**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(7) - 0703(6) - 0704(2) - 0706(4) - 0708(1) - 0710(1) - 0712(1)

2008 - 0802(2) - 0803(1) - 0809(1) - 0810(1) - 0811(1) - 0812(1)

2009 - 0904(1) - 0907(8) - 0908(5) - 0909(4) - 0910(7) - 0911(10) - 0912(5)

2010 - 1001(4) - 1002(3) - 1003(13) - 1004(4) - 1005(4) - 1006(2) - 1007(3) - 1008(7) - 1009(6) - 1010(5) - 1011(5) - 1012(8)

2011 - 1102(5) - 1103(15) - 1104(4) - 1105(3) - 1106(2) - 1107(3) - 1108(6) - 1109(8) - 1110(9) - 1111(12) - 1112(5)

2012 - 1201(13) - 1202(6) - 1203(7) - 1204(5) - 1205(4) - 1206(8) - 1207(6) - 1208(14) - 1209(4) - 1210(13) - 1211(6) - 1212(14)

2013 - 1301(12) - 1302(15) - 1303(7) - 1304(7) - 1305(9) - 1306(11) - 1307(11) - 1308(11) - 1309(16) - 1310(12) - 1311(7) - 1312(13)

2014 - 1401(13) - 1402(18) - 1403(10) - 1404(20) - 1405(15) - 1406(14) - 1407(5) - 1408(15) - 1409(5) - 1410(12) - 1411(11) - 1412(15)

2015 - 1501(7) - 1502(12) - 1503(13) - 1504(11) - 1505(21) - 1506(5) - 1507(24) - 1508(21) - 1509(11) - 1510(5) - 1511(20) - 1512(5)

2016 - 1601(16) - 1602(15) - 1603(13) - 1604(13) - 1605(11) - 1606(17) - 1607(17) - 1608(21) - 1609(19) - 1610(24) - 1611(18) - 1612(15)

2017 - 1701(22) - 1702(10) - 1703(13) - 1704(21) - 1705(18) - 1706(16) - 1707(15) - 1708(18) - 1709(18) - 1710(13) - 1711(6) - 1712(18)

2018 - 1801(13) - 1802(16)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1130] **viXra:1802.0274 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-20 09:06:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13]
Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12]
An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11]
Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical
Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7]
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6]
Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5]
Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1129] **viXra:1802.0246 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 07:08:03*

**Authors:** Lev I. Verkhovsky

**Comments:** 8 Pages. This is a translation into English of the abridged version of an article published in the Russian popular science journal `Chemistry and Life` (2006, No 6)

The groups of symmetry of regular polyhedra are considered. It is shown that a total number and types of gauge bosons in the Grand Unified Theory with the group SU(5) can be deduced from the structure of the cube rotation group. Possible connections of fundamental fermions with the icosahedral symmetry are discussed.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1128] **viXra:1802.0218 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 19:52:27*

**Authors:** Viktor Chibisov, Ivan Chibisov

**Comments:** 393 Pages.

S_theory belongs to the class of preon models of the structure of elementary particles from first-particles (the first brick). The basic idea of S_theory lies in the model for the formation of irst-particles of matter (simples) by stretching the electric vortices of virtual photons with a powerful magnetic field (PMF) of a bursting singularity into electromagnetic vortex-helixes. After the "shutdown" of the PMF, the vortex-spirals are shortened to resonance lengths (5 pcs.) and the longer ones (2 pcs.) fold into toroidal vortex-bagels, such as Zeldovich's anapoles. From Zel'dovich's anapoles, they are distinguished by the presence of an azimuthal electric vortex, which gives them a magnetic moment and an electric charge. From the formed spectrum of 2 standard sizes of simples-bagels and 3 standard sizes of simples-spirales S_models of formation of basic elementary particles, relic neutron, nucleosynthesis of isotope clouds, main nuclear reactions, neutron stars, black holes, particles of Dark matter are offered, and also to give an explanation reasons for the dispersal of galaxies (dark energy) and the dilemma of the imbalance of matter and antimatter in our Universe. The proposed S-models of these objects and the processes of their formation made it possible to establish the deterministic regularities of these processes, covering the era of the formation and evolution of the universe after the Big Bang. The proposed S-models of objects and the processes of their formation and transformation have an exclusively electromagnetic character, based on the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices. It was found that the theory of the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices (TEMV) is currently not fully developed, we had to postulate a number of TEMV provisions. In this paper, schemes for experimental verification of this postulates and consequences stemming from S-theory, such as the difference of masses of protons, neutrons and alpha particles in different isotopes, and the need to correct the reference masses of individual isotopes (in particular tritium) are proposed. An analysis of the appearance of virtual photons and the singularity at the time of the Big Bang led us to the assumption of a two-component space structure consisting of corpuscles containing related components K1 and K2, genealogically related to electric and magnetic vortices. The models of formation of virtual photons and the first singularity are given.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1127] **viXra:1802.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-17 10:35:06*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 1 Page.

While the notion that it is better to avoid renormalization if one possibly can is an easy sell, the possibility that a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant quantum model has come over the horizon turns out to be a surprisingly hard sell.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1126] **viXra:1802.0185 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 06:33:28*

**Authors:** Misheck Kirimi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Unification of Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics is explored. The similarities and the differences in these laws have remained unexplained since 1784 when Coulomb published the latter law. It is noted here that no past research has paid attention to the fact that ‘gravitational mass’ (M1M2) and ‘electric charge’ (Q1Q2) are the only physical parameters that Newton’s and Coulomb’s laws do not share. The observation reduces ‘unification of gravity and electricity’ to ‘unification of mass and electric charge’. Despite the simplicity of this observation, physics literature is silent about the relation of mass to electric charge. Little effort has been devoted to this subject because the meaning of charge is ambiguous – charge has never been explained in terms of known physical parameters. An intelligible explanation of charge is suggested here. Based on the explanation, it is demonstrated that mass and charge are different aspects of the electron. Consequently, it is shown that gravitation and electrostatics are different facets of a common phenomenon. It is concluded that positron and negatron are the ultimate elementary units of matter, i.e. matter is nothing but equal positive and negative grains of electricity. The results solve a major problem in physics, namely the unification of gravitation and electrostatics, and also provide a theoretical foundation for attempts to manipulate gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1125] **viXra:1802.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-15 10:16:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1124] **viXra:1802.0146 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-12 10:40:02*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 42 Pages.

In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15]
A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14]
The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13]
Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12]
Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1123] **viXra:1802.0131 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-11 13:38:42*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the threshold (centre-of-mass) energies and corresponding to them values of the rho parameter. The qualitative description is very detailed and in the quantitative description there are incorporated the coupling constants calculated within SST.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1122] **viXra:1802.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 08:28:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Due to the properties of the superluminal quantum entanglement, theory of proton is classical and statistical. Quantum Physics is a result of neglecting the superluminal entanglement which is a classical phenomenon. Here, within the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated and showed the origin of the inelastic and elastic cross-section and the rho parameter versus the centre-of-mass energy for the proton-proton collisions. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1121] **viXra:1802.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 09:17:00*

**Authors:** Peter Leifer

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The intrinsic unification of the quantum theory and relativity has been discussed here in the light of the last developments. Such development is possible only on the way of the serious deviation from traditional assumptions about a priori spacetime structure and the Yang-Mills generalization of the well known $U(1)$ Abelian gauge symmetry of the classical electrodynamics. In fact, more general gauge theory should be constructed.
Formally we deal with the quantum version of the gauge theory of the deformable bodies - the gauge theory of the deformable quantum state. More physically this means that the distance between quantum states is strictly defined value whereas the distance between bodies (particle) is an approximate value, at best. Thereby, all well known solid frames and clocks even with corrections of special relativity should be replaced by the flexible and anholonomic quantum setup. Then Yang-Mills arguments about the spacetime coordinate dependence of the gauge unitary rotations should be reversed on the dependence of the spacetime structure on the gauge transformations of the flexible quantum setup. One needs to build ``inverse representation" of the unitary transformations by the intrinsic dynamical spacetime transformations.
In order to achieve such generalization one needs the general footing for gauge fields and for ``matter fields". Only fundamental pure quantum degrees of freedom like spin, charge, hyper-charges, etc., obey this requirement. One may assume that they correspond some fundamental quantum motions in the manifold of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's). Then ``elementary particles" will be represented as a dynamical process keeping non-linear coherent superposition of these fundamental quantum motions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1120] **viXra:1802.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 09:50:37*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are using the nation's most powerful supercomputer, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to study particle interactions important to energy production in the sun and stars and to propel the search for new physics discoveries. [12] A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1119] **viXra:1802.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-07 17:01:07*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Published in International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews, 2018; 2:6.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and contrast physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional contrast physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of contrary physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1118] **viXra:1802.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 10:28:42*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14]
The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13]
Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12]
Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11]
Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9]
A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8]
It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe.
The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6]
Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5]
PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4]
The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1117] **viXra:1802.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-02 20:54:46*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Physical Spacetime is the Shilov Boundary of a Complex Domain Bulk Space. Bulk Domain is made up of Cells carrying 65,536 Cl(16) Quantum Information Elements. Physical Spacetime contains an Indra’s Net of Schwinger Source Particles which form Atoms which in turn form Tubulin Dimers and Microtubules carrying 65,000 Quantum Information Elements. The Spacetime Microtubules and Bulk Domain Cells have Resonant Connection by Bohm Quantum Potential, thus connecting Consciousness of Human Body with Universal Spiritual Consciousness. The Complex Domain Buik and Shilov Boundary are also related by Poisson and Bergman Kernels. Bergman Kernel for a Bounded Region of Spacetime is the Green’s Function for that Region as a Schwinger Source carrying Charge of Symmetry of its Spacetime Region. Schwinger Sources act as Jewels of a Universal Indra’s Net with Quantum Blockchain Structure. For each Schwinger Source to carry Information of Indra’s Net it must have Fractal Structure. Geometry of Schwinger Sources their Green’s Functions allows calculation of Force Strengths and Particle Masses. For details see viXra 1701.0496 , 1701.0495 , 1602.0319 , 1711.0476 , 1801.0086

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1116] **viXra:1802.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 13:20:41*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13]
And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11]
Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10]
The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1115] **viXra:1802.0006 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-01 08:14:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Studies of high-momentum top-quark pairs are challenging, as it is a channel with significant background. The new ATLAS measurement uses a pioneering method taking advantage of a relativistic effect known as a Lorentz boost. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1114] **viXra:1801.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-31 08:23:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12]
The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11]
Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10]
The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1113] **viXra:1801.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-30 02:48:08*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1112] **viXra:1801.0392 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 08:48:47*

**Authors:** Pavel Sladkov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The fundamental flaws of the Standard Model are considered.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1111] **viXra:1801.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-29 09:33:30*

**Authors:** Florent Gheeraert

**Comments:** 47 Pages.

A theory that describes the photons of light as electrical dipoles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1110] **viXra:1801.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-27 13:29:23*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This paper is a brief summary of some useful facts about Spacetime for E8 Physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1109] **viXra:1801.0340 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 04:15:36*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 57 Pages.

Here we consider some results of RUNII.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1108] **viXra:1801.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-25 07:43:04*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 109 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitons kill people”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill people”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational radiation is gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
People ask, what is a Black Hole?
“Black holes are Ferent matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent matter is matter with density higher than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
“The majority of Ferent matter is the core of the supermassive black hole, in the center of each galaxy”
Adrian Ferent
“During the Big Bang first emerged the gravitational force with the speed of the gravitons: v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m / s”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitons speed is v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s, how I explained in my Gravitation theory close to the speed of light squared, v = c^2.
Energy of the gravitons: E = m × v^2
Energy of the gravitons: E = m × c^4
At high frequency, gravitons have high energy:
Energy of the gravitons: E = a × f
Graviton energy emitted by Black holes:
Graviton momentum > Photon momentum
The graviton energy emitted by black holes:
E = 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV
This means:
“Gravitons emitted by Black holes are harmful”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitons with highest energy are emitted by black holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Inside the black holes, Gravitation force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, anyone can get cancer at any age, but the risk goes up with age”
Adrian Ferent
“Because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitons emitted by a black hole do not follow the curvature created by the black hole, because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
Today it is accepted that the center of almost every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole.
“The source for Gravitational radiation: from 100 million black holes from our galaxy and from black holes outside the Milky Way galaxy”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitational radiation is gravitational waves.
“Gravitational waves are gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
The gravitons have no electrical charge and no measurable mass.
“Gravitational radiation is the most penetrating type of radiation”
Adrian Ferent
Anyway today at least 1300 diseases are known to be caused by a mutation. This means Gravitational Radiation can cause a lot of diseases not only cancer.
From my Gravitation theory:
Graviton’s frequency emitted by a planet, by Earth:
E = a×ν
E = 0.414559 eV
“Graviton energy emitted by Earth is much smaller than 1 eV”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
“Gravitons from Earth are harmless”
Adrian Ferent
“Nobody in lectures say ‘I discovered these things’, that is why nobody understands what the contributions to the lecture by the speaker are!”
Adrian Ferent
“I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1107] **viXra:1801.0181 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-17 06:18:40*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric
Theory, we calculated the threshold energies for the 11 most important breaks in the cosmic-
ray spectra: 5 for the cosmic electrons plus positrons, 1 for positrons and 5 for all cosmic
particles. Obtained results are consistent with observational data.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1106] **viXra:1801.0119 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 10:56:13*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This
modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Considered the meridian distortions of gnomonic projection of light waves in vision.
Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths
in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of
classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4
spacetime is just one phase of this multispace.
The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained
(Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1105] **viXra:1801.0101 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 14:47:54*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Spin physicists first observed the tendency of more neutrons to emerge slightly to the right in proton-proton interactions in 2001-2002, during RHIC's first polarized proton experiments. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1104] **viXra:1801.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-07 19:07:08*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

E8 Physics ( viXra 1602.0319 and 1701.0495 and 1701.0496 ) is based on 26D String Theory with Strings interpreted as World-Lines and spin-2 carriers of Bohm Quantum Potential with Sarfatti Back-Reaction and an Indra’s Net with each Indra’s Jewel being a Schwinger Source. Each Schwinger Source contains about 10^27 virtual particle/antiparticle pairs and interacts with the rest of our Universe through 8 x 10^53 elements of the Monster automorphism group of each 26-dim String Theory cell modulo a Leech lattice so each Schwinger Source can contain full Blockchain information about 10^27 x 8 x 10^53 = 8 x 10^80 other Schwinger Sources in our Universe which is enough capacity to act as an Indra’s Jewel Blockchain Block for our Universe.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1103] **viXra:1801.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 14:30:41*

**Authors:** Peter Hickman

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is proposed that particles are not fundamental but arise as symmetries of an infinite dimension random field. Space-Time with signature (3,1) and gravitation arises as a double phase transformation of spinors and scalars. The 3 generations of chiral spinors of quarks and leptons and the scalar doublets of the Standard Model are found from 3d random field. The Schwarzschild space-time has no physical singularity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1102] **viXra:1801.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 08:21:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1101] **viXra:1801.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-01 23:06:41*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The missing standard model superpartners compel one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here includes the photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, gauge symmetries and Higgs fields. The novelty is that supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1100] **viXra:1712.0603 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-26 06:56:49*

**Authors:** Arijit Bag

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The presently observed accelerating universe suggests that there is a
possibility of the real existence of ‘Tachyons’ - a Boson class particle theo-
rized to exceed the maximum speed of electro magnetic radiation. Theory
suggests that Tachyons do not violate the theory of Special Relativity despite having a speed greater than that of light in vacuum. But their existence is not confirmed by experiment. In this article, possible properties of
tachyons are discussed which would be helpful to test their existence and
detection. Two thought experiments are proposed to detect them.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1099] **viXra:1712.0551 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 14:37:23*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This short paper presents mathematical evidence that the “positron” found in numerous laboratory experiments - is actually a probable version of the muon neutrino, which is ordinary matter, not antimatter. This new evidence is based on the 1024-QAM model as the first Periodic Table for Elementary Particles. There are 16 probable versions of the muon neutrino with one third of the mass of an electron. 4 of these have the same charge-to-mass ratio as a common electron. Another 4 have twice the charge-to-mass as a common electron, but with the opposite charge (+2/3), causing them to move in the opposite direction in a magnetic field. To complicate matters further, note that there are 16 probable versions of an electron, with 4 different charges (0, -1, -1/3, +2/3). A 1024-QAM table was previously presented that graphically displays how all elementary
particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. This paper concludes there is no antimatter available in our universe. All such events can be explained as ordinary matter.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1098] **viXra:1712.0538 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 07:22:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1097] **viXra:1712.0531 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 17:00:36*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation. In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons. Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1096] **viXra:1712.0511 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-20 02:53:58*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies). It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1095] **viXra:1712.0492 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-17 13:40:40*

**Authors:** Peter Sujak

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

This paper shows that there is no doubt that a fantasy of the Standard Model has nothing to do with science. This paper is an extension of the Standard Model topic in author's August 2017 published book titled "Einstein's Destruction of Physics". Per this book all references as summary references are directed in this paper.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1094] **viXra:1712.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-17 05:32:41*

**Authors:** Rui-Cheng LI

**Comments:** 90 Pages.

We introduce a new class of higgs type fields $\{U,U^{\mu},U^{\mu\nu}\}$
with Feynman propagator $\thicksim 1/p^4$, and consider the matching to the traditional gauge fields with propagator $\thicksim 1/p^2$ in the viewpoint of effective potentials at tree level. With some particular restrictions on the convergence, there are a wealth of potential forms
generated by the fields $\{U,U^{\mu},U^{\mu\nu}\}$, such as:
(1) in the case of $U$ coupled to the intrinsic charges of matter fields, electromagnetic Coulomb potential with an extra linear potential and Newton's gravitation could be generated with the operators of different orders from the dynamics of $U$, respectively;
(2) for the matter fields, with the multi-vacuum structure of a sine-Gordon type vector field $A^{\mu}$ induced from $U$, a seesaw mechanism for gauge symmetry and flavor symmetry of fermions could be generated, in which the heavy fermions could be produced; besides, by treating the fermion current as a field, a possible way for renormalizable gravity could be proposed;
(3) the Coulomb potential in electromagnetism and gravitation could be generated by an anti-symmetric field strength of $U^{\mu}$, when it's coupled to the intrinsic charge and momentum of matter fields, respectively; and, except for the Coulomb part in each case, there is a linear and a logarithmic part in the former case which might correspond to the confinement in strong QED, while there is a linear and a logarithmic part in the latter case which might correspond to the dark energy effects in the impulsive case and dark matter effects in the attractive case, respectively; besides, a symmetric field strength of $U^{\mu}$ could also generate the same gravitation form as the anti-symmetric case;
(4) a nonlinear version Klein-Gordon equation, QED and the Einstein's general relativity, could be generated as a low energy approximation of the dynamics of $U$, $U^{\mu}$ and $U^{\mu\nu}$, respectively; moreover, in the weak field case, the gauge symmetry could superficially arise, and, a linear QED, linear gravitation and a 3rd-order tensor version QED could be generated by relating the field strength of $U$, $U^{\mu}$ and $U^{\mu\nu}$ to the corresponding gauge fields, respectively;
(5) for the massive $\{U, U^{\mu}\}$, attractive potentials for particles with the same kind of charges could be generated, which might serve as candidate for
interactions maintaining the s-wave pairing and d-wave pairing Cooper pairs in superconductors, with electric charge in the $U$ case and magnetic moment in the $U^{\mu}$ case as interaction charge, respectively; etc.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1093] **viXra:1712.0422 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 08:57:22*

**Authors:** Sergey V. Vasiliev

**Comments:** 19 Pages. in Russian

The proposed model describes the process of evolution of elementary particles and fundamental interactions of the early Universe, in which the order observed today, described by the standard model of elementary particle physics, develops in several stages with the participation of complementary local and nonlocal processes.
Предлагаемая модель описывает процесс эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной, в котором наблюдаемый сегодня порядок, описываемый стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц, развивается в несколько этапов с участием дополняющих друг друга локальных и нелокальных процессов.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1092] **viXra:1712.0414 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:01:54*

**Authors:** Richard Lighthouse

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

This short technical paper presents a new standard model for Elementary Particles. All elementary particle masses are related by simple math. This math is similar to the math used for wifi signals and it is called 1024-QAM. The 1024-QAM table graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. If we line up all of the particle masses in order, we find there are a number of “gaps.” These are called the "mass gaps", and they line up perfectly with 1024-QAM, which fits the sequence. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is also found to occur with 1024-QAM. Mass Groups 1 thru 8 have heavyweight counterparts which are found in Mass Groups 9 thru 16. New particles appear in groups of 4. Numerous new particles are predicted using 1024-QAM. Each particle mass is shown to have 16 probabilities - 4 charges X 4 spins. The only possible explanation for elementary particles to follow a QAM pattern, is due to a blinking universe. This ebook provides compelling evidence that our universe is literally blinking, off and on.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1091] **viXra:1712.0411 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-12 15:22:33*

**Authors:** Richard Ligthouse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper explains the anomalous magnetic moment for all elementary particles and composite particles (such as the proton). The special case regarding the Muon anomaly is addressed. It also presents a summary of the issues in accurately measuring the magnetic dipole moment for elementary particles. The explanation provided involves simple math and probabilities. It is not complex, such as Yang-Mills and related theories. In summary, there is no anomaly. The measurement of the magnetic moment is a time-averaged value for 16 different probabilities (4 charges X 4 spins) for each particle mass, which is consistent with 1024-QAM. To eliminate the anomaly, a measurement of the particle characteristics and magnetic moment must be taken at a rate faster than the blinking universe, or 1.1 trillion cycles per second. Visual graphs and areas for further research are suggested.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1090] **viXra:1712.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 08:14:55*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The work at the CERN research centre in Switzerland became widely known when the 2013 Nobel-prize-winning discovery of the Higgs boson completed the standard model of particle physics. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1089] **viXra:1712.0356 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-08 17:36:33*

**Authors:** Andrzej Okninski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We study leptonic and semileptonic weak decays working in the framework of Hagen-Hurley equations. It is argued that the Hagen-Hurley equations describe decay of the intermediate gauge boson W. It follows that we get a universal picture with the W boson being a virtual,
off-shell, particle with (partially undefined) spin in the $0\oplus 1$ space.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1088] **viXra:1712.0344 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 14:40:24*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The Consensus view of the Physics Community is that the Standard Model has one Higgs mass state at 125 GeV and one Tquark mass state at 174 GeV. E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a chronological listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 36 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV for a total of 80 fb(-1) = 80 x 100 Trillion = 8 Quadrillion = 8 x 10^15 events. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. WILL ANALYSIS OF THE ADDITIONAL 45 fb(-1) OF LHC 2017 DATA
CONFIRM OBSERVATION OF THE HIGGS HIGH-MASS 240 GEV STATE ?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1087] **viXra:1712.0341 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-08 05:38:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Physicists peering inside the neutron are seeing glimmers of what appears to be an impossible situation. The vexing findings pertain to quarks, which are the main components of neutrons and protons. The quarks, in essence, spin like tops, as do the neutrons and protons themselves. Now, experimenters at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., have found hints that a single quark can briefly hog most of the energy residing in a neutron, yet spin in the direction opposite to that of the neutron itself, says Science News. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1086] **viXra:1712.0124 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 10:39:09*

**Authors:** Pavel Sladkov

**Comments:** 26 Pages.

In paper, which is submitted, electron, proton and neutron are considered as spherical areas, inside which monochromatic electromagnetic wave of corresponding frequency spread along parallels, at that along each parallel exactly half of wave length for electron and proton and exactly one wave length for neutron is kept within, thus this is rotating soliton. This is caused by presence of spatial dispersion and anisotropy of strictly defined type inside the particles. Electric field has only radial component, and magnetic field - only meridional component. By solution of corresponding edge task, functions of distribution of electromagnetic field inside the particles and on their boundary surfaces were obtained. Integration of distribution functions of electromagnetic field through volume of the particles lead to system of algebraic equations, solution of which give all basic parameters of particles: charge, rest energy, mass, radius, magnetic moment and spin.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1085] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 09:45:27*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First draft, work in progress.

We show that relativistic invariance is encoded in the multifractal structure of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale. The approximate scale invariance of this structure accounts for the flavor hierarchy and chiral symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector. Surprisingly, it also accounts for breaking of conformal symmetry in General Relativity and the emergence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1084] **viXra:1712.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 04:45:31*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In the Standard Model (SM), neutrinos interact with quarks through charged current interactions (mediated by W bosons) and neutral current interactions (mediated by Z bosons). When we take into account the uncertainties then the measured in accelerator and the IceCube experiments cross-sections for neutrinos divided by their energy are consistent with the SM predictions. But there is still the proton spin crisis concerning the quarks and gluons so the SM assumptions for the neutrino-nucleon scattering are not clear. Here we calculated the ratios of cross section for neutrinos to neutrino energy using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). According to SST, rotating neutrino produces a halo and disc (it looks as a miniature of active massive galaxy) both composed of the Einstein spacetime components which gravitate and are local i.e. are non-relativistic. The sum of masses of the neutrino halo and disc is equal to the neutrino energy. On the other hand, cross-section of neutrino is defined by radius of the disc which density is much higher than the neutrino halo. Below the threshold neutrino energy equal to 2.67 TeV, pions and other hadrons are not produced in the cost of neutrino energy (their production decreases both radii i.e. of the halo and disc) so the ratio of cross-section to neutrino energy is invariant. Above the threshold energy, more and more neutrino energy is consumed on the production of pions and heavier hadrons - it leads to a slower increase in cross section at higher energies in such a way that the ratio of cross section to neutrino energy decreases practically to zero for neutrino energy about 2,800 TeV (this is due to the scattering on heaviest atomic nuclei). The threshold energy for antineutrinos is two times higher than for neutrinos but the ratio of cross section to antineutrino energy for energies lower than the threshold energy is two times lower than for neutrinos - it follows from the internal helicities of nucleons, muons, neutrinos and antineutrinos. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data and we can verify presented here model because of the SST predictions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1083] **viXra:1712.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 10:10:29*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Mohsin Ilahi, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Standard Model in spite of being the most successful model of particle physics, has a well-known shortcoming/weakness;
and which is that the electric charges of quarks of magnitude 2/3 and -1/3 are not properly quantized in it and are
actually fixed arbitrarily.
In this paper we show that under a proper in-depth study, in reality these charges are found to be basically "wrong".
This is attributed to their lack of proper colour-dependence.
Here the proper and correct quark charges are shown to be actually intrinsically colour dependent and which
in turn give consistent and correct description of baryons in QCD.
Hence these colour dependent charges are the correct ones to use in particle physics.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1082] **viXra:1711.0476 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-30 21:36:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

All Universes obey the same Laws of Physics and have the same Particle Masses, Force Strengths, and Spacetime Structure because they all begin with Void and evolve according to the Quantum Process of David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras. Our Universe began with a Big Bang Planck-Scale Compact Fluctuation in its Parent Universe, followed by an Octonionic Inflation of its Spacetime, and then its present state of Quaternionic Conformal Gravity + Dark Energy Expansion. This paper is only a sketch-overview of the History of Our Universe. For details and references, see viXra 1602.0319 , 1701.0495 , 1701.0496 , 11709.0265 , 1208.0145 Table of Contents From Void to Algebraic Quantum Field Theory via David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras ... page 2, Initial Planck Cell Big Bang ... page 4, Octonionic Inflation ... page 6, 26D String Theory and Bohm Quantum Consciouness ... page 8, Quaternionic Conformal Expansion ... page 10, Low Entropy of Our Universe after Inflation ... page 10, Quaternionic Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy Lagrangian ... page 11, Particle Masses, Force Strengths, K-M parameters ... page 12, History of Our Universe Timetable ... page 13, Human - Universe Consciousness Resonant Connection ... page 14

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1081] **viXra:1711.0426 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-27 07:27:52*

**Authors:** Gaurav Biraris

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1080] **viXra:1711.0401 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 22:30:32*

**Authors:** Robert L. Oldershaw

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The radical idea that neutrinos are subatomic gravitational waves is presented. Given the available empirical evidence, as opposed to theoretical assumptions, this idea is not as bizarre and ignorable as it may at first sound.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1079] **viXra:1711.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-22 17:03:59*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 46 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-42 are my 2018 Calendar with Physics Graphics. Pages 43-46 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1078] **viXra:1711.0388 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-23 02:43:48*

**Authors:** Kevin Loch

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Empirically derived formulas are proposed for calculating the Higgs field Yukawa couplings and pole masses of the twelve known fundamental fermions with experimental inputs me, mμ and the Fermi constant G0F.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1077] **viXra:1711.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-16 12:53:45*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

This an expert text is focused on still unknown questions and answers of physics of elementary particles, elementary fields and its entangled particles. The text is built on new concept of theory of elementary particles in Standard Model, namely interactions of gauge bosons, hypothetically neutrinic gaugino – between lepton–neutrino and w (boson) wion and Z boson zion, and among vector bosons and scalar bosons, Higgs boson or graviton, gravitino and photino. Quantum theoretical particle Polyhedronic quantum prisma is possibly called Quantum Polyhedronic Soliton, and may lead to new point of view on TWISTOR THEORY, SUPERTWISTORS, TWISTOR STRING THEORY, GAUGE THEORY. Ending part of this text is dedicated to a Model situation of quantum gravity tunneling and entanglement of graviton and gravitinos. In this text is re–discovered scientifical work of scientists like Sir Roger Penrose, Cornelius Lanczos, Alan Faber, Kenneth G. Wilson, Alexander Polyakov.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1076] **viXra:1710.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 09:45:16*

**Authors:** Anatoli Kuznetsov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We present the formula for the mass spectrum of the charged composite particles (CP). This formula includes the renormalized fine-structure constant a =1/128.330593928, the rest mass of a new electrically charged particle m = 156.3699214 eV/c2 and two quantum numbers of n and k. The half–integer and integer quantum number n is the projection of an orbital angular momentum electrically charged particle on the symmetry axis of the CP, and the integer k defines the magnetic charges of two Dirac magnetic monopoles, which have opposite signs of magnetic charges and masses. The presented model predicts the values of spins, masses, charge orbit radii and magnetic moments for an infinite number of charged fermions and bosons in the infinite range of mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1075] **viXra:1710.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 17:41:13*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 49 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

A mass model of the neutron and proton reported previously was successful in providing insights into physics and cosmology [9][13]. The equation E=e0*exp(N), where e0 is a constant, was used to characterize energy. This equation works but Edwin Klingman [17] indicated that it needed a clear derivation. This document presents the Schrodinger based fundamentals of the relationship and an understanding of N values for the proton mass model. The fundamentals indicate that zero energy, probability one and quanta found in the neutron model should apply to all mesons and baryons. To study this, data from the new Particle Data Group (PDG) 2016 Particle Physics Booklet [18] was placed in an Excel© spreadsheet and analyzed. The principles zero energy and probability one are consistent with PDG data (even though the particle accelerator must supply energy to create the particles). Understanding mesons and baryons including their properties and fields is important to physics (a subject known as chromodynamics). It is intriguing that results also extend Schrodinger’s equation to quantum gravity and cosmology. New in this document:
1. Nature is extremely simple at the most fundamental level. Schrodinger “quantum circles” at probability one are the source of Charge, Parity, Time (spin) and Fields. Nature creates everything by separating properties from zero (CPTF=0). Energy was originally zero and separated into mass+ kinetic energy and opposite field energy. Parity conjugation is involved in some separations.
2. Quark masses were correlated and their fields identified. It is proposed that “tunneling” allows mesons and baryons to form at various energies rather than their “ideal” energy (the energy where mass+ kinetic energy is equal and opposite the field energy). This explains the large number of mesons and baryons.
3. Fundamentals of decay time are presented and demonstrated for the neutron. Meson and baron decay times are based on N values for their quarks. Some mesons have positive and negative field components correlated with longer decay times (11 orders of magnitude longer).
4. Currently literature suggests that charge, parity and time (CPT) is violated in the weak interaction. New properties of the Up and Down quarks were discovered that cast doubt on this result. The new properties explain Iso-spin (I) and allow baryons to conserve CPTIF=0.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1074] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-23 04:14:05*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Richard Feynman: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" In this note, a "computational dance" from which this number emerges without any need to put it in secretly is identified...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1073] **viXra:1710.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 07:34:40*

**Authors:** Arayik Emilevich Danghyan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In this paper, by solving the equations of the relativistic M2 [2] it will show that elementary
particles, such as electrons, can contain the wave process with very specific properties. The wave
model of a stationary electron is represented in the form of a spherical wave process.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1072] **viXra:1710.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 14:55:42*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 23 Pages. 2 tables, 3 figures

In a previous paper we have related rest energy to magnetodynamic energy for the baryons. The hypothesis of a zitterbewegung vibrating motion is essential to the scheme. To impose gauge invariance to the model and the continuity of the wavefunctions, we adopted the criterion that the magnetic flux linked through the region covered by the particle vibrations should be quantized in units n of hc/e. Our results, however, displayed some “scattering” of the data around the theoretical line, which was not analyzed in that previous work. To elucidate this point, the imposition of a fixed criterion on the possible values for n has been replaced in the present paper by the calculation of n from the model equations. Such procedure led to advances in our interpretation of mass in terms of magnetodynamic energy. It has now been shown that the data actually follow a sinusoidal pattern in a plot of mass against n. The previous criterion implied the exclusive existence of fully coherent wavefunctions ( several baryons indeed comply with strict flux quantization), but the sinusoidal behavior can be attributed to additional interference involving also incoherent waves, which are now introduced in the model. Therefore, confined magnetic flux modulates currents which cross through internal boundaries ( or topological constraints) inside baryons, in analogy with transport through Josephson Junctions between superconductors. This results in the undulations observed in our new plots of n against the magnetic moments of particles, and of the mass against n for all baryons. The proposal by A.O.Barut in the 1970s that every baryon contains a proton as constituent is also consistent with our data analysis, as well as the conclusion that inner constituents of baryons manifest as correlated unit-charged quasiparticles of topology dictated by the symmetry properties of each baryon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1071] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 20:13:21*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1070] **viXra:1710.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 07:42:54*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

I search for concepts that would allow self-consistent generation of dressed fermions in theories of gravitation. Self-consistency means here having the Compton wave lengths of the same order of magnitude for all particles and the four interactions. To build the quarks and leptons of the standard model preons of spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0 have been introduced by the author. Classification of preons, quarks and leptons is provided by the two lowest representations of the quantum group SLq(2). Three extensions of general relativity are considered for self-consistency: (a) propagating and (b) non-propagating torsion theories in Einstein-Cartan spacetime and (c) a Kerr-Newman metric based theory in general relativity (GR). For self-consistency, the case (a) is not excluded, (b) is possible and (c) has been shown to provide it, reinforcing the preon model, too. Therefore I propose that semiclassical GR with its quantum extension (c) and the preon model will be considered a basis for unification of physics. The possibility remains that there are 'true' quantum gravitational phenomena at or near the Planck scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1069] **viXra:1710.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 01:55:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An asymmetry must exist here somewhere but we simply do not understand where the difference is. What is the source of the symmetry break? [13] They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1068] **viXra:1710.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 08:50:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1067] **viXra:1710.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 10:56:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11]
In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1066] **viXra:1710.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 08:26:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1065] **viXra:1710.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 01:38:44*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In my attempt to eliminate the Landau Pole from QED by “borrowing” asymptotic freedom from
QCD, I was successful in uniting the coupling constants of the two, respectively. This equation,
together with the already established electroweak unification forms a basis, within the Standard
Model, to experimentally test Grand Unification. The part that can be tested experimentally is the
value of the strong coupling constant for the energy value of the QCD integration parameter Λ,
offering such a prediction for the first time. It should be also noted that I was successful in
eliminating the Landau Pole.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1064] **viXra:1710.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 00:37:53*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We point to a significant mismatch between the nature of the baryon number and
of the electric charge of baryons in the Skyrme topological model. Requirement
of consistency between these two then demands a significant improvement in
how the electric charge is defined in this model. The Skyrme model thereafter
has a consistent electric charge which has a unique colour dependence built into
it. Its relationship with other theoretical model structures is also studied.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1063] **viXra:1709.0438 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-30 06:57:27*

**Authors:** Austin J.Fearnley

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

Model#7 extended the previous model by including spin 2 gravitons which are now withdrawn in model#8 and replaced by spin 1 gravitons. The reason for the change to spin 1 gravitons was the realisation that spin 1 gravitons together with a unified use of colour charge can unite the forces of QCD, QED, Weak and gravitation in a way that shows the commonality of all charges (Figure A). This commonality is outside the range of the Standard Model as there is a symmetry at the level of preons which is broken by aggregation of preons into elementary particles. At the preon level, the QED charge on preons derives exactly from the QCD charge. Because of aggregation of preons into quarks, that symmetry is broken at the level of quarks. A red quark can be either positive or negatively charged which hides the symmetry present at the level of preons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1062] **viXra:1709.0433 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-29 09:14:28*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Contrary to the author’s account, the “sum of squares” equation of vixra 1709.0386 has been recorded and analyzed in at least one publication prior to his submission. We also object to his interpretation of this equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1061] **viXra:1709.0398 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-26 20:41:25*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A much easier process

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1060] **viXra:1709.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 16:24:08*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We observe that the sum of the squares of the three known fundamental massive bosons is within 0.4% of the square of the vacuum expectation value divided by 2. It is also well known that the top quark mass squared is also slightly less than this value. We put forth the conjecture that this is not a coincidence, and that these two facts are a result of a general principle for the Standard Model that the sum of the squares of the boson masses and the sum of the squares of the fermion masses actually equals the vacuum expectation value squared divided by two. Furthermore this foreshadows a coming particle desert at TeV energies, as the available reservoir of mass couplings has already been allocated to known particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1059] **viXra:1709.0385 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-25 22:46:58*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The 2nd part of this series is available at http://vixra.org/abs/1709.0358

For the first time, ** Law of Conservation of Light** is uncovered that consists of the seven principles including the wave-particle duality as well as the

[1058] **viXra:1709.0311 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-20 13:33:26*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory (QFT). The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1057] **viXra:1709.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-21 03:02:58*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a non-Hermitian Schr{\"o}dinger equation from total relativistic energy. Here, $E=V+c\sqrt{m^2c^2+\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{q}{c}\mathbf{A}\right)^2}$ with $E\rightarrow i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and $\mathbf{p} \rightarrow -i\hbar \nabla$.
In the derivation no use is made of Dirac's method of four vectors and the root operator isn't squared either.
Instead, use is made of the algebra of operators. Proof is delivered that it is possible to derive Lorentz invariant forms in this way.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1056] **viXra:1709.0273 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 08:23:30*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1055] **viXra:1709.0265 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-17 19:16:04*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(8) symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1054] **viXra:1709.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-18 00:04:29*

**Authors:** Gunn Quznetsov

**Comments:** 54 Pages.

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time)

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1053] **viXra:1709.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-12 21:11:20*

**Authors:** DING Jian

**Comments:** 14 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Non-being" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western Philosophy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1052] **viXra:1709.0153 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-13 03:37:11*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

An extremely puzzling problem of particle physics is, how come, no baryon
number arises mathematically to describe the spin-1/2 octet baryons in the
Eightfold way model. Recently the author has shown that all the canonical
proposals to provide a baryon number to solve the above problem, are funda-
mentally wrong. So what is the resolution of this conundrum? Here we show
that the topological Skyrme-Witten model which takes account of the Wess-
Zumino anomaly comes to our rescue. In contrast to the two
avour model, the
presence of this anomaly term for three
avours, shows that the quantal states
are monopolar harmonics, which are not functions but sections of a ber bun-
dle. This generates a profoundly signicant "right hypercharges", which lead
to making the adjoint representation of SU(3) as being the ground state. This
provides a topologically generated baryon number for the spin-1/2 baryons in
the adjoint representation, to connect to the Eightfold way model baryon octet
states. This solves the mystery of the missing baryon number in the Eightfold
way model.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1051] **viXra:1709.0143 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-11 18:57:12*

**Authors:** DING Jian

**Comments:** 19 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

Based on Aristotle's definition, all the knowledge was able to be divided into three parts: natural science, metaphysics and mathematics. Among them, we can distinguish between natural science and metaphysics according to whether there exists in reality. And the principle of the limit in mathematics helps us to break the bondage of finite thought. From the quantitative changes of real space to have gone deep into a qualitative difference of ideal realm, it has accomplished the unity of opposites of all knowledge. Take the postulation as an example. This concept corresponds to limiting value, and is a hypothesis that humans can only be continually to modify the one-sided view to approach the truth but can't use empirical methods to prove or disprove it. Newton's First Law is such a postulation, which has invariance or absoluteness, can be called the absolute truth, and belonged to the metaphysical category. According to the above philosophical principles we have found that in Einstein's special relativity there is a paradoxes, which is to use an absolute truth (the principle of constant light velocity in vacuum) to overthrow another absolute truth (the absoluteness of simultaneity) but one of them can't be proved to be false. And his mistake to be found out, which is to confuse the light speed in reality with the c. So, starting from the perspective of all knowledge, all the inertial systems are redefined, Galileo's coordinate transformations once again enabled; and in order to eliminate the false and retain the true, Einstein's two postulations in special relativity are reshaped, which can make them reasonably to return to the framework of absolute space-time. Finally to point out, it has been identified that so-called "Nonbeing" in Lao-tzu is the "metaphysics", which will certainly have great significance to unify the Eastern and Western philosophy.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1050] **viXra:1709.0103 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-09 16:45:47*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The conservation role of the Higgs boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum".

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1049] **viXra:1709.0090 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 08:33:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

Scientists generally imagine atomic nuclei to be more or less spherical clusters of protons and neutrons, but always relatively chaotic. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1048] **viXra:1709.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-08 06:37:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12]
An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11]
Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9]
A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8]
Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7]
Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6]
Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5]
Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.”
This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1047] **viXra:1709.0021 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-02 08:43:01*

**Authors:** A.J.Fearnley

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This paper summarises a model for building all elementary particles of the Standard Model plus the higgs, dark matter, dark energy and gravitons, out of preons and sub-preons. The preons are themselves built from string-like hexarks each with chiral values for the fundamental properties of elementary particles. The four forces are shown to be unified by hexarks being string-like objects comprising a compactified multiverse-like structure of at least 10^39 strands of string-like 4D space and time blocks (septarks). Despite the individual forces seeming very different from each another, they all derive from the same colour strands, either as net colour braids (QCD and attractive gravity) or as net neutral-colour braids/strands (electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy, or repulsive gravity). Different strength forces have different numbers of braids in them but QCD-colour is qualitatively, but not quantitatively, the same as gravitational colour while electric charge, weak isospin and dark energy are all qualitatively the same neutral-colour mix, but not quantitatively the same.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1046] **viXra:1709.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-09-01 09:03:32*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

New research by a team from Aarhus, Swansea, and Purdue Universities has enabled recent experiments to make the first measurement of the 1S – 2S atomic state transition in antihydrogen. [12] The LHCb experiment has found hints of what could be a new piece of the jigsaw puzzle of the missing antimatter in our universe. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1045] **viXra:1708.0479 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-31 12:36:34*

**Authors:** M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 2 pages

This work is devoted to investigate the types of interaction of physics by exchange particles, that are photon, W and Z bosons, gluon and graviton considered in terms of crystalline polyhedron of light.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1044] **viXra:1708.0378 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-27 06:34:27*

**Authors:** Imrich Krištof

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

This publication is based on studies of The Moravian Masaryk University, Professor RNDr. Josef Havel, Dr.Sc., from Department of Analytical Chemistry and Department of Physical Electronics. The significant subject of the work is an application of ANN (ARTIFICIAL NEURAL NETWORK, with MALDI–TOF SPECTROMETRY,
HPLC (High Pressure Liquid Chromatography), Electrophoresis and Research of AAS (ATOMIC ABSORPTION SPECTROSCOPY). This text says about research of neutrinos and photons, wimp’s like an application of construction of QUANTUM ANN COMPUTER. The Article consists of study an introduction of Author and Prof. RNDr. J. Havel, Dr.Sc. theme of mineralogy and biology
and geography and scientific cooperation from the year 2004, study generally could be known
like soil computation. The second part of this publication is dedicated to short History of Computational Science. The third part says about Highlights of this article, concretely Author’s sketches of a quantum computer.
The fourth part talks about results from continual measuring of statistical data
from project SAGE ^{37}Ar neutrino source experiment (SAGE -> SOVIET–AMERICAN–
^{71}GERMANIUM–^{71}GALIUM EXPERIMENT IN CAUCASCUS BAKSAN. Fifth part is connected with METHODS (KATRIN AND TROITSK NU–MASS). Sixth part is focused to conclusions of Research of neutrinos and other quanticles,
namely photon proton, photon neutrino, neutrino photon and wimp’s.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1043] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 14:56:59*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1042] **viXra:1708.0337 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-25 02:32:10*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Mohsin Ilahi, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Standard Model of particle physics, based on the group structure
SU (N ) c ⊗ SU (2) L ⊗U (1) Y (f orN c = 3), has been very successful. However in
it, the electric charge is not quantized and is fixed by hand to be 2/3 and -1/3.
This is its major shortcoming. This model runs into conflict with another
similarly structured, but actually quite different model, wherein the electric
charge is fully quantized and depends upon colour degree of freedom as well.
We study this basic conflict between these models and how they connect
to a consistent study of Quantum Chromodynamics (QCD) for arbitrary
number of colours. We run into a basic issue of consistency of Quantum
Electrodynamics (QED) with these fundamentally different charges. Study of
consistency of ( QCD + QED ) together, makes discriminating and conclusive
statements about the relevance of these two model structures.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1041] **viXra:1708.0267 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-22 23:03:33*

**Authors:** C A Brannen

**Comments:** 59 Pages. As submitted to Foundations of Physics

We use density matrices to explore the possibility that the various flavors of quarks and leptons are linear superpositions over a single particle whose symmetry follows the finite subgroup $S_4$ of the simple Lie group SO(3). We use density matrices which allow modeling of symmetry breaking over temperature, and can incorporate superselection sectors. We obtain three generations each consisting of the quarks and leptons and an SU(2) dark matter doublet. We apply the model to the Koide mass equations and propose extensions of the theory to other parts of the Standard Model and gravitation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1040] **viXra:1708.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-19 03:56:44*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Scientists have discovered a remarkably simple way to suppress a common instability that can halt fusion reactions and damage the walls of reactors built to create a "star in a jar." [12] Particle collisions recreating the quark-gluon plasma (QGP) that filled the early universe reveal that droplets of this primordial soup swirl far faster than any other fluid. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1039] **viXra:1708.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-18 12:55:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the light-by-light scattering and we calculated the cross-section: 76.5 +- 59.5 nb - it is independent of transverse momentum. This result is very close to the ATLAS data. The SST shows that in reality light is scattered on the central condensates in virtual electrons. The maximum width +-59.5 nb follows from a natural phenomenon. On the other hand, the calculated within the Standard Model central value (too low) and width (too low) of the cross-section are inconsistent with the ATLAS data. We answered as well following question: Why the perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics is at least an incomplete theory?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1038] **viXra:1708.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-17 22:38:32*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajjad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics )
that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide
strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$.
This is well documented in current literature. However,
here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle
physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one.
Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore.
This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented
this being taught to the students.
As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1037] **viXra:1708.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-08-15 05:43:15*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 10 Megatons or more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[809] **viXra:1712.0531 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-23 17:07:23*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation. In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons. Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[808] **viXra:1712.0511 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-21 15:20:08*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies). It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[807] **viXra:1712.0344 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-16 12:13:37*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 28 Pages.

The Consensus view of the Physics Community is that the Standard Model has one Higgs mass state at 125 GeV and one Tquark mass state at 174 GeV. E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a chronological listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 36 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV for a total of 80 fb(-1) = 80 x 100 Trillion = 8 Quadrillion = 8 x 10^15 events. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. CMS disagrees with ATLAS. CMS PAS HIG-17-012 (2017/12/08) says “... in the mass range from 130 GeV to 3 TeV ... No significant excess of events is observed ...” If CMS is right, then Our Universe is MetaStable (see page 26). If CMS is wrong due to misuse of Look Elsewhere Effect (LEE), then Higgs and Tquark form a 3-State NJL type System (see page 28).

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[806] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-07 18:40:41*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Work in progress.

We show that relativistic invariance is encoded in the multifractal structure of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale. The approximate scale invariance of this structure accounts for the flavor hierarchy and chiral symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector. Surprisingly, it also accounts for breaking of conformal symmetry in General Relativity and the emergence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[805] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-27 08:32:15*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Work in progress, second draft.

We show that relativistic invariance is encoded in the multifractal structure of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale. The approximate scale invariance of this structure accounts for the flavor hierarchy and chiral symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector. Surprisingly, it also accounts for breaking of conformal symmetry in General Relativity and the emergence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[804] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-20 12:05:19*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 5 Pages. First draft, work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[803] **viXra:1712.0118 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-05 20:54:23*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 4 Pages. First draft, work in progress.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[802] **viXra:1711.0426 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-18 08:38:55*

**Authors:** Gaurav Biraris

**Comments:** 24 Pages. Results in Physics, 7 (2017) 1650–1673

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[801] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-03 16:58:34*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman said in the 80s: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!". In fact, Armand Wyler had pointed out in 1969 that (9/16\[Pi]^3)(\[Pi]/5!)^1/4 is close to 1/137 (2), but failed to convince anyone that his explanation of the connection -that the number is a property of a 7-dimensional space-time- was viable. In this note, it is suggested that the reason for the closeness of another expression to 1/137 is, not a numerical curiosity, but -ironically- an indicator of the truth of a multi-dimensional physical theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[800] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-29 20:59:14*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" In this note, a "computational dance" from which this number emerges without any need to put it in secretly is identified...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[799] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-27 20:15:41*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" In this note, a "computational dance" from which this number emerges without any need to put it in secretly is identified...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[798] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 19:09:13*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[797] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-26 01:40:12*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[796] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 19:02:52*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" Not to be put too fine a point on it, I know exactly what kind of dance to do on the computer to makes this number come out, without putting it in secretly...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[795] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-21 12:18:24*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[794] **viXra:1709.0433 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-30 20:11:43*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Contrary to what the submission suggests, the “sum of squares” equation of viXra 1709.0386 has been recorded and analyzed in at least one previous publication. We also challenge the author’s interpretation of this equation.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[793] **viXra:1709.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-27 18:33:11*

**Authors:** Cris A. Fitch

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Scooped by http://dispatchesfromturtleisland.blogspot.com/2015/03/the-latest-combined-higgs-boson-mass.html

We observe that the sum of the squares of the three known fundamental massive bosons is within 0.4% of the square of the vacuum expectation value divided by 2. It is also well known that the top quark mass squared is also slightly less than this value. We put forth the conjecture that this is not a coincidence, and that these two facts are a result of a general principle for the Standard Model that the sum of the squares of the boson masses and the sum of the squares of the fermion masses actually equals the vacuum expectation value squared divided by two. Furthermore this foreshadows a coming particle desert at TeV energies, as the available reservoir of mass couplings has already been allocated to known particles.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[792] **viXra:1709.0385 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-16 07:48:36*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

** Abstract**: As a major part of the unification, the quantum fields give rise to a symmetric environment and bring together

- Connect a set of generic fluxions unifying*General Symmetric Fields**electromagnetism,**gravitation, and thermodynamics*.- Declare law of conservation of graviton and compose a duality of torque transportations.*Graviton and Gravitational Fields*- Integrate horizon factors of thermodynamics with the area entropies of*Thermodynamic and Black Body**Black Hole*radiations.

Conclusively, this manuscript presents the unification and compliance with the principle theories of classical and contemporary physics.

[791] **viXra:1709.0385 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 16:43:26*

**Authors:** Wei Xu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

** Abstract**: As a major part of the unification, the quantum fields give rise to a symmetric environment and bring together

- Connect a set of generic fluxions unifying*General Symmetric Fields**electromagnetism,**gravitation, and thermodynamics*.- Declare law of conservation of graviton and compose a duality of torque transportations.*Graviton and Gravitational Fields*- Integrate horizon factors of thermodynamics with the area entropies of*Thermodynamic and Black Body**Black Hole*radiations.

Conclusively, this manuscript presents the unification and compliance with the principle theories of classical and contemporary physics.

[790] **viXra:1709.0311 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-21 09:40:48*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Under construction, first draft.

As we have recently shown, the minimal fractal manifold (MFM) describes the underlying structure of spacetime near or above the electroweak scale. Here we uncover the connection between quantum field operators and the MFM starting from the operator product expansion of high-energy Quantum Field Theory. The approach confirms that the Standard Model of particle physics (SM) stems from a symmetry breaking mechanism that turns the spacetime continuum into a MFM.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[789] **viXra:1709.0306 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-13 04:56:42*

**Authors:** Han Geurdes

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper an algebraic method is presented to derive a non-Hermitian Schr{\"o}dinger equation from $E=V+c\sqrt{m^2c^2+\left(\mathbf{p}-\frac{e}{c}\mathbf{A}\right)^2}$ with $E\rightarrow i\hbar \frac{\partial}{\partial t}$ and $\mathbf{p} \rightarrow -i\hbar \nabla$.
In the derivation no use is made of Dirac's method of four vectors and the root operator isn't squared either.
In this paper use is made of the algebra of operators to derive a matrix Schr{\"o}dinger equation. It is demonstrated that the obtained equation is Lorentz invariant.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[788] **viXra:1709.0265 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-25 08:46:25*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In E8 Physics, when our Planck Scale Universe emerged from its Parent Universe by Quantum Fluctuation, it was represented by Real Form E8(-248) with SO(16) symmetry; and during Octonionic NonUnitary Inflation our Universe was represented by Real Form E8(8) with SO(8,8) symmetry; and after the end of Octonionic Inflation with 8-dim Octonionic Spacetime, during the present era of (4+4)-dim Quaternionic Kaluza-Klein Spacetime and Unitary Quaternionic Quantum Processes our Universe has been represented by Real Form E8(-24) with SO*(16) symmetry.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[787] **viXra:1709.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-28 13:55:39*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** new section added at bottom of page

The conservation role of the Higgs Boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[786] **viXra:1709.0103 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-12 16:35:00*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan

**Comments:** 5 Pages. section added (at bottom)

The conservation role of the Higgs boson is the creation of the "Leptonic Spectrum"

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[785] **viXra:1708.0479 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-02 16:55:18*

**Authors:** M. D. Monsia

**Comments:** 2 pages

This work aims to investigate the exchange particles, photon, W and Z bosons, gluon and graviton which are responsible for fundamental interactions, and other types of elementary particles in terms of crystalline polyhedra of quantum vacuum.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[784] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-15 00:10:14*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata. Version 3 (v3) adds material about H4 quasilattice. Version 4 (v4) describes a natural progression from 600-cell to Superposition of 8 E8 Lattices

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[783] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-09-01 13:51:21*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 39 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata. Version 3 (v3) adds material about H4 quasilattice. Version 4 (v4) describes a natural progression from 600-cell to Superposition of 8 E8 Lattices

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[782] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-29 03:13:38*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata. Version 3 (v3) adds material about H4 quasilattice.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[781] **viXra:1708.0369 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-26 18:31:20*

**Authors:** Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

**Comments:** 34 Pages.

This paper is an elementary-level attempt at discussing 8D E8 Physics based on the 240 Root Vectors of an E8 lattice and how it compares with physics models based on 4D and 3D structures such as Glotzer Dimer packings in 3D, Elser-Sloane Quasicrystals in 4D, and various 3D Quasicrystals based on slices of 600-cells. Version 2 (v2) adds material about Fibonacci Chains and Cellular Automata.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[780] **viXra:1708.0217 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-23 10:11:17*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described the mechanism of the light-by-light scattering and we calculated the cross-section: 76.5 +- 59.5 nb - it is independent of transverse momentum. This result is very close to the ATLAS data. The SST shows that in reality light is scattered on the central condensates in virtual electrons. The maximum width +-59.5 nb follows from a natural phenomenon. The ATLAS background events decrease the observed maximum width to less than +-44.4 nb (it does not concern uncertainties). On the other hand, the calculated within the Standard Model central value (too low) of the cross-section is inconsistent with the ATLAS data. We can say only that the ATLAS result is compatible with Standard-Model predictions only within experimental uncertainties. We answered as well following question: Why the perturbative Quantum Electrodynamics is at least an incomplete theory?

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[779] **viXra:1708.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-18 23:54:36*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin, Mohsin Ilahi

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is commonly believed ( and as well reflected in current textbooks in particle physics )
that the R ratio in $e^+ e^-$ scattering and $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay provide
strong evidences of the three colours of the Quantum Chromodynamics group ${SU(3)}_c$.
This is well documented in current literature. However,
here we show that with a better understanding of the structure of the electric charge in the Standard Model of particle
physics at hand, one rejects the second evidence as given above but continues to accept the first one.
Thus $\pi^0 \rightarrow \gamma \gamma$ decay is not a proof of three colours anymore.
This fact is well known. However unfortunately some kind of inertia has prevented
this being taught to the students.
As such the textbooks and monographs should be corrected so that more accurate information may be transmitted to the students.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[778] **viXra:1708.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-28 18:20:00*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 20 Megatons or more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[777] **viXra:1708.0168 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-08-19 18:42:22*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

It is shown a system that, if launched radially into the Earth’s gravitational field, it can acquires a ultra high amount of kinetic energy, which can generate a highly intense pulse of electromagnetic energy (EMP) with magnitude of the order of 10 Megatons or more.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics