

Magnetized Plasma Jet in Laboratory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

The team created the jets using the OMEGA Laser Facility at the University of Rochester's Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE). [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1447] viXra:1905.0613 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 08:42:01

Weak Gravity Unification with the Quantum Vacuum

Authors: M. A. Thomas
Comments: 41 Pages. PDF of a PPT. presentation 41 Slides

A low energy gauge theory coupled to a scalar tensor has a precise interrelationship to Monster group symmetry (hidden) across a slight energetic vacuum change from the near flat Minkowski type gentle curving space time of the regular uud-ddu (proton neutron) flavor fields to more extremal space time curvature near a neutron (or black hole) star in the ddu-ddu (neutron )flavor fields. The nature of the scalar tensor only slightly violates EP in the weak gravity realm. In addition it is suggested that a highly symmetric version of Scalar Tensor Theory is the correct theory operating in the realm of Newton-Einstein Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1446] viXra:1905.0612 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 08:52:05

SLAC Fires Up Electron Gun

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 71 Pages.

Crews at the Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory have powered up a new electron gun, a key component of the lab's upgrade of its Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) X-ray laser, and last night it fired its first electrons. [41] In April, work began on one of the major projects scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the CERN accelerators: improving the electrical insulation of over 1200 magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1445] viXra:1905.0605 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 12:54:22

The Mass vs Nothingness Theory7

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

how does a photon act as a wave imagine a mass and part of that mass is with some space inside it and then the space goes inside the mass volume round and round that is how an electromagnetic wave act
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1444] viXra:1905.0600 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-30 09:51:33

On the Emergence of Dark Matter from Coherent Quantum States

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 2 Pages. First draft: abstract, plan of work and references only.

Recent work suggests that Dark Matter behaves as large-scale dimensional condensate of Cantor Dust, a topological structure arising from the minimal fractal geometry of spacetime above the electroweak scale. Here we show that the spectrum of the quantum harmonic oscillator in the number basis stands in a one-to-one correspondence with the formation of Cantor Dust. The correspondence becomes exact upon applying an unbounded number of scaling iterations to a generic fractal set.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1443] viXra:1905.0591 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-31 02:50:56

Spring-Clean for LHC Magnets

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 66 Pages.

In April, work began on one of the major projects scheduled for the second long shutdown (LS2) of the CERN accelerators: improving the electrical insulation of over 1200 magnets in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [40] DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1442] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 21:38:45

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 423 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1441] viXra:1905.0536 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-29 01:37:46

Cold Case of Cold Fusion

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 67 Pages.

Scientists from the University of British Columbia (UBC), the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, the University of Maryland, the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Google are conducting a multi-year investigation into cold fusion, a type of benign nuclear reaction hypothesized to occur in benchtop apparatus at room temperature. [39] University of British Columbia researchers have found a new system that could help yield 'warmer' quantum technologies. [38] A QEG team has provided unprecedented visibility into the spread of information in large quantum mechanical systems, via a novel measurement methodology and metric described in a new article in Physics Review Letters. [37]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1440] viXra:1905.0534 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-27 08:41:33

Colliding Laser Proton Beams

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Researchers from Sweden's Chalmers University of Technology and the University of Gothenburg present a new method which can double the energy of a proton beam produced by laser-based particle accelerators. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1439] viXra:1905.0471 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-23 11:33:45

Quantum Chromodynamics on Lattice: State-of-the-Art and New Methods with New Results

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 55 Pages.

This paper consists of two parts. Part A is a state-of-the-art report in quantum chromodynamics. Here is presented in a concise form: the QCD gauge-theory, the standard model and its particles, the perturbative QCD (QCD/QED Feynman diagrams with results), QCD on-lattice with Wilson loops. Part B describes a new numerical QCD calculation method (direct minimization of QCD-QED-action) and its results for the first-generation (u,d) hadrons. Here we start with the standard color-Lagrangian LQCD=LDirac+Lgluon , model the quarks qi as parameterized gaussians, and the gluons Agi as Ritz-Galerkin-expansion. We minimize the Lagrangian with parameters par=(par(q),{αk},par(Ag)) for first-generation hadrons (nucleons, pseudo-scalar mesons, vector mesons). The resulting parameters yield the correct masses, correct magnetic moments for the nucleons, the gluon-distribution and the quark-distribution with interesting insights into the hadron structure.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1438] viXra:1905.0465 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 00:50:46

Nuclear Barnett Effect

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Nuclear Barnett Effect Using a different method from that employed by Barnett, two researchers at NYU observed an alternative version of this effect called the nuclear Barnett effect, which results from the magnetization of protons rather than electrons. [26] Recently, scientists suggested switching from electron to nuclear transitions that may considerably increase the precision of clocks due to higher frequency. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1437] viXra:1905.0458 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-24 04:12:21

Supersymmetry by ATLAS

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

If these superpartners exist and are not too massive, they will be produced at CERN's Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and could be hiding in data collected by the ATLAS detector. [30] Supersymmetry predicts that two basic classes of fundamental particles, fermions and bosons, accompany each other in the same representation. [29] A fraction of a second after the Big Bang, a single unified force may have shattered. Scientists from the CDF and DZero Collaborations used data from the Fermilab Tevatron Collider to re-create the early universe conditions. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1436] viXra:1905.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-22 23:20:18

The Electron Charge Explained

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 376 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

The electron charge explained “The photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge. An electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron!” Adrian Ferent “The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron” Adrian Ferent “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent Scientists do not understand the electron that is why they say the photon is absorbed by the atom not by the electron. “Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right” Adrian Ferent What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about electric Charge is wrong. When they can not explain something, they said it is a Fundamental Property like the electric Charge! “If an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors that the Electric charge is the Physical Property of matter! This Physical Property of matter causes to experience a force when is placed in an electromagnetic field. The elementary charge is a fundamental physical constant. The elementary charge of the electron, e, is about 1.6 × 10^(-19) coulombs. An electric charge has an electric field and if the charge is moving it also generates a magnetic field. “The electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent Charge quantization means the charge of any object is an integer multiple of the elementary charge (exceptions are quarks). An electron is under the influence of electromagnetic radiation. The photons of this radiation would interact with the electron; the electron absorbs the photon and the electron gain energy. “Due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field” Adrian Ferent “I discovered Dark Matter in electron and positron collision” Adrian Ferent DMe is the Dark Matter inside the electron DMp is the Dark Matter inside the positron 223. I am the first who discovered that the photon inside the electron is the charge, is the electric field inside a volume equivalent with the electric field created by an electric charge 224. I am the first who discovered that an electric field surrounds an electric charge; the same thing inside the electron, the electric field of the photon surrounds the center of the electron. 225. I am the first who discovered that the Electric charge doesn't exist, was invented by scientists because they were not capable to explain the electric charge and what is inside the electron 226. I am the first who discovered that the Virtual photons do not exist, that is why Quantum Field Theory (QFT) is wrong and Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) is right 227. I am the first who discovered that if an electron emits a photon, does not loose the electric charge because the energy of the emitted photon is much smaller than gamma ray energy 228. I am the first who discovered that the electron has an electric field due to the photon inside the electron 229. I am the first who discovered that due to the photon inside the electron, the electron interacts with the electromagnetic field
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1435] viXra:1905.0425 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-21 08:05:19

Uncover the Logic of Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Jianfei Chen
Comments: 4 Pages.

In this paper, author introduced two theories, energy spiral as a unified field and dual resonance for energy transfer. This paper is based on these theories. Through studying formation process of particles, as was indicated that: vacuum particles and 12 basic particles are existing in the vacuum, which will become protons or electrons. In the hydrogen atomic, the external vacuum energy affects on the energy spiral of the electron, then revolution energy and rotation energy of the electron are determined, finally the parameters of Bohr structure are determined. And logical value of Fine Structure constant is obtained. [alpha=sqrt[4]{2}pi/512]. This data is supported by the calculation results of experimental data.Email: eastear@outlook.com eastear@163.com
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1434] viXra:1905.0394 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 20:20:13

Particle Wave Duality is False

Authors: Adham Ahmed Mohamed Ahmed
Comments: 1 Page. ty

if you push a mass to the speed of light it takes a lot of work now if you push a larger mass it take a larger work to push it at a time larger by the larger mass/mass coefficient velocity here is all that matters do you think electromagnetic waves has inertia if it has mass do waves have inertia? arent waves propagation of momentum? waves are because of masses hitting each other and inertia of these masses in some way there is nothing called a wave so the principle of mass wave duality is wrong
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1433] viXra:1905.0366 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-19 12:15:20

Calculation of the Fine-Structure Constant

Authors: Jesús Sánchez
Comments: 10 Pages. Published on: Journal of High Energy Physics, Gravitation and Cosmology, 2018, 4, 510-518

The fine-structure constant α [1] is a constant in physics that plays a fundamental role in the electromagnetic interaction. It is a dimensionless constant, defined as: α=q^2/(2ε_0 hc)=0.0072973525664 (1) Being q the elementary charge, εo the vacuum permittivity, h the Planck constant and c the speed of light in vacuum. The value shown in (1) is according CODATA 2014 [2]. In this paper, it will be explained that the fine-structure constant is one of the roots of the following equation: cos⁡(α^(-1) )=e^(-1) (2) being e the mathematical constant e (the base of the natural logarithm). One of the solutions of this equation is: α=0.0072973520977 (3) This means that it is equal to the CODATA value in nine decimal digits (or the seven most significant ones if you prefer). And therefore, the difference between both values is: Difference=(α(1)-α(3))/(α(1))·100=0.00000642% (4) This coincidence is higher in orders of magnitude than the commonly accepted necessary to validate a theory towards experimentation. As the cosine function is periodical, the equation (2) has infinite roots and could seem the coincidence is just by chance. But as it will be shown in the paper, the separation among the different solutions is sufficiently high to disregard this possibility. It will also be shown that another elegant way to show equation (2) is the following (being i the imaginary unit): e^(i/α)-e^(-1)=-e^(-i/α)+e^(-1) (5) Having of course the same root (3). The possible meaning of this other representation (5) will be explained.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1432] viXra:1905.0357 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-20 01:46:04

Entanglement Inside Protons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 37 Pages.

Using data from the CMS experiment there, the researchers studied the entropy resulting from entanglement within the proton. [28] Protons in neutron-rich nuclei have a higher average energy than previously thought, according to a new analysis of electron scattering data that was first collected in 2004. [27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been "squeezed" to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by "twisted light" can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1431] viXra:1905.0165 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-11 08:37:38

Particle Manipulation Methods

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 49 Pages.

Researchers at Aalto University have discovered a surprising phenomenon that changes how we think about how sound can move particles. [31] Large-scale plasmonic metasurfaces could find use in flat panel displays and other devices that can change colour thanks to recent work by researchers at the University of Cambridge in the UK. [30] Particles in solution can grow, transport, collide, interact, and aggregate into complex shapes and structures. [29] Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) researchers are working to make better electronic devices by delving into the way nanocrystals are arranged inside of them. [28] Self-assembly and crystallisation of nanoparticles (NPs) is generally a complex process, based on the evaporation or precipitation of NP-building blocks. [27] New nanoparticle-based films that are more than 80 times thinner than a human hair may help to fill this need by providing materials that can holographically archive more than 1000 times more data than a DVD in a 10-by-10-centimeter piece of film. [26] Researches of scientists from South Ural State University are implemented within this area. [25] Following three years of extensive research, Hebrew University of Jerusalem (HU) physicist Dr. Uriel Levy and his team have created technology that will enable computers and all optic communication devices to run 100 times faster through terahertz microchips. [24] When the energy efficiency of electronics poses a challenge, magnetic materials may have a solution. [23]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1430] viXra:1905.0155 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-10 10:13:55

Atomic Nuclei and Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 82 Pages.

Collisions of lead nuclei take place under extreme physical conditions. Their course can be described using a model which assumes that the transforming, extremely hot matter—the quark-gluon plasma—flows in the form of hundreds of streaks. [44] Physicists recently investigated the behavior of particles in a dusty plasma at a temperature below 2 degrees K. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1429] viXra:1905.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-09 13:34:47

Single-Atom Imaging Neutrinoless Double Beta Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

A new technique to enable the detection of a hypothetical process called neutrinoless double beta decay has been developed by an international team of physicists. [39] Determining features of the elusive particle known as a neutrino-through the observation of an extremely rare nuclear process called neutrinoless double-beta decay (The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1428] viXra:1905.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-08 10:41:54

About Magnetic Matter

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

The article discusses the properties of hypothetical magnetic matter consisting of magnetic monopoles and methods of production. The atoms of magnetic matter are bound together by magnetic forces. Electric forces are only sinusoidal. Therefore magnetic matter does not interact with ordinary matter. These qualities play a far-reaching role in technical development in the future. For example, bearings with no friction and wear, massless spacecraft, transportation systems with a very tiny consumption of energy, etc.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1427] viXra:1905.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 11:22:46

Whirlpools of Electrons Twisting

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 65 Pages.

But now, scientists from the lab of Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL have demonstrated that it is possible to use light to dynamically twist an individual electron's wave function. [38] The scientists used the quantum nature of the electron-light interaction to separate the electron-reference and electron-imaging beams in energy instead of space. [37] A holographic acoustic tweezers (HAT) system has been used to suspend up to 25 objects in mid-air simultaneously. [36] Holography is a powerful tool that can reconstruct wavefronts of light and combine the fundamental wave properties of amplitude, phase, polarization, wave vector and frequency. [35] Physicist Artem Rudenko from Kansas State University and his colleagues pondered how to improve the images of viruses and microparticles that scientists get from X-rays. [34] A team of materials scientists from Penn State, Cornell and Argonne National Laboratory have, for the first time, visualized the 3-D atomic and electron density structure of the most complex perovskite crystal structure system decoded to date. [33] Hydrogen-powered electronics, travel, and more may be a step closer thanks to the work of a collaborative team of scientists in Japan. [32] "The realization of such all-optical single-HYPERLINK "https://phys.org/tags/information+processing/" information processing," says Tanji-Suzuki. [31] Researchers at ETH have now used attosecond laser pulses to measure the time evolution of this effect in molecules. [30] A new benchmark quantum chemical calculation of C2, Si2, and their hydrides reveals a qualitative difference in the topologies of core electron orbitals of organic molecules and their silicon analogues. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1426] viXra:1905.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 12:00:02

About Magnetic Monopoles

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 5 pages

The hypothesis of intrinsic magnetic monopoles states that these are elementary particles with magnetic charges and electric spins. Magnetic monopoles can be generated by splitting a photon in a strong magnetic field. According to this concept at least a magnetic lepton, magnetic baryon, magnetically neutral monopole and its antiparticles exist. This article discloses the basic properties of intrinsic magnetic monopoles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1425] viXra:1905.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-07 12:15:52

ATLAS adds to Higgs Boson Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

The Higgs boson was discovered in 2012 by the ATLAS and CMS Experiments at CERN, but its coupling to other particles remains a puzzle. [10] Higgs boson decaying into bottom quarks. Now, scientists are tackling its relationship with the top quark. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks-subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1424] viXra:1905.0076 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-04 09:59:48

Generation of Baryons from Electromagnetic Instabilities from Vacuum.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: 20 pages, 3 figures

Baryons are generated from perturbations of magnetodynamic origin built upon a background sea of excitations at about 3.7 GeV adopting the proton state as a “substrate”, as proposed by Barut. To simulate perturbations from such a state a sum over the energy spectrum of excitations is necessary. A Zeta-function regularization procedure previously adopted for the Casimir Effect is applied to eliminate divergences when the sum upon the energy spectrum states is carried out. States of negative energy compared to the background state are obtained and represent the baryons. The periodic behavior of the baryons masses with confined magnetic flux is reproduced with no further forms of energies required besides the magnetodynamic terms. This treatment implicitly supports the concept that quarks and leptons might be treated on similar theoretical grounds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1423] viXra:1905.0037 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 13:44:46

Plasma Shock Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

If you're not a plasma physicist, exploding electrical wires underwater may sound like a bad idea. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1422] viXra:1905.0032 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-02 21:58:51

The Photon Inside the Electron, Inside the Volume, Gives the Electric Charge to Electron

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 370 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron” Adrian Ferent “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who discovered what is inside the Electron and what is the Electron Charge” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) the electric Charge is not the fundamental property of forms of matter that reveal electrostatic attraction or repulsion” Adrian Ferent “The electrons have the same charge because the photon inside the electron has the energy ~ 0.5 MeV and frequency ~10^20 Hz” Adrian Ferent “Wave–particle duality of electrons, because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) explains Gravitation and Electricity” Adrian Ferent “Conservation of electric charge - the electron is a photon around Dark Matter that is why the total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system itself” Adrian Ferent “Electrons should take on a continuous range of energies, but because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the photon has discrete energies hf” Adrian Ferent “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle” Adrian Ferent “Relativistic invariance - because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and the speed of light is the same for all inertial frames, any particle that has charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q” Adrian Ferent “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The high energy Gravitons emitted by Dark Matter keep the photon inside the electron” Adrian Ferent I explained why the electrons have the same charge: “The electrons have the same charge because the photon inside the electron has the energy ~ 0.5 MeV and frequency ~ 10^20 Hz” Adrian Ferent Electron can be described not only as a particle, but also as a wave. “Wave–particle duality of electrons, because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) the electric Charge is not the fundamental property of forms of matter that reveal electrostatic attraction or repulsion” Adrian Ferent What you learned from your professors, from peer-reviewed journals, from your books, from the greatest scientists about electric Charge is wrong. When they can not explain something, they said it is a Fundamental Property like the electric Charge! The photon has no charge and no mass but has electric and magnetic fields as well as energy. “The photon wavelength is 2πr, r the electron radius” Adrian Ferent This means: λ = 2πr, r = λ / 2π Because how the photon ‘oscillate’, inside the electron, r << λ. “The photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge” Adrian Ferent An easy way to calculate the electron charge: The total energy per unit volume stored in the electric field: The total energy U stored in the electric field in a given volume V, the electron volume: U=hf I consider an average value for E as constant: If f = 10^20 Hz Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge! “I calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge” Adrian Ferent Conservation of electric charge, another proof for FQG theory! “Conservation of electric charge - the electron is a photon around Dark Matter that is why the total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system itself” Adrian Ferent Electrons have discrete energies, another proof for FQG theory! “Electrons should take on a continuous range of energies, but because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the photon has discrete energies hf.” Adrian Ferent The superposition principle, another proof for FQG theory! “The electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle” Adrian Ferent Relativistic invariance, another proof for FQG theory! This means that the electron with the charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q. “Relativistic invariance - because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and the speed of light is the same for all inertial frames, any particle that has charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q” Adrian Ferent I discovered these things, about electrons and electric Charge, without any access to particle collider, without any access to special technology, without any access to any physics laboratory…Today the discoveries are done by people who have access to particle collider, who have access to special technology, who have access to sophisticated laboratory! 212. I am the first who discovered that the photon inside the electron, inside the volume, gives the electric charge to electron 213. I am the first who calculated the charge created by the photon with f = 10^20 Hz inside the electron Q = 1.6 × 10^(-19) C, the electron charge 214. I am the first who discovered what is inside the Electron and what is the Electron Charge 215. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) the electric Charge is not the fundamental property of forms of matter that reveal electrostatic attraction or repulsion 216. I am the first who discovered that the electrons have the same charge because the photon inside the electron has the energy ~ 0.5 MeV and frequency ~10^20 Hz 217. I am the first who discovered the Wave–particle duality of electrons, because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter 218. I am the first who discovered that Ferent Quantum Gravity (FQG) explains Gravitation and Electricity 219. I am the first who discovered the Conservation of electric charge - the electron is a photon around Dark Matter that is why the total electric charge of an isolated system remains constant regardless of changes within the system itself 220. I am the first who discovered that the Electrons should take on a continuous range of energies, but because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter, the photon has discrete energies hf 221. I am the first who discovered that the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and interacts with photons, because the electric fields satisfy the superposition principle 222. I am the first who discovered the Relativistic invariance - because the electron is a photon around Dark Matter and the speed of light is the same for all inertial frames, any particle that has charge Q, no matter how fast it goes, always has charge Q
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1421] viXra:1905.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 09:25:45

Weyl Symmetry from the Minimal Fractal Manifold

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages. First draft.

A number of recent studies hint that Weyl symmetry plays a key role in the gauge theory of gravitation, as well as in the phenomenology of cosmic inflation and Dark Matter. Here we point out that Weyl symmetry follows naturally from the minimal fractality of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. In particular, Weyl symmetry provides a field theoretic framework for the interpretation of Dark Matter as Cantor Dust.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1420] viXra:1905.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2019-05-01 10:41:57

The Easy Way to Cherenkov-Compton Effect

Authors: Miroslav Pardy
Comments: 11 Pages. the original article

The two-photon production by motion of a charged particle in a medium is considered. This process is called Cherenkov-Compton effect because the production of photons is calculated from the Feynman diagram for the Compton effect in a medium. This process is not forbidden in quantum electrodynamics of dielectric media.The cross section of this process in Mandelstam variables is calculated for pair of photons with one moving at the opposite direction to the electron motion and the second one inside the Cherenkov cone. The opposite motion is not caused by the collision with a particle of a medium. The relation of this process to the CERN experiments is considered.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1419] viXra:1904.0584 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-30 15:49:08

Fibonacci Motives

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 8 Pages.

Motives are well connected to graphical techniques in quantum field theory. In motivic quantum gravity we consider categorical axioms, starting with the ribbon category of the Fibonacci anyon. Quantum logic dictates that the cardinality of a classical set is replaced by the dimension of a space. In this note we look at the geometry underlying Fibonacci numbers and apply it to the algebra of multiple zeta values.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1418] viXra:1904.0577 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-29 11:17:14

Never Before Seen Radioactive Decay

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 69 Pages.

The Colorado State University professor of physics studies the fundamental matter particles known as neutrinos, and an exceedingly rare instance of radioactive decay in which neutrinos-otherwise present in such decays-are nowhere to be found. [39] Determining features of the elusive particle known as a neutrino-through the observation of an extremely rare nuclear process called neutrinoless double-beta decay (The inclusion of short-range interactions in models of neutrinoless double-beta decay could impact the interpretation of experimental searches for the elusive decay. [34] The occasional decay of neutrons into dark matter particles could solve a long-standing discrepancy in neutron decay experiments. [33] The U.S. Department of Energy has approved funding and start of construction for the SuperCDMS SNOLAB experiment, which will begin operations in the early 2020s to hunt for hypothetical dark matter particles called weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs. [32] Thanks to low-noise superconducting quantum amplifiers invented at the University of California, Berkeley, physicists are now embarking on the most sensitive search yet for axions, one of today's top candidates for dark matter. [31]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1417] viXra:1904.0542 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-27 05:28:13

Systems of Linear Dyson-Schwinger Equations

Authors: Henry Kißler
Comments: 26 Pages.

Systems of Dyson-Schwinger equation represent the equations of motion in quantum field theory. In this paper, we follow the combinatorial approach and consider Dyson-Schwinger equations as fixed point equations that determine the perturbation series by usage of graph insertion operators. We discuss their properties under the renormalization flow, prove that fixed points are scheme independent, and construct solutions for coupled systems with linearized arguments of the insertion operators.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1416] viXra:1904.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 16:58:55

Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion

Authors: A. I. Andreus
Comments: 4 Pages, in Russian and English of Google.

Controlled thermonuclear fusion. There is a phenomenology of the nature of electrino and positrino. It is described as a postulate on the structure of an electron and a positron from electrino and positrino. Postulated as absolute symmetry, the tetrahedron-cubic basis of the world - ASTC. It is necessary to carry out research in the implementation of the creation and maintenance of the environment of free electrino and positrino with a certain energy density per unit volume for the implementation of controlled thermonuclear fusion.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1415] viXra:1904.0467 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-24 12:30:41

Exotic Nuclear Decay in Dark Matter Detector

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 44 Pages.

An exotic and extremely rare nuclear decay that involves the simultaneous capture of two atomic electrons by a xenon-124 nucleus has been observed in a dark-matter detector. [27] This week, scientists from around the world who gathered at the University of California, Los Angeles, at the Dark Matter 2018 Symposium learned of new results in the search for evidence of the elusive material in Weakly Interacting Massive Particles (WIMPs) by the DarkSide-50 detector. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1414] viXra:1904.0461 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-25 01:33:05

Liberating Preons from Four Dimensions

Authors: Fabrizio Vassallo
Comments: 3 Pages.

A possible internal structure of the recently discovered X (Hungarian) boson is proposed as an application of a preon model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1413] viXra:1904.0456 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 08:22:45

Next-Generation Nuclear Reactors

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 68 Pages.

In the core of operating nuclear reactors Engineers must manage a maelstrom. [38] Matter is composed of chemical elements mainly created in stars via nuclear reactions and complex nuclear reaction networks. [37] These particles are produced by stellar flares or by shock waves driven by magnetic events in the stellar corona. [36] Researchers have investigated wave-particle interactions between energetic electrons and chorus waves evolving in the space surrounding the Earth using the scientific satellite Arase and, simultaneously, transient auroral flashes by the ground-based global observation network. [35] The universe consists of a massive imbalance between matter and antimatter. [34] Our universe could be the mirror image of an antimatter universe extending backwards in time before the Big Bang. [33] "As you celebrate New Year's Day, cast an eye upward and think for a moment about the amazing things our country and our species can do when we set our minds to it," Stern wrote in the New York Times on Monday. [32] Our senses are stuck in the past. There's a flash of lightning, and then seconds pass until we hear the rumble of distant thunder. We hear the past. [31] ESA's technical centre in the Netherlands has begun running a pulsar-based clock. The "PulChron' system measures the passing of time using millisecond-frequency radio pulses from multiple fast-spinning neutron stars. [30] VR is an almost perfect avenue for this approach, since it has been surging in popularity as both entertainment and an educational tool. [29] Using MAGIC telescopes and NASA's Fermi spacecraft, an international team of astronomers has discovered a new source of very high energy gamma-ray emission around the supernova remnant (SNR) G24.7+0.6. [28] In 1973, Russian physicist A.B. Migdal predicted the phenomenon of pion condensation above a critical, extremely high-several times higher than that for normal matter-nuclear density. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1412] viXra:1904.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 21:02:45

The Relationship of the Mole and Charge

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 4 pages

In this paper, the mole and charge are related by deriving Avogadro’s number from three constants: the Bohr radius, the Planck length and Euler’s number.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1411] viXra:1904.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-23 04:53:18

An Experiment to Show that there is Gravitational Interaction Among Photons, Because They Have Non-Null Imaginary Gravitational Masses

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 2 Pages.

An experimental arrangement, using two petawatts laser beams, is proposed here in order to show that the two laser beams interact gravitationally between them, due to the photons have non-null imaginary gravitational mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1410] viXra:1904.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 08:48:29

Dark Matter at Large Hadron Collider

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 59 Pages.

Now that they've identified the Higgs boson, scientists at the Large Hadron Collider have set their sights on an even more elusive target. [44] A team of researchers in the Republic of Korea, the U.S., Brazil, Indonesia and the U.K. have recently carried out a direct search for inelastic boosted dark matter (IBDM) using a terrestrial detector. [33] After watching YouTube videos of people supercooling water in a bottle and then triggering it to freeze by banging it, something about this concept solidified for Matthew M. Szydagis, an assistant professor of physics at the University at Albany, State University at New York, especially when he saw it again during the Disney movie "Frozen." [32]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1409] viXra:1904.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-18 08:52:44

A Brief Analysis of the Research Scheme of the Cyclotron Radiation from a Single Electron

Authors: DING Jian
Comments: 16 Pages.

The experiments of Project 8 have been excellent, but the expected goals still difficult to achieve. So much so that some of the results at your fingertips were also missing. In view of this, the focus of this article is to clarify several easy confused concepts. Only in this way, we can reasonably explain the experimental data. The main points are as follows: 1. The value c of the light speed in vacuum and a particle with zero static mass, both of which do not exist in the reality. That is to say, the so-called a photon's static mass is equal to zero but has energy, which is a paradox that confuses two different definitional domains. 2. In the reality, photons are high-speed particles generated by electromagnetic radiation. They must have the characteristics of (static) mass, energy and wave, in order to describe the main body to aim at photons from different angles. 3. After any main body comes into being electromagnetic radiation, its static mass will inevitably decrease according ly. 4. The charge-mass ratio of an electron is a physical constant, which is the ratio of its charge to the amount of matter, and is not affected by relativistic effects and electromagnetic radiation. 5. The uncertainty of moving electrons is caused by random electromagnetic radiations. Finally, it is pointed out that if the cyclotron frequency of a single electron is measured, and at the same time, its de Broglie wavelength or frequency can also be measured, then its static mass can be obtained. Even so, the expected goals are still difficult to achieve, because random electromagnetic radiations are always taking away continually the matter composition of the single electron being measured. However, this was precisely a result of the research obtained by Project 8, and had universality, which should be reflect on.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1408] viXra:1904.0352 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 02:59:16

Charm Quarks at CEBAF

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 88 Pages.

The world's most advanced particle accelerator for investigating the quark structure of the atom's nucleus has just charmed physicists with a new capability. [47] Bob Zwaska, a scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermilab, was watching a contestant on the cooking show Chopped spin sugar for their dessert when he realized the same principle might be applicable to accelerator targets. [46] Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1407] viXra:1904.0351 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 03:16:50

Protons Spin Flipper

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 89 Pages.

Protons spin. It's an intrinsic property that can affect experiments at accelerators that use beams of protons. [48] The world's most advanced particle accelerator for investigating the quark structure of the atom's nucleus has just charmed physicists with a new capability. [47] Bob Zwaska, a scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermilab, was watching a contestant on the cooking show Chopped spin sugar for their dessert when he realized the same principle might be applicable to accelerator targets. [46] Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1406] viXra:1904.0350 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-19 03:37:34

Energy Flow in Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 80 Pages.

Whether studying the core of our sun or the inside of a fusion reactor, scientists need to determine how energy flows in plasma. Scientists use simulations to calculate the flow. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1405] viXra:1904.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-17 03:43:22

Spinning Targets for Accelerators

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 87 Pages.

Bob Zwaska, a scientist at the U.S. Department of Energy's Fermilab, was watching a contestant on the cooking show Chopped spin sugar for their dessert when he realized the same principle might be applicable to accelerator targets. [46] Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1404] viXra:1904.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-16 04:23:39

Understanding Fusion Device

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 84 Pages.

Physicists at the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE) Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) have discovered valuable information about how electrically charged gas known as "plasma" flows at the edge inside doughnut-shaped fusion devices called "tokamaks." [45] A class exercise at MIT, aided by industry researchers, has led to an innovative solution to one of the longstanding challenges facing the development of practical fusion power plants: how to get rid of excess heat that would cause structural damage to the plant. [44] Schematic of a magnetic nozzle rf plasma thruster (helicon plasma thruster) having two open source exits and photographs of the three operation modes in the laboratory test. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another. "There is strong experimental evidence that there is indeed some new physics lurking in the lepton sector," Dev said. [38]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1403] viXra:1904.0193 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-11 00:04:52

Real Clifford Algebras and Our Universe: VOID to Cl(16) Lagrangian to Cl(1,25) AQFT

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 31 Pages.

This paper is an outline of basic ideas of Cl(16) and Cl(1,25) Physics. For details see my papers listed at viXra for author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr including vixra 1903.0485 about the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Higgs-Truth Quark System.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1402] viXra:1904.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 08:29:16

ATLAS Measure Higgs Boson Coupling

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

As only about 1 percent of the Higgs bosons are produced in association with a top-quark pair at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), achieving this observation was especially challenging. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1401] viXra:1904.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-08 09:07:35

Time-Reversal Violation for Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

Physicists theorize that this time-reversal violation is the key ingredient needed to unravel the cosmic mystery of the missing antimatter. [26] The arrow of time and the accelerated expansion are two fundamental empirical facts of the universe. [25] The intensive, worldwide search for dark matter, the missing mass in the universe, has so far failed to find an abundance of dark, massive stars or scads of strange new weakly interacting particles, but a new candidate is slowly gaining followers and observational support. [24] "We invoke a different theory, the self-interacting dark matter model or SIDM, to show that dark matter self-interactions thermalize the inner halo, which ties ordinary dark matter and dark matter distributions together so that they behave like a collective unit." [23] Technology proposed 30 years ago to search for dark matter is finally seeing the light. [22] They're looking for dark matter-the stuff that theoretically makes up a quarter of our universe. [21] Results from its first run indicate that XENON1T is the most sensitive dark matter detector on Earth. [20] Scientists at Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz (JGU) in Germany have now come up with a new theory on how dark matter may have been formed shortly after the origin of the universe. [19] Map of dark matter made from gravitational lensing measurements of 26 million galaxies in the Dark Energy Survey. [18] CfA astronomers Annalisa Pillepich and Lars Hernquist and their colleagues compared gravitationally distorted Hubble images of the galaxy cluster Abell 2744 and two other clusters with the results of computer simulations of dark matter haloes. [17]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1400] viXra:1904.0159 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-09 03:37:45

About Parity Conservation

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

According to contemporary physics the conservation law of parity states that parity is conserved in electromagnetism, strong interactions and gravity. In weak interactions the parity can be violated. This article shows that violation of parity conservation in the weak interactions is apparent. In reality, parity is also conserved in weak interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1399] viXra:1904.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 09:17:01

Kaon Lifetime and Decay

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

The Standard Model presumes that there are two different types of neutral kaons, i.e., short-lived KS kaons which decay to 2 pions and long-lived kaons KL which decay to 3 pions. This article shows that in reality there is only one type of neutral kaons. The lifetime of kaons depends on their velocity in the gravity field. The fast kaons have more energy, more lifetime and therefore they can decay to 3 pions. If the fast kaons slow down they lose energy and therefore can decay only to 2 pions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1398] viXra:1904.0104 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 04:01:07

Big Look at Tiny Particles

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

In a recent paper, a team led by Constantia Alexandrou at the University of Cyprus modeled the location of one of the subatomic particles inside a proton, using only the basic theory of the strong interactions that hold matter together rather than assuming these particles would act as they had in experiments. [46] "Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it's simple … and it turns out it's much more complicated," Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission-and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP)-the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43] The energy transfer processes that occur in this collisionless space plasma are believed to be based on wave-particle interactions such as particle acceleration by plasma waves and spontaneous wave generation, which enable energy and momentum transfer. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning-all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41] The Department of Energy's SLAC National Accelerator Laboratory has started to assemble a new facility for revolutionary accelerator technologies that could make future accelerators 100 to 1,000 times smaller and boost their capabilities. [40] The authors designed a mechanism based on the deployment of a transport barrier to confine the particles and prevent them from moving from one region of the accelerator to another.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1397] viXra:1904.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-06 05:33:39

Mass Deficit and Topology of Nucleons

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 5 Pages.

Nucleus is identical with the lower inverse electric-nuclear field where a rapid increase of its potential occurs with a corresponding reduction of the space cohesive pressure, resulting to the mass deficit of the neutron entering the nucleus and to the finding of its location potential. Therefore, the so called topology of the nucleons can be now found. So, the neutrons are stable into the lower inverse nuclear field where a reduced cohesive pressure prevails. Moreover, there would be no nuclei without the presence of neutrons that reduce the negativity of the protons field, while neutrons are those that move into the nuclei (with the remaining half of their kinetic energy) on circular orbits around immobilized protons which have spin only.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1396] viXra:1904.0036 [pdf] submitted on 2019-04-02 13:54:17

Further Evidence for the Cantor Dust Composition of Dark Matter

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recent experiments continue to falsify the hypothesis that Dark Matter (DM) consists of quantum-like particles resembling the content of the Standard Model (SM). Several arguments also exist against theories advocating that DM follows from various modifications or thermodynamic analogs of General Relativity (GR). These findings indirectly favor earlier interpretations of DM as Cantor Dust, an outcome of the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Cantor Dust is consistent with the idea of Unmatter, an exotic phase containing fractional numbers of quanta per state, mixing particles and their antiparticles and carrying arbitrary non-integer spins.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1395] viXra:1903.0572 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-31 07:48:07

Proton Gets its Spin Complicated

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 83 Pages.

“Spin has surprises. Everybody thought it’s simple … and it turns out it’s much more complicated,” Aschenauer says. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1394] viXra:1903.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-29 11:50:58

Quantum Mechanics Where Spin is SO(3)

Authors: Carl A. Brannen
Comments: 23 Pages.

In 2014 Steven Weinberg noted that quantum mechanics can avoid various difficulties, such as the many worlds hypothesis, by taking the quantum states to be density matrices without reference to state vectors. An immediate consequence of Weinberg's idea is that electron spin can be taken to follow SO(3) instead of SU(2). This radical departure from present understanding motivates our exploration of density matrices as a method of going beyond the Standard Model. An important tool for Standard Model calculations is the Feynman path integral formulation of quantum field theory. When the path integral is Wick rotated from time to imaginary time or temperature it becomes a method of cooling down density matrices. While this does not show that one goes beyond the Standard Model by Wick rotation, it does show a close relation between this method of cooling density matrices and quantum field theory of the Standard Model. We explore these ideas and exhibit toy models with particle content and symmetry similar to the Standard Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1393] viXra:1903.0522 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-28 08:18:01

Particle Self-Organization in Plasma

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 81 Pages.

Physicists recently investigated the behavior of particles in a dusty plasma at a temperature below 2 degrees K. [43] Researchers at MIT's Plasma Science and Fusion Center (PSFC) have now demonstrated how microwaves can be used to overcome barriers to steady-state tokamak operation. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1392] viXra:1903.0502 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 08:13:00

Mini Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Munich physicists have succeeded in demonstrating plasma wakefield acceleration of subatomic particles in a miniaturized, laser-driven model. [31] Tomasz Skwarnicki, professor of physics in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University, has uncovered new information about a class of particles called pentaquarks. [30] Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground March 15 on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1391] viXra:1903.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 21:30:57

Philosophy of Nature, Universal Field Theory, Natural Cosmology, and Ontological Evolution

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 204 Pages.

The fundamental principles of this book are human wisdoms of our ultimate philosophy, scientific theories and empirical knowledge that give birth to Universal Field Theory. Since inauguration, it is now strikingly breaking forth systematically from the philosophy of natural laws to the unification of the entire traditional, classical and contemporary physics, and gracefully representing the triple essences of: 

  1. Laws of universe as Philosophy of Nature, 
  2. Framework of nature as Infrastructure of Universe, 
  3. Hierarchy of horizon structures as Topology of Physics. 

By exploring the profound principles behind the workings of the nature, we abstract each context of the laws philosophically, define their terminologies revelationally, derive the scientific theories mathematically, and testify the “artifacts” empirically, shown by the following approaches. 

Chapter I: Abstracts principles of Philosophy of Nature and reveals secrets of Topology of Universe and Horizon Hierarchy of Worlds, predominantly Laws of YinYang processes and of Event Evolutions. (Designed for philosophers using methodology of “divine inspirations by heart”)

Chapter II: Illustrates how the Infrastructure of Universe is developed as the mathematical framework to carry out Universal Field Equations and give rise to the foundations of physical Horizons. (Designed for scientists using methodology of “research thoughts by brain”)

Chapter III-VII: Testifies why the theory can unify our modern physics, conclude numerous groundbreakings, and declare as Universal Field Theory, prevailing over quantum fields, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, gravitation, cosmology and ontology. (Designed for empiricism using methodology of “controlled experiments by technology”)

Therefore, readers will gain their confidences in development of our future sciences concisely. and effectively with the methodology of 

Philosophy => Scientific Theory <==> Observation and Experiment 


Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1390] viXra:1903.0485 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-27 23:14:27

CMS LHC Run 2 Higgs and Truth Quark

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 11 Pages.

CMS histogram for 2016+2017+2018 LHC Run 2 at 13 TeV supports 3 mass states of the Higgs at about 125 GeV, 200 GeV, and 250 GeV with Higgs and Truth Quark forming a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System. ATLAS (afaik) has not studied the mass range of 200 GeV and 250 GeVsince ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 which saw excess in 2015-2016 13 TeV data around 240 GeV with local significance 3.6 sigma. Fermilab CDF and D0 have, in addition to the Truth Quark 174 GeV state, seen indications of Truth Quark mass states around 130 GeV and 220 GeV but the Fermilab Consensus has dismissed them as statistical fluctuations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1389] viXra:1903.0445 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-26 05:34:58

New Class of Pentaquarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

Tomasz Skwarnicki, professor of physics in the College of Arts and Sciences at Syracuse University, has uncovered new information about a class of particles called pentaquarks. [30] Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground March 15 on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1388] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-25 00:44:25

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1387] viXra:1903.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-21 11:12:00

Why There's More Matter than Antimatter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

This is arguably the most profound question there is and one that may seem completely outside the scope of particle physics. But our new experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider has taken us a step closer to figuring it out. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27] Positronium atoms, which consist of an electron and a positron, are one type of antimatter atoms being considered to test whether antimatter falls at the same rate as matter in Earth's gravitational field. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1386] viXra:1903.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-22 06:39:21

ATLAS Finds 3 Massive Vector Bosons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The ATLAS Experiment at CERN has just released evidence for the simultaneous production of three W or Z bosons in proton–proton collisions at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1385] viXra:1903.0379 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-20 12:12:24

The Ballet of Alice

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

ALICE's inner tracker is a 1.5-metre-long tube, 1 metre in diameter. It will be replaced with a new, much more precise detector closer to the collision point, formed of seven pixel layers and containing a total of 12.5 billion pixels. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29] The case for an ambitious new particle accelerator to be built in the United States has just gotten a major boost.[27] Physics textbooks might have to be updated now that an international research team has found evidence of an unexpected transition in the structure of atomic nuclei. [26] The group led by Fabrizio Carbone at EPFL and international colleagues have used ultrafast transmission electron microscopy to take attosecond energy-momentum resolved snapshots (1 attosecond = 10-18 or quintillionths of a second) of a free-electron wave function. [25] Now, physicists are working toward getting their first CT scans of the inner workings of the nucleus. [24] The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1384] viXra:1903.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-19 08:36:19

Muon Detector Measure Electric Potential

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 54 Pages.

A team of researchers from several institutions in India and Japan has found that it is possible to use a muon detector to measure electric potential in thunderstorms. [32] Researchers at Caltech have designed a way to levitate and propel objects using only light, by creating specific nanoscale patterning on the objects' surfaces. [31] Scientists have developed a pioneering new technique that could pave the way for the next generation of optical tweezers. [30] To speed up the imaging process, the researchers made their Raman system more compatible with the algorithm. [29] The researchers have tested the virtual frame technique using several types of cameras with different sensitivities and bit depths ranging from sophisticated high-speed and high-end consumer cameras to smartphone cameras. [28] IBM researchers are applying deep learning to discover ways to overcome some of the technical challenges that AI can face when analyzing X-rays and other medical images. [27] Now, a team of A*STAR researchers and colleagues has developed a detector that can successfully pick out where human actions will occur in videos, in almost real-time. [26] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in Germany and the U.S. has developed a deep learning algorithm that can be used for motion capture of animals of any kind. [25] In 2016, when we inaugurated our new IBM Research lab in Johannesburg, we took on this challenge and are reporting our first promising results at Health Day at the KDD Data Science Conference in London this month. [24] The research group took advantage of a system at SLAC's Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource (SSRL) that combines machine learning-a form of artificial intelligence where computer algorithms glean knowledge from enormous amounts of data-with experiments that quickly make and screen hundreds of sample materials at a time. [23]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1383] viXra:1903.0334 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-18 17:55:13

Science, Art, and Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 46 Pages.

In my view: Science = Art = Music: Science is explained by a Theory of Everything (TOE) using Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) The Pinnacle of Human Art is Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass which (when combined with its Mirror image) corresponds in detail with Cl(16) Physics TOE. The Pinnacle of Human Music is Beethoven's Grosse Fugue which corresponds in detail with Cl(16) TOE. Cl(16) emerged from a Quantum Fluctuation in a Void in our Parent Universe by David Finkelstein's Clifford Iteration Process: Cl(Void) = Clifford Algebra of Void = 0 Cl(0) = 2^0 dimensions = 1 Cl(1) = 2^1 = 2 Cl(2) = 2^2 = 4 Cl(4) = 2^4 = 16 Cl(16) = 2^16 = 65,536 = tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = 256x256 Cl(16) has 16 Vectors = Lie Ball = Spin(10) / Spin(8) x U(1) Cl(16) has 120 BiVectors = D8 subalagebra of E8 Cl(16) has 128 half-Spinors ( 1 0-Vector + 126 8-Vectors + 1 16-Vector ) 120+128 = 248 = E8 Cl(16) has 560 TriVectors = 10 copies of Fr3(O) 56-dim Fr3(O) has 2 copies of 27-dim J3(O) The other 65,536-16-120-128-560 = 64,712 elements of Cl(16) are available to carry information in processes such as Quantum Consciousness.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1382] viXra:1903.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-18 05:35:00

Ghostly Particles, New Forces

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory officially broke ground March 15 on a major new particle accelerator project that will power cutting-edge physics experiments for many decades to come. [29] The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1381] viXra:1903.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-16 21:31:22

On the Quark Model Based on Virtual Spacetime and the Origin of Fractional Charge

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 18 Pages. Including Chinese Version

The quark model in the standard model is belong to real spacetime, so fractional charge is required. Since the quark model has obtained a lot of experimental support, although the fractional charge has not been detected yet, it is still reasonable. If we consider it from the perspective of the existence of virtual spacetime, we can better explain why the quark has a fractional charge. This paper assumes that each particle in real spacetime has a corresponding virtual spacetime particle in the virtual spacetime. The real spacetime proton corresponds to a magnetic monopole in the virtual spacetime, while the real spacetime three-generation six leptons corresponds to the corresponding three generations of six particles in the virtual spacetime. In addition to photons and the like, plus the respective anti-particles, there are 14 elementary particles in the virtual spacetime, which is basically consistent with the number of elementary particles in real spacetime. According to the requirements of virtual spacetime physics, the magnetic field and the electric field are exactly the same. Therefore, in the virtual spacetime reference system, the magnetic field of the magnetic monopole corresponds to the electric field of the proton. Starting from the symmetry requirement of virtual and real spacetime, the magnetic charge of the virtual spacetime magnetic monopole is also quantized. That is, the six particles’ magnetic charges of virtual spacetime corresponding to the real spacetime three-generation leptons are also quantized, they take integers. Then, through the appropriate formula, 14 particles of virtual spacetime are combined according to certain requirements, and all six quarks can be obtained. The charge, isospin, lepton number, and baryon number of each quark can be determined according to the formula.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1380] viXra:1903.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-14 07:47:18

Antiproton Decelerator as Antimatter Factory

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27] Positronium atoms, which consist of an electron and a positron, are one type of antimatter atoms being considered to test whether antimatter falls at the same rate as matter in Earth's gravitational field. [26] Two new experiments at CERN, ALPHA-g and GBAR, have now started their journey towards answering this question. [25]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1379] viXra:1903.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-15 04:12:13

Complexity in Proton Spin Puzzle

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 86 Pages.

New data from the STAR experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) add detail—and complexity—to an intriguing puzzle that scientists have been seeking to solve: how the building blocks that make up a proton contribute to its spin. [45] Approximately one year ago, a spectacular dive into Saturn ended NASA's Cassini mission—and with it a unique, 13-year research expedition to the Saturnian system. [44] Scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute, University of Copenhagen, and their colleagues from the international ALICE collaboration recently collided xenon nuclei, in order to gain new insights into the properties of the Quark-Gluon Plasma (the QGP) – the matter that the universe consisted of up to a microsecond after the Big Bang. [43]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1378] viXra:1903.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-13 11:31:16

ATLAS Experiment Results

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 35 Pages.

The ATLAS collaboration has released its very first result utilising its entire Large Hadron Collider (LHC) Run 2 dataset, collected between 2015 and 2018. [28] The Antiproton Decelerator (AD), sometimes known as the Antimatter Factory, is the world's largest source of antimatter and has been operational since 2000. [27] Positronium atoms, which consist of an electron and a positron, are one type of antimatter atoms being considered to test whether antimatter falls at the same rate as matter in Earth's gravitational field. [26]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1377] viXra:1903.0257 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-13 11:39:27

About Beta Decay

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 4 pages

Contemporary physics states that an electron neutrino takes part in all events of beta decay. Here we show that electron-positron pairs participate in all beta decay events. For this reason, the hypothesis of electron neutrino presence is not necessary in β¯, β+ and electron capture reactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1376] viXra:1903.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-12 10:49:22

Standard Model Fermions and Higgs Scalar Field from PCCR Operator Algebra

Authors: Peter Hickman
Comments: 4 Pages.

A fundamental theory of fermions is proposed by constructing the Dirac gamma matrices using pCCR operators. The result is the fermions of the Standard Model, 3 generations of leptons and quarks and the chiral nature of su(2) is revealed. In addition the pCCR operators generates a Higgs complex scalar doublet and that space-time is found to be 4d.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1375] viXra:1903.0228 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-13 01:10:44

The Strange Attractor Structure of Turbulence and Effective Field Theories

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 5 Pages.

Recent work has conjectured that, under general boundary conditions, non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows are likely to end up on strange attractors. If this conjecture is true, effective field theories must necessarily reflect the properties of these attractors. We start from the observation that, seemingly disparate concepts such as the Berry phase, gauge potentials and the curvature tensor of General Relativity (GR), share a common geometric foundation. Developing further, we posit that the dynamics of gauge and gravitational fields may be derived from the global attributes of strange attractors. The motivation behind this ansatz is that the Navier-Stokes equations bridge the gap between fluid turbulence, on the one hand, and the mathematics of GR and gauge theory, on the other.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1374] viXra:1903.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-11 08:43:18

A Model of Lepton and Quark Structure

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 5 Pages. This is a typo corrected manuscript reconstruction (February 2018), published as Physica Scripta, Vol. 22, 197-198, 1980.

We propose a model of particles with two very massive fundamental constituents, maxons. One of them is a fractionally charged color triplet and the other is neutral color singlet. Leptons, quarks and the weak bosons are quasiparticles in the system of interacting maxons. Some implications of the model are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1373] viXra:1903.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-09 08:47:43

No-Show Sterile Neutrinos

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 36 Pages.

Analysis of data from the MINOS+ experiment reveals no evidence for oscillations involving sterile neutrinos. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter-a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos-particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe-could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1372] viXra:1903.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-08 04:11:17

A New Study on Unification of Electromagnetic Field and Gravitational Field

Authors: Ho Dong Jo, Chol Song Kim
Comments: 60 Pages.

We specified the difficulties of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Einstein’s gravitational theory in detail, established a new unified theory of field including consistent electromagnetic theory and gravitational theory on the basis of new starting postulates, and applied these theoretical methods to quantum electrodynamics. We accepted a new geometrical space in which metric tensor and all main physical functions becomes implicit function, called “KR space” conforming to our starting postulates, and normalization of implicit functions in order to connect all physical functions defined in this space with real world, experimental measures. As a result, we naturally unraveled problem of radiation reaction, a historical difficult problem of Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetic theory, built new quantum electrodynamics without renormalization procedure and also predicted some new theoretical consequences which could not find in traditional theories.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1371] viXra:1903.0114 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 07:40:52

Positronium Atoms Antimatter Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 30 Pages.

Positronium atoms, which consist of an electron and a positron, are one type of antimatter atoms being considered to test whether antimatter falls at the same rate as matter in Earth's gravitational field. [26] Two new experiments at CERN, ALPHA-g and GBAR, have now started their journey towards answering this question. [25]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1370] viXra:1903.0080 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-06 03:03:18

CERN Hunt for Dark Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

Europe's physics lab CERN on Tuesday said it was planning a new experiment to look for particles associated with dark matter which is believed to make up some 27 percent of the universe. [30] In a recent study, the CMS collaboration describes how it has sifted through data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) to try and spot dark quarks. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1369] viXra:1903.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-02 06:48:17

LHC Computing Limits

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 46 Pages.

During this run, from 2015 to 2018, LHC experiments produced unprecedented volumes of data with the machine's performance exceeding all expectations. [31] The proposal envisages a new 100km circumference tunnel that would be bored through the Earth, encircling the city of Geneva and the surrounding countryside. [30] On Wednesday, 25 July, for the very first time, operators injected not just atomic nuclei but lead "atoms" containing a single electron into the LHC. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1368] viXra:1903.0020 [pdf] submitted on 2019-03-01 11:22:47

Trap for Positrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 78 Pages.

For the first time, scientists from the Technical University of Munich (TUM) and the Max Planck Institute for Plasma Physics (IPP) have succeeded in losslessly guiding positrons, the antiparticles of electrons, into a magnetic field trap. [42] Plasma particle accelerators more powerful than existing machines could help probe some of the outstanding mysteries of our universe, as well as make leaps forward in cancer treatment and security scanning—all in a package that's around a thousandth of the size of current accelerators. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1367] viXra:1902.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-28 12:08:14

The Origin of the Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic-Ray Particles

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we show that the extremely-high energies of some cosmic-ray particles can be related to the strong increase of their gravitational masses when they have been generated.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1366] viXra:1902.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-28 19:16:17

Comparison of Particle Model Based on Virtual Spacetime and Quark Model and the Discussion of Charged Higgs Bosons

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 27 Pages. 3 Figure; 1 Table; Including Chinese Version

This paper explores why the particle model based on virtual spacetime is consistent with the results of the quark model. The biggest problem with the quark model is why the quark has a fractional charge, but it cannot be detected. From the condition of the Dirac charge quantization, the fractional charge does not satisfy the charge quantization condition, so it is impossible to observe it in real spacetime. Otherwise we will be able to detect the magnetic monopole. However, quark's fractional charge constructs different baryon structures and is supported by strong experimental evidence. This shows that the quark's fractional charge is reasonable. At least there is strong indirect support. Therefore, any newly created particle model should at least have a quark model as a subset. It can be seen from the analysis of this paper that the virtual spacetime particle model contains the quark model and can predict the all predicted results of quark models. But the virtual spacetime particle model has a larger range and can predict new particles that the quark model cannot predict. By analyzing the meson model in the virtual spacetime particle model, we find that in addition to the currently discovered Higgs boson, there are two Higgs bosons with positive and negative charges in nature. The Bosons are positive and negative particles, and their energy range is about 102GeV or at the range of 110~140GeV, which should be found on LHC and other colliders.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1365] viXra:1902.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-27 13:05:13

A Possibility of CPT Violation in the Standard Model

Authors: S.A. Larin
Comments: 7 Pages.

It is shown that there is a possibility of violation of CPT symmetry in the Standard Model which does not contradict to the famous CPT theorem. To check this possibility experimentally it is necessary to increase the precision of measurements of the proton and antiproton mass difference by an order of magnitude.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1364] viXra:1902.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-24 08:26:20

How Newton's Original Formulae May Indeed Propose Causal Violtions of Future Space

Authors: Soerivhe Iriene
Comments: 31 Pages.

In http://vixra.org/abs/1812.0412 it was proposed by Eason that the Axes hypotehesis that was proposed by the Dr Axes in 1953, extending the original gdeanken expiriment by Golholofornes in 1931, could lead to hypertachyonic motion. He proposed that this result could imply forward (directoed) motion in time. This conclusion was wrong, but the key idea was there. Herw we correct the result.

In the Eason paper hypertachyonic motion was contructed for an n-dimensional field with metric that was negatively curved with general torsion field terms. This geormtry was intersting but not real life of 4d FRLW space. The key was that the newly defined Stress-Energy tensor has had Kaehler-extended terms (in n-dimensions). We have know since Kaluza and Klein how to we may construct 4d gauge fields from hyperdimensional space (with hyperdimensional fields) by a process called "compactification". This same can be done, but obviously we will also see extra fields not seen in real. Here we present a novel idea that the oroginal paper did not present: that if the terms are first U-dalitied to an uplifted space, and we manually enforce a gauge condition: \int \Lambda_\mu F^\mu d\z (where z is the uplift radial directioin) then a complete description of our real 4d world physics can be obtained. This condition is interprested as a condition that says that certain causal loops of physical process are integrated out (essentially, not allowed), so we can terms-by-terms cancel the supefluous interactions and retrieve our real 4d world. The restul is that we have a 4d space with modified masses (hypermasses) and light-like interactions of gravity and electyricy and magnetism; but certain forward paths in the space-like regions of light cone are pemisible (in the sense that the expectation value of space-like terms is non-zero).

For a long time it was not understood how closed time-like loops could be allowed by Gerneral Relativiity. In this paper is it showed how this condtition can be enforced naturally and the result is that only forward directed loops are in fact possible, but that general closed time-like violating causal loops are suppressed. This is a major result of the theorem. The implications of this result are far-reaching. For example, there are possible consquences for quantum computer since forward Bell relations are required to construct the entangled quibit states. Another consequence is for Grand Unified Theorys (GUT), since the model constructed seemingly unifies the mecahnism for gravity with that for electromagnetism, the need for extended objects (string theory) or supersymmetrys (SUSY), which so far have null restult of all collider experiments, including, famously, at LHC. Let me repeat: this may possibly be a GUT theory without supersummetry, which so far has not be found even when minimal SUSY (so called MSSM) should have been see. The only logical conclustion of this paper is that indeed SUSY should not be found because it is not needed for a GUT: the LHC has found precisely the correct result. More work will be done to settle remaining open questions: chiral anomalies of the theory, horizon problem, inflation mechanism, the precise details of the GUT (along with testable predictions), off-shell virtual interactions and fadeev-popov ghost field renormalization, boundary flows at high-energy and gravity loop corrections, holographic correlations at strong coupling, consistency of Bell inequalities etc. These must all be checked for the theory to be declared correct, but it has expected that some at least may be confirmed if not all in the upcoming work.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1363] viXra:1902.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-24 16:54:07

Multifractal Foundation of Effective Field Theory

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages. First draft, abstract and plan of work only.

It was recently shown that, regardless of initial conditions, the long-run of multi-variable Renormalization Group flows is prone to end up on strange attractors. In this context, multifractals (MF) become suitable means for the characterization of effective field theories, in particular the Standard Model of particle physics (SM). It is known that typical MF’s are studied using concepts such as singularity spectrum and Rényi entropy. Exploiting the definition of canonical mass dimension, here we show that the separation of gauge and the Higgs bosons from fermions stems from the underlying geometry of the singularity spectrum. Our analysis supports the view that, near the electroweak scale, SM emerges as topological condensate of multifractal dimensions and that Dark Matter is a manifestation of Cantor Dust.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1362] viXra:1902.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-23 17:35:29

Integrable Neural Networks: Paradigm Shift

Authors: Eddie Witten Jr
Comments: 69 Pages.

We study integrable deformations of convolutional neural networks. We obtain the non-perturbative S-matrix of QCD and prove the Riemann hypothesis.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1361] viXra:1902.0384 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-22 08:54:42

Laser-Driven Particle Accelerator

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 63 Pages.

Researchers at LMU have built the first-ever laser-driven particle accelerator that can generate pairs of electron beams with different energies. [43] These measurements provide a rich source of information on the QCD processes that bind heavy quarks into hadrons. For more information about the results visit the CMS webpage. [42] Experiments in astrophysics and nuclear and particle physics are crucial to analyse how the universe works. [41]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1360] viXra:1902.0368 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-21 10:48:17

Neutron Decay and Neutrino Problem

Authors: Ilgaitis Prūsis, Peteris Prūsis
Comments: 3 pages

In contemporary physics, it is assumed that the decay of neutrons is a proof of electron neutrino existence. The article has shown that in this case a mass defect of a proton may have a different cause, i.e., a negative mass of a positron. The hypothesis of an electron neutrino is not necessary.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1359] viXra:1902.0318 [pdf] submitted on 2019-02-19 19:10:16

Book Proface and Catalog::Foundations of Virtual Spacetime Physics

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 8 Pages. 1 Figure

This book introduces the theory of virtual spacetime physics. Starting from the establishment of Maxwell equations based on virtual spacetime, the new Maxwell equations are solved step by step. And obtained a series of new and meaningful results. These results are consistent with the existing theories of quantum mechanics, quantum field theory and general relativity. Although the virtual spacetime is added, the whole theory becomes more concise. Some phenomena and problems that cannot be explained by old theories can be easily solved, and the physical picture is clearer. And just like the introduction of imaginary Numbers in mathematics, it can make some of the seemingly complicated problems in elementary mathematics very simple. The reader only needs to have the elementary knowledge of general university higher mathematics to be able to read this book, then deeply understands the current physics development the most cutting edge knowledge.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[994] viXra:1907.0337 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-18 19:09:46

Testing the Number of Space-Time Dimensions by the 5.9 Years Repeated Millikan’s Oil Drop Experiments

Authors: E Koorambas
Comments: 21 Pages. This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 Unported License. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/ or send a letter to Creative Commons, 444 Castro Street, Suite 900, Mountain View, Califor

The basic motive of the five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory is the unification of gravity and electromagnetism. A feature of these theories was the relation between the electromagnetic coupling e, and gravitational coupling GN and the radius of the fifth dimension Rc. The radius of the fifth dimension Rc is thus fixed by the elementary electric charge. From the known value of the elementary charge, we find that Rc is of the order of the Planck length. Based on The five-dimensional Kaluza–Klein theory, we show that if the observed harmonic pattern of the laboratory-measured values of GN is due to some environmental or theoretical errors, these errors must also affect the elementary electric charge e. We calculate the values of fundamental electric charge e predicted by 3+1 and 4+1 dimensional space-time model respectively. We find that in the case of 4+1 the fundamental electric charge e values are oscillated with the 5.9 year LOD oscillation cycle, while in the case of 3+1 spacetime dimensions the fundamental electric charge e is constant and perfect fitted to the straight line. Furthermore, we propose that the number of space-time dimensions can be reveal by the 5,9 years repeated Millikan’s oil drop experiments.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[993] viXra:1907.0038 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-06 04:44:25

Leptoquarks and Charged Higgs Using Preon Model #9

Authors: Austin J Fearnley
Comments: 15 Pages.

A CERN article of May 2019 hints at a possible use of two non-Standard Model bosons in decays of the bottom quark (b --> c τ ν'). Three paths are explored in the present paper and exact properties of the hypothetical charged higgs and leptoquark are derived using Preon Model #9 which is a minor adaption of Preon Model #6 (Fearnley, May 2015). Finding these structures does not guarantee the existence of these new particles nor their use in the bottom decay paths as the preon model says nothing about energy requirements. The leptoquark found here has electric charge +2/3, spin zero, weak isospin +0.5, and a strong colour charge (red, green or blue). The charged higgs found here has electric charge -1, spin zero, weak isospin -0.5 and no colour charge. The leptoquark has as many preons as the higgs (16 preons in Model #9) whereas the charged higgs has 24 preons: which makes this charged higgs occupy a higher generation category than the higgs.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[992] viXra:1906.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 13:46:01

Derivation of the Sum-of-Squares Relationship

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages.

The sum-of-squares relationship connects the square of elementary particle masses to the square of the Fermi scale. It constrains the spectrum of free parameters in the Standard Model (SM) and it suggests a straightforward resolution to the hierarchy problem. Here we show that this relationship follows from the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near the Fermi scale and supports the view that Dark Matter behaves as long-range multifractal replica of the SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[991] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-27 12:34:15

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 426 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters. Version 4 (v4) adds Prologue and Epilogue. Version 5 (v5) adds remarks about Dark Energy: TeraHertz Josephson Junctions and Neutrino Mass; Raisin-Bread Cosmology; Pioneer Anomaly at Uranus Orbit Raisin/Bread Boundary; and Alcubierrre Warp Drive with Conformal Dark Energy and 5-Tetrahedra Pentagonal DiPyramids.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[990] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-23 08:49:17

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 426 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters. Version 4 (v4) adds Prologue and Epilogue.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[989] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-16 14:29:54

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 423 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[988] viXra:1905.0568 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-13 23:36:48

Cl(16) Science, Art, Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 423 Pages.

There is a realistic Physics model, based on Real Clifford Algebras including Cl(16) and Cl(1,25). Part I describes Real Clifford Algebras. Part II of this book describes Clifford Algebra Physics and its calculations of Force Strengths, Particle Masses, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratio, Kobayashi-Maskawa Parameters, and 3 mass states of Higgs-Truth Quark Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System as they appear in Fermilab and LHC data. Part III describes how Clifford Algebra Physics is related to Art (specifically to The Large Glass by Marcel Duchamp) and to Music (specifically to the Grosse Fugue by Ludwig van Beethoven) and to Archetypes of the Red Book by Carl Gustav Jung. Part IV describes History: Universe - Humanity - my family. Part V describes Deuterium fusion D+D+D+D to He+He + 47.6 MeV by Klein Paradox Quantum Tunnelling in Palladium Clusters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[987] viXra:1905.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-01 09:46:50

Generation of Baryons from Electromagnetic Instabilities from Vacuum.

Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling
Comments: The analysis on pages 3 and 4 has been improved.

Baryons are generated from perturbations of magnetodynamic origin built upon a background sea of excitations at about 3.7 GeV adopting the proton state as a “substrate”, as proposed by Barut. To simulate perturbations from such a state a sum over the energy spectrum of excitations is necessary. A Zeta-function regularization procedure previously adopted for the Casimir Effect is applied to eliminate divergences when the sum upon the energy spectrum states is carried out. States of negative energy compared to the background state are obtained and represent the baryons. The periodic behavior of the baryons masses with confined magnetic flux is reproduced with no further forms of energies required besides the magnetodynamic terms. This treatment implicitly supports the concept that quarks and leptons might be treated on similar theoretical grounds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[986] viXra:1905.0018 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-12 10:11:02

Weyl Symmetry from the Minimal Fractal Manifold

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 4 Pages. First draft.

A number of recent studies hint that Weyl symmetry plays a key role in the gauge theory of gravitation, as well as in the phenomenology of cosmic inflation and Dark Matter. Here we point out that Weyl symmetry follows naturally from the minimal fractality of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. In particular, Weyl symmetry provides a field theoretic framework for the interpretation of Dark Matter as Cantor Dust.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[985] viXra:1904.0584 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 15:44:21

Fibonacci Motives

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 11 Pages.

Motives are well connected to graphical techniques in quantum field theory. In motivic quantum gravity we consider categorical axioms, starting with the ribbon category of the Fibonacci anyon. Quantum logic dictates that the cardinality of a classical set is replaced by the dimension of a space. In this note we look at the geometry underlying Fibonacci numbers and apply it to the algebra of multiple zeta values and cyclic particle braids.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[984] viXra:1904.0584 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-05 16:11:51

Fibonacci Motives

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 8 Pages.

Motives are well connected to graphical techniques in quantum field theory. In motivic quantum gravity we consider categorical axioms, starting with the ribbon category of the Fibonacci anyon. Quantum logic dictates that the cardinality of a classical set is replaced by the dimension of a space. In this note we look at the geometry underlying Fibonacci numbers and apply it to the algebra of multiple zeta values and cyclic particle braids.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[983] viXra:1904.0542 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-11 15:20:59

Systems of Linear Dyson-Schwinger Equations

Authors: Henry Kißler
Comments: 26 Pages.

Systems of Dyson-Schwinger equation represent the equations of motion in quantum field theory. In this paper, we follow the combinatorial approach and consider Dyson-Schwinger equations as fixed point equations that determine the perturbation series by usage of graph insertion operators. We discuss their properties under the renormalization flow, prove that fixed points are scheme independent, and construct solutions for coupled systems with linearized arguments of the insertion operators.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[982] viXra:1904.0426 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-19 05:16:31

An Experiment to Show that there is Gravitational Interaction Among Photons, Because They Have Non-Null Imaginary Gravitational Masses

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

An experimental arrangement, using two petawatts laser beams, is proposed here in order to show that the two laser beams interact gravitationally between them, due to the photons have non-null imaginary gravitational mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[981] viXra:1904.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-17 20:04:53

Real Clifford Algebras and Our Universe: VOID to Cl(16) Lagrangian to Cl(1,25) AQFT

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 38 Pages.

This paper is an outline of basic ideas of Cl(16) and Cl(1,25) Physics. For details see my papers listed at viXra for author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr including vixra 1903.0485 about the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Higgs-Truth Quark System. Version 2 (v2) adds page about 3 Generations. Version 3 (v3) adds discussion about African history and Cellular Automata.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[980] viXra:1904.0193 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-11 08:43:52

Real Clifford Algebras and Our Universe: VOID to Cl(16) Lagrangian to Cl(1,25) AQFT

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 32 Pages.

This paper is an outline of basic ideas of Cl(16) and Cl(1,25) Physics. For details see my papers listed at viXra for author/frank_dodd_tony_smith_jr including vixra 1903.0485 about the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio Higgs-Truth Quark System. Version 2 (v2) adds page about 3 Generations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[979] viXra:1904.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-17 08:32:08

Quantization of Electromagnetic Field in Rindler Space-Time

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The article treats quantization of lectromagnetic field that is defined in Rindler spacetime. Likely the electromagnetic field, the potential did quantizated in inertial frame, the electromagnetic field, the potential can quantizate by the transformation of electromagnetic field or the transformation of the potential in the accelerated frame
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[978] viXra:1904.0191 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-15 06:24:45

Quantization of Electromagnetic Field in Rindler Space-Time

Authors: Sangwha Yi
Comments: 7 Pages.

The article treats quantization of lectromagnetic field that is defined in Rindler spacetime. Likely the electromagnetic field, the potential did quantizated in inertial frame, the electromagnetic field, the potential can quantizate by the transformation of electromagnetic field or the transformation of the potential in the accelerated frame
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[977] viXra:1904.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-06 08:24:53

Further Evidence for the Cantor Dust Composition of Dark Matter

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 3 Pages.

Recent experiments continue to falsify the hypothesis that Dark Matter (DM) consists of quantum-like particles resembling the content of the Standard Model (SM). Several arguments also exist against theories where DM arises from modifications or thermodynamic analogs of General Relativity (GR). These findings indirectly favor earlier interpretations of DM as Cantor Dust, an outcome of the minimal fractal structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Cantor Dust is consistent with the idea of Unmatter, an exotic phase containing fractional numbers of quanta per state, mixing particles with their antiparticles and carrying arbitrary non-integer spins.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[976] viXra:1903.0487 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-29 22:05:01

Philosophy of Nature, Universal Field Theory, Natural Cosmology, and Ontological Evolution

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 222 Pages.

The fundamental principles of this book are human wisdoms of our ultimate philosophy, scientific theories and empirical knowledge that give birth to Universal Field Theory. Since inauguration, it is now strikingly breaking forth systematically from the philosophy of natural laws to the unification of the entire traditional, classical and contemporary physics, and gracefully representing the triple essences of: 

  1. Laws of universe as Philosophy of Nature, 
  2. Framework of nature as Infrastructure of Universe, 
  3. Hierarchy of horizon structures as Topology of Physics. 

By exploring the profound principles behind the workings of the nature, we abstract each context of the laws philosophically, define their terminologies revelationally, derive the scientific theories mathematically, and testify the “artifacts” empirically, shown by the following approaches. 

Chapter I: Abstracts principles of Philosophy of Nature and reveals secrets of Topology of Universe and Horizon Hierarchy of Worlds, predominantly Laws of YinYang processes and of Event Evolutions. (Designed for philosophers using methodology of “divine inspirations by heart”)

Chapter II: Illustrates how the Infrastructure of Universe is developed as the mathematical framework to carry out Universal Field Equations and give rise to the foundations of physical Horizons. (Designed for scientists using methodology of “research thoughts by brain”)

Chapter III-VII: Testifies why the theory can unify our modern physics, conclude numerous groundbreakings, and declare as Universal Field Theory, prevailing over quantum fields, thermodynamics, electromagnetism, gravitation, cosmology and ontology. (Designed for empiricism using methodology of “controlled experiments by technology”)

Therefore, readers will gain their confidences in development of our future sciences concisely. and effectively with the methodology of 

Philosophy => Scientific Theory <==> Observation and Experiment 


Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[975] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-20 16:53:34

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[974] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-27 18:05:19

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[973] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-26 11:59:14

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[972] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-21 09:26:10

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[971] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-18 00:51:36

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[970] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-06-14 04:23:50

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[969] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-30 17:53:38

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[968] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-22 07:22:47

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[967] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-18 19:46:12

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[966] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-08 21:09:12

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu Sheng-Ping
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[965] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-03 17:04:02

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[964] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-28 01:53:11

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[963] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-17 01:05:47

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[962] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-12 06:07:37

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[961] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-08 22:36:50

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[960] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-08 05:18:53

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 13 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[959] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-05 21:17:08

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[958] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-05 02:54:11

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[957] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-02 01:34:32

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[956] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-28 22:20:37

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[955] viXra:1903.0431 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-28 03:05:09

Electron Theory

Authors: Wu ShengPing
Comments: 12 Pages.

This article try to unified the four basic forces by Maxwell equations, the only experimental theory. Self-consistent Maxwell equation with the e-current from matter current is proposed, and is solved to four kinds of electrons and the structures of particles. The static properties and decay are reasoned, all meet experimental data. The equation of general relativity sheerly with electromagnetic field is discussed as the base of this theory. In the end the conformation elementarily between this theory and QED and weak theory is discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[954] viXra:1903.0334 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-16 20:47:27

Science, Art, and Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 54 Pages.

In my view: Science = Art = Music: Science is explained by a Theory of Everything (TOE) using Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) The Pinnacle of Human Art is Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass which (when combined with its Mirror image) corresponds in detail with Cl(16) Physics TOE The Pinnacle of Human Music is Beethoven's Grosse Fugue which corresponds in detail with Cl(16) TOE Cl(16) emerged from a Quantum Fluctuation in a Void in our Parent Universe by David Finkelstein's Clifford Iteration Process: Cl(Void) = Clifford Algebra of Void = 0 Cl(0) = 2^0 dimensions = 1 Cl(1) = 2^1 = 2 Cl(2) = 2^2 = 4 Cl(4) = 2^4 = 16 Cl(16) = 2^16 = 65,536 = tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = 256x256 Cl(16) has 16 Vectors = Lie Ball = Spin(10) / Spin(8) x U(1) Cl(16) has 120 BiVectors = D8 subalagebra of E8 Cl(16) has 128 half-Spinors ( 1 0-Vector + 126 8-Vectors + 1 16-Vector ) 120+128 = 248 = E8 Cl(16) has 560 TriVectors = 10 copies of Fr3(O) 56-dim Fr3(O) has 2 copies of 27-dim J3(O) The other 65,536-16-120-128-560 = 64,712 elements of Cl(16) are available to carry information in processes such as Quantum Consciousness. Version 6 (v6) adds cover page referring to ROOF on FIRE gospel song. Version 7 (v7) adds material about Bohm Quantum Potential.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[953] viXra:1903.0334 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-09 23:11:43

Science, Art, and Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 53 Pages.

In my view: Science = Art = Music: Science is explained by a Theory of Everything (TOE) using Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) The Pinnacle of Human Art is Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass which (when combined with its Mirror image) corresponds in detail with Cl(16) Physics TOE The Pinnacle of Human Music is Beethoven's Grosse Fugue which corresponds in detail with Cl(16) TOE Cl(16) emerged from a Quantum Fluctuation in a Void in our Parent Universe by David Finkelstein's Clifford Iteration Process: Cl(Void) = Clifford Algebra of Void = 0 Cl(0) = 2^0 dimensions = 1 Cl(1) = 2^1 = 2 Cl(2) = 2^2 = 4 Cl(4) = 2^4 = 16 Cl(16) = 2^16 = 65,536 = tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = 256x256 Cl(16) has 16 Vectors = Lie Ball = Spin(10) / Spin(8) x U(1) Cl(16) has 120 BiVectors = D8 subalagebra of E8 Cl(16) has 128 half-Spinors ( 1 0-Vector + 126 8-Vectors + 1 16-Vector ) 120+128 = 248 = E8 Cl(16) has 560 TriVectors = 10 copies of Fr3(O) 56-dim Fr3(O) has 2 copies of 27-dim J3(O) The other 65,536-16-120-128-560 = 64,712 elements of Cl(16) are available to carry information in processes such as Quantum Consciousness. Version 6 (v6) adds cover page referring to ROOF on FIRE gospel song.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[952] viXra:1903.0334 [pdf] replaced on 2019-05-04 18:38:38

Science, Art, and Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 52 Pages.

In my view: Science = Art = Music: Science is explained by a Theory of Everything (TOE) using Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) The Pinnacle of Human Art is Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass which (when combined with its Mirror image) corresponds in detail with Cl(16) Physics TOE The Pinnacle of Human Music is Beethoven's Grosse Fugue which corresponds in detail with Cl(16) TOE Cl(16) emerged from a Quantum Fluctuation in a Void in our Parent Universe by David Finkelstein's Clifford Iteration Process: Cl(Void) = Clifford Algebra of Void = 0 Cl(0) = 2^0 dimensions = 1 Cl(1) = 2^1 = 2 Cl(2) = 2^2 = 4 Cl(4) = 2^4 = 16 Cl(16) = 2^16 = 65,536 = tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = 256x256 Cl(16) has 16 Vectors = Lie Ball = Spin(10) / Spin(8) x U(1) Cl(16) has 120 BiVectors = D8 subalagebra of E8 Cl(16) has 128 half-Spinors ( 1 0-Vector + 126 8-Vectors + 1 16-Vector ) 120+128 = 248 = E8 Cl(16) has 560 TriVectors = 10 copies of Fr3(O) 56-dim Fr3(O) has 2 copies of 27-dim J3(O) The other 65,536-16-120-128-560 = 64,712 elements of Cl(16) are available to carry information in processes such as Quantum Consciousness.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[951] viXra:1903.0334 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-12 22:54:56

Science, Art, and Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 47 Pages.

In my view: Science = Art = Music: Science is explained by a Theory of Everything (TOE) using Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) The Pinnacle of Human Art is Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass which (when combined with its Mirror image) corresponds in detail with Cl(16) Physics TOE The Pinnacle of Human Music is Beethoven's Grosse Fugue which corresponds in detail with Cl(16) TOE Cl(16) emerged from a Quantum Fluctuation in a Void in our Parent Universe by David Finkelstein's Clifford Iteration Process: Cl(Void) = Clifford Algebra of Void = 0 Cl(0) = 2^0 dimensions = 1 Cl(1) = 2^1 = 2 Cl(2) = 2^2 = 4 Cl(4) = 2^4 = 16 Cl(16) = 2^16 = 65,536 = tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = 256x256 Cl(16) has 16 Vectors = Lie Ball = Spin(10) / Spin(8) x U(1) Cl(16) has 120 BiVectors = D8 subalagebra of E8 Cl(16) has 128 half-Spinors ( 1 0-Vector + 126 8-Vectors + 1 16-Vector ) 120+128 = 248 = E8 Cl(16) has 560 TriVectors = 10 copies of Fr3(O) 56-dim Fr3(O) has 2 copies of 27-dim J3(O) The other 65,536-16-120-128-560 = 64,712 elements of Cl(16) are available to carry information in processes such as Quantum Consciousness.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[950] viXra:1903.0334 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-29 16:22:51

CMS LHC Run 2 Higgs and Truth Quark

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 14 Pages.

CMS histogram for 2016+2017+2018 LHC Run 2 at 13 TeV supports 3 mass states of the Higgs at about 125 GeV, 200 GeV, and 250 GeV with Higgs and Truth Quark forming a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio System. ATLAS (afaik) has not studied the mass range of 200 GeV and 250 GeVsince ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 which saw excess in 2015-2016 13 TeV data around 240 GeV with local significance 3.6 sigma. Fermilab CDF and D0 have, in addition to the Truth Quark 174 GeV state, seen indications of Truth Quark mass states around 130 GeV and 220 GeV but the Fermilab Consensus has dismissed them as statistical fluctuations
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[949] viXra:1903.0334 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-24 23:38:59

Science, Art, and Music

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 46 Pages.

In my view: Science = Art = Music: Science is explained by a Theory of Everything (TOE) using Real Clifford Algebra Cl(16) The Pinnacle of Human Art is Marcel Duchamp's Large Glass which (when combined with its Mirror image) corresponds in detail with Cl(16) Physics TOE. The Pinnacle of Human Music is Beethoven's Grosse Fugue which corresponds in detail with Cl(16) TOE. Cl(16) emerged from a Quantum Fluctuation in a Void in our Parent Universe by David Finkelstein's Clifford Iteration Process: Cl(Void) = Clifford Algebra of Void = 0 Cl(0) = 2^0 dimensions = 1 Cl(1) = 2^1 = 2 Cl(2) = 2^2 = 4 Cl(4) = 2^4 = 16 Cl(16) = 2^16 = 65,536 = tensor product Cl(8)xCl(8) = 256x256 Cl(16) has 16 Vectors = Lie Ball = Spin(10) / Spin(8) x U(1) Cl(16) has 120 BiVectors = D8 subalagebra of E8 Cl(16) has 128 half-Spinors ( 1 0-Vector + 126 8-Vectors + 1 16-Vector ) 120+128 = 248 = E8 Cl(16) has 560 TriVectors = 10 copies of Fr3(O) 56-dim Fr3(O) has 2 copies of 27-dim J3(O) The other 65,536-16-120-128-560 = 64,712 elements of Cl(16) are available to carry information in processes such as Quantum Consciousness.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[948] viXra:1903.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2019-07-08 11:28:03

The Strange Attractor Structure of Turbulence and Effective Field Theories

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages. Second draft, work in progress.

Recent work has conjectured that, under general boundary conditions, non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows are likely to end up on strange attractors. If this conjecture is true, effective field theories must necessarily reflect the properties of these attractors. We start from the observation that, seemingly disparate concepts such as the Berry phase, gauge potentials and the curvature tensor of General Relativity (GR), share a common geometric foundation. Developing further, we posit that the dynamics of gauge and gravitational fields may be derived from the global attributes of strange attractors. The motivation behind this ansatz is that the Navier-Stokes equations bridge the gap between fluid turbulence, on the one hand, and the mathematics of GR and gauge theory, on the other.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[947] viXra:1903.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-18 10:51:03

The Strange Attractor Structure of Turbulence and Effective Field Theories

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages. Work in progress, third draft.

Recent work has conjectured that, under general boundary conditions, non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows are likely to end up on strange attractors. If this conjecture is true, effective field theories must necessarily reflect the properties of these attractors. We start from the observation that, seemingly disparate concepts such as the Berry phase, gauge potentials and the curvature tensor of General Relativity (GR), share a common geometric foundation. Developing further, we posit that the dynamics of gauge and gravitational fields may be derived from the global attributes of strange attractors. The motivation behind this ansatz is that the Navier-Stokes equations bridge the gap between fluid turbulence, on the one hand, and the mathematics of GR and gauge theory, on the other.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[946] viXra:1903.0228 [pdf] replaced on 2019-04-10 20:32:23

The Strange Attractor Structure of Turbulence and Effective Field Theories

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 8 Pages. Work in progress, second draft.

Recent work has conjectured that, under general boundary conditions, non-equilibrium Renormalization Group flows are likely to end up on strange attractors. If this conjecture is true, effective field theories must necessarily reflect the properties of these attractors. We start from the observation that, seemingly disparate concepts such as the Berry phase, gauge potentials and the curvature tensor of General Relativity (GR), share a common geometric foundation. Developing further, we posit that the dynamics of gauge and gravitational fields may be derived from the global attributes of strange attractors. The motivation behind this ansatz is that the Navier-Stokes equations bridge the gap between fluid turbulence, on the one hand, and the mathematics of GR and gauge theory, on the other.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[945] viXra:1903.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-08 06:34:28

A New Study on Unification of Electromagnetic Field and Gravitational Field

Authors: Ho Dong Jo, Chol Song Kim
Comments: 60 Pages.

We specified the difficulties of Maxwell’s electromagnetic theory and Einstein’s gravitational theory in detail, established a new unified theory of field including consistent electromagnetic theory and gravitational theory on the basis of new starting postulates, and applied these theoretical methods to quantum electrodynamics. We accepted a new geometrical space in which metric tensor and all main physical functions becomes implicit function, called “KR space” conforming to our starting postulates, and normalization of implicit functions in order to connect all physical functions defined in this space with real world, experimental measures. As a result, we naturally unraveled problem of radiation reaction, a historical difficult problem of Maxwell-Lorentz electromagnetic theory, built new quantum electrodynamics without renormalization procedure and also predicted some new theoretical consequences which could not find in traditional theories.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[944] viXra:1902.0489 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-02 07:58:35

Comparison of Particle Model Based on Virtual Spacetime and Quark Model and the Discussion of Charged Higgs Bosons

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 28 Pages.

This paper explores why the particle model based on virtual spacetime is consistent with the results of the quark model. The biggest problem with the quark model is why the quark has a fractional charge, but it cannot be detected. From the condition of the Dirac charge quantization, the fractional charge does not satisfy the charge quantization condition, so it is impossible to observe it in real spacetime. Otherwise we will be able to detect the magnetic monopole. However, quark's fractional charge constructs different baryon structures and is supported by strong experimental evidence. This shows that the quark's fractional charge is reasonable. At least there is strong indirect support. Therefore, any newly created particle model should at least have a quark model as a subset. It can be seen from the analysis of this paper that the virtual spacetime particle model contains the quark model and can predict the all predicted results of quark models. But the virtual spacetime particle model has a larger range and can predict new particles that the quark model cannot predict. By analyzing the meson model in the virtual spacetime particle model, we find that in addition to the currently discovered Higgs boson, there are two Higgs bosons with positive and negative charges in nature. The Bosons are positive and negative particles, and their energy range is at the range of 110~140GeV, which should be found on LHC and other colliders.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[943] viXra:1902.0489 [pdf] replaced on 2019-03-01 20:42:57

Comparison of Particle Model Based on Virtual Spacetime and Quark Model and the Discussion of Charged Higgs Bosons

Authors: Zhi Cheng
Comments: 28 Pages. 3 Figures; 1 Table; Including Chinese Version

This paper explores why the particle model based on virtual spacetime is consistent with the results of the quark model. The biggest problem with the quark model is why the quark has a fractional charge, but it cannot be detected. From the condition of the Dirac charge quantization, the fractional charge does not satisfy the charge quantization condition, so it is impossible to observe it in real spacetime. Otherwise we will be able to detect the magnetic monopole. However, quark's fractional charge constructs different baryon structures and is supported by strong experimental evidence. This shows that the quark's fractional charge is reasonable. At least there is strong indirect support. Therefore, any newly created particle model should at least have a quark model as a subset. It can be seen from the analysis of this paper that the virtual spacetime particle model contains the quark model and can predict the all predicted results of quark models. But the virtual spacetime particle model has a larger range and can predict new particles that the quark model cannot predict. By analyzing the meson model in the virtual spacetime particle model, we find that in addition to the currently discovered Higgs boson, there are two Higgs bosons with positive and negative charges in nature. The Bosons are positive and negative particles, and their energy range is at the range of 110~140GeV, which should be found on LHC and other colliders.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics