# High Energy Particle Physics

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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed further down

[1023] viXra:1707.0283 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-21 09:54:40

### Atomic Nucleus Grimace

Authors: George Rajna

To some degree of approximation, atomic nuclei are spherical, though distorted to a greater or lesser extent. When the nucleus is excited, its shape may change, but only for an extremely brief moment, after which it returns to its original state. [13] What is the mass of a proton? Scientists from Germany and Japan have made an important step toward better understanding this fundamental constant. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1022] viXra:1707.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-20 07:18:32

### Measurement of Proton Mass

Authors: George Rajna

In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1021] viXra:1707.0233 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-17 08:09:39

### Beyond the Standard Model

Authors: George Rajna

Although the discovery of the Higgs boson by the ATLAS and CMS Collaborations in 2012 completed the Standard Model, many mysteries remain unexplained. For instance, why is the mass of the Higgs boson so much lighter than expected, and why is gravity so weak? [9] Last week, the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) witnessed their first collisions of 2017. [8] As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1020] viXra:1707.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-16 06:07:42

### The First Big Question Facing Physics and Science

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to first big question facing physics and science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1019] viXra:1707.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-12 03:52:25

### Hints of TeV-Scale Black Holes

Authors: Bernard Riley

By application of the 10D/4D correspondence, the radii of nearby stars have been shown to map onto the masses of stable atomic nuclei. The correspondence is now used to calculate the mass m and radius r of the subatomic object that corresponds to a typical 1.4 solar mass neutron star. The mass m is found to be 4.0 TeV. Using natural units, r/m is precisely 2.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1018] viXra:1707.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-11 04:05:08

### New Physics Resulting from Far Too Large a Mass Distance Between the Doubly Charmed Baryons Xi

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

The Standard Model (SM) and experimental data show that the change of the up quark for down quark increases the mass of nucleon by about 1 MeV. On the other hand, SM and experimental results show that the same change in the doubly charmed baryons Xi decreases the mass by about 100 MeV. Within the SM we cannot explain such two major inconsistencies (i.e. 100 MeV instead 1 MeV and the increase-decrease asymmetry) so such problems suggest new physics. To save the SM, some scientists suggest that the first doubly charmed Xi, detected by the SELEX collaboration based at Fermilab, should disappear! Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated masses and I, J and P of many charmed Xi baryons and masses of the two doubly charmed baryons Xi. Calculated mass of Xi_cc+ is 3519.08 MeV whereas of Xi_cc++ is 3621.90 MeV - the results are consistent with experimental data. The other theoretical masses obtained here are very close to experimental results. We present a generalized scheme that is very helpful in calculating masses and other physical quantities that characterize baryons. Charmed baryons contain relativistic, positively charged pion in the d = 0 state which mass is 1256.6 MeV - this mass is close to the mass of the charm quark (in SST it is 1267 MeV) so the quark model can mimic presented here the atom-like theory of baryons. On the other hand, relativistic mass of charged kaon in the d = 0 state is 4444.9 MeV so it can mimic the mass of the bottom quark (in SST it is 4190 MeV).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1017] viXra:1707.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-10 05:31:29

### Higgs Boson and Neutrinos

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to Higgs boson and neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1016] viXra:1707.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-07 06:54:57

### New Particle of the Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna

There's a new particle in town, and it's a double-charmingly heavy beast. Researchers working on the LHCb experiment at CERN's Large Hadron Collider have announced the discovery of the esoterically named Xicc++ particle. [13] One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1015] viXra:1707.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-02 05:27:39

### Faster-Than-Light Particles

Authors: George Rajna

A new theory proposes that faster-than-light particles known as tachyons could answer a lot of questions about the universe, writes Robyn Arianrhod. [29] In a recent publication, Aalto University researchers show that in a transparent medium each photon is accompanied by an atomic mass density wave. [28] New research has made it possible for the first time to compare the spatial structures and positions of two distant objects, which may be very far away from each other, just by using a simple thermal light source, much like a star in the sky. [27] In an arranged marriage of optics and mechanics, physicists have created microscopic structural beams that have a variety of powerful uses when light strikes them. [26] At EPFL, researchers challenge a fundamental law and discover that more electromagnetic energy can be stored in wave-guiding systems than previously thought. [25] The fact that light can also behave as a liquid, rippling and spiraling around obstacles like the current of a river, is a much more recent finding that is still a subject of active research. [24] An international team of physicists has monitored the scattering behavior of electrons in a non-conducting material in real-time. Their insights could be beneficial for radiotherapy. [23] Researchers from the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign have demonstrated a new level of optical isolation necessary to advance on-chip optical signal processing. The technique involving light-sound interaction can be implemented in nearly any photonic foundry process and can significantly impact optical computing and communication systems. [22] City College of New York researchers have now demonstrated a new class of artificial media called photonic hypercrystals that can control light-matter interaction in unprecedented ways. [21] Experiments at the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences in Warsaw prove that chemistry is also a suitable basis for storing information. The chemical bit, or 'chit,' is a simple arrangement of three droplets in contact with each other, in which oscillatory reactions occur. [20]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1014] viXra:1707.0013 [pdf] submitted on 2017-07-01 07:28:54

### Tease Out the Strong Force

Authors: George Rajna

One of the fundamental challenges in nuclear physics is to predict the properties of subatomic matter from quantum chromodynamics (QCD)—the theory describing the strong force that confines quarks into protons and neutrons, and that binds protons and neutrons together. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1013] viXra:1706.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 05:07:49

### Accurate Expression of the Mass of Charged Leptons and Neutrinos

Authors: Bingzhuo Liu

Through the long-term extensive research on the experimental data of the fundamental physical constants and the mass of elementary particles such as charged leptons and neutrinos, the present study defines the source of "generation" difference generated from leptons, which thereby allows the accurate expression of the lepton mass to be derived. It is particularly important to point out that the data at the best fitting point Δm^2_32= 1.59·10^-3 eV^2 obtained in "Study of the wave packet treatment of neutrino oscillation at Daya Bay" reached an accuracy of 96%.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1012] viXra:1706.0527 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-29 10:15:30

### E8 Cohomology and Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

Cohomology structure of E8 represents realistic E8 Lagrangian Physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1011] viXra:1706.0517 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 21:56:54

### A Visible Neutrinos Agglomerate Body

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: showing an image of a visible neutrinos agglomerate body.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1010] viXra:1706.0510 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-27 12:35:08

### Preons, Gravity and Black Holes

Authors: Risto Raitio

A previous preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is completed to provide a model of Planck scale gravity and black holes. Gravity theory with torsion is introduced in the model producing an axial-vector field W coupled to preons with an attractive preon-preon interaction. This is suggested to be the leading term of UV gravity. The boson has an estimated mass near the Planck scale. It can materialize above that threshold and become the center of a black hole. Chiral phase preons are proposed to form a dynamical horizon with thickness of Planck length. Using quantum information theoretic concepts this is seen to lead to an area law of black hole entropy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1009] viXra:1706.0489 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-26 12:03:10

### Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 1 & Basics (in Chinese)

Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin
Comments: 10 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations.

This article is part 1 in the "Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics", which is to lay the foundation for the full text. First, it should be clearly pointed out that a particle moving at the value c of the light speed in vacuum, its static mass can only be equal to 0, but doesn't exist in reality. Therefore, it is vital that how can we correctly make a distinction between the speed of light in vacuum and that in reality. Then, by the aid of the law of conservation of mass-energy, we know that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed electrons are the result of the binding energy inside them to be lost gradually in the form of electromagnetic radiation. So, according to the related electromagnetic theories and the kinetics formulas of the special relativity theory, the study concluded that the charge of a moving electron will follow along with its static mass to be lost synchronously, and its charge-mass ratio whose value remains unchanged. Since an electron can be further broken down, then there should be a kind of more fundamental particles, the electro-ultimate particles, which can compose electrons and whose charge-mass ratio should be equal to the electronic physical constant. Besides, if nature's background (ether) is also composed of the electro-ultimate particles, Maxwell's electromagnetic theory should be true. A corollary is that all photons radiating from the electrons in a storage ring are composed of the electro-ultimate particles. Then, combining with de Broglie's matter wave formula, it is pointed out that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed particles are the primary factor causing the spectrum redshift. And through this formula, the average force suffered by a high-speed particle moving along the direction of its wavelength can be obtained. Thus, according to Newton's third law to make a judgment, the ether must exist. Finally, point out the essence of so-called wave-particle duality: No matter where, as long as there is energy, there must be mass. And vice versa. The two as a unity of opposites present in front of us in the form of wave. They must exist at the same time, carry each other, be short of one cannot. In reality, both values can be close to zero, but never equal to zero.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1008] viXra:1706.0423 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 23:46:42

### With Regard to Elementary Particles and Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: showing a catalog of articles related elementary particles and Nucleus.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1007] viXra:1706.0412 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-21 05:33:09

### Runaway Fusion Electrons

Authors: George Rajna

When the electrons collide with the high charge in the nuclei of the ions, they encounter resistance and lose speed. [10] More than seven years later, that collaboration could result in an inexpensive tabletop device to detect elusive neutrinos more efficiently and inexpensively than is currently possible, and could simplify scientists' ability to study the inner workings of the sun. [9] Scientists in Germany have flipped the switch on a €60 million (US 66 million) device designed to help determine the mass of the universe's lightest particle. [8] Neutrinos are tricky. Although trillions of these harmless, neutral particles pass through us every second, they interact so rarely with matter that, to study them, scientists send a beam of neutrinos to giant detectors. And to be sure they have enough of them, scientists have to start with a very concentrated beam of neutrinos. To concentrate the beam, an experiment needs a special device called a neutrino horn. [7] The ultra-low background KamLAND-Zen detector, hosted by research institutes inside and outside Japan demonstrates the best sensitivity in the search for neutrinoless double-beta decay, and sets the best limit on the effective Majorana neutrino mass. [6] Now, researchers from the University of Tokyo, in collaboration with a Spanish physicist, have used one of the world's most powerful computers to analyse a special decay of calcium-48, whose life, which lasts trillions of years, depends on the unknown mass of neutrinos. This advance will facilitate the detection of this rare decay in underground laboratories. [5] To measure the mass of neutrinos, scientists study radioactive decays in which they are emitted. An essential ingredient is the decay energy which corresponds to the mass difference between the mother and daughter nuclei. This decay energy must be known with highest precision. A team of scientists now succeeded to resolve a severe discrepancy of the decay energy for the artificial holmium (Ho) isotope with mass number 163. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [1006] viXra:1706.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-16 16:38:23 ### Condensate Structure of Higgs and Spacetime Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr Comments: 9 Pages. For the Higgs as a Fermion-AntiFermion condensate, the most massive fermions, the Truth Quark - AntiQuark pairs would be so dominant that the Higgs could be effectively considered as a condensate of Truth Quark - Truth AntiQuark pairs. As to Spacetime in the E8 physics model ( viXra 1602.0319 ), consider a generalized Nambu Jona-Lasinio model in which 8-dim Classical Lagrangian Spacetime is a condensate of Geoffrey Dixon’s 64-dim Particle spinor T = RxCxHxO = Real x Complex x Quaternion x Octonion and its corresponding 64-dim AntiParticle spinor Tbar. The T - Tbar pairs of the condensate form the 128-dim part of E8 that lives in the Cl(16) Real Clifford Algebra as 248-dim E8 = 120-dim bivector D8 + 128-dim half-spinor D8. Each cell of E8 Classical Lagrangian Spacetime corresponds to 65,536-dim Cl(16) which contains 248-dim E8 = 120-dim D8 bivectors +128-dim D8 half-spinors. Human Brain Microtubules 40 microns long have 65,536 Tubulin Dimers and so can have Bohm Quantum Resonance with Cl(16) Spacetime cells. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [1005] viXra:1706.0287 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-15 08:00:25 ### Evidence for Quantum-Interference Phenomena in the Femtometer Scale of Baryons. Part II: Inclusion of all Baryon Octet and Decuplet Particles Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling Comments: 3 Pages. 1 figure This work supplements the paper vixra: 1706.0040. It contains a single Figure in which quantum interference is demonstrated for all particles of the octet and decuplet, through the joint analysis of their rest energy and magnetic moments data. Some tendency for alignment on Shapiro step-like structures is also present. This analysis serves as a proof of the importance of dominating electromagnetic effects in the nuclear scale of particles. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [1004] viXra:1706.0208 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-13 09:26:28 ### Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics. Part 1 & Basics Authors: DING Jian, HU Xiuqin Comments: 14 Pages. I firmly believe that a single spark can start great creative conflagrations. This article is part 1 in the "Piercing the Veil of Modern Physics", which is to lay the foundation for the full text. First, it should be clearly pointed out that a particle moving at the value c of the light speed in vacuum, its static mass can only be equal to 0, but doesn't exist in reality. Therefore, it is vital that how can we correctly make a distinction between the speed of light in vacuum and that in reality. Then, by the aid of the law of conservation of mass-energy, we know that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed electrons are the result of the binding energy inside them to be lost gradually in the form of electromagnetic radiation. So, according to the related electromagnetic theories and the kinetics formulas of the special relativity theory, the study concluded that the charge of a moving electron will follow along with its static mass to be lost synchronously, and its charge-mass ratio whose value remains unchanged. Since an electron can be further broken down, then there should be a kind of more fundamental particles, the electro-ultimate particles, which can compose electrons and whose charge-mass ratio should be equal to the electronic physical constant. Besides, if nature's background (ether) is also composed of the electro-ultimate particles, Maxwell's electromagnetic theory should be true. A corollary is that all photons radiating from the electrons in a storage ring are composed of the electro-ultimate particles. Then, combining with de Broglie's matter wave formula, it is pointed out that the energy convergence phenomena of high-speed particles are the primary factor causing the spectrum redshift. And through this formula, the average force suffered by a high-speed particle moving along the direction of its wavelength can be obtained. Thus, according to Newton's third law to make a judgment, the ether must exist. Finally, point out the essence of so-called wave-particle duality: No matter where, as long as there is energy, there must be mass. And vice versa. The two as a unity of opposites present in front of us in the form of wave. They must exist at the same time, carry each other, be short of one cannot. In reality, both values can be close to zero, but never equal to zero. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [1003] viXra:1706.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 15:55:11 ### Calculating Breit-Wigner Width of Hadrons Authors: M. J. Germuska Comments: 47 Pages. This paper shows how Breit-Wigner width of hadrons may be calculated using Vir Theory of Particles. The theory provides formulas for the relationship between mass and spin as well as for width and spin. The width of over 150 particles are calculated with such accuracy that the errors from the actual width are entirely attributable to the width measurement errors. The particles come from 16 families including the lightest family N and the heaviest family Y. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [1002] viXra:1706.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 11:07:48 ### Tweezers to Nuclear Interactions Authors: George Rajna Comments: 19 Pages. Bochum have developed numerical "tweezers" that can pin a nucleus in place, enabling them to study how interactions between protons and neutrons produce forces between nuclei. [12] At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [1001] viXra:1706.0130 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-09 08:44:29 ### On e-mu-Tau Universality Authors: Cvavbc Chandra Raju, C.prudhvi Raju Comments: 3 Pages. recent experiments at CERN indicate non-universality using e-mu universality and with the help of mixing parameters obtained from e-mu masses,the masses of the charged W(R) boson and the neutral D-boson are shown to be73.39 GeV and 86.16 GeV respectively.The weak interaction constant of the tau-lepton and its neutrino is shown to be related to the Fermi constant through an angle of 5.6 degrees, which also happens to be the angle with Cabibbo type of mixing among leptons Category: High Energy Particle Physics [1000] viXra:1706.0113 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-07 13:27:02 ### Finding Charge-Parity Violation Authors: George Rajna Comments: 37 Pages. The different rates of neutrino and anti-neutrino oscillations recorded by an international collaboration of researchers in Japan—including from Kavli IPMU—is an important step in the search for a new source of asymmetry in the laws that govern matter and antimatter.[12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [999] viXra:1706.0099 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-06 08:26:26 ### The Higgs Boson in a Physical Reality Perspective. Authors: W.Berckmans Comments: 2 Pages. As goes for any elementary particle, a Higgs boson's properties as observed by Physics and the equivalent hypothetical values logically deduced within a valid Physical Reality (PhR) model must correspond. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [998] viXra:1706.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2017-06-05 07:52:21 ### Evidence for Quantum-Interference Phenomena in the Femtometer Scale of Baryons. Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling Comments: 2 figues and 10 pages In a series of papers we have shown that through the imposition of gauge invariance conditions to the wavefunctions representing each particle, it is possible to relate rest energy to magnetic moment for the baryons. A key point of this model is the requirement that the magnetic flux linked through the region covered by the particle be quantized in units of hc/e, which converges to the inverse dependence of mass with the fine structure constant alpha, as reported in the literature. Our most accurate results however display deviations from the strict integer numbers of flux quanta, which requires an explanation. The objective of the present paper is to show that such deviations can be precisely associated to the flux dependence of the phase differences of interfering currents flowing through Josephson Junctions in the DC mode. In the same way as in macroscopic Josephson Junctions between superconductors, quantum interference between the constituents of baryons takes place when constituents superpose, which gives rise to squared sinusoidal undulations observed in a plot of the flux confined for each baryon against the respective magnetic moments. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [997] viXra:1705.0369 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-25 08:55:15 ### The Accurate Mass Formulas of Leptons, Quarks, Gauge Bosons, the Higgs Boson, and Cosmic Rays Authors: Ding-Yu Chung Comments: 16 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2016, 7, 1591-1606 One of the biggest unsolved problems in physics is the particle masses of all elementary particles which cannot be calculated accurately and predicted theoretically. In this paper, the unsolved problem of the particle masses is solved by the accurate mass formulas which calculate accurately and predict theoretically the particle masses of all leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, the Higgs boson, and cosmic rays (the knees-ankles-toe) by using only five known constants: the number (seven) of the extra spatial dimensions in the eleven-dimensional membrane, the mass of electron, the masses of Z and W bosons, and the fine structure constant. The calculated masses are in excellent agreements with the observed masses. For examples, the calculated masses of muon, top quark, pion, neutron, and the Higgs boson are 105.55 MeV, 175.4 GeV, 139.54 MeV, 939.43 MeV, and 126 GeV, respectively, in excellent agreements with the observed 105.65 MeV, 173.3 GeV, 139.57 MeV, 939.27 MeV, and 126 GeV, respectively. The theoretical base of the accurate mass formulas is the periodic table of elementary particles. As the periodic table of elements is derived from atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is derived from the seven principal mass dimensional orbitals and seven auxiliary mass dimensional orbitals. All elementary particles including leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, the Higgs boson, and cosmic rays can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles. The periodic table of elementary particles is based on the theory of everything as the computer simulation model of physical reality consisting of the mathematical computation, digital representation, and selective retention components. The computer simulation model of physical reality provides the seven principal mass dimensional orbitals and seven auxiliary mass dimensional orbitals for the periodic table of elementary particles. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [996] viXra:1705.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-22 04:12:29 ### The Scale-Symmetric Theory as the Origin of the Standard Model Authors: Sylwester Kornowski Comments: 6 Pages. Here we showed that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) gives rise to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We calculated the SM gauge couplings - we obtained g’ = 0.3576, g = 0.6534 (these two gauge couplings lead to an illusion of electroweak unification), and g(s) = 1.2156 +- 0.0036. We as well described the mechanism that leads to the mass of muon. The other SM parameters we calculated in earlier papers. SST is based on 7 parameters only which, contrary to SM, lead also to the 3 masses of neutrinos (they are beyond SM) and to the 4 basic physical constants (i.e. to the reduced Planck constant, to gravitational constant (gravity is beyond SM), to speed of light in “vacuum” and electric charge of electron). We can see that in SST there is 2.7 times less parameters, SST leads to the 19 initial parameters in SM, and SST describes phenomena beyond SM. It leads to conclusion that SST is a more fundamental theory than SM. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [995] viXra:1705.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-21 06:18:46 ### Electro-Strong Interaction Authors: Wan-Chung Hu Comments: 5 Pages. Here, I will use Higgs mechanism to unite gluons and photon to explain the origin of mass of gluons in strong interaction. This is the electro-strong unification which can explain the mass of neutron and proton. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [994] viXra:1705.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-20 09:03:43 ### New Season at the LHC Authors: George Rajna Comments: 12 Pages. Last week, the detectors of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) witnessed their first collisions of 2017. [8] As physicists were testing the repairs of LHC by zipping a few spare protons around the 17 mile loop, the CMS detector picked up something unusual. The team feverishly pored over the data, and ultimately came to an unlikely conclusion—in their tests, they had accidentally created a rainbow universe. [7] The universe may have existed forever, according to a new model that applies quantum correction terms to complement Einstein's theory of general relativity. The model may also account for dark matter and dark energy, resolving multiple problems at once. [6] This paper explains the Accelerating Universe, the Special and General Relativity from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the moving electric charges. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The Big Bang caused acceleration created the radial currents of the matter and since the matter composed of negative and positive charges, these currents are creating magnetic field and attracting forces between the parallel moving electric currents. This is the gravitational force experienced by the matter, and also the mass is result of the electromagnetic forces between the charged particles. The positive and negative charged currents attracts each other or by the magnetic forces or by the much stronger electrostatic forces. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [993] viXra:1705.0288 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 08:21:45 ### Searching for WIMP Dark Matter Authors: George Rajna Comments: 13 Pages. "The best result on dark matter so far—and we just got started." This is how scientists behind XENON1T, now the most sensitive dark matter experiment worldwide , commented on their first result from a short 30-day run presented today to the scientific community. [13] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. SIMPs would resolve certain discrepancies between simulations of the distribution of dark matter, like this one, and the observed properties of the galaxies. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [992] viXra:1705.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-19 09:52:25 ### Electromagnetism Win Over the Strong Force Authors: George Rajna Comments: 23 Pages. The atomic nucleus offers a unique opportunity to study the competition between three of the four fundamental forces known to exist in nature, the strong nuclear interaction, the electromagnetic interaction and the weak nuclear interaction. [11] This paper explains the magnetic effect of the electric current from the observed effects of the accelerating electrons, causing naturally the experienced changes of the electric field potential along the electric wire. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines also the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [991] viXra:1705.0272 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 10:44:33 ### Weakly-Interacting Supersymmetric Particles Authors: George Rajna Comments: 21 Pages. Weakly-interacting sparticles are produced at lower rates and lead to less striking signatures, making them more difficult to distinguish from Standard Model background processes. [18] Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most attractive theories extending the Standard Model of particle physics. [17] If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [990] viXra:1705.0271 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 11:07:11 ### Should Consensus Suppress the Individual ? Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr Comments: 27 Pages. Consider two cases: First Case ( pages 4-20 ): Our Universe: Is it Stable ? Consensus = NO (only metastable) Individual = YES Second Case ( pages 21-27 ): Dark Energy and Dark Matter Consensus = Unknown Individual = Known Segal Conformal Structure This paper is a brief description of interactions between Consensus and Individual in each of those two cases. Since I, the author, have been directly involved, you should read this paper bearing in mind possible bias in my point of view that might also be present in this paper. Bearing that in mind, you should decide for yourself the answer to the question posed in the title of this paper. In each case: Consensus = the Physics Establishment including: Fermilab, CDF, and D0 Collaborations (pages 8-14); the Cornell arXiv (pages 13; 21-22); CERN CDS (pages 14; 22); LHC, ATLAS, and CMS Collaborations (pages 15-20); the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study (page 20); and the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics (page 20) and Individual = I, a Georgia lawyer with a 1963 AB in math from Princeton and some physics study at Georgia Tech with David Finkelstein as adviser, but, having at age 50 failed the Fall 1991 Georgia Tech Comprehensive Exam ( a 3-day closed book exam ), I have no physics degree Category: High Energy Particle Physics [989] viXra:1705.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 14:58:18 ### Bosonization Causes Free Neutrons Halflife Capricious When Measuring by Different Methods Authors: Yanming Wei Comments: 7 pages, 2 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.26828.62084 Many country’s standards management departments have struggled for long time to accurately calibrate the halflife of free neutrons with different methods, unfortunately they are all obsessed by the mysterious unexplainable discrepancy: in-beam method longer than bottle method by 1%, so as to question whether there is undiscovered new physics therein. In this paper, I assert that nothing is new and the puzzle can be explained by the so-defined spontaneous Bosonization effect acting on dense colonized neutrons. At last, some inspired researches and possible applications are presented. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [988] viXra:1705.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-18 01:47:51 ### As Spinor χ = a| ↑> +b| ↓> is Physical in SU (2) Spin Space, Then Why is Isospinor ψ = A|p > +b|n > Unphysical in SU (2) Isospin Space? Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas Comments: 9 Pages. A spin angular momentum state with a polarization orientation in any ar- bitrary direction can be constructed as a spinor in the SU(2)-spin space as χ = a| ↑> +b| ↓>. However the corresponding isospinor in the SU(2)-isospin space, ψ = a|p > +b|n > is discarded on empirical grounds. Still, we do not have any sound theoretcal understanding of this phenomenon. Here we provide a consistent explanation of this effect. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [987] viXra:1705.0258 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 07:36:10 ### Access to Metaspace And The Metamorphic Ratio Authors: Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey Comments: 2 Pages. Access to metaspace and the metamorphic ratio. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [986] viXra:1705.0255 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-17 08:56:39 ### Superpartner of the Top Quark Authors: George Rajna Comments: 20 Pages. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is one of the most attractive theories extending the Standard Model of particle physics. [17] If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [985] viXra:1705.0202 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-13 00:34:05 ### The Origin of the Z and W Bosons Authors: Sylwester Kornowski Comments: 3 Pages. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the Z and W bosons can be created due to two different mechanisms. One mechanism is associated with a transition from electromagnetic interactions to weak interactions of protons with electrons in the presence of dark matter (DM) while the second one concerns a transition from weak interactions of protons to weak interactions of charges of protons, which mimic behaviour of electrons in absence of DM, with muons associated with protons. In the first mechanism, calculated mass of Z is 91.181 GeV whereas of W is 80.428 GeV while in the second mechanism we obtained respectively 91.205 GeV and 80.387 GeV. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [984] viXra:1705.0192 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-12 05:58:15 ### Collisions of Atomic Nuclei Authors: George Rajna Comments: 19 Pages. At very high energies, the collision of massive atomic nuclei in an accelerator generates hundreds or even thousands of particles that undergo numerous interactions. [11] The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [983] viXra:1705.0136 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-09 00:59:01 ### Singlet Higgs Spontaneity in Considered Action: the Lie-Dependent Masses Authors: Zheng-chen Liang Comments: 12 Pages. This paper has been published by chinaXiv:201608.00018, but somehow deleted by chinaXiv on May 9, 2017. We derived the Lie-dependent masses of certain particles gauged as TeVeS in considered Lie groups raised from gauge couplings with constant global sections of singlet Higgs under the algorithm on mass terms which comes out naturally from the kinetic part of our considered TaLie action, and also available on the gauge fields as connections in formed Y-M actions. With the only parameters, \textit{scaled mass}M(H^{D})\in\mathbb{R^{+}}$of each Higgs section introduced in this mechanism, we concretely computed the masses$m_{W^{\pm}}$,$m_{Z^{0}}$,$m_{X}$and$m_{H}$under the gauge selection$E_{8(-24)}$in \textit{Lie Group Cosmology} (LGC), figuring out how the masses of every different singlet Higgs bosons all equal one real number$\sqrt{2}\cdot M(H^{\Sigma})$. When comparing the results with recent experiments at LHC, we find the singlet Higgs spontaneity with algorithms derived from our considered action under the gauge selection of LGC is consistent with current data including the diphoton excess at$750$GeV, as well as stating some important implications from the derived Lie-dependent masses and our constructions on the mechanism. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [982] viXra:1705.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 10:20:55 ### Key Physics Equations and Experiments: Explained and Derived by Energy Wave Equations Authors: Jeff Yee Comments: 30 pages Three commonly used physics equations for energy are derived from a single equation that describes wave energy, linking the photon’s quantum energy (E=hf) with mass-energy (E=mc^2) and energy-momentum (E=pc) found in particles. Then, the energy equation for particles is further derived in this paper to describe the Coulomb force (F=kqq/r^2) and the universal gravitational force (F=Gmm/r^2). All of these equations are ultimately derived from one fundamental energy wave equation. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [981] viXra:1705.0090 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-04 06:49:43 ### Exploring Universal Glue Authors: George Rajna Comments: 16 Pages. The first experimental result has been published from the newly upgraded Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) at the U.S. Department of Energy's Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility. The result demonstrates the feasibility of detecting a potential new form of matter to study why quarks are never found in isolation. [10] A team of scientists currently working at the Large Hadron Collider at the European Organization for Nuclear Research (CERN) announced that it has possibly discovered the existence of a particle integral to nature in a statement on Tuesday, Dec. 15, and again on Dec.16. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [980] viXra:1705.0017 [pdf] submitted on 2017-05-01 15:21:32 ### Asymmetric Decays of Neutral Kaons and B Mesons as False Evidences of the Matter-Antimatter Asymmetry Authors: Sylwester Kornowski Comments: 2 Pages. It is assumed that the asymmetric decays of neutral kaons and B mesons make an absolute distinction between matter and antimatter. Such asymmetric decays were observed in collisions of nucleons only. There are not experiments in which kaons and B mesons are produced in collisions of antinucleons only. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that internal helicity of created neutral kaons (according to SST, relativistic neutral kaon is a constituent of neutral B meson also) depend on internal helicity of colliding particles - nucleons are internally left-handed whereas antinucleons are right-handed. SST shows that there should not be some distinctions between decays of neutral kaons and B mesons created in collisions of matter only and in collisions of antimatter only. In reality, the matter-antimater asymmetry does not follow from different behaviour of matter and antimatter in weak interactions but from the external left-handedness of the initial inflation field. It caused that at the end of inflation there appeared more nucleons than antinucleons. Next, the return shock wave, carrying the additional nucleons, created the early Universe. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [979] viXra:1704.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-30 07:46:35 ### Performance of the ATLAS Authors: George Rajna Comments: 17 Pages. A new age of exploration dawned at the start of Run 2 of the Large Hadron Collider, as protons began colliding at the unprecedented centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV. [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [978] viXra:1704.0377 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-28 09:27:43 ### Electron Populations in Plasmas Authors: George Rajna Comments: 24 Pages. Measuring small fast electron populations hidden in a sea of colder "thermal" electrons in tokamak plasmas is very challenging. [17] Magnetic reconnection, a universal process that triggers solar flares and northern lights and can disrupt cell phone service and fusion experiments, occurs much faster than theory says that it should. [16] A surprising new class of X-ray pulsating variable stars has been discovered by a team of American and Canadian astronomers led by Villanova University's Scott Engle and Edward Guinan. [15] Late last year, an international team including researchers from the Kavli Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics (KIAA) at Peking University announced the discovery of more than 60 extremely distant quasars, nearly doubling the number known to science-and thus providing dozens of new opportunities to look deep into our universe's history. [14] Fuzzy pulsars orbiting black holes could unmask quantum gravity. [13] Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [977] viXra:1704.0374 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 14:42:46 ### New Discoveries in Parkhomov’s 60co Astro-Catalyzed Beta Decay Authors: Yanming Wei Comments: Pages. In 2011, Russian experimental physicist Parkhomov delivered a paper: “Deviations from Beta Radioactivity Exponential Drop”. It seems that his explanation on the observed phenomenon is little bit shallow. Hereby I present my new 5 discoveries based on his experiment settings and data, and try to generalize it as profound lemma. 1-Good use of neutrinos can greatly accelerate beta decay; 2-Low energy neutrinos can reflect on mirror; 3-Boson quasi-particle comprising neutrinos in even number can be formed under focusing condition; 4-Such a quasi-particle in high spin can excite nucleus to overcome high spin lock; 5-Only β- decay can be catalyzed by neutrinos, as well as only β+ or electric capture decay can be catalyzed by antineutrinos, otherwise converse will be slowed down. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [976] viXra:1704.0372 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 14:51:46 ### A Bold Innovation on Artificial Neutrinos Source Authors: Yanming Wei Comments: 11 Pages. It is well known that neutrinos come out of nuclear β decay, but radioactive materials do harm to human beings, and either energy spectrum or dose cannot be flexibly controlled because of the only dependence on selected nuclide and mass. This paper presents a new way to build neutrinos source by only accurately manipulating electrons motion. Because voltage supply can hardly reach MV-level, thus this method is not competent to generate high energy neutrinos, and only good for low energy, especially a convenient means for range 1eV to 100keV. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [975] viXra:1704.0358 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-27 05:13:57 ### Lepton Flavour Non-Universality from the Scale-Symmetric Theory Authors: Sylwester Kornowski Comments: 7 Pages. In recent years, LHCb has found hints of deviations from the Standard-Model (SM) predictions that point new physics (NP). The lepton flavour universality is violated when comparing rates of decays of B mesons into excited kaon and lepton-antilepton pair with different flavours. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the ratio of such decay rates when there appears a pair of muons or electron-positron pair. In the low-squared-q region (0.045 < qq < 1.1 GeV^2/c^4)), we obtained ratio = 0.6603 and in the central-squared-q region (qq > 1.1), we obtained ratio = 0.6850. The SST results are consistent with the central values obtained in the LHCb experiments 0.660 and 0.685 respectively. We can compare the LHCb and SST results with the SM predictions that give values close to unity. The SM results are inconsistent with the LHCb data having a statistical significance of 2.2 - 2.5 sigma. We showed that the decrease from about 1 in SM to 0.6603 in SST follows from different structure of muon and electron and from creation of additional electron-positron pair near bare muon, whereas the increase in SST from 0.6603 to 0.6850 is a result of the weak interactions of a pair of muons with nucleon at q higher than some threshold energy equal to 1.05 or 1.06 GeV/c^2 i.e. the squared q should be higher than about 1.1. We do not need a heavy Z’ boson or leptoquarks to explain the deviations from SM - we need a lacking part of SM i.e. we need the SST which is the NP. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [974] viXra:1704.0276 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:44:58 ### Foot Step Power Generation Using Piezoelectric Transducer Authors: Abdul Kalam, Akash singh, Sachin Yadav, Kuldeep Yadav Comments: 3 Pages. It has the ability to produce electric power from mechanical reaction (force) and then it change to electric charges. This kind of technology can be used as the alternative electric power generator. It is impossible to replace the existing electricity generation, but at least to vary and reduce the dependency on the conventional electricity generation. Design concept used in this thesis is to use piezoelectric place at the walking area named as “Foot Step Power Generation System”. When a human walking, jumping or dancing on the surface which contain the piezoelectric, it then will produce sufficient force for energy generation process. This system is very suitable applied at the public spotted area with many people such as walking corridor, shopping mall, in the office, schools and others. Therefore, the continued pressure will provide sufficient resources to be used to produce the electricity required. Keywords—new technology, piezoelectricity, piezoelectric material, generate power, force or pressure Category: High Energy Particle Physics [973] viXra:1704.0275 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-21 11:19:33 ### Laser Neutron Yield Authors: George Rajna Comments: 17 Pages. A team of researchers from several institutions in China has developed a new way to produce neutrons that they claim improves on conventional methods by a factor of 100. [15] A research team led by UCLA electrical engineers has developed a new technique to control the polarization state of a laser that could lead to a new class of powerful, high-quality lasers for use in medical imaging, chemical sensing and detection, or fundamental science research. [14] UCLA physicists have shown that shining multicolored laser light on rubidium atoms causes them to lose energy and cool to nearly absolute zero. This result suggests that atoms fundamental to chemistry, such as hydrogen and carbon, could also be cooled using similar lasers, an outcome that would allow researchers to study the details of chemical reactions involved in medicine. [13] Powerful laser beams, given the right conditions, will act as their own lenses and "self-focus" into a tighter, even more intense beam. University of Maryland physicists have discovered that these self-focused laser pulses also generate violent swirls of optical energy that strongly resemble smoke rings. [12] Electrons fingerprint the fastest laser pulses. [11] A team of researchers with members from Germany, the U.S. and Russia has found a way to measure the time it takes for an electron in an atom to respond to a pulse of light. [10] As an elementary particle, the electron cannot be broken down into smaller particles, at least as far as is currently known. However, in a phenomenon called electron fractionalization, in certain materials an electron can be broken down into smaller "charge pulses," each of which carries a fraction of the electron's charge. Although electron fractionalization has many interesting implications, its origins are not well understood. [9] New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [972] viXra:1704.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-19 13:49:06 ### Superconducting Linear Accelerator Authors: George Rajna Comments: 21 Pages. The international X-ray laser European XFEL has reached one of its final major milestones on the way to scientific user operation. DESY has successfully commissioned the particle accelerator, which drives the X-ray laser along its full length. [17] Physicists at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), in collaboration with researchers in South Korea and Germany, have developed a theoretical framework for improving the stability and intensity of particle accelerator beams. [16] For several decades now, scientists from around the world have been pursuing a ridiculously ambitious goal: They hope to develop a nuclear fusion reactor that would generate energy in the same manner as the sun and other stars, but down here on Earth. [15] It's the particles' last lap of the ring. On 5 December 2016, protons and lead ions circulated in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) for the last time. At exactly 6.02am, the experiments recorded their last collisions (also known as 'events'). [14] UNIST has taken a major step toward laying the technical groundwork for developing next-generation high-intensity accelerators by providing a new advanced theoretical tool for the design and analysis of complex beam lines with strong coupling. [13] A targeted way to manipulate beams of protons accelerated using ultrashort and ultraintense laser pulses has been demonstrated by a team of researchers led at the University of Strathclyde. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [971] viXra:1704.0231 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-18 21:06:23 ### Multifractal Analysis and the Dynamics of Effective Field Theories Authors: Ervin Goldfain Comments: 17 Pages. We show that the flow from the ultraviolet to the infrared sector of any multidimensional nonlinear field theory approaches chaotic dynamics in a universal way. This result stems from several independent routes to aperiodic behavior and implies that the infrared attractor of effective field theories is likely to replicate the geometry of multifractal sets. In particular, we find that the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian is characterized by a single generalized dimension (D = 4), while the Standard Model (SM) Lagrangian is defined by a triplet of generalized dimensions (D = 2, 3 and 4). On the one hand, this finding disfavors any naïve field-theoretic unification of SM and General Relativity (GR). On the other, it hints that the continuous spectrum of generalized dimensions lying between D = 2 and D = 4 may naturally account for the existence of non-baryonic Dark Matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [970] viXra:1704.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-17 06:22:35 ### Puzzling Neutrino Shortfall Authors: George Rajna Comments: 36 Pages. A puzzling neutrino shortfall seems to be due to faulty predictions, not a new particle. [12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Category: High Energy Particle Physics [969] viXra:1704.0198 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-15 08:50:20 ### The Origin and Formation Mechanism of Protons Authors: Yibing Qiu Comments: 1 Page. Abstract: showing the viewpoint with regards to the origin and formation mechanism of protons. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [968] viXra:1704.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-13 06:12:41 ### Rare Meson Decay Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. Many scientists working on the LHCb experiment at CERN had hoped that the exceptional accuracy in the measurement of the rare decay of the Bs0 meson would at last delineate the limits of the Standard Model, the current theory of the structure of matter, and reveal phenomena unknown to modern physics. [19] While no evidence for new physics has yet been found, these new results have provided crucial input to our theoretical models and has greatly improved our understanding of the Standard Model. [18] A quartet of researchers has boldly proposed the addition of six new particles to the standard model to explain five enduring problems. [17] Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [967] viXra:1704.0120 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-10 07:55:38 ### Rarest Radioactive Decay Authors: George Rajna Comments: 37 Pages. Why is there more matter than antimatter in the universe? The reason might be hidden in the neutrino nature: one of the preferred theoretical models assumes, that these elementary particles were identical with their own anti-particles. [12] Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and right-handed particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [966] viXra:1704.0095 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 15:18:58 ### Running of Electromagnetic and Strong Coupling Constants (Revised) Authors: R. Wayte Comments: 11 Pages. The observed variation of the electromagnetic coupling constant alpha, seen in high energy e+e- → e+e- collisions, has been explained in terms of work done compressing the energetic electron. A simple monotonic law has been found, which describes how the electron resists compression, without transmutation. Variation of the strong coupling constant alpha-s has also been analysed in terms of effective work done compressing the gluon field within a proton’s component parts. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [965] viXra:1704.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-07 05:15:43 ### Understanding Di-Photons Authors: George Rajna Comments: 43 Pages. High-energy photon pairs at the Large Hadron Collider are famous for two things. First, as a clean decay channel of the Higgs boson. Second, for triggering some lively discussions in the scientific community in late 2015, when a modest excess above Standard Model predictions was observed by the ATLAS and CMS collaborations. When the much larger 2016 dataset was analysed, however, no excess was observed. [29] In an article published in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences scientists from the Max Planck Institute for the Structure and Dynamics of Matter in Hamburg show, however, that under certain conditions, photons can strongly influence chemistry. [28] University of Otago physicists have found a way to control individual atoms, making them appear wherever they want them to. [27] New research shows that a scanning-tunneling microscope (STM), used to study changes in the shape of a single molecule at the atomic scale, impacts the ability of that molecule to make these changes. [26] Physicists are getting a little bit closer to answering one of the oldest and most basic questions of quantum theory: does the quantum state represent reality or just our knowledge of reality? [25] A team of researchers led by LMU physics professor Immanuel Bloch has experimentally realized an exotic quantum system which is robust to mixing by periodic forces. [24] A group of scientists led by Johannes Fink from the Institute of Science and Technology Austria (IST Austria) reported the first experimental observation of a first-order phase transition in a dissipative quantum system. [23] ORNL researchers have discovered a new type of quantum critical point, a new way in which materials change from one state of matter to another. [22] New research conducted at the University of Chicago has confirmed a decades-old theory describing the dynamics of continuous phase transitions. [21] No matter whether it is acoustic waves, quantum matter waves or optical waves of a laser—all kinds of waves can be in different states of oscillation, corresponding to different frequencies. Calculating these frequencies is part of the tools of the trade in theoretical physics. Recently, however, a special class of systems has caught the attention of the scientific community, forcing physicists to abandon well-established rules. [20] Category: High Energy Particle Physics [964] viXra:1704.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 22:18:51 ### Structures of Electron, Neutron, and Proton and the Unification of Fundamental Forces Authors: Benoît E. Prieur Comments: 19 Pages. While the Standard Model of physics is largely successful in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, it leaves some phenomena unexplained and falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental interactions. For example, it does not incorporate the full theory of general relativity, neither does it fully reconcile general relativity and quantum mechanics. In this context, here I present the fundamental particles of matter as geometrical forms of electromagnetic waves, whose size is directly linked to the wavelength. Thus, hadrons and leptons are considered as being composed of three and one intersecting waves, respectively. The particles’ spatiotemporal structures appear to explain their magnetic moments and spin. This model suggests that the weak force arises from electric and magnetic interactions between the substructures of neutron, the strong force from the close contact among the charges of nucleons, and the gravitational force from the curvature of space created by matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [963] viXra:1704.0057 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 09:18:59 ### Antineutrino Anomaly Authors: George Rajna Comments: 36 Pages. Results from a new scientific study may shed light on a mismatch between predictions and recent measurements of ghostly particles streaming from nuclear reactors—the so-called "reactor antineutrino anomaly," which has puzzled physicists since 2011. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn't be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we're starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand high-energy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] Category: High Energy Particle Physics [962] viXra:1704.0054 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-05 06:12:37 ### Leptonic Behavior of Constituents of Baryons. Authors: Osvaldo F. Schilling Comments: 11 Pages. two tables and one figure The striking results that the same expression relating mass to the magnetic moment and to flux quantization applies to baryons and to leptons indicate that the theoretical interpretation of this finding must be the same for all these particles, with little ( or no) participation of other than electromagnetic( quantum) effects. The generation of leptons and baryons seems quantitatively associated to the excitation of “dressed” particles states with ( rest) energies describable in terms of interactions between “anomalous” magnetic moments and a self-magnetic field, as proposed by Barut in his theory for the muon. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [961] viXra:1704.0039 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-04 05:01:44 ### Supersymmetry and Standard Model Authors: George Rajna Comments: 25 Pages. While no evidence for new physics has yet been found, these new results have provided crucial input to our theoretical models and has greatly improved our understanding of the Standard Model. [18] A quartet of researchers has boldly proposed the addition of six new particles to the standard model to explain five enduring problems. [17] Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [960] viXra:1704.0001 [pdf] submitted on 2017-04-01 01:23:59 ### Foundations of Gauge Theology Authors: Edoardo Carlesi Comments: 4 Pages. This paper shows how to quantize Roman Catholicism in order to solve the fine tuning-problems of Classical Theology. This procedure is used to define a new theory, which is called Gauge Theology, that shares a large number of striking similarities with the Standard Model of particle physics. We argue that the existence of these common features cannot be attributed to sheer coincidence, but is rather a sign of the miraculous properties of the theory. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [959] viXra:1703.0301 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 08:29:30 ### How Proton get its Spin? Authors: George Rajna Comments: 19 Pages. Researchers first thought that each proton consisted entirely of only three quarks, which together determined the spin. Quarks are elementary particles that scientists have not been able to break down into smaller parts. [12] Particle physics experiments conducted at the CERN, DESY, JLab, RHIC, and SLAC laboratories have revealed that only about 30% of the proton's spin is carried by the spin of its quark constituents. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [958] viXra:1703.0299 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 09:57:26 ### Part II - Gravity, Anomaly Cancellation, Anomaly Matching, and the Nucleus Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas Comments: 9 Pages. Here we provide a consistent solution of the baryon asymmetry problem. The same model is also able to tell us as to what is the mathematical basis of the ”equivalence principle” (i.e. the inertial mass being equal to the gravitational mass). We are also able to see as to wherefrom arises the semi-simple group structure of hadrons as SU (2) I ⊗U (1) B (of the pre-eightfold-way-model period). Thus we are able to understand the origin of the Gell-Mann-Nishijima expression for the electric charges, Q = I 3 + B 2 . This paper is in continuation of my recent paper, ”Gravity, Anomaly Cancellation, Anomaly Matching, and the Nucleus” (syedafsarabbas.blogspot.in). Category: High Energy Particle Physics [957] viXra:1703.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-31 07:19:21 ### Spin’s Meaning, Characterization and Calculation In New Particle Physics Authors: Yibing Qiu Comments: 1 Page. Abstract: giving a viewpoint with regards to the spin of elementary particle. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [956] viXra:1703.0262 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-28 03:08:24 ### Masses of the Five New Narrow States of Neutral Charmed Omega Baryon Calculated Within the Atom-Like Structure of Baryons Authors: Sylwester Kornowski Comments: 4 Pages. The phase transitions of the inflation field, which are described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), lead to the atom-like structure of baryons. Here, within such a model, we calculated mass of the charged charmed Xi baryon (2467.89 MeV) and mass of neutral one (2468.51 MeV). We calculated also mass of ground state of the neutral charmed Omega baryon (2949.02 MeV) - it is below the threshold mass (2961.61 MeV) for the decay to charged charmed Xi (2467.93) and charged kaon (493.68 MeV), and we calculated masses of the five new narrow states of the neutral charmed Omega baryon with a mass of 2949.02 MeV: 3000 MeV (it is the ground state above the threshold mass), 3051 MeV, 3067 MeV, 3084 MeV, and 3118 MeV. We showed as well that there should be a structure around 3186 MeV. Within presented here model, we calculated mass of the charm quark (1276.4 MeV). Category: High Energy Particle Physics [955] viXra:1703.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-26 04:15:06 ### Preons, Standard Model and Gravity with Torsion Authors: Risto Raitio Comments: 12 Pages. A preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is discussed. Global group representations for preons, quarks and leptons are addressed using two preons and their antiparticles. The preon construction endorses the standard model gauge group structure. Preons are subject to electromagnetic and gravitational interactions only. Gravity with torsion, expressed as an axial-vector field, is applied to preons in the energy range between GUT and Planck scale. The mass of the axial-vector particle is estimated to be near the GUT scale. A tentative model for quantum gravity, excluding black holes, is considered. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [954] viXra:1703.0238 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-25 08:23:59 ### Physical Origin, Basic Attribute and Action Feature of Nuclear Forces Authors: Yibing Qiu Comments: 3 Pages. Abstract: givingphysical origin, basic attributes and action features of nuclear forces derives from first principles and expressed in an explicit form. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [953] viXra:1703.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 11:17:29 ### Laser Wakefield Accelerators Authors: George Rajna Comments: 20 Pages. An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light-light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro-and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable-and not constant as Einstein suggested-have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists' greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought " theory of everything. " This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4] The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [952] viXra:1703.0224 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-23 08:50:41 ### Gravity, Anomaly Cancellation, Anomaly Matching, and the Nucleus Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas Comments: 12 Pages. In the Standard Model there has been the well known issue of charge quantization arising from the anomalies and with or without spontaneous symmetry breaking being brought into it. It is well known that in the purely anomalies case, unexpectedly there pops in a so called "bizarre" solution. We discuss this issue and bring in the 't Hooft anomaly matching condition to find a resolution of the above bizarreness conundrum. We find a completely consistent solution with a unique single nucleon-lepton chiral family. We find that at low energies, the nucleus should be understood as made up of fundamental proton and neutron and where quarks play no role whatsoever. In addition it provides a new understanding and consistent solutions of some long standing basic problems in nuclear physics, like the quenching of the Gamow-Teller strength in nuclei and the issue of the same "effective charge" of magnitude 1/2 for both neutron and proton in the nucleus. Fermi kind of four-fermion-point-interaction appears as an exact (non-gauge) result. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [951] viXra:1703.0138 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 07:31:38 ### Electron Stability Approach to Finite Quantum Electrodynamics Authors: Dean Chlouber Comments: 12 Pages. This paper analyses electron stability and applies the resulting stability principle to resolve divergence issues in quantum electrodynamics without mass and charge renormalization. Stability is enforced by requiring that the positive electromagnetic field energy be balanced by a negative interaction energy between the observed electron charge and a local vacuum potential. Then in addition to the observed core mechanical mass m, an electron system consists of two electromagnetic mass components m ±em of equal magnitude M but opposite sign; consequently, the net electromagnetic mass is zero. Two virtual, electromagnetically dressed mass levels m±M, constructed to form a complete set of mass levels and isolate the electron-vacuum interaction, provide essential S-matrix corrections for radiative processes involving infinite field actions. Total scattering amplitudes for radiative corrections are shown to be convergent in the limit M → ∞ and equal to renormalized amplitudes when Feynman diagrams for all mass levels are included. In each case the infinity in the core mass amplitude is canceled by the average amplitude for dressed mass levels, which become separated in intermediate states and account for the stabilizing interaction energy between an electron and its surrounding polarized vacuum. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [950] viXra:1703.0137 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-14 07:46:39 ### Dark Gauge Bosons Authors: George Rajna Comments: 36 Pages. The dark photon (A'), the gauge boson carrier of a hypothetical new force, has been proposed in a wide range of Beyond the Standard Model (BSM) theories, and could serve as our window to an entire dark sector. [26] In an abandoned gold mine one mile beneath Lead, South Dakota, the cosmos quiets down enough to potentially hear the faint whispers of the universe's most elusive material—dark matter. [25] The PICO bubble chambers use temperature and sound to tune into dark matter particles. [24] A detection device designed and built at Yale is narrowing the search for dark matter in the form of axions, a theorized subatomic particle that may make up as much as 80% of the matter in the universe. [23] The race is on to build the most sensitive U.S.-based experiment designed to directly detect dark matter particles. Department of Energy officials have formally approved a key construction milestone that will propel the project toward its April 2020 goal for completion. [22] Scientists at the Center for Axion and Precision Physics Research (CAPP), within the Institute for Basic Science (IBS) have optimized some of the characteristics of a magnet to hunt for one possible component of dark matter called axion. [21] The first sighting of clustered dwarf galaxies bolsters a leading theory about how big galaxies such as our Milky Way are formed, and how dark matter binds them, researchers said Monday. [20] Scientists from The University of Manchester working on a revolutionary telescope project have harnessed the power of distributed computing from the UK's GridPP collaboration to tackle one of the Universe's biggest mysteries – the nature of dark matter and dark energy. [18] In the search for the mysterious dark matter, physicists have used elaborate computer calculations to come up with an outline of the particles of this unknown form of matter. [17] Category: High Energy Particle Physics [949] viXra:1703.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 13:18:46 ### Superrelativistic’s and Tachyonic Neutrinos Applied in Modern Nanophysics and Nanochemistry – Graphene, Nano–cage Structured Materials: Clathrates, and Nanocrystals Authors: Imrich Krištof Comments: Pages. This presented publication to discuss about new nanophysical and nanochemical applications in modern nanotechnology, with utilization of superrelativistic and tachyonic neutrinos (hep), high energy particles emitted, for example into the Antarctic Ice Crust (Project AMANDA/Ice Cube) from hard cosmic cascade’s hyperons ksí (Ξ), omega (-Ω ), lambda (Λ) and subsequently mesons pí (π0), ká (κ0), mí (μ), so sunshowers of tauons (super heavy electrons), electrons, photons and neutrinos ντ (tau), νμ (mí) and electron’s neutrinos ν(e-) and probably the fourth neutrino connected with gauge fields -> guage neutrino and gauge bosons. (Comment 1.: Tauon/lepton τ) has meantime life (decay) 3x10-13 s. With calm mass 1776,84 MeV/c2, compared with proton: 939 MeV and electron 0,511 MeV). Tauon si simultaneously lepton and fermion (spin ½). Top–interesting is behaviour of Möbios Graphene Leaf in electromagnetic fields. (Comment 2.: August Ferdinand Möbius 17.11.1790 – 26.9.1868) German mathematician and theoretical astronomer, far descendant by Martin Luther. Interesting mind–experiment, but also practical nano–chemical experiment is nanoclatrates–plasma nanochemistry and in them incorporated humin organic nanowall and nanolandscape of organic nanomaterials of fulvic and humic acids, with interaction of femtolaser (10-15 s) in 2D and 3D nanolandscape. Advised localities of extraction of fulvic and humic organic materials are in geomorphological region called Moravian Karst (20 km on the north from Brno City), concretely the middle zone – Eve’s Cave – The Křtiny’s creek valley near Adamov. The significancy of nanoclathrates of humin is like antioxidant and neutralizator of radioactive waste. Special antioxidant substance, so called “MESIPAN”, according to the Czech sci–fi writer Ing. Zdeněk Volný, the novel – The Gate to Eternity (1985). Suggested experiment with WILSON FOG CHAMBER -> hard cosmic rays and accelerated particles and their traces on photographic film. The Super Known Neutrino Event in Nov. 19.,1970) – world’s first observation of a neutrino in a hydrogen bubble chamber. Lattice constant of graphene, carbon nanotubes and Buckminster’s fullerens and fullerit can be easily calculated. Benoît Mandelbrot (The French mathematician (1975)) and Jaromír Korčák (1938), the Czech demograph and geograph were the first in the whole world, who used the fractals and attractors like surface of nanocomposit materials. Nanoclathrates -> Zeolites -> Liquid crystals nano and mesoporous crystals, channeled structures. Utilization of Alumosilicates (CLAY’S MINERALS) for example Montmorillonit – Illit with NEVERENDING CRYSTAL LATTICE ARE SURFACE FUNCTIONALIZATION ADSORBENTS, SO CALLED SORPTION’S COMPLEX IN SOILS (VERY IMPORTANT COMPOUND OF A SOIL) -> LIKE AN INCLUSION COMPLEX -> SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES. Attention will be dedicated to applications of research for example, so called Ryden Batteries from UNIVERSITY OF KYUSHU, JAPAN, like a predecessor of confinement of author’s pocket tokamak. Like the last part of an article was chosen chapter dedicated to chemical and physical properties of nanocrystals and quaziparticles like the phonons, exciton–polaritons, polarons and plasmons. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [948] viXra:1703.0061 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-07 03:59:53 ### Spin of the Proton Authors: George Rajna Comments: 16 Pages. Particle physics experiments conducted at the CERN, DESY, JLab, RHIC, and SLAC laboratories have revealed that only about 30% of the proton's spin is carried by the spin of its quark constituents. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [947] viXra:1703.0027 [pdf] submitted on 2017-03-04 05:24:40 ### OLYMPUS on Structure of Protons Authors: George Rajna Comments: 16 Pages. A mystery concerning the structure of protons is a step closer to being solved, thanks to a seven-year experiment led by researchers at MIT. [11] A team of physicists suggested that the fundamental building unit proton can alter its structure under certain circumstances. Scientists are now performing experiments to show that the structure of protons can change inside the nucleus under certain conditions. [10] Exotic Mesons and Hadrons are high energy states of Quark oscillations. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [946] viXra:1702.0332 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-27 20:03:46 ### A New Empirical Approach to Quark and Lepton Masses Authors: Kevin Loch Comments: 5 Pages. We present an alternative to the Koide formula and it’s extensions. By introducing two parameters k and alpha_f derived from charged leptons we are able to construct new empirical formulas that appear to relate all fundamental fermion pole masses. The predicted masses are in excellent agreement with known experimental values and constraints for heavy quarks and neutrinos. For light quarks we predict speculative pole masses of the same order of magnitude as μ = 1 GeV MS masses but higher by a factor of ~ 1.5. The condition where k12 = 3.5 (exact) is also considered as it would allow ultra high precision predictions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [945] viXra:1702.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-27 04:30:14 ### Sedeonic Field Theory Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov Comments: 126 Pages. This book is a systematic presentation of sixteen-component space-time "sedeons" and their applications to describe quantum particles and fields. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [944] viXra:1702.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-26 11:40:40 ### About Neutrinos Masses Authors: P. R. Silva Comments: 16 pages, 25 references Inspired in Dimitar Valev proposal that the masses of some elementary particles are proportional to their interaction couplings evaluated at very low energies, we give estimates for the masses of the three flavors of neutrinos. A procedure analogous to the see-saw mechanism is also used to do a second estimate of the electron-neutrino mass. From the flavors neutrino masses, we get the differences in the squared eigenstates masses, used to fit the solar and atmospheric neutrinos observations. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [943] viXra:1702.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-22 16:23:10 ### Theory of Existence Authors: Guilherme Henrique Contel Anzulim Comments: 51 Pages. The present work develops a simple unifying theory, titled Theory of Existence, which tries to explain the bases of functioning of the universe. It presents a new interpretation for the space-time, using the concepts of energy and dimensions. Is based on the conservation of energy, the principle of superposition, and the distribution of energy along dimensions. Simulations of a universe fragment were made in a digital system, and the data obtained, as well as the concepts of existence theory, were used to explain the main topics of known physics. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [942] viXra:1702.0256 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-20 08:06:47 ### Six New Particles to Standard Model Authors: George Rajna Comments: 23 Pages. A quartet of researchers has boldly proposed the addition of six new particles to the standard model to explain five enduring problems. [17] Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [941] viXra:1702.0194 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-16 08:14:19 ### Time Divergence Model of Superposition Authors: Arthur Eugene Pletcher Comments: 12 Pages. Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment (unlike superposition), like a time-lapse. For example, an electron obital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. TD explains the orbital gaps as simply the portions of rotation that are outside of this time range. The principle behind such an expanded range of time is the novel concept of ”time divergence” which occurs in any observation between classic scale and nano scales. Even more interesting, is that TD predicts that this effect is nullified when the introduction of an apparatus (such as a detector), which, consequently,brings the observation (from source to effect) to essentially the same scale. TDMS offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ”. Explanations, resolutions and insights gained from TDMS TDMS explains all of the following mysteries with beauty, simplicity and persuasion: In nanoscales: * The cloud appearance of electron orbits * The gaps between electron orbits are very much predicted * The shapes of orbitals * Collapse, as well as duality * Why orbital density appears closest to nucleus * Progression of energy states * TDMS suggests that information about energy states and position can be gained from comparing observations at two separate points in time. In macroscales: * Accelerated expansion * Millisecond pulsars * Galaxy outer rim rotation mysteries * The nonuniform expansion of supernovae remnant clouds Category: High Energy Particle Physics [940] viXra:1702.0129 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-10 09:57:40 ### Top Quark for Understanding the Universe Authors: George Rajna Comments: 19 Pages. If researchers at Florida Institute of Technology, employing pioneering new methods, are able to determine the top quark's mass at a level of precision as yet unachieved, they will move science closer to understanding whether the universe is stable, as we have long believed to be the case, or unstable. [16] Last February, scientists made the groundbreaking discovery of gravitational waves produced by two colliding black holes. Now researchers are expecting to detect similar gravitational wave signals in the near future from collisions involving neutron stars—for example, the merging of two neutron stars to form a black hole, or the merging of a neutron star and a black hole. [15] In a new study published in EPJ A, Susanna Liebig from Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany, and colleagues propose a new approach to nuclear structure calculations. The results are freely available to the nuclear physicists' community so that other groups can perform their own nuclear structure calculations, even if they have only limited computational resources. [14] The PHENIX detector at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC), a particle accelerator at Brookhaven National Laboratory uniquely capable of measuring how a proton's internal building blocks — quarks and gluons — contribute to its overall intrinsic angular momentum, or "spin." [13] More realistic versions of lattice QCD may lead to a better understanding of how quarks formed hadrons in the early Universe. The resolution of the Proton Radius Puzzle is the diffraction pattern, giving another wavelength in case of muonic hydrogen oscillation for the proton than it is in case of normal hydrogen because of the different mass rate. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [939] viXra:1702.0077 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-06 04:07:40 ### A Lexicon and Exploration Status Document for the Extended Rishon Model Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton Comments: 22 Pages. This document will always be in "Draft" Status indefinitely and permanently The Extended Rishon Model is currently in continuous development, expansion and clarification, yet with nothing found that is contradictory to its initial foundations as of over three decades ago. However there are a series of recurring themes that have a large body of evidence to support, some less-well-confirmed themes and a body of hypotheses that need significant further exploration. This document - which will be continuously revised - therefore keeps track of the different categories in order to avoid repetition, and to make it much easier for others to understand the Extended Rishon Model. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [938] viXra:1702.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 16:46:46 ### Physical Interpretation of the 30 8-Simplexes in the E8 240-Polytope Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr Comments: 14 Pages. 248-dim Lie Group E8 has 240 Root Vectors arranged on a 7-sphere S7 in 8-dim space. The 12 vertices of a cuboctahedron live on a 2-sphere S2 in 3-dim space. They are also the 4x3 = 12 outer vertices of 4 tetrahedra (3-simplexes) that share one inner vertex at the center of the cuboctahedron. This paper explores how the 240 vertices of the E8 Polytope in 8-dim space are related to the 30x8 = 240 outer vertices of 30 8-simplexes whose 9th vertex is a shared inner vertex at the center of the E8 Polytope. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [937] viXra:1702.0051 [pdf] submitted on 2017-02-03 10:27:08 ### Quantum Interpretation of the Proton Anomalous Magnetic Moment Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron Comments: Pages. The role of the anomalous moment in the geometric Clifford algebra of proton topological mass generation suggests that the anomaly is not an intrinsic property of the free space proton, but rather a topological effect of applying the electromagnetic bias field required to define the eigenstates probed by the magnetic moment measurement. Quantum interpretations strive to explain emergence of the world we observe from formal quantum theory. This variant on the canonical measurement problem is examined in the larger context of quantum interpretations. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [936] viXra:1701.0690 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 11:15:04 ### Asymmetry Between Matter and Antimatter Authors: George Rajna Comments: 15 Pages. The LHCb experiment has found hints of what could be a new piece of the jigsaw puzzle of the missing antimatter in our universe. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [935] viXra:1701.0686 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-31 05:09:00 ### Network Charge Interpretations of the Standard Particle Model Including the First (Rydberg) Spectral Line of Hydrogen, Proton /neutron Mass, New Theorized Dark Matter Particles, Quantum Gravity, a 5TH Force, and General Projective Relativity (GPR) Authors: Thomas Preusser Comments: 10 Pages. In mid-2016 scientists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) announced that a possible new subatomic particle beyond the Higgs in mass/energy at 750 GeV/c2 went statistically unconfirmed at new higher collider energies. This paper offers new theoretical concepts predicting a gluon-like dark matter subatomic particle, called the netwon, at 750 GeV/c2. Since dark matter is “dark”, it is detected even more from inference than from actual observation. Moreover, particles with fractional “network charge”, a new theoretical concept developed in this paper, seem observationally troublesome because of variability. This includes neutrinos, gluons, and the new 750 GeV/c2 particle. The new Electron-Ion Collider (EIC) is proposed in part to deal with these troublesome variabilities. Therefore the hunt at 750 GeV/c2 at the LHC should continue, but modified with this new theoretical basis to be more inferential. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [934] viXra:1701.0662 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-29 11:15:37 ### Gravity’s Hidden Inverse Relationship With Electromagnetism: A Possible Path to Solving the Hierarchy Problem Authors: Lamont Williams Comments: 19 Pages. The hierarchy problem — the problem of why gravity is far weaker than electromagnetism — is one of the greatest problems in physics. In this study, it is hypothesized that the disparity between the forces stems from their having an inverse, or seesaw-like, relationship — with one strength value naturally being high when the other value is low. In accordance with this seesaw-like relationship, it is further hypothesized that, as energy is increased, the strength of electromagnetism falls while the strength of gravity rises. The author suggests that theory and observation indicating a rise in electromagnetic strength with increasing energy are not accounting for gravity’s contribution to the calculated and measured coupling. It is shown that removing this contribution exposes the inverse relationship between the forces and, importantly, the lowering of electromagnetism’s strength over the increasing energy levels. Taken together, the concepts presented here may help in solving the hierarchy problem. This, in turn, may point the way to combining gravity and electromagnetism into a single framework and ultimately unifying general relativity and quantum mechanics. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [933] viXra:1701.0635 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-27 09:05:04 ### Practical Nuclear Pendulum Authors: George Rajna Comments: 15 Pages. Researchers from Ludwig-Maximilians-Universitaet (LMU) Munich have, for the first time, measured the lifetime of an excited state in the nucleus of an unstable element. This is a major step toward a nuclear clock that could keep even better time than today's best atomic timekeepers. [12] The work elucidates the interplay between collective and single-particle excitations in nuclei and proposes a quantitative theoretical explanation. It has as such great potential to advance our understanding of nuclear structure. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [932] viXra:1701.0567 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-21 21:21:23 ### Unmaking the Standard Model: Geometry and Fields Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse Comments: 15 Pages. We present a wavefunction comprised of the eight fundamental geometric objects of a minimally complete Pauli algebra of 3D space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with electromagnetic fields. Interactions are modeled as geometric products of wavefunctions, generating a 4D Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime. The resulting model is naturally gauge invariant, finite, and confined. With regard to the U1 x SU2 x SU3 gauge group at the core of the Standard Model, natural finiteness and gauge invariance are benign. However, reflections from wavefunction geometric impedance mismatches yields natural confinement to the Compton wavelength, rendering both weak and strong nuclear forces unnecessary. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [931] viXra:1701.0558 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-21 04:56:54 ### Pentaquark Charge - Mass/Energy Aspects of Pentaquark Processes & a New Theory - General Projective Relativity (GPR) Authors: Thomas Preusser Comments: 6 Pages. In 2015 scientists at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) announced the first ever statistically significant observation of a “pentaquark” subatomic particle (R. Aaij, LHCb collaboration, Phys Rev Lett 115, 072001, 12 August 2015). Such a “pentaquark” subatomic particle is allowed within the framework of quantum chromodynamics (QCD) theory which encompasses quark and gluon strong binding interactions. The “pentaquark” is an up-down-up-charm-anti-charm quark combination, i.e. five quarks, hence the name “pentaquark”. The hundreds of papers following pentaquark discovery mostly try to extend current QCD mathematics to explain the pentaquark. These explanations fall short of dealing with the networked processes of the pentaquark. This paper comes at the pentaquark from a higher level networked complex adaptive systems perspective. Ultimately this involves a new theory, General Projective Relativity (GPR), which is based on probabilistic computational entanglement in a projection geometry that goes beyond holographic and ultimately offers promise in furthering scientific knowledge across a wide spectrum including dark matter and dark energy. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [930] viXra:1701.0546 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-19 12:04:24 ### Spontaneous Symmetry Breaking Authors: George Rajna Comments: 22 Pages. Symmetry is the essential basis of nature, which gives rise to conservation laws. In comparison, the breaking of the symmetry is also indispensable for many phase transitions and nonreciprocal processes. Among various symmetry breaking phenomena, spontaneous symmetry breaking lies at the heart of many fascinating and fundamental properties of nature. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [929] viXra:1701.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-19 02:17:57 ### Higgs Boson and Bottom Quark Authors: George Rajna Comments: 12 Pages. Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks—subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [928] viXra:1701.0532 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-18 07:32:42 ### Antiproton's Magnetic Moment and Baryonic Asymmetry Authors: George Rajna Comments: 17 Pages. One of the deepest mysteries of physics today is why we seem to live in a world composed only of matter, while the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. [13] A precise measurement of absolute beam intensity is a key parameter to monitor any losses in a beam and to calibrate the absolute number of particles delivered to the experiments. [12] In a paper published today in the journal Science, the ASACUSA experiment at CERN reported new precision measurement of the mass of the antiproton relative to that of the electron. [11] When two protons approaching each other pass close enough together, they can " feel " each other, similar to the way that two magnets can be drawn closely together without necessarily sticking together. According to the Standard Model, at this grazing distance, the protons can produce a pair of W bosons. [10] The fact that the neutron is slightly more massive than the proton is the reason why atomic nuclei have exactly those properties that make our world and ultimately our existence possible. Eighty years after the discovery of the neutron, a team of physicists from France, Germany, and Hungary headed by Zoltán Fodor, a researcher from Wuppertal, has finally calculated the tiny neutron-proton mass difference. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [927] viXra:1701.0496 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 20:54:47 ### From E8 Root Vector Geometry to the LHC Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr Comments: 13 Pages. This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian describing Gravity and Dark Energy plus the Standard Model. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era followed by a Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein Era in which the HIggs emerges by the Mayer mechanism and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions appear. By generalizations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models, the Higgs is seen to be a Truth Quark-AntiQuark Condensate giving 3 Mass States of the Higgs and 3 Mass States of the Truth Quark. My analysis of Fermilab and LHC observation data indicates that Fermilab has observed the 3 Truth Quark Mass States and LHC has observed the 3 Higgs Mass States. The Lagrangian, which is fundamentally classical, is constructed from E8 only and E8 lives in Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) which corresponds to two copies of an E8 Lattice. A seperate paper discusses using a third copy of an E8 Lattice in connection with construction of a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory related to the Leech Lattice. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [926] viXra:1701.0495 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 22:39:49 ### E8 Root Vector Geometry - AQFT - 26D String Theory - - Schwinger Sources - Quantum Consciousness Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr Comments: 30 Pages. This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) in which the Bohm Quantum Potential emerges from a 26D String Theory with Strings = World-Lines = Path Integral Paths and the Massless Spin 2 State interpreted as the Bohm Quantum Potential. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era. The Octonionic Lagrangian can be embedded into a Cl(1,25) Clifford Algebra which with 8-Periodicity gives an AQFT. The Massless Spin 2 State of 26D String Theory gives the Bohm Quantum Potential. The Quantum Code of the AQFT is the Tensor Product Quantum Reed-Muller code. A Single Cell of the 26D String Theory model has the symmetry of the Monster Group. Quantum Processes produce Schwinger Sources with size about 10^(-24) cm. Microtubule Structure related to E8 and Clifford Algebra enable Penrose-Hameroff Quantum Consciousness. E8 and Cl(8) may have been encoded in the Great Pyramid. A seperate paper discusses using the Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein version of the Lagrangian to produce the Higgs and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions and a Higgs - Truth Quark System with 3 Mass States for Higgs and Truth Quark. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [925] viXra:1701.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-14 08:35:24 ### Brute-Force Computer Modelling and Derivation of Group Operations for the 12 1st Level Extended Rishon Model Particles, Assuming Elliptically-Polarised Mobius-Light Topology Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton Comments: 6 Pages. This paper continues prior work based on the insight that Rishon ultracoloured triplets (electron, up, neutrino in left and right forms) might simply be elliptically-polarised "mobius light". The important first step is therefore to identify the twelve (24 including both left and right handed forms) phases, the correct topology, and then to peform transformations (mirroring, rotation, time-reversal) to double-check which "particles" are identical to each other and which are anti-particle opposites. Ultimately, a brute-force systematic analysis will allow a formal mathematical group to be dropped seamlessly on top of the twelve (24) particles. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [924] viXra:1701.0473 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-12 12:04:19 ### Solving The Mystery of the Fine Structure Constant Authors: Nikola Perkovic Comments: 4 Pages. The paper will make new claims regarding the fine structure constant. The specific value of the electromagnetic coupling constant, that is the fine structure constant, will be explained as a consequence of mass energy equivalence. Special Relativity and Quantum Electrodynamics will be used to attain the mass energy equivalence equation and after which a new, quantized equation of mass energy equivalence will be postulated and tested. A new way will be presented to determine the mass of neutrons by using the strong nuclear coupling constant and protons by using the fine structure constant. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [923] viXra:1701.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-10 08:44:47 ### Relativistic Electron Pulses Authors: George Rajna Comments: 20 Pages. Controlled direct acceleration of electrons in very strong laser fields can offer a path towards ultra-compact accelerators. [13] In an electron microscope, electrons are emitted by pointy metal tips, so they can be steered and controlled with high precision. Recently, such metal tips have also been used as high precision electron sources for generating X-rays. [12] In some chemical reactions both electrons and protons move together. When they transfer, they can move concertedly or in separate steps. Light-induced reactions of this sort are particularly relevant to biological systems, such as Photosystem II where plants use photons from the sun to convert water into oxygen. [11] EPFL researchers have found that water molecules are 10,000 times more sensitive to ions than previously thought. [10] Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [922] viXra:1701.0316 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-07 07:03:55 ### A Further Exploration of the Preliminary Implications of Hypercolour as Being Phase-Order of "Mobius" Elliptically-Polarised Light in the Extended Rishon Model Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton Comments: 7 Pages. In a prior paper ultracolour was added back in to the Extended Rishon Model, and the I-Frame structure explored using the proton as an example. Bearing in mind that because Maxwell's equations have to be obeyed, the Rishons have to have actual phase, position, momentum and velocity. The only pattern of motion that fitted the stringent requirements was if the Rishons circulated on mobius strips. Fascinatingly and very excitingly, exactly such a previously-theoretical elliptically-transverse mobius topology of light has been experimentally confirmed last year. The next logical task of writing out Rishon triplets in a circle as actual starting phases of the elliptically polarized mobius-walking light has proven to be a huge breakthrough, providing startling insight with massive implications such as implying the existence of two previously undiscovered quarks very similar to up and down (provisionally nicknamed over and under), logically and naturally confirming that "decay" is just a "phase transform", and generally being really rather disruptive to both the Standard Model and the Extended Rishon Model. A huge task is therefore ahead, to revisit the available data on particle decays and masses (bear in mind that the Standard Model's statistical inference confirmation techniques assume the up and over, and down and under, to be the same particles), so this paper endeavours to lay some groundwork and ask pertinent questions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [921] viXra:1701.0308 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-06 11:40:42 ### The Planckian Hierarchal Schematic Authors: Vito R. D'Angelo Comments: 4 Pages. The construction of the Planckian hierarchal schematic, comprised of four very well-known Planck constants, i.e., h,(h-bar), lp, and tp. The reintroduction of a forgotten constant, 1/2 of (h-bar). The postulation of a new Planck constant - the Planck circumference, symbol (P), where the Planck length is its diameter. The natural outcome of pi as the ratio of the Planck length and Planck circumference. Also, the initialization of the ratio of 1/2(h-bar) and the Planck circumference, with a value of 1.038499006, referred to, as the ratio of attribute. The crux of the paper is to show that the dimensionless ratios of the Planckian schematic (i.e., 2, 1.038499006, pi and 299792458) can be utilized to enumerate the Planck momentum, Planck mass and Planck energy constants. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [920] viXra:1701.0290 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-04 22:51:17 ### Exploring the Addition of Hypercolour to the Extended Rishon Model Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton Comments: 7 Pages. Colour (R,G,B) seems to be fashionable in particle physics theories, where it may be interpreted to be phase. In the context of the Extended Rishon Model, where we interpret particles to comprise photons in phase-harmonic braid-ordered inter-dependence, Colour takes on a very specific relevance and meaning, not least because Maxwell's equations have to be obeyed literally and undeniably, and phase is an absolutely critical part of Maxwell's equations. A number of potential candidate layouts are explored, including taking Sundance O Bilson-Thompson's topological braid-order literally. Ultimately though, the only thing that worked out that still respected the rules of the Extended Rishon Model was to place the Rishons on a mobius strip, mirroring Williamson's toroidal pattern, which, with its back-to-back two-cycle rotation, reminds us of Qiu-Hong Hu's Hubius Helix. The layout of the 2nd level I-Frame is therefore explored, using the proton as a candidate. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [919] viXra:1701.0285 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-05 06:40:05 ### Quark Soup Critical Point Authors: George Rajna Comments: 16 Pages. Thanks to a new development in nuclear physics theory, scientists exploring expanding fireballs that mimic the early universe have new signs to look for as they map out the transition from primordial plasma to matter as we know it. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [918] viXra:1701.0282 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-04 10:17:30 ### Multiple Copies of the Standard Model Authors: George Rajna Comments: 27 Pages. In the proposed model, the universe contains multiple sectors, each of which is governed by its own version of the Standard Model with its own Higgs vacuum expectation value. The sector with the smallest non-zero vacuum expectation value contains our copy of the Standard Model. [18] Physicists have come up with a new model that they say solves five of the biggest unanswered questions in modern physics, explaining the weirdness of dark matter, neutrino oscillations, baryogenesis, cosmic inflation, and the strong CP problem all at once. [17] The universe is unbalanced. Gravity is tremendously weak. But the weak force, which allows particles to interact and transform, is enormously strong. The mass of the Higgs boson is suspiciously petite. And the catalog of the makeup of the cosmos? Ninety-six percent incomplete. [16] One of the biggest challenges in physics is to understand why everything we see in our universe seems to be formed only of matter, whereas the Big Bang should have created equal amounts of matter and antimatter. CERN's LHCb experiment is one of the best hopes for physicists looking to solve this longstanding mystery. [15] Imperial physicists have discovered how to create matter from light-a feat thought impossible when the idea was first theorized 80 years ago. [14] How can the LHC experiments prove that they have produced dark matter? They can't… not alone, anyway. [13] The race for the discovery of dark matter is on. Several experiments worldwide are searching for the mysterious substance and pushing the limits on the properties it may have. [12] Dark energy is a mysterious force that pervades all space, acting as a "push" to accelerate the universe's expansion. Despite being 70 percent of the universe, dark energy was only discovered in 1998 by two teams observing Type Ia supernovae. A Type 1a supernova is a cataclysmic explosion of a white dwarf star. The best way of measuring dark energy just got better, thanks to a new study of Type Ia supernovae. [11] Newly published research reveals that dark matter is being swallowed up by dark energy, offering novel insight into the nature of dark matter and dark energy and what the future of our Universe might be. [10] The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [917] viXra:1701.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-03 01:19:26 ### A Discourse on the Electron and Other Particle's Internals, from the Perspective of the Extended Rishon Model and the Field of Optics Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton Comments: 18 Pages. This document is in eect a journal of the past thirty years of exploring particle physics, with a special focus on the electron. With the exception of this abstract, a rst person dialog has been unusually chosen after discovering that it can be more eective in communicating certain logical reasoning chains of thought. The story begins in 1986 with the rediscovery of the Rishon Model, later expanded in 2012, followed by an exploration of possible meaning as to why the four Rishons would exist at all, and why they would exist as triplets: what possible physical underlying mechanism would give us "Rishons"? The following hypothesis is therefore put forward: All evidence explored so far supports the hypothesis that all particles are made of phased-array photons in a tight and innitely-cyclic recurring loop, in a self- contained non-radiating E.M eld that obeys nothing more than Maxwell's Equa- tions (applied from rst principles), with the addition that particles that are not nonradiating are going to be unstable to some degree (i.e. will undergo "decay"). Rishons themselves are not actual particles per se but simply represent the phase and braiding order of the constituent photons. A number of researchers have explored parts of this eld, but have not pulled all of the pieces together. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [916] viXra:1701.0007 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-01 21:36:01 ### The Complete Internal Structure, the Origin of Mass, and the Source of Mixing, Entanglement, and Oscillations, in the Lower Stable Hadrons and Leptons Authors: John R. Springer Comments: 17 Pages. A new model of particle structure is presented for the lowest stable hadrons and leptons which shows first: the complete internal quark/gluon structure of the proton, neutron, eta, neutral kaon, and neutral pion mesons and (surprisingly) the muon. It can be extended to include without gluons: the electron, neutrinos, and even the photon. Second, it shows the origin of mass. While mass cannot be assigned to individual quarks which do not exist alone, it can be assigned in totality to a small number of gluons of positive and negative associated mass (±14me). This makes the basic unit of mass the electron mass. Third, it shows that mixing of internal quark states (like the neutral kaon) is common in all particles. In fact, it shows the source of mixing, entanglement, and oscillations. The key to this discovery is the finding that quarks do not exist as single isolated quark-antiquark pairs but only as triads and antitriads. Quark-antiquark pairing does occur but only within a quark triad-antitriad pair. With these claims, a thorough analysis of particle properties, especially mass, yields the precise structure and mass of internal structures; essentially a small number (possibly a string or helix) of quark triad-antitriad pairs. The proton and neutron, in addition, each contain one unpaired triad- uud and ddu respectively. Proof for the model is presented which involves a quark structure for the muon and its subsequent decay. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [915] viXra:1701.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2017-01-02 02:24:09 ### An Explanation of the de Vries Formula for the Fine Structure Constant Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton Comments: 4 Pages. The de Vries formula, discovered in 2004, is undeniably accurate to current experimental and theoretical measurements (3.1e-10 to within CODATA 2014's value, currently 2.3e-10 relative uncertainty). Its Kolmogorov Complexity is extremely low, and it is as elegant as Euler's Identity formula. Having been discovered by a Silicon Design Engineer, no explanation is offered except for the hint that it is based on the well-recognised first approximation for g/2: 1 + alpha / 2pi. Purely taking the occurence of the fine structure constant in the electron: in light of G Poelz and Dr Mills' work, as well as the Ring Model of the early 1900s, this paper offers a tentative explanation for Î± as being a careful dynamic balanced inter-relationship between each radiated loop as emitted from whatever constitutes the "source" of the energy at the heart of the electron. Mills and the original Ring Model use the word "nonradiating" which is is believed to be absolutely critical. Category: High Energy Particle Physics [914] viXra:1612.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2016-12-29 13:15:23 ### Underlying Symmetry Among the Quark and Lepton Mixing Angles (Nine Year Update) Authors: J. S. Markovitch Comments: 9 Pages. In 2007 a single mathematical model encompassing both quark and lepton mixing was described. This model exploited the fact that when a$3 \times 3$rotation matrix whose elements are squared is subtracted from its transpose, a matrix is produced whose non-diagonal elements have a common absolute value, where this value is an intrinsic property of the rotation matrix. For the traditional CKM quark mixing matrix with its second and third rows interchanged (i.e., c - t interchange) this value equals one-third the corresponding value for the leptonic matrix (roughly, 0.05 versus 0.15). This model is distinguished by three such constraints on mixing. As nine years have elapsed since its introduction, it is timely to assess the accuracy of the model's six mixing angles. In 2012 a large experimental conflict with leptonic angle$\theta_{13}$required toggling the sign of one of the model's integer exponents; this change did not significantly impair the model's economy, where it is just this economy that makes the model notable. There followed a nearly fourfold improvement in the accuracy of the measurement of leptonic$\theta_{13}\$. Despite this much-improved measurement, and despite much-improved measurements for three other mixing angles since the model's introduction in 2007, no other conflicts have emerged. The model's mixing angles in degrees are 45, 33.210911, 8.034394 (originally 0.013665) for leptons; and 12.920966, 2.367442, 0.190986 for quarks.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[742] viXra:1707.0218 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-16 10:13:32

### The First Big Question Facing Physics and Science

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: show a viewpoint with regards to first big question facing physics and science.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[741] viXra:1707.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-12 04:36:18

### New Physics Resulting from Far Too Large a Mass Distance Between the Doubly Charmed Baryons Xi

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

The Standard Model (SM) and experimental data show that the change of the up quark for down quark increases the mass of nucleon by about 1 MeV. On the other hand, SM and experimental results show that the same change in the doubly charmed baryons Xi decreases the mass by about 100 MeV. Within the SM we cannot explain such two major inconsistencies (i.e. 100 MeV instead 1 MeV and the increase-decrease asymmetry) so such problems suggest new physics. To save the SM, some scientists suggest that the first doubly charmed Xi, detected by the SELEX collaboration based at Fermilab, should disappear! Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated masses and I, J and P of baryon Delta, of many charmed and bottom baryons and masses of the two doubly charmed baryons Xi. Calculated mass of Xi_cc+ is 3519.08 MeV whereas of Xi_cc++ is 3621.90 MeV - the results are consistent with experimental data. The other theoretical masses obtained here are very close to experimental results. We present a generalized scheme that is very helpful in calculating masses and other physical quantities that characterize baryons. Charmed baryons contain relativistic, positively charged pion in the d = 0 state which mass is 1256.6 MeV - this mass is close to the mass of the charm quark (in SST it is 1267 MeV) so the quark model can mimic presented here the atom-like theory of baryons. On the other hand, relativistic mass of charged kaon in the d = 0 state is 4444.9 MeV so it can mimic the mass of the bottom quark (in SST it is 4190 MeV).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[740] viXra:1707.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-11 01:18:35

### Higgs Bosons and Neutrinos

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: show the viewpoint with regards to the higgs boson and neutrinos.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[739] viXra:1706.0517 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-30 03:39:27

### One Visible Neutrinos Aggregation Body

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: showing an image of a visible neutrinosaggregation body.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[738] viXra:1706.0510 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-24 05:17:16

### Preons, Gravity and Black Holes

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 19 Pages. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 4: e3784. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103784

A previous preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is completed to provide a model of Planck scale gravity and black holes. Gravity theory with torsion is introduced in the model. Torsion has been shown to produce an axial-vector field coupled to spinors, in the present case preons, causing an attractive preon-preon interaction. This is assumed to be the leading term of UV gravity. The boson has an estimated mass near the Planck scale. At high enough density it can materialize and become the center of a black hole. Chiral phase preons are proposed to form the horizon with thickness of order of Planck length. Using quantum information theoretic concepts this is seen to lead to an area law of black hole entropy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[737] viXra:1706.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-09 05:21:56

### The ElementaryParticle and Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: showing a catalog of articlesrelated elementaryparticlesandatomic nucleus.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[736] viXra:1706.0423 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-22 09:43:15

### The ElementaryParticle and Atomic Nucleus

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: showing a catalog of articlesrelated elementaryparticlesandatomic nucleus.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[735] viXra:1705.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-29 09:42:18

### The Scale-Symmetric Theory as the Origin of the Standard Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here we showed that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) gives rise to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We calculated the SM gauge couplings - we obtained g’ = 0.35706, g = 0.65235 (these two gauge couplings lead to an illusion of electroweak unification), and g(s) = 1.21529 +- 0.00360. We as well described the mechanism that leads to the mass of muon. Calculated here mass of muon is 105.6576 MeV. The other SM parameters we calculated in earlier papers. SST is based on 7 parameters only which, contrary to SM, lead also to the 3 masses of neutrinos (they are beyond SM) and to the 4 basic physical constants (i.e. to the reduced Planck constant, to gravitational constant (gravity is beyond SM), to speed of light in “vacuum” and electric charge of electron). We can see that in SST there is 2.7 times less parameters, SST leads to the 19 initial parameters in SM, and SST describes phenomena beyond SM. It leads to conclusion that SST is a more fundamental theory than SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[734] viXra:1705.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-28 14:19:39

### The Scale-Symmetric Theory as the Origin of the Standard Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here we showed that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) gives rise to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We calculated the SM gauge couplings - we obtained g’ = 0.35706, g = 0.65235 (these two gauge couplings lead to an illusion of electroweak unification), and g(s) = 1.21529 +- 0.00360. We as well described the mechanism that leads to the mass of muon. Calculated here mass of muon is 105.6576 MeV. The other SM parameters we calculated in earlier papers. SST is based on 7 parameters only which, contrary to SM, lead also to the 3 masses of neutrinos (they are beyond SM) and to the 4 basic physical constants (i.e. to the reduced Planck constant, to gravitational constant (gravity is beyond SM), to speed of light in “vacuum” and electric charge of electron). We can see that in SST there is 2.7 times less parameters, SST leads to the 19 initial parameters in SM, and SST describes phenomena beyond SM. It leads to conclusion that SST is a more fundamental theory than SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[733] viXra:1705.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-23 04:47:59

### The Scale-Symmetric Theory as the Origin of the Standard Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here we showed that the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) gives rise to the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics. We calculated the SM gauge couplings - we obtained g’ = 0.3576, g = 0.6534 (these two gauge couplings lead to an illusion of electroweak unification), and g(s) = 1.2156 +- 0.0036. We as well described the mechanism that leads to the mass of muon. Calculated here mass of muon is 105.6578 MeV. The other SM parameters we calculated in earlier papers. SST is based on 7 parameters only which, contrary to SM, lead also to the 3 masses of neutrinos (they are beyond SM) and to the 4 basic physical constants (i.e. to the reduced Planck constant, to gravitational constant (gravity is beyond SM), to speed of light in “vacuum” and electric charge of electron). We can see that in SST there is 2.7 times less parameters, SST leads to the 19 initial parameters in SM, and SST describes phenomena beyond SM. It leads to conclusion that SST is a more fundamental theory than SM.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[732] viXra:1705.0271 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-19 09:15:59

### Should Consensus Suppress the Individual ?

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

Consider two cases: First Case ( pages 4-20 ): Our Universe: Is it Stable ? Consensus = NO (only metastable) Individual = YES Second Case ( pages 21-27 ): Dark Energy and Dark Matter Consensus = Unknown Individual = Known Segal Conformal Structure This paper is a brief description of interactions between Consensus and Individual in each of those two cases. Since I, the author, have been directly involved, you should read this paper bearing in mind possible bias in my point of view that might also be present in this paper. Bearing that in mind, you should decide for yourself the answer  to the question posed in the title of this paper. In each case: Consensus = the Physics Establishment including: Fermilab, CDF, and D0 Collaborations (pages 8-14); the Cornell arXiv (pages 13; 21-22); CERN CDS (pages 14; 22); LHC, ATLAS, and CMS Collaborations (pages 15-20); the Princeton Institute for Advanced Study (page 20); and the Simons Center for Geometry and Physics (page 20) and Individual = I, a Georgia lawyer with a 1963 AB in math from Princeton and some physics study at Georgia Tech with David Finkelstein as adviser, but, having at age 50 failed the Fall 1991 Georgia Tech Comprehensive Exam ( a 3-day closed book exam ), I have no physics degree. Version 2 (v2) adds correct viXra number and 2 pages of details about Fermilab data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[731] viXra:1705.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-07 08:48:04

### The Origin of the Z and W Bosons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the Z and W bosons can be created due to three different mechanisms. One mechanism is associated with a transition from electromagnetic interactions to weak interactions of protons with electrons in the presence of dark matter (DM) while the second one concerns a transition from weak interactions of protons to weak interactions of charges of protons, which mimic behaviour of electrons in absence of DM, with muons associated with protons. In the first mechanism, calculated mass of Z is 91.181 GeV whereas of W is 80.427 GeV while in the second mechanism we obtained respectively 91.205 GeV and 80.385 GeV. The third mechanism leads to masses of W bosons equal to 80.473 GeV and 80.380 GeV (mean value is 80.427 GeV). We showed that the recent cosmic-ray antiproton data from AMS-02 concern transitions between different interactions also so the results do not follow from dark-matter annihilation. Emphasize that in an earlier paper, we calculated lifetimes of the Z and W bosons which are very close to experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[730] viXra:1705.0202 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-14 05:25:29

### The Origin of the Z and W Bosons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that the Z and W bosons can be created due to two different mechanisms. One mechanism is associated with a transition from electromagnetic interactions to weak interactions of protons with electrons in the presence of dark matter (DM) while the second one concerns a transition from weak interactions of protons to weak interactions of charges of protons, which mimic behaviour of electrons in absence of DM, with muons associated with protons. In the first mechanism, calculated mass of Z is 91.181 GeV whereas of W is 80.427 GeV while in the second mechanism we obtained respectively 91.205 GeV and 80.385 GeV. We showed that the recent cosmic-ray antiproton data from AMS-02 concern transitions between different interactions also so the results do not follow from dark-matter annihilation. Emphasize that in an earlier paper, we calculated lifetimes of the Z and W bosons which are very close to experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[729] viXra:1704.0374 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-09 12:07:41

### New Discoveries in Parkhomov’s 60co Astro-Catalyzed Beta Decay

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 7 pages, 1 figure. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.30632.98564

In 2011, Russian experimental physicist Parkhomov delivered a paper: “Deviations from Beta Radioactivity Exponential Drop”. It seems that his explanation on the observed phenomenon is little bit shallow. Hereby I present my new 5 discoveries based on his experiment settings and data, and try to generalize it as profound lemma. 1-Good use of neutrinos can greatly accelerate beta decay; 2-Low energy neutrinos can reflect on mirror; 3-Boson quasi-particle comprising neutrinos in even number can be formed under focusing condition; 4-Such a quasi-particle in high spin can excite nucleus to overcome high spin lock; 5-Only β- decay can be catalyzed by neutrinos, as well as only β+ or electric capture decay can be catalyzed by antineutrinos, otherwise converse will be slowed down.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[728] viXra:1704.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-24 10:14:27

### A Bold Innovation on Artificial Neutrinos Source

Authors: Yanming Wei
Comments: 11 pages, 3 figures. DOI: 10.13140/RG.2.2.34378.36804

It is well known that neutrinos come out of nuclear β decay, but radioactive materials do harm to human beings, and either energy spectrum or dose cannot be flexibly controlled because of the only dependence on selected nuclide and mass. This paper presents a new way to build neutrinos source by only accurately manipulating electrons motion. Because voltage supply can hardly reach MV-level, thus this method is not competent to generate high energy neutrinos, and only good for low energy, especially a convenient means for range 1eV to 100keV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[727] viXra:1704.0372 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-28 07:33:43

### A Bold Innovation on Artificial Neutrinos Source

Authors: Yanming Wei

It is well known that neutrinos come out of nuclear β decay, but radioactive materials do harm to human beings, and either energy spectrum or dose cannot be flexibly controlled because of the only dependence on selected nuclide and mass. This paper presents a new way to build neutrinos source by only accurately manipulating electrons motion. Because voltage supply can hardly reach MV-level, thus this method is not competent to generate high energy neutrinos, and only good for low energy, especially a convenient means for range 1eV to 100keV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[726] viXra:1704.0198 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 08:24:29

### The Origin and Formation Mechanism of Protons

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: showing a viewpoint regards to the originand formation mechanism of protons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[725] viXra:1704.0095 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 09:43:27

### Running of Electromagnetic and Strong Coupling Constants (Rev.2)

Authors: Dr Richard Wayte

The observed variation of the electromagnetic coupling constant  seen in high energy e+e- → e+e- collisions, has been explained in terms of work done compressing the energetic electron. A simple monotonic law has been found, which describes how the electron resists compression, without transmutation. Variation of the strong coupling constant αs has also been analysed in terms of equivalent work done by the gluon field within a proton’s component parts.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[724] viXra:1704.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2017-07-11 22:39:29

### Zero. Probabilystic Foundation of Theoretyical Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[723] viXra:1704.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 20:59:55

### Zero. Probabilystic Foundation of Theoretyical Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[722] viXra:1704.0070 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-06 09:24:51

### Zero. Probabilystic Foundation of Theoretyical Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov

No need models - the fundamental theoretical physics is a part of classical probability theory (the part that considers the probability of dot events in the 3 + 1 space-time).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[721] viXra:1704.0037 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-18 04:52:02

### Preons, Standard Model, Gravity with Torsion and Black Holes

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 13 Pages. Published in Open Access Library Journal, 4: e3632. Includes viXra:1703.0247.

A previous spin 1/2 preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is complemented to provide particle classification group, preon interactions and a tentative model of black holes. The goal of this study is to analyze a phenomenological theory of all interactions. A minimal amount of physical assumptions are made and only experimentally verified global and gauge groups are employed: SLq(2), the three of the standard model and the full Poincar\'e group. Gravity theory with torsion is introduced producing an axial-vector field coupled to preons. The mass of the axial-vector particle is estimated to be near the GUT scale. The boson can materialize above this scale and gain further mass to become a black hole at Planck mass while massless preons may form the horizon. A particle-black hole duality is proposed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[720] viXra:1703.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-02 09:33:24

### Spin’s Meaning, Characterization and Calculation In New Particle Physics

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: giving aviewpoint with regards to the spins of elementary particles from first principle;in the particular, about the proton’s spin meaning, characterization andcalculation in the consistent and definite form that suitable to it in all of differentstates.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[719] viXra:1703.0293 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-02 06:43:13

### Spin’s Meaning, Characterization and Calculation In New Particle Physics

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: giving aviewpoint with regards to the spins of elementary particles from first principle;in the particular, about the proton’s spin meaning, characterization andcalculation in the consistent and definite form that suitable to it in all of differentstates.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[718] viXra:1703.0238 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-25 10:40:25

### Physical Origin, Basic Attribute and Action Feature of Nuclear Forces

Authors: Yibing Qiu

Abstract: givingphysical origin, basic attributes and action features of nuclear forces derives from first principles and expressed in an explicit form.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[717] viXra:1703.0138 [pdf] replaced on 2017-06-26 09:48:15

### Electron Stability Approach to Finite Quantum Electrodynamics

Authors: Dean Chlouber

This paper analyses electron stability and applies the resulting stability principle to resolve divergence issues in quantum electrodynamics (QED) without renormalization. Stability is enforced by requiring that the positive electromagnetic field energy be balanced by a negative interaction energy between the observed electron charge and a local vacuum potential. Then in addition to the observed core mechanical mass m, an electron system consists of two electromagnetic mass components of equal magnitude M but opposite sign; consequently, the net electromagnetic mass is zero. Two virtual, electromagnetically dressed mass levels m±M, constructed to form a complete set of mass levels and isolate the electron-vacuum interaction, provide essential S-matrix corrections for radiative processes involving infinite field actions. Total scattering amplitudes for radiative corrections are shown to be convergent in the limit M → ∞ and equal to renormalized amplitudes when Feynman diagrams for all mass levels are included. In each case the infinity in the core mass amplitude is canceled by the average amplitude for electromagnetically dressed mass levels, which become separated in intermediate states and account for the stabilizing interaction energy between an electron and its surrounding polarized vacuum. In this manner, S-matrix corrections are shown to be finite for any order diagram in perturbation theory; all the while, maintaining the mass and charge at their physically observed values.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[716] viXra:1703.0075 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-08 14:07:40

### Superrelativistic’s and Tachyonic Neutrinos Applied in Modern Nanophysics and Nanochemistry – Graphene, Nano–cage Structured Materials: Clathrates, and Nanocrystals

Authors: Imrich Krištof

This presented publication to discuss about new nanophysical and nanochemical applications in modern nanotechnology, with utilization of superrelativistic and tachyonic neutrinos (hep), high energy particles emitted, for example into the Antarctic Ice Crust (Project AMANDA/Ice Cube) from hard cosmic cascade’s hyperons ksí (Ξ), omega (-Ω ), lambda (Λ) and subsequently mesons pí (π0), ká (κ0), mí (μ), so sunshowers of tauons (super heavy electrons), electrons, photons and neutrinos ντ (tau), νμ (mí) and electron’s neutrinos ν(e-) and probably the fourth neutrino connected with gauge fields -> gauge neutrino and gauge bosons. (Comment 1.: Tauon/lepton τ) has meantime life (decay) 3x10-13 s. With calm mass 1776,84 MeV/c2, compared with proton: 939 MeV and electron 0,511 MeV). Tauon si simultaneously lepton and fermion (spin ½). Top–interesting is behaviour of Möbius Graphene Leaf in electromagnetic fields. (Comment 2.: August Ferdinand Möbius (17.11.1790 – 26.9.1868) German mathematician and theoretical astronomer, far descendant by Martin Luther. Interesting mind–experiment, but also practical nano–chemical experiment is nanoclathrates–plasma nanochemistry and in them incorporated humin organic nanowall and nanolandscape of organic nanomaterials of fulvic and humic acids, with interaction of femtolaser (10-15 s) in 2D and 3D nanolandscape. Advised localities of extraction of fulvic and humic organic materials are in geomorphological region called The Moravian Karst (20 km on the north from Brno City), concretely the middle zone – Eve’s Cave – The Křtiny’s creek valley near Adamov. The significancy of nanoclathrates of humin is like antioxidant and neutralizator of radioactive waste. Special antioxidant substance, so called “MESIPAN”, according to the Czech sci–fi writer Ing. Zdeněk Volný, the novel – “The Gate to Eternity“ (1985). Suggested experiment with WILSON FOG CHAMBER -> hard cosmic rays and accelerated particles and their traces on photographic film. The Super Known Neutrino Event in Nov. 19.,1970) – world’s first observation of a neutrino in a hydrogen bubble chamber. Lattice constant of graphene, carbon nanotubes and Buckminster’s fullerens and fullerit can be easily calculated. Benoît Mandelbrot (The French mathematician (1975)) and Jaromír Korčák (1938), the Czech demograph and geograph were the first in the whole world, who used the fractals and attractors like surface of nanocomposit materials. Nanoclathrates -> Zeolites -> Liquid crystals nano and mesoporous crystals, channeled structures. Utilization of Alumosilicates (CLAY’S MINERALS) for example Montmorillonit – Illit with NEVERENDING CRYSTAL LATTICE ARE SURFACE FUNCTIONALIZATION ADSORBENTS, SO CALLED SORPTION’S COMPLEX IN SOILS (VERY IMPORTANT COMPOUND OF A SOIL) -> LIKE AN INCLUSION COMPLEX -> SUPRAMOLECULAR STRUCTURES. Attention will be dedicated to applications of research for example, so called Ryden Batteries from UNIVERSITY OF KYUSHU, JAPAN, like a predecessor of confinement of author’s pocket tokamak. Like the last part of an article was chosen chapter dedicated to chemical and physical properties of nanocrystals and quaziparticles like the phonons, exciton–polaritons, polarons and plasmons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[715] viXra:1702.0332 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-07 09:18:25

### A New Empirical Approach to Quark and Lepton Masses

Authors: Kevin Loch

We present an alternative to the Koide formula and it’s extensions. By introducing two parameters k and alpha_f derived from charged leptons we are able to construct new empirical formulas that appear to relate all fundamental fermion pole masses. The predicted masses are in excellent agreement with known experimental values and constraints for heavy quarks and neutrinos. For light quarks we predict speculative pole masses of the same order of magnitude as μ=1GeV MS masses but higher by a factor of ~1.5. The condition where k^12=3.5 (exact) is also considered as it would allow ultra high precision predictions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[714] viXra:1702.0329 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-03 03:30:38

### Sedeonic Field Theory

Authors: Victor L. Mironov, Sergey V. Mironov

This book is a systematic presentation of sixteen-component space-time "sedeons" and their applications to describe quantum particles and fields.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[713] viXra:1702.0194 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-20 13:49:59

### Time Divergence Model of Superposition

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher

TDMS explains the primary mysteries of quantum mechanics and cosmology, by proposing that time intervals vary between scales of great magnitude. In nanoscopic scales time diverges (expands), and in macroscopic scales time converges (contracts per distance squared). Time Divergence (TD) proposes that an observer will view a nanoscopic particle with an expanded range of time, from past to present, in his single moment, like a time-lapse. For example, an electron obital, viewed in a single moment represents a time interval from −∆t (past) to +∆t future. Unlike superposition, modulus states do progress in time from ground to excited. TD explains the orbital gaps as simply the portions of rotation that are outside of this time range. TD predicts that wave collapse occurs when the introduction of an intermediate apparatus (such as a detector), brings the observation (from source to effect) to essentially the same scale. TD offers an alternate explanation to the ”undetermined probability wavefunction Ψ”. Explanations, resolutions and insights gained: In nanoscales: * The cloud appearance of electron orbits * The gaps between electron orbits are very much predicted * The shapes of orbitals * Collapse, as well as duality * Why orbital density appears closest to nucleus * Progression of energy states * TDMS suggests that information about energy states and position can be gained from comparing observations at two separate points in time. In macroscales: * Accelerated expansion * Millisecond pulsars * Galaxy outer rim rotation mysteries * The nonuniform expansion of supernovae remnant clouds
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[712] viXra:1702.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-10 11:04:23

### A Lexicon and Exploration Status Document for the Extended Rishon Model

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

The Extended Rishon Model is currently in continuous development, expansion and clarification, yet with nothing found that is contradictory to its initial foundations as of over three decades ago. However there are a series of recurring themes that have a large body of evidence to support, some less-well-confirmed themes and a body of hypotheses that need significant further exploration. This document - which will be continuously revised - therefore keeps track of the different categories in order to avoid repetition, and to make it much easier for others to understand the Extended Rishon Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[711] viXra:1702.0077 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-07 06:11:20

### A Lexicon and Exploration Status Document for the Extended Rishon Model

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

The Extended Rishon Model is currently in continuous development, expansion and clarification, yet with nothing found that is contradictory to its initial foundations as of over three decades ago. However there are a series of recurring themes that have a large body of evidence to support, some less-well-confirmed themes and a body of hypotheses that need significant further exploration. This document - which will be continuously revised - therefore keeps track of the different categories in order to avoid repetition, and to make it much easier for others to understand the Extended Rishon Model.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[710] viXra:1702.0058 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-04 12:36:36

### Physical Interpretation of the 30 8-Simplexes in the E8 240-Polytope

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

248-dim Lie Group E8 has 240 Root Vectors arranged on a 7-sphere S7 in 8-dim space. The 12 vertices of a cuboctahedron live on a 2-sphere S2 in 3-dim space. They are also the 4x3 = 12 outer vertices of 4 tetrahedra (3-simplexes) that share one inner vertex at the center of the cuboctahedron. This paper explores how the 240 vertices of the E8 Polytope in 8-dim space are related to the 30x8 = 240 outer vertices of 30 8-simplexes whose 9th vertex is a shared inner vertex at the center of the E8 Polytope.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[709] viXra:1702.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-19 17:35:47

### Quantum Interpretation of the Proton Anomalous Magnetic Moment

Authors: Michaele Suisse, Peter Cameron

The role of the anomalous moment in the geometric Clifford algebra of proton topological mass generation suggests that the anomaly is not an intrinsic property of the free space proton, but rather a topological effect of applying the electromagnetic bias field required to define the eigenstates probed by the magnetic moment measurement. Quantum interpretations strive to explain emergence of the world we observe from formal quantum theory. This variant on the canonical measurement problem is examined in the larger context of quantum interpretations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[708] viXra:1702.0051 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-18 16:27:49

### Quantum Interpretation of the Proton Anomalous Magnetic Moment

Authors: Michaele Suisse

The role of the anomalous moment in the geometric Clifford algebra of proton topological mass generation suggests that the anomaly is not an intrinsic property of the free space proton, but rather a topological effect of applying the electromagnetic bias field required to define the eigenstates probed by the magnetic moment measurement. Quantum interpretations strive to explain emergence of the world we observe from formal quantum theory. This variant on the canonical measurement problem is examined in the larger context of quantum interpretations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[707] viXra:1701.0567 [pdf] replaced on 2017-02-18 16:22:14

### Geometry and Fields: Illuminating the Standard Model from Within

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

We present a wavefunction comprised of the eight fundamental geometric objects of a minimally complete Pauli algebra of 3D space - point, line, plane, and volume elements - endowed with electromagnetic fields. Interactions are modeled as geometric products of wavefunctions, generating a 4D Dirac algebra of flat Minkowski spacetime. The resulting model is naturally gauge invariant, finite, and confined. With regard to the U1 x SU2 x SU3 gauge group at the core of the Standard Model, natural finiteness and gauge invariance are benign. However, reflections from wavefunction geometric impedance mismatches yields natural confinement to the Compton wavelength, providing a new perspective on both weak and strong nuclear forces.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[706] viXra:1701.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 22:29:29

### From E8 Root Vector Geometry to the LHC

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian describing Gravity and Dark Energy plus the Standard Model. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era followed by a Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein Era in which the HIggs emerges by the Mayer mechanism and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions appear. By generalizations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models, the Higgs is seen to be a Truth Quark-AntiQuark Condensate giving 3 Mass States of the Higgs and 3 Mass States of the Truth Quark. My analysis of Fermilab and LHC observation data indicates that Fermilab has observed the 3 Truth Quark Mass States and LHC has observed the 3 Higgs Mass States. The Lagrangian, which is fundamentally classical, is constructed from E8 only and E8 lives in Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) which corresponds to two copies of an E8 Lattice. A seperate paper discusses using a third copy of an E8 Lattice in connection with construction of a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory related to the Leech Lattice. Version 3 (v3) includes CMS analysis of 35.9 /fb of data in the H -> ZZ* -> 4l channel of the 2016 Run of the LHC at 13 TeV. Version 4 (v4) corrects author name and adds comparison of Consensus 1-state model with E8 3-state model with respect to Higgs-Tquark Phase Diagram. Versions 5 and 6 (v5 and v6) add details of CMS histogram and references to details of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type calculations by Hashimoto, Tanabashi, and Yamawaki.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[705] viXra:1701.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-24 08:04:34

### From E8 Root Vector Geometry to the LHC

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian describing Gravity and Dark Energy plus the Standard Model. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era followed by a Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein Era in which the HIggs emerges by the Mayer mechanism and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions appear. By generalizations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models, the Higgs is seen to be a Truth Quark-AntiQuark Condensate giving 3 Mass States of the Higgs and 3 Mass States of the Truth Quark. My analysis of Fermilab and LHC observation data indicates that Fermilab has observed the 3 Truth Quark Mass States and LHC has observed the 3 Higgs Mass States. The Lagrangian, which is fundamentally classical, is constructed from E8 only and E8 lives in Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) which corresponds to two copies of an E8 Lattice. A seperate paper discusses using a third copy of an E8 Lattice in connection with construction of a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory related to the Leech Lattice. Version 3 (v3) includes CMS analysis of 35.9 /fb of data in the H -> ZZ* -> 4l channel of the 2016 Run of the LHC at 13 TeV. Version 4 (v4) corrects author name and adds comparison of Consensus 1-state model with E8 3-state model with respect to Higgs-Tquark Phase Diagram. Version 5 (v5) adds details of CMS histogram and references to details of Nambu-Jona-Lasinio type calculations by Hashimoto, Tanabashi, and Yamawaki.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[704] viXra:1701.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-22 10:51:32

### From E8 Root Vector Geometry to the LHC

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian describing Gravity and Dark Energy plus the Standard Model. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era followed by a Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein Era in which the HIggs emerges by the Mayer mechanism and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions appear. By generalizations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models, the Higgs is seen to be a Truth Quark-AntiQuark Condensate giving 3 Mass States of the Higgs and 3 Mass States of the Truth Quark. My analysis of Fermilab and LHC observation data indicates that Fermilab has observed the 3 Truth Quark Mass States and LHC has observed the 3 Higgs Mass States. The Lagrangian, which is fundamentally classical, is constructed from E8 only and E8 lives in Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) which corresponds to two copies of an E8 Lattice. A seperate paper discusses using a third copy of an E8 Lattice in connection with construction of a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory related to the Leech Lattice. Version 3 (v3) includes CMS analysis of 35.9 /fb of data in the H -> ZZ* -> 4l channel of the 2016 Run of the LHC at 13 TeV. Version 4 (v4) corrects author name and adds comparison of Consensus 1-state model with E8 3-state model with respect to Higgs-Tquark Phase Diagram.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[703] viXra:1701.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2017-03-19 12:01:46

### From E8 Root Vector Geometry to the LHC

Authors: From E8 Root Vector Geometry to the LHC

This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian describing Gravity and Dark Energy plus the Standard Model. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era followed by a Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein Era in which the HIggs emerges by the Mayer mechanism and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions appear. By generalizations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models, the Higgs is seen to be a Truth Quark-AntiQuark Condensate giving 3 Mass States of the Higgs and 3 Mass States of the Truth Quark. My analysis of Fermilab and LHC observation data indicates that Fermilab has observed the 3 Truth Quark Mass States and LHC has observed the 3 Higgs Mass States. The Lagrangian, which is fundamentally classical, is constructed from E8 only and E8 lives in Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) which corresponds to two copies of an E8 Lattice. A seperate paper discusses using a third copy of an E8 Lattice in connection with construction of a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory related to the Leech Lattice. Version 3 (v3) includes CMS analysis of 35.9 /fb of data in the H -> ZZ* -> 4l channel of the 2016 Run of the LHC at 13 TeV.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[702] viXra:1701.0496 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-22 23:28:14

### From E8 Root Vector Geometry to the LHC

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian describing Gravity and Dark Energy plus the Standard Model. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era followed by a Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein Era in which the HIggs emerges by the Mayer mechanism and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions appear. By generalizations of the Nambu-Jona-Lasinio models, the Higgs is seen to be a Truth Quark-AntiQuark Condensate giving 3 Mass States of the Higgs and 3 Mass States of the Truth Quark. My analysis of Fermilab and LHC observation data indicates that Fermilab has observed the 3 Truth Quark Mass States and LHC has observed the 3 Higgs Mass States. The Lagrangian, which is fundamentally classical, is constructed from E8 only and E8 lives in Cl(16) = Cl(8) x Cl(8) which corresponds to two copies of an E8 Lattice. A seperate paper discusses using a third copy of an E8 Lattice in connection with construction of a realistic Algebraic Quantum Field Theory related to the Leech Lattice.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[701] viXra:1701.0495 [pdf] replaced on 2017-05-21 13:10:23

### E8 Root Vector Geometry - AQFT - 26D String Theory - - Schwinger Sources - Quantum Consciousness

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) in which the Bohm Quantum Potential emerges from a 26D String Theory with Strings = World-Lines = Path Integral Paths and the Massless Spin 2 State interpreted as the Bohm Quantum Potential. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era. The Octonionic Lagrangian can be embedded into a Cl(1,25) Clifford Algebra which with 8-Periodicity gives an AQFT. The Massless Spin 2 State of 26D String Theory gives the Bohm Quantum Potential. The Quantum Code of the AQFT is the Tensor Product Quantum Reed-Muller code. A Single Cell of the 26D String Theory model has the symmetry of the Monster Group. Quantum Processes produce Schwinger Sources with size about 10^(-24) cm. Microtubule Structure related to E8 and Clifford Algebra enable Penrose-Hameroff Quantum Consciousness. E8 and Cl(8) may have been encoded in the Great Pyramid. A seperate paper discusses using the Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein version of the Lagrangian to produce the Higgs and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions and a Higgs - Truth Quark System with 3 Mass States for Higgs and Truth Quark.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[700] viXra:1701.0495 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-16 22:37:46

### E8 Root Vector Geometry - AQFT - 26D String Theory - - Schwinger Sources - Quantum Consciousness

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr

This paper is intended to be a only rough semi-popular overview of how the 240 Root Vectors of E8 can be used to construct a useful Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT) in which the Bohm Quantum Potential emerges from a 26D String Theory with Strings = World-Lines = Path Integral Paths and the Massless Spin 2 State interpreted as the Bohm Quantum Potential. For details and references, see viXra/1602.0319. The 240 Root Vectors of E8 represent the physical forces, particles, and spacetime that make up the construction of a realistic Lagrangian describing the Octonionic Inflation Era. The Octonionic Lagrangian can be embedded into a Cl(1,25) Clifford Algebra which with 8-Periodicity gives an AQFT. The Massless Spin 2 State of 26D String Theory gives the Bohm Quantum Potential. The Quantum Code of the AQFT is the Tensor Product Quantum Reed-Muller code. A Single Cell of the 26D String Theory model has the symmetry of the Monster Group. Quantum Processes produce Schwinger Sources with size about 10^(-24) cm. Microtubule Structure related to E8 and Clifford Algebra enable Penrose-Hameroff Quantum Consciousness. E8 and Cl(8) may have been encoded in the Great Pyramid. A seperate paper discusses using the Quaternionic M4 x CP2 Kaluza-Klein version of the Lagrangian to produce the Higgs and 2nd and 3rd Generation Fermions and a Higgs - Truth Quark System with 3 Mass States for Higgs and Truth Quark.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[699] viXra:1701.0491 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-17 04:56:58

### Brute-Force Computer Modelling and Derivation of Group Operations for the 12 1st Level Extended Rishon Model Particles, Assuming Elliptically-Polarised Mobius-Light Topology

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

This paper continues prior work based on the insight that Rishon ultracoloured triplets (electron, up, neutrino in left and right forms) might simply be elliptically-polarised "mobius light". The important first step is therefore to identify the twelve (24 including both left and right handed forms) phases, the correct topology, and then to peform transformations (mirroring, rotation, time-reversal) to double-check which "particles" are identical to each other and which are anti-particle opposites. Ultimately, a brute-force systematic analysis will allow a formal mathematical group to be dropped seamlessly on top of the twelve (24) particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[698] viXra:1701.0491 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-16 03:30:53

### Brute-Force Computer Modelling and Derivation of Group Operations for the 12 1st Level Extended Rishon Model Particles, Assuming Elliptically-Polarised Mobius-Light Topology

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

This paper continues prior work based on the insight that Rishon ultracoloured triplets (electron, up, neutrino in left and right forms) might simply be elliptically-polarised "mobius light". The important first step is therefore to identify the twelve (24 including both left and right handed forms) phases, the correct topology, and then to peform transformations (mirroring, rotation, time-reversal) to double-check which "particles" are identical to each other and which are anti-particle opposites. Ultimately, a brute-force systematic analysis will allow a formal mathematical group to be dropped seamlessly on top of the twelve (24) particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[697] viXra:1701.0316 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-08 06:47:33

### A Further Exploration of the Preliminary Implications of Hypercolour as Being Phase-Order of "Mobius" Elliptically-Polarised Light in the Extended Rishon Model

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

In a prior paper ultracolour was added back in to the Extended Rishon Model, and the I-Frame structure explored using the proton as an example. Bearing in mind that because Maxwell's equations have to be obeyed, the Rishons have to have actual phase, position, momentum and velocity. The only pattern of motion that fitted the stringent requirements was if the Rishons circulated on mobius strips. Fascinatingly and very excitingly, exactly such a previously-theoretical elliptically-transverse mobius topology of light has been experimentally confirmed last year. The next logical task of writing out Rishon triplets in a circle as actual starting phases of the elliptically polarized mobius-walking light has proven to be a huge breakthrough, providing startling insight with massive implications such as implying the existence of two previously undiscovered quarks very similar to up and down (provisionally nicknamed over and under), logically and naturally confirming that "decay" is just a "phase transform", and generally being really rather disruptive to both the Standard Model and the Extended Rishon Model. A huge task is therefore ahead, to revisit the available data on particle decays and masses (bear in mind that the Standard Model's statistical inference confirmation techniques assume the up and over, and down and under, to be the same particles), so this paper endeavours to lay some groundwork and ask pertinent questions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[696] viXra:1701.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-03 08:04:26

### A Discourse on the Electron and Other Particle's Internals, from the Perspective of the Extended Rishon Model and the Field of Optics

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton

This document is in eect a journal of the past thirty years of exploring particle physics, with a special focus on the electron. With the exception of this abstract, a rst person dialog has been unusually chosen after discovering that it can be more eective in communicating certain logical reasoning chains of thought. The story begins in 1986 with the rediscovery of the Rishon Model, later expanded in 2012, followed by an exploration of possible meaning as to why the four Rishons would exist at all, and why they would exist as triplets: what possible physical underlying mechanism would give us "Rishons"? The following hypothesis is therefore put forward: All evidence explored so far supports the hypothesis that all particles are made of phased-array photons in a tight and innitely-cyclic recurring loop, in a self- contained non-radiating E.M eld that obeys nothing more than Maxwell's Equa- tions (applied from rst principles), with the addition that particles that are not nonradiating are going to be unstable to some degree (i.e. will undergo "decay"). Rishons themselves are not actual particles per se but simply represent the phase and braiding order of the constituent photons. A number of researchers have explored parts of this eld, but have not pulled all of the pieces together.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[695] viXra:1701.0006 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-17 11:32:58

### An Explanation of the de Vries Formula for the Fine Structure Constant

Authors: Luke Kenneth Casson Leighton