High Energy Particle Physics

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1157] viXra:1804.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-16 16:39:04

Vixrapedia.org

Authors: Valdhaorna Istri
Comments: 1 Page.

Announcing a new encyclopedia that does not censor knowledge.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1156] viXra:1804.0164 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-12 10:45:08

The Conditions, Influences, and Effects Relating to the Concept of a Universal Particle

Authors: John Raymond
Comments: 10 Pages.

Abstract At its deepest level informational reality is indivisible. The structure of indivisible reality can only be identified and described by means of predictive algebra. However, divisible informational processes are different measurements to the divisible whole. I refer to these different measurements as being units of the whole. I debate that in the pre-space continuum of irreducible reality that reducible informational processes may appear as the same processes. Furthermore these two processes are inseparable. I suggest that this inseparability is an effect that is informationally representative of the imaginary matrix of reality. It is my opinion that it is impossible to measure the units of reaction between the energy type forces of holistic reality but it is possible to measure the influences and effects of the reaction of these forces. This demonstrates the entangled nature of indivisible and divisible type forces in the matrix of reality. I have described two new particles. One of these particles I have entitled a universal particle and the other a minus particle. I have demonstrated how the properties and effects of the universal particle may have informationally emerged through its relationship with the minus particle. By doing this I demonstrate how the universal particle can transverse all universes and dimensions. This also means it can be seen as the reality particle.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1155] viXra:1804.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-09 12:55:36

Unprecedented Neutrino Measurement

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 51 Pages.

This week, a group of scientists working on the MiniBooNE experiment at the Department of Energy's Fermilab reported a breakthrough: They were able to identify exactly-known-energy muon neutrinos hitting the atoms at the heart of their particle detector. [19] In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1154] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-08 15:37:22

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 434 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark:
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1153] viXra:1804.0071 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-04 10:52:25

Particle Accelerator for Electrons

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 64 Pages.

DESY scientists have created a miniature particle accelerator for electrons that can perform four different functions at the push of a button. [39] Femtosecond lasers are capable of processing any solid material with high quality and high precision using their ultrafast and ultra-intense characteristics. [38] To create the flying microlaser, the researchers launched laser light into a water-filled hollow core fiber to optically trap the microparticle. Like the materials used to make traditional lasers, the microparticle incorporates a gain medium. [37] Lasers that emit ultrashort pulses of light are critical components of technologies, including communications and industrial processing, and have been central to fundamental Nobel Prize-winning research in physics. [36] A newly developed laser technology has enabled physicists in the Laboratory for Attosecond Physics (jointly run by LMU Munich and the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics) to generate attosecond bursts of high-energy photons of unprecedented intensity. [35] The unique platform, which is referred as a 4-D microscope, combines the sensitivity and high time-resolution of phase imaging with the specificity and high spatial resolution of fluorescence microscopy. [34] The experiment relied on a soliton frequency comb generated in a chip-based optical microresonator made from silicon nitride. [33] This scientific achievement toward more precise control and monitoring of light is highly interesting for miniaturizing optical devices for sensing and signal processing. [32] It may seem like such optical behavior would require bending the rules of physics, but in fact, scientists at MIT, Harvard University, and elsewhere have now demonstrated that photons can indeed be made to interact-an accomplishment that could open a path toward using photons in quantum computing, if not in light sabers. [31] Optical highways for light are at the heart of modern communications. But when it comes to guiding individual blips of light called photons, reliable transit is far less common. [30] Theoretical physicists propose to use negative interference to control heat flow in quantum devices. [29]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1152] viXra:1803.0732 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-30 22:01:50

E8 Physics: Cayley-Dickson and Clifford Algebras - - Braids - Cellular Automata

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

This paper consists of comments about relationships among the E8-Cl(16 Physics model of viXra 1602.0319 and Cayley-Dickson Algebras, Real Clifford Algebras, Braids,and Cellular Automata.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1151] viXra:1803.0670 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-26 12:49:05

Underground Neutrino Discovery

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 50 Pages.

In a study published in Physical Review Letters, collaborators of the MAJORANA DEMONSTRATOR, an experiment led by the Department of Energy's Oak Ridge National Laboratory, have shown they can shield a sensitive, scalable 44-kilogram germanium detector array from background radioactivity. [18] The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1150] viXra:1803.0641 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 18:30:00

The Relation of Relativistic Energy to Particle Wavelength

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 21 pages

In this paper, particle motion is considered in the Energy Wave Theory equations. The addition of particle velocity into the equations derives and explains the nature of relativity as a Doppler effect of a particle’s mean wavelength change. The addition of a change in wave amplitude relates particle spin to magnetism and gravity. These new additions to the equations are first described, and then proven to derive the existing Energy Wave Equations and calculations for particles at rest. Then, they are shown to derive and prove relativistic energy.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1149] viXra:1803.0640 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-24 18:55:04

Representing E8 Root Vectors for E8-Cl(16) Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 9 Pages.

In my E8-Cl(16) Physics model (viXra 1602.0319 and related papers) I have been as of March 2018 using a particuar 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors to explain my physical interpretation of each E8 Root Vector, but in discussion at Tellus Museum, Cartersville, Georgia on 11-24 March 2018 with Marcelo Amaral, Marni Sheppeard, and Ray Aschheim I have found that a 2D picture of the 240 E8 Root Vectors by Ray Aschheimvseems to me to be more fundamental, so I am now changing to Ray’s picture which I describe in this paper.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1148] viXra:1803.0638 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-25 06:17:16

The Nonlinear Theory of Elementary Particles

Authors: Kyriakos A.G.
Comments: 285 Pages.

The author proposes a special nonlinear quantum field theory. In a linear approximation, this theory can be presented in the form of the Standard Model (SM) theory. The richer physical structure of this nonlinear theory makes it possible to exceed the limits of SM and remove its known incompleteness. We show that nonlinearity of the field is critical for the appearance of charges and masses of elementary particles, for confinement of quarks, and many other effects, whose description within the framework of SM causes difficulties. In this case, the mechanism of generation of masses is mathematically similar to Higgs's mechanism, but it is considerably simpler. The proposed theory does not examine the theory of gravity, but give the base to build Lorentz-invariant gravitation theory. The book is intended for undergraduate and graduate students studying the theory of elementary particles, as well as for specialists working in this field.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1147] viXra:1803.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-22 09:50:01

The Mass of Lepton Tau

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 2 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the mass of lepton tau (1776.947 MeV and 1776.944 MeV) in two different elegant ways.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1146] viXra:1803.0303 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-20 13:36:11

The Experiments Of The Bottle And The Beam For The Lifetime Of The Neutron: A Theoretical Approximation Derived From The Casimir Effect

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 9 Pages.

The last neutron life-time experiments using the bottle method rule out possible experimental errors and possible sources of interference; mainly the interaction of the neutrons with the material of the walls of the bottle. Therefore, the discrepancy between the lifetimes of the neutron by experiments of the beam and the bottle require a theoretical explanation.The main and crucial difference between the beam and bottle experiments is the different topology of the experiments. While in the beam experiment the neutrons are not confined; in the experiment of the bottle a confinement takes place. In our theoretical approach we postulate the existence of a type of Casimir effect that due to the different geometry-topology of the experiments; it produces an induction-polarization of the vacuum by the confinement and the existence of the trapped neutrons; in such a way that there is an increase in the density of the quarks u, d, gluons and the virtual W and Z bosons. This density increase, mainly, of the neutral Z bosons; would be responsible for the increased probability of the decay of a neutron in a proton; and therefore of the shortening of the decay time of the neutron in the experiment of the bottle; of 877.7 seconds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1145] viXra:1803.0250 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 07:44:22

The Simplest and Accurate Theory of Proton and Neutron Based on Only Six Parameters that are Experimental Values

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 13 Pages.

Here, we present the simplest version of the atom-like structure of baryons. We use six parameters only that are experimental values. They are the three fundamental physical constants, the mass of electron and the two masses of pions. There do not appear free parameters. We calculated masses of nucleons and their magnetic moments. Obtained results are in very good consistency with experimental data. For example, calculated magnetic moment of proton is +2.7928471 (the experimental value is +2.792847351(9) [2]) so the 7 first significant digits are the same. The same is for the mass of proton - we obtained 938.272065 MeV (the experimental result is 938.272081(6) MeV [2]). Here we apply the experimental central values for five from the six parameters because accuracy of the experimental mass of neutral pion is very low. To obtain the perfect results, we use the theoretical mass of neutral pion (134.97678 MeV) which overlaps with the interval defined by experiments: 134.9770(5) MeV [2]. Due to future more precise data for mass of neutral pion, we will able to verify presented here theory of nucleons. Emphasize that our results are much, much better than values obtained within the Standard Model despite the fact that our model contains at least 5 times less parameters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1144] viXra:1803.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-17 11:26:59

Weak Turbulence Makes Chirping

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 28 Pages.

Such chirping signals a loss of heat that can slow fusion reactions, a loss that has long puzzled scientists. [15] Physicists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and computer scientists from Lobachevsky University have developed a new software tool called PICADOR for numerical modeling of laser plasmas on modern supercomputers. [14]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1143] viXra:1803.0244 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 14:28:12

Are the “quarks” and the “electron” Elementary Particles?

Authors: Vaggelis Talios
Comments: 9 Pages.

The value of the charge of the “quark down” that is 1/3 of the value of the charge of the electron, limits the smallest charge subdivision has hitherto been identified. This means that all the particles with multiple charges, thus “quark up” and “electron”, are divisible particles. In this paper will identify the subdivisions of the quarks and the electron and will study how these particles are created from these subdivisions. In Fig. 2 of this work are given the structures of quarks up and down and of the electron. Extending for a bit the subject of the work, suggests in Figure 3, a new structure of the atom where the various stages of the creation of the sub-atomic particles are noted too.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1142] viXra:1803.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 16:13:04

Energy Wave Equations: Correction Factors

Authors: Jeff Yee
Comments: 10 pages

The equations in Energy Wave Theory accurately model particle energy, photon energy, forces, atomic orbitals and derive 19 fundamental physical constants from only five wave constants. Yet three correction factors are apparent in the equations, even though all three can be derived from the wave constants. In this paper, a potential reason for these factors is discussed and the potential of consolidating the three factors into one, based on the velocity of the Earth, which was neglected in the original construction of the Energy Wave equations.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1141] viXra:1803.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 09:01:45

Spin Arrangement Observation by Neutron

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 43 Pages.

For the first time in the world, NIMS, JAEA and J-PARC jointly succeeded in observing electron spin arrangements in sample materials by applying a neutron beam to a sample and quantifying the neutrons transmitted through it. [31] Now, for the first time ever, researchers from Aalto University, Brazilian Center for Research in Physics (CBPF), Technical University of Braunschweig and Nagoya University have produced the superconductor-like quantum spin liquid predicted by Anderson. [30] Electrons in graphene—an atomically thin, flexible and incredibly strong substance that has captured the imagination of materials scientists and physicists alike—move at the speed of light, and behave like they have no mass. [29] In a series of exciting experiments, Cambridge researchers experienced weightlessness testing graphene's application in space. [28] Scientists from ITMO University have developed effective nanoscale light sources based on halide perovskite. [27] Physicists have developed a technique based on optical microscopy that can be used to create images of atoms on the nanoscale. [26] Researchers have designed a new type of laser called a quantum dot ring laser that emits red, orange, and green light. [25] The world of nanosensors may be physically small, but the demand is large and growing, with little sign of slowing. [24] In a joint research project, scientists from the Max Born Institute for Nonlinear Optics and Short Pulse Spectroscopy (MBI), the Technische Universität Berlin (TU) and the University of Rostock have managed for the first time to image free nanoparticles in a laboratory experiment using a highintensity laser source. [23] For the first time, researchers have built a nanolaser that uses only a single molecular layer, placed on a thin silicon beam, which operates at room temperature. [22] A team of engineers at Caltech has discovered how to use computer-chip manufacturing technologies to create the kind of reflective materials that make safety vests, running shoes, and road signs appear shiny in the dark. [21]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1140] viXra:1803.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-16 10:25:59

Ultra-Dense Electron-Positron Plasmas

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 26 Pages.

Physicists from the Institute of Applied Physics of the Russian Academy of Sciences, researchers from Chalmers University of Technology and computer scientists from Lobachevsky University have developed a new software tool called PICADOR for numerical modeling of laser plasmas on modern supercomputers. [14] The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1139] viXra:1803.0204 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-15 03:46:25

Revival of the Sakaton

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas
Comments: 10 Pages.

Sakaton, S=p,n,Λ with integral charges, 1,0,0, respectively, and treated as forming the fundamental representation of SU(3) group, was successful in explaining the octet mesons but failed to describe the structure of baryons. This was replaced by fractionally charged quarks. Q=u,d,s providing the fundamental representation of the SU(3) group. This has been a thumping success. Thus a decent burial was given to the concept of the Sakaton. However, there is another model, the Topological Skyrme model, which has been providing a parallel and successful description of the same hadrons. Nevertheless, sometimes this other model gives tantalizing hints of new structures in hadrons. In this paper we prove that this topological Skyrme model, leads to a clear revival of the above concept of Sakaton, as a real and a genuine physical entity. This provides a new perspective to the hypernuclei. ’t Hooft anomaly matching gives an unambiguous support to this revival of the Sakaton.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1138] viXra:1803.0166 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-11 20:29:57

Influence of Laser Spot Scanning Speed on Micro Polishing Using uv Nano-Second Pulse Laser

Authors: Jang Pong-Ryol, Kim Chun-Gun, Han Guang-Pok, Pea Uyong-Guk
Comments: 10 Pages.

During laser micro polishing of the metallic surface, it is very important to choose the optimal laser energy density and laser spot scanning speed. In this paper, during micro-polishing on the metallic surface by using UV nanosecond pulse laser, the influence of laser spot scanning speed on the polishing effect was investigated in terms of the relationship with the laser energy density. The experimental and analytical considerations were shown that there is the optimal scanning speed of laser spot for the best laser polishing effect when the laser energy density on the workpiece surface was rated, and the influence of the overlap ratio of the scanning lines was also considered. In addition, the optimal process parameters for the laser micro polishing of Ti and Ni metallic surfaces were obtained and the laser micro polishing experiments on theose metallic surfaces were conducted. For Ti and Ni metallic surfaces, the surface roughness improvements of up to 51.6% and 52 % were respectively obtained.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1137] viXra:1803.0116 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-08 15:01:26

Answer to One of the Most Important Unsolved Problems of All Time: the Nature of Matter, Hadronic Reactions, the Issue of Massive Electrons, the Photo Electric Effect, Determination of a Photon's Mass, Radioactivity, and Wave–particle Duality

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 10 Pages.

This paper just is a beginning introduction to describe the nature of matter, to solve the issue of massive electrons, to determine the mass of a photon, and to describe the issue of wave–particle duality of photons. The first time relativistic approach to make a solution to one of the most important unsolved problems of all time. The concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. I would describe photons which are existed inside atoms, atomic diffuse plasmas, atomic dust, and probably atomic dark matter and dark energy too.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1136] viXra:1803.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-03 07:03:15

A Strong Force Potential Formula and the Classification of the Strong Interaction

Authors: Zhengdong Huang
Comments: 29 Pages.

The most difficult problem in the research on strong interaction is to solve the mechanical expression of strong nuclear force, thus failing to comprehensively describe the state in and between hadrons. In this paper, reasonable strong force potential hypothesis is proposed through analysis, and strong interaction is classified into 5 types according to different stress particles; then, different internal symmetrical structures are correspondingly obtained, and Dirac equation is adopted to describe the intrinsic states of 13 particles of 5 types; finally, the theoretical value and the experimental value of the mass ratio of the same-charged particles and the neutral particles are compared to prove the complete set of research method and verify the correctness of the strong force potential formula supposed thereby.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1135] viXra:1803.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 07:51:17

CUORE Constrains Neutrino Properties

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

The study has put the most stringent limits on the probability of a rare event—a neutrinoless double beta decay of tellurium-130 nuclei. This event can only occur if a neutrino can be its own antiparticle. [17] While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1134] viXra:1803.0015 [pdf] submitted on 2018-03-01 10:50:16

Hadronisation in Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 33 Pages.

The process of the sticking together of quarks, called hadronisation, is still poorly understood. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics (LLE) at the University of Rochester, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL), University of California San Diego (UCSD) and Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been “squeezed” to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by “twisted light” can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14] Harnessing the power of the sun and creating light-harvesting or light-sensing devices requires a material that both absorbs light efficiently and converts the energy to highly mobile electrical current. Finding the ideal mix of properties in a single material is a challenge, so scientists have been experimenting with ways to combine different materials to create "hybrids" with enhanced features. [13] Condensed-matter physicists often turn to particle-like entities called quasiparticles—such as excitons, plasmons, magnons—to explain complex phenomena. Now Gil Refael from the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena and colleagues report the theoretical concept of the topological polarition, or “topolariton”: a hybrid half-light, half-matter quasiparticle that has special topological properties and might be used in devices to transport light in one direction. [12] Solitons are localized wave disturbances that propagate without changing shape, a result of a nonlinear interaction that compensates for wave packet dispersion. Individual solitons may collide, but a defining feature is that they pass through one another and emerge from the collision unaltered in shape, amplitude, or velocity, but with a new trajectory reflecting a discontinuous jump. Working with colleagues at the Harvard-MIT Center for Ultracold Atoms, a group led by Harvard Professor of Physics Mikhail Lukin and MIT Professor of Physics Vladan Vuletic have managed to coax photons into binding together to form molecules – a state of matter that, until recently, had been purely theoretical. The work is described in a September 25 paper in Nature. New ideas for interactions and particles: This paper examines the possibility to origin the Spontaneously Broken Symmetries from the Planck Distribution Law. This way we get a Unification of the Strong, Electromagnetic, and Weak Interactions from the interference occurrences of oscillators. Understanding that the relativistic mass change is the result of the magnetic induction we arrive to the conclusion that the Gravitational Force is also based on the electromagnetic forces, getting a Unified Relativistic Quantum Theory of all 4 Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1133] viXra:1802.0437 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-28 15:35:56

Neutron Beta Decay and Proton Spin Crisis

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of the A and V variant of the neutron beta decay and the origin of the strong correlation between the spin of proton and the momentum of the electron-antineutrino. The neutron beta decay described within SST solves also the proton spin crisis and leads to the decay of muon consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1132] viXra:1802.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 15:02:28

Lifetimes of the Muon, Hyperons and Tau Lepton

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here,applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated lifetimes of the muon, hyperons and tau lepton. SST gives opportunity to show the origin of the time distances between the lifetimes of the hyperons. Theoretical results are very close to experimental ones.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1131] viXra:1802.0376 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-25 23:52:15

Lost in Math ? Try Thinking Like a Physicist

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

If you think that today’s dominant Physics Theory - Superstrings - is All Math and No Connection to Experimental Results (LHC etc) and if that has you feeling Lost in Math then I suggest you go back to Physics 101 and methodically Think Physics: (Note - There is Math in this outline and some of it is Advanced but here Physics Intuition tells you what to do and the Math is just there to carry out the Physics Ideas. Also For Details about this Construction, see viXra 1602.0319 )
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1130] viXra:1802.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-22 11:47:04

Neutrino Interact with Matter

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 47 Pages.

While these experiments seem miniature in comparison to others, they could reveal answers about neutrinos that have been hiding from physicists for decades. [16] In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1129] viXra:1802.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-20 09:06:23

Laser Plasma Density Limit

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 23 Pages.

The interaction of high-power laser light sources with matter has given rise to numerous applications including; fast ion acceleration; intense X-ray, gamma-ray, positron and neutron generation; and fast-ignition-based laser fusion. [13] Conventional electron accelerators have become an indispensable tool in modern research. [12] An outstanding conundrum on what happens to the laser energy after beams are fired into plasma has been solved in newly-published research at the University of Strathclyde. [11] Researchers at Lund University and Louisiana State University have developed a tool that makes it possible to control extreme UV light - light with much shorter wavelengths than visible light. [10] Tiny micro- and nanoscale structures within a material's surface are invisible to the naked eye, but play a big role in determining a material's physical, chemical, and biomedical properties. [9] A team of researchers led by Leo Kouwenhoven at TU Delft has demonstrated an on-chip microwave laser based on a fundamental property of superconductivity, the ac Josephson effect. They embedded a small section of an interrupted superconductor, a Josephson junction, in a carefully engineered on-chip cavity. Such a device opens the door to many applications in which microwave radiation with minimal dissipation is key, for example in controlling qubits in a scalable quantum computer. [8] Optical scientists from the Warsaw Laser Centre of the Institute of Physical Chemistry of the Polish Academy of Sciences and the Faculty of Physics of the University of Warsaw have generated ultrashort laser pulses in an optical fiber with a method previously considered to be physically impossible. [7] Researchers at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Light in Erlangen have discovered a new mechanism for guiding light in photonic crystal fiber (PCF). [6] Scientists behind a theory that the speed of light is variable - and not constant as Einstein suggested - have made a prediction that could be tested. [5] Physicists’ greatest hope for 2015, then, is that one of these experiments will show where Einstein got off track, so someone else can jump in and get closer to his long-sought “theory of everything.” This article is part of our annual "Year In Ideas" package, which looks forward to the most important science stories we can expect in the coming year. It was originally published in the January 2015 issue of Popular Science. [4]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1128] viXra:1802.0246 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-19 07:08:03

Platonic Solids and Elementary Particles

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 8 Pages. This is a translation into English of the abridged version of an article published in the Russian popular science journal `Chemistry and Life` (2006, No 6)

The groups of symmetry of regular polyhedra are considered. It is shown that a total number and types of gauge bosons in the Grand Unified Theory with the group SU(5) can be deduced from the structure of the cube rotation group. Possible connections of fundamental fermions with the icosahedral symmetry are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1127] viXra:1802.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 19:52:27

S_theory (Electromagnetic Model of Universe)

Authors: Viktor Chibisov, Ivan Chibisov
Comments: 393 Pages.

S_theory belongs to the class of preon models of the structure of elementary particles from first-particles (the first brick). The basic idea of S_theory lies in the model for the formation of irst-particles of matter (simples) by stretching the electric vortices of virtual photons with a powerful magnetic field (PMF) of a bursting singularity into electromagnetic vortex-helixes. After the "shutdown" of the PMF, the vortex-spirals are shortened to resonance lengths (5 pcs.) and the longer ones (2 pcs.) fold into toroidal vortex-bagels, such as Zeldovich's anapoles. From Zel'dovich's anapoles, they are distinguished by the presence of an azimuthal electric vortex, which gives them a magnetic moment and an electric charge. From the formed spectrum of 2 standard sizes of simples-bagels and 3 standard sizes of simples-spirales S_models of formation of basic elementary particles, relic neutron, nucleosynthesis of isotope clouds, main nuclear reactions, neutron stars, black holes, particles of Dark matter are offered, and also to give an explanation reasons for the dispersal of galaxies (dark energy) and the dilemma of the imbalance of matter and antimatter in our Universe. The proposed S-models of these objects and the processes of their formation made it possible to establish the deterministic regularities of these processes, covering the era of the formation and evolution of the universe after the Big Bang. The proposed S-models of objects and the processes of their formation and transformation have an exclusively electromagnetic character, based on the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices. It was found that the theory of the interaction of electric and magnetic vortices (TEMV) is currently not fully developed, we had to postulate a number of TEMV provisions. In this paper, schemes for experimental verification of this postulates and consequences stemming from S-theory, such as the difference of masses of protons, neutrons and alpha particles in different isotopes, and the need to correct the reference masses of individual isotopes (in particular tritium) are proposed. An analysis of the appearance of virtual photons and the singularity at the time of the Big Bang led us to the assumption of a two-component space structure consisting of corpuscles containing related components K1 and K2, genealogically related to electric and magnetic vortices. The models of formation of virtual photons and the first singularity are given.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1126] viXra:1802.0212 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-17 10:35:06

Why Renormalize if You Don’t Have To?

Authors: Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse
Comments: 1 Page.

While the notion that it is better to avoid renormalization if one possibly can is an easy sell, the possibility that a naturally finite, confined, and gauge invariant quantum model has come over the horizon turns out to be a surprisingly hard sell.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1125] viXra:1802.0185 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 06:33:28

Unification of Gravitation and Electrostatics

Authors: Misheck Kirimi
Comments: 13 Pages.

Unification of Newton’s law of universal gravitation and Coulomb’s law of electrostatics is explored. The similarities and the differences in these laws have remained unexplained since 1784 when Coulomb published the latter law. It is noted here that no past research has paid attention to the fact that ‘gravitational mass’ (M1M2) and ‘electric charge’ (Q1Q2) are the only physical parameters that Newton’s and Coulomb’s laws do not share. The observation reduces ‘unification of gravity and electricity’ to ‘unification of mass and electric charge’. Despite the simplicity of this observation, physics literature is silent about the relation of mass to electric charge. Little effort has been devoted to this subject because the meaning of charge is ambiguous – charge has never been explained in terms of known physical parameters. An intelligible explanation of charge is suggested here. Based on the explanation, it is demonstrated that mass and charge are different aspects of the electron. Consequently, it is shown that gravitation and electrostatics are different facets of a common phenomenon. It is concluded that positron and negatron are the ultimate elementary units of matter, i.e. matter is nothing but equal positive and negative grains of electricity. The results solve a major problem in physics, namely the unification of gravitation and electrostatics, and also provide a theoretical foundation for attempts to manipulate gravity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1124] viXra:1802.0178 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-15 10:16:23

Lifetime of the Neutron

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1123] viXra:1802.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-12 10:40:02

Mass of the W Boson

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 42 Pages.

In a paper published today in the European Physical Journal C, the ATLAS Collaboration reports the first high-precision measurement at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) of the mass of the W boson. [15] A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1122] viXra:1802.0131 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-11 13:38:42

Phase Transitions in Nucleon-Nucleon Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

Here, applying the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the threshold (centre-of-mass) energies and corresponding to them values of the rho parameter. The qualitative description is very detailed and in the quantitative description there are incorporated the coupling constants calculated within SST.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1121] viXra:1802.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 08:28:00

Cross Section and Rho Parameter Versus the Centre-of-Mass Energy for Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

Due to the properties of the superluminal quantum entanglement, theory of proton is classical and statistical. Quantum Physics is a result of neglecting the superluminal entanglement which is a classical phenomenon. Here, within the classical/statistical/non-perturbative Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated and showed the origin of the inelastic and elastic cross-section and the rho parameter versus the centre-of-mass energy for the proton-proton collisions. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1120] viXra:1802.0122 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-10 09:17:00

The Project of the Quantum Relativity

Authors: Peter Leifer
Comments: 16 Pages.

The intrinsic unification of the quantum theory and relativity has been discussed here in the light of the last developments. Such development is possible only on the way of the serious deviation from traditional assumptions about a priori spacetime structure and the Yang-Mills generalization of the well known $U(1)$ Abelian gauge symmetry of the classical electrodynamics. In fact, more general gauge theory should be constructed. Formally we deal with the quantum version of the gauge theory of the deformable bodies - the gauge theory of the deformable quantum state. More physically this means that the distance between quantum states is strictly defined value whereas the distance between bodies (particle) is an approximate value, at best. Thereby, all well known solid frames and clocks even with corrections of special relativity should be replaced by the flexible and anholonomic quantum setup. Then Yang-Mills arguments about the spacetime coordinate dependence of the gauge unitary rotations should be reversed on the dependence of the spacetime structure on the gauge transformations of the flexible quantum setup. One needs to build ``inverse representation" of the unitary transformations by the intrinsic dynamical spacetime transformations. In order to achieve such generalization one needs the general footing for gauge fields and for ``matter fields". Only fundamental pure quantum degrees of freedom like spin, charge, hyper-charges, etc., obey this requirement. One may assume that they correspond some fundamental quantum motions in the manifold of the unlocated quantum states (UQS's). Then ``elementary particles" will be represented as a dynamical process keeping non-linear coherent superposition of these fundamental quantum motions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1119] viXra:1802.0103 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-09 09:50:37

Lattice QCD for Nuclear Science

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are using the nation's most powerful supercomputer, Titan, at the Oak Ridge Leadership Computing Facility to study particle interactions important to energy production in the sun and stars and to propel the search for new physics discoveries. [12] A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1118] viXra:1802.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-07 17:01:07

The Unified Theory of Physics

Authors: Ding-Yu Chung
Comments: 17 Pages. Published in International Journal of Natural Science and Reviews, 2018; 2:6.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and contrast physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional contrast physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of contrary physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1117] viXra:1802.0046 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-05 10:28:42

Universe Without the Weak Force

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 41 Pages.

A team of researchers at the University of Michigan has conducted a thought experiment regarding the nature of a universe that could support life without the weak force. [14] The international T2K Collaboration announces a first indication that the dominance of matter over antimatter may originate from the fact that neutrinos and antineutrinos behave differently during those oscillations. [13] Neutrinos are a challenge to study because their interactions with matter are so rare. Particularly elusive has been what's known as coherent elastic neutrino-nucleus scattering, which occurs when a neutrino bumps off the nucleus of an atom. [12] Lately, neutrinos – the tiny, nearly massless particles that many scientists study to better understand the fundamental workings of the universe – have been posing a problem for physicists. [11] Physicists have hypothesized the existence of fundamental particles called sterile neutrinos for decades and a couple of experiments have even caught possible hints of them. However, according to new results from two major international consortia, the chances that these indications were right and that these particles actually exist are now much slimmer. [10] The MIT team studied the distribution of neutrino flavors generated in Illinois, versus those detected in Minnesota, and found that these distributions can be explained most readily by quantum phenomena: As neutrinos sped between the reactor and detector, they were statistically most likely to be in a state of superposition, with no definite flavor or identity. [9] A new study reveals that neutrinos produced in the core of a supernova are highly localised compared to neutrinos from all other known sources. This result stems from a fresh estimate for an entity characterising these neutrinos, known as wave packets, which provide information on both their position and their momentum. [8] It could all have been so different. When matter first formed in the universe, our current theories suggest that it should have been accompanied by an equal amount of antimatter – a conclusion we know must be wrong, because we wouldn’t be here if it were true. Now the latest results from a pair of experiments designed to study the behaviour of neutrinos – particles that barely interact with the rest of the universe – could mean we’re starting to understand why. [7] In 2012, a tiny flash of light was detected deep beneath the Antarctic ice. A burst of neutrinos was responsible, and the flash of light was their calling card. It might not sound momentous, but the flash could give us tantalising insights into one of the most energetic objects in the distant universe. The light was triggered by the universe's most elusive particles when they made contact with a remarkable detector, appropriately called IceCube, which was built for the very purpose of capturing rare events such as this. [6] Neutrinos and their weird subatomic ways could help us understand highenergy particles, exploding stars and the origins of matter itself. [5] PHYSICS may be shifting to the right. Tantalizing signals at CERN’s Large Hadron Collider near Geneva, Switzerland, hint at a new particle that could end 50 years of thinking that nature discriminates between left and righthanded particles. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1116] viXra:1802.0018 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-02 20:54:46

Cl(16) Bulk and E8 Boundary Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 10 Pages.

Physical Spacetime is the Shilov Boundary of a Complex Domain Bulk Space. Bulk Domain is made up of Cells carrying 65,536 Cl(16) Quantum Information Elements. Physical Spacetime contains an Indra’s Net of Schwinger Source Particles which form Atoms which in turn form Tubulin Dimers and Microtubules carrying 65,000 Quantum Information Elements. The Spacetime Microtubules and Bulk Domain Cells have Resonant Connection by Bohm Quantum Potential, thus connecting Consciousness of Human Body with Universal Spiritual Consciousness. The Complex Domain Buik and Shilov Boundary are also related by Poisson and Bergman Kernels. Bergman Kernel for a Bounded Region of Spacetime is the Green’s Function for that Region as a Schwinger Source carrying Charge of Symmetry of its Spacetime Region. Schwinger Sources act as Jewels of a Universal Indra’s Net with Quantum Blockchain Structure. For each Schwinger Source to carry Information of Indra’s Net it must have Fractal Structure. Geometry of Schwinger Sources their Green’s Functions allows calculation of Force Strengths and Particle Masses. For details see viXra 1701.0496 , 1701.0495 , 1602.0319 , 1711.0476 , 1801.0086
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1115] viXra:1802.0014 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 13:20:41

Laser Beam Billiard

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

A research team led by physicists at LMU Munich reports a significant advance in laser-driven particle acceleration. [13] And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1114] viXra:1802.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-02-01 08:14:50

High-Momentum Top Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 15 Pages.

Studies of high-momentum top-quark pairs are challenging, as it is a channel with significant background. The new ATLAS measurement uses a pioneering method taking advantage of a relativistic effect known as a Lorentz boost. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1113] viXra:1801.0431 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-31 08:23:51

Machine Learning the Universe

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 19 Pages.

And now, physicists at the Department of Energy's Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (Berkeley Lab) and their collaborators have demonstrated that computers are ready to tackle the universe's greatest mysteries. [12] The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1112] viXra:1801.0396 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-30 02:48:08

Muon Magnetic Map

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 20 Pages.

Muons are mysterious, and scientists are diving deep into the particle to get a handle on a property that might render it—and the universe—a little less mysterious. [13] For elementary particles, such as muons or neutrinos, the magnetic force applied to such charges is unique and immutable. However, unlike the electric charge, the magnetic force strength is not quantised. [12] Particle physics and decorative glassware are two disciplines that don't often meet. But given the striking results of a recent artist-scientist collaboration, perhaps that could change. [11] Physicists at Chalmers University of Technology and Free University of Brussels have now found a method to significantly enhance optical force. [10] Nature Communications today published research by a team comprising Scottish and South African researchers, demonstrating entanglement swapping and teleportation of orbital angular momentum 'patterns' of light. [9] While physicists are continually looking for ways to unify the theory of relativity, which describes large-scale phenomena, with quantum theory, which describes small-scale phenomena, computer scientists are searching for technologies to build the quantum computer using Quantum Information. In August 2013, the achievement of "fully deterministic" quantum teleportation, using a hybrid technique, was reported. On 29 May 2014, scientists announced a reliable way of transferring data by quantum teleportation. Quantum teleportation of data had been done before but with highly unreliable methods. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1111] viXra:1801.0392 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 08:48:47

The Standard Model is not Correct and Large Hadron Collider is not Too Needed

Authors: Pavel Sladkov
Comments: 4 Pages.

The fundamental flaws of the Standard Model are considered.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1110] viXra:1801.0391 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-29 09:33:30

A Photon Theory of Light

Authors: Florent Gheeraert
Comments: 47 Pages.

A theory that describes the photons of light as electrical dipoles.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1109] viXra:1801.0382 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-27 13:29:23

Spacetime: 4+4 = 8 and 6+4 = 10

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 1 Page.

This paper is a brief summary of some useful facts about Spacetime for E8 Physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1108] viXra:1801.0340 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-26 04:15:36

Runii: no Susy, no Wimp, no Higgs, no Hew Physics

Authors: Gunn Quznetsov
Comments: 57 Pages.

Here we consider some results of RUNII.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1107] viXra:1801.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-25 07:43:04

Gravitons Kill People

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 109 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitons kill people” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons emitted by Black Holes kill people” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational radiation is gravitons” Adrian Ferent People ask, what is a Black Hole? “Black holes are Ferent matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “The majority of Ferent matter is the core of the supermassive black hole, in the center of each galaxy” Adrian Ferent “During the Big Bang first emerged the gravitational force with the speed of the gravitons: v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m / s” Adrian Ferent Gravitons speed is v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s, how I explained in my Gravitation theory close to the speed of light squared, v = c^2. Energy of the gravitons: E = m × v^2 Energy of the gravitons: E = m × c^4 At high frequency, gravitons have high energy: Energy of the gravitons: E = a × f Graviton energy emitted by Black holes: Graviton momentum > Photon momentum The graviton energy emitted by black holes: E = 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV This means: “Gravitons emitted by Black holes are harmful” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons with highest energy are emitted by black holes” Adrian Ferent “Inside the black holes, Gravitation force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational Radiation is the most dangerous because it travels the farthest and is the most penetrating” Adrian Ferent “Because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, anyone can get cancer at any age, but the risk goes up with age” Adrian Ferent “Because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body” Adrian Ferent “The gravitons emitted by a black hole do not follow the curvature created by the black hole, because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong” Adrian Ferent Today it is accepted that the center of almost every galaxy contains a supermassive black hole. “The source for Gravitational radiation: from 100 million black holes from our galaxy and from black holes outside the Milky Way galaxy” Adrian Ferent Gravitational radiation is gravitational waves. “Gravitational waves are gravitons” Adrian Ferent The gravitons have no electrical charge and no measurable mass. “Gravitational radiation is the most penetrating type of radiation” Adrian Ferent Anyway today at least 1300 diseases are known to be caused by a mutation. This means Gravitational Radiation can cause a lot of diseases not only cancer. From my Gravitation theory: Graviton’s frequency emitted by a planet, by Earth: E = a×ν E = 0.414559 eV “Graviton energy emitted by Earth is much smaller than 1 eV” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Gravitons from Earth are harmless” Adrian Ferent “Nobody in lectures say ‘I discovered these things’, that is why nobody understands what the contributions to the lecture by the speaker are!” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!” Adrian Ferent
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1106] viXra:1801.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-17 06:18:40

The Origin of the Breaks in the Cosmic-Ray Spectra

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we calculated the threshold energies for the 11 most important breaks in the cosmic- ray spectra: 5 for the cosmic electrons plus positrons, 1 for positrons and 5 for all cosmic particles. Obtained results are consistent with observational data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1105] viXra:1801.0119 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-10 10:56:13

Parametric Validation Reinforcement Loops, and the Cosmological Constant Problem

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Considered the meridian distortions of gnomonic projection of light waves in vision. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1104] viXra:1801.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-08 14:47:54

Particles' Directional Preferences

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 32 Pages.

Spin physicists first observed the tendency of more neutrons to emerge slightly to the right in proton-proton interactions in 2001-2002, during RHIC's first polarized proton experiments. [23] In experimental campaigns using the OMEGA EP laser at (MIT) researchers took radiographs of the shock front, similar to the X-ray radiology in hospitals with protons instead of X-rays. [22] Researchers generate proton beams using a combination of nanoparticles and laser light. [21] Devices based on light, rather than electrons, could revolutionize the speed and security of our future computers. However, one of the major challenges in today's physics is the design of photonic devices, able to transport and switch light through circuits in a stable way. [20] Researchers characterize the rotational jiggling of an optically levitated nanoparticle, showing how this motion could be cooled to its quantum ground state. [19] Researchers have created quantum states of light whose noise level has been " squeezed " to a record low. [18] An elliptical light beam in a nonlinear optical medium pumped by " twisted light " can rotate like an electron around a magnetic field. [17] Physicists from Trinity College Dublin's School of Physics and the CRANN Institute, Trinity College, have discovered a new form of light, which will impact our understanding of the fundamental nature of light. [16] Light from an optical fiber illuminates the metasurface, is scattered in four different directions, and the intensities are measured by the four detectors. From this measurement the state of polarization of light is detected. [15] Converting a single photon from one color, or frequency, to another is an essential tool in quantum communication, which harnesses the subtle correlations between the subatomic properties of photons (particles of light) to securely store and transmit information. Scientists at the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) have now developed a miniaturized version of a frequency converter, using technology similar to that used to make computer chips. [14]
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1103] viXra:1801.0086 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-07 19:07:08

Bohm Quantum Blockchain and Indra’s Net with Schwinger Source Jewels

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 11 Pages.

E8 Physics ( viXra 1602.0319 and 1701.0495 and 1701.0496 ) is based on 26D String Theory with Strings interpreted as World-Lines and spin-2 carriers of Bohm Quantum Potential with Sarfatti Back-Reaction and an Indra’s Net with each Indra’s Jewel being a Schwinger Source. Each Schwinger Source contains about 10^27 virtual particle/antiparticle pairs and interacts with the rest of our Universe through 8 x 10^53 elements of the Monster automorphism group of each 26-dim String Theory cell modulo a Leech lattice so each Schwinger Source can contain full Blockchain information about 10^27 x 8 x 10^53 = 8 x 10^80 other Schwinger Sources in our Universe which is enough capacity to act as an Indra’s Jewel Blockchain Block for our Universe.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1102] viXra:1801.0075 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-06 14:30:41

Fundamental Theory Of Nature

Authors: Peter Hickman
Comments: 6 Pages.

It is proposed that particles are not fundamental but arise as symmetries of an infinite dimension random field. Space-Time with signature (3,1) and gravitation arises as a double phase transformation of spinors and scalars. The 3 generations of chiral spinors of quarks and leptons and the scalar doublets of the Standard Model are found from 3d random field. The Schwarzschild space-time has no physical singularity.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1101] viXra:1801.0058 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-05 08:21:32

Lattice Gauge Theories

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

A team of scientists from the Theory Division of Professor Ignacio Cirac at the Max Planck Institute of Quantum Optics has now for a couple of years collaborated with theorists from the field of particle physics, in order to find a new and simplified formulation of lattice gauge theories. [11] Now, powerful supercomputer simulations of colliding atomic nuclei, conducted by an international team of researchers including a Berkeley Lab physicist, provide new insights about the twisting, whirlpool-like structure of this soup and what's at work inside of it, and also lights a path to how experiments could confirm these characteristics. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1100] viXra:1801.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-01-01 23:06:41

Supersymmetry Resurrected

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages.

The missing standard model superpartners compel one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here includes the photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, gauge symmetries and Higgs fields. The novelty is that supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1099] viXra:1712.0603 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-26 06:56:49

Tachyons: Properties and Way of Detection

Authors: Arijit Bag
Comments: 9 Pages.

The presently observed accelerating universe suggests that there is a possibility of the real existence of ‘Tachyons’ - a Boson class particle theo- rized to exceed the maximum speed of electro magnetic radiation. Theory suggests that Tachyons do not violate the theory of Special Relativity despite having a speed greater than that of light in vacuum. But their existence is not confirmed by experiment. In this article, possible properties of tachyons are discussed which would be helpful to test their existence and detection. Two thought experiments are proposed to detect them.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1098] viXra:1712.0551 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-21 14:37:23

Elementary Particles: Solving the Antimatter Problem

Authors: Richard Lighthouse
Comments: 8 Pages.

This short paper presents mathematical evidence that the “positron” found in numerous laboratory experiments - is actually a probable version of the muon neutrino, which is ordinary matter, not antimatter. This new evidence is based on the 1024-QAM model as the first Periodic Table for Elementary Particles. There are 16 probable versions of the muon neutrino with one third of the mass of an electron. 4 of these have the same charge-to-mass ratio as a common electron. Another 4 have twice the charge-to-mass as a common electron, but with the opposite charge (+2/3), causing them to move in the opposite direction in a magnetic field. To complicate matters further, note that there are 16 probable versions of an electron, with 4 different charges (0, -1, -1/3, +2/3). A 1024-QAM table was previously presented that graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. This paper concludes there is no antimatter available in our universe. All such events can be explained as ordinary matter.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1097] viXra:1712.0538 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-20 07:22:45

Large-Scale Simulation of Quarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 14 Pages.

The Nuclear Physics with Lattice Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration (NPLQCD), under the umbrella of the U.S. Quantum Chromodynamics Collaboration, performed the first model-independent calculation of the rate for proton-proton fusion directly from the dynamics of quarks and gluons using numerical techniques. [11] Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1096] viXra:1712.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-20 17:00:36

Searching for the Gravific Photons

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation. In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons. Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1095] viXra:1712.0511 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-20 02:53:58

A Strange Coincidence in the Behaviour of Leptons and Mesons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies). It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1094] viXra:1712.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-17 13:40:40

Quarks Fake – Brief Chronology

Authors: Peter Sujak
Comments: 3 Pages.

This paper shows that there is no doubt that a fantasy of the Standard Model has nothing to do with science. This paper is an extension of the Standard Model topic in author's August 2017 published book titled "Einstein's Destruction of Physics". Per this book all references as summary references are directed in this paper.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1093] viXra:1712.0487 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-17 05:32:41

Field Theory with Fourth-order Differential Equations

Authors: Rui-Cheng LI
Comments: 90 Pages.

We introduce a new class of higgs type fields $\{U,U^{\mu},U^{\mu\nu}\}$ with Feynman propagator $\thicksim 1/p^4$, and consider the matching to the traditional gauge fields with propagator $\thicksim 1/p^2$ in the viewpoint of effective potentials at tree level. With some particular restrictions on the convergence, there are a wealth of potential forms generated by the fields $\{U,U^{\mu},U^{\mu\nu}\}$, such as: (1) in the case of $U$ coupled to the intrinsic charges of matter fields, electromagnetic Coulomb potential with an extra linear potential and Newton's gravitation could be generated with the operators of different orders from the dynamics of $U$, respectively; (2) for the matter fields, with the multi-vacuum structure of a sine-Gordon type vector field $A^{\mu}$ induced from $U$, a seesaw mechanism for gauge symmetry and flavor symmetry of fermions could be generated, in which the heavy fermions could be produced; besides, by treating the fermion current as a field, a possible way for renormalizable gravity could be proposed; (3) the Coulomb potential in electromagnetism and gravitation could be generated by an anti-symmetric field strength of $U^{\mu}$, when it's coupled to the intrinsic charge and momentum of matter fields, respectively; and, except for the Coulomb part in each case, there is a linear and a logarithmic part in the former case which might correspond to the confinement in strong QED, while there is a linear and a logarithmic part in the latter case which might correspond to the dark energy effects in the impulsive case and dark matter effects in the attractive case, respectively; besides, a symmetric field strength of $U^{\mu}$ could also generate the same gravitation form as the anti-symmetric case; (4) a nonlinear version Klein-Gordon equation, QED and the Einstein's general relativity, could be generated as a low energy approximation of the dynamics of $U$, $U^{\mu}$ and $U^{\mu\nu}$, respectively; moreover, in the weak field case, the gauge symmetry could superficially arise, and, a linear QED, linear gravitation and a 3rd-order tensor version QED could be generated by relating the field strength of $U$, $U^{\mu}$ and $U^{\mu\nu}$ to the corresponding gauge fields, respectively; (5) for the massive $\{U, U^{\mu}\}$, attractive potentials for particles with the same kind of charges could be generated, which might serve as candidate for interactions maintaining the s-wave pairing and d-wave pairing Cooper pairs in superconductors, with electric charge in the $U$ case and magnetic moment in the $U^{\mu}$ case as interaction charge, respectively; etc.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1092] viXra:1712.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 08:57:22

A Minimally Necessary Local-Nonlocal Model for the Evolution of Elementary Particles and Fundamental Interactions of the Early Universe

Authors: Sergey V. Vasiliev
Comments: 19 Pages. in Russian

The proposed model describes the process of evolution of elementary particles and fundamental interactions of the early Universe, in which the order observed today, described by the standard model of elementary particle physics, develops in several stages with the participation of complementary local and nonlocal processes. Предлагаемая модель описывает процесс эволюции элементарных частиц и фундаментальных взаимодействий ранней Вселенной, в котором наблюдаемый сегодня порядок, описываемый стандартной моделью физики элементарных частиц, развивается в несколько этапов с участием дополняющих друг друга локальных и нелокальных процессов.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1091] viXra:1712.0414 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:01:54

The First Periodic Table for Elementary Particles

Authors: Richard Lighthouse
Comments: 13 Pages.

This short technical paper presents a new standard model for Elementary Particles. All elementary particle masses are related by simple math. This math is similar to the math used for wifi signals and it is called 1024-QAM. The 1024-QAM table graphically displays how all elementary particles are related, similar to the Standard Periodic Table in chemistry. If we line up all of the particle masses in order, we find there are a number of “gaps.” These are called the "mass gaps", and they line up perfectly with 1024-QAM, which fits the sequence. Supersymmetry (SUSY) is also found to occur with 1024-QAM. Mass Groups 1 thru 8 have heavyweight counterparts which are found in Mass Groups 9 thru 16. New particles appear in groups of 4. Numerous new particles are predicted using 1024-QAM. Each particle mass is shown to have 16 probabilities - 4 charges X 4 spins. The only possible explanation for elementary particles to follow a QAM pattern, is due to a blinking universe. This ebook provides compelling evidence that our universe is literally blinking, off and on.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1090] viXra:1712.0411 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-12 15:22:33

Anomalous Magnetic Moment: Source and Explanation

Authors: Richard Ligthouse
Comments: 8 Pages.

This paper explains the anomalous magnetic moment for all elementary particles and composite particles (such as the proton). The special case regarding the Muon anomaly is addressed. It also presents a summary of the issues in accurately measuring the magnetic dipole moment for elementary particles. The explanation provided involves simple math and probabilities. It is not complex, such as Yang-Mills and related theories. In summary, there is no anomaly. The measurement of the magnetic moment is a time-averaged value for 16 different probabilities (4 charges X 4 spins) for each particle mass, which is consistent with 1024-QAM. To eliminate the anomaly, a measurement of the particle characteristics and magnetic moment must be taken at a rate faster than the blinking universe, or 1.1 trillion cycles per second. Visual graphs and areas for further research are suggested.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1089] viXra:1712.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-10 08:14:55

Physics after the Higgs Boson

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 13 Pages.

The work at the CERN research centre in Switzerland became widely known when the 2013 Nobel-prize-winning discovery of the Higgs boson completed the standard model of particle physics. [9] Usha Mallik and her team used a grant from the U.S. Department of Energy to help build a sub-detector at the Large Hadron Collider, the world's largest and most powerful particle accelerator, located in Switzerland. They're running experiments on the sub-detector to search for a pair of bottom quarks— subatomic yin-and-yang particles that should be produced about 60 percent of the time a Higgs boson decays. [8] A new way of measuring how the Higgs boson couples to other fundamental particles has been proposed by physicists in France, Israel and the US. Their technique would involve comparing the spectra of several different isotopes of the same atom to see how the Higgs force between the atom's electrons and its nucleus affects the atomic energy levels. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1088] viXra:1712.0356 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 17:36:33

On the Nature of W Boson

Authors: Andrzej Okninski
Comments: 5 Pages.

We study leptonic and semileptonic weak decays working in the framework of Hagen-Hurley equations. It is argued that the Hagen-Hurley equations describe decay of the intermediate gauge boson W. It follows that we get a universal picture with the W boson being a virtual, off-shell, particle with (partially undefined) spin in the $0\oplus 1$ space.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1087] viXra:1712.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-07 14:40:24

Higgs-Tquark NJL 3-State System: A Detailed History of Observations

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 22 Pages.

The Consensus view of the Physics Community is that the Standard Model has one Higgs mass state at 125 GeV and one Tquark mass state at 174 GeV. E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a chronological listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 36 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV for a total of 80 fb(-1) = 80 x 100 Trillion = 8 Quadrillion = 8 x 10^15 events. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. WILL ANALYSIS OF THE ADDITIONAL 45 fb(-1) OF LHC 2017 DATA CONFIRM OBSERVATION OF THE HIGGS HIGH-MASS 240 GEV STATE ?
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1086] viXra:1712.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-08 05:38:49

Stable Tetraquarks

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 16 Pages.

Physicists peering inside the neutron are seeing glimmers of what appears to be an impossible situation. The vexing findings pertain to quarks, which are the main components of neutrons and protons. The quarks, in essence, spin like tops, as do the neutrons and protons themselves. Now, experimenters at the Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility in Newport News, Va., have found hints that a single quark can briefly hog most of the energy residing in a neutron, yet spin in the direction opposite to that of the neutron itself, says Science News. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1085] viXra:1712.0124 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-05 10:39:09

Solitonic Model of the Electron, Proton and Neutron

Authors: Pavel Sladkov
Comments: 26 Pages.

In paper, which is submitted, electron, proton and neutron are considered as spherical areas, inside which monochromatic electromagnetic wave of corresponding frequency spread along parallels, at that along each parallel exactly half of wave length for electron and proton and exactly one wave length for neutron is kept within, thus this is rotating soliton. This is caused by presence of spatial dispersion and anisotropy of strictly defined type inside the particles. Electric field has only radial component, and magnetic field - only meridional component. By solution of corresponding edge task, functions of distribution of electromagnetic field inside the particles and on their boundary surfaces were obtained. Integration of distribution functions of electromagnetic field through volume of the particles lead to system of algebraic equations, solution of which give all basic parameters of particles: charge, rest energy, mass, radius, magnetic moment and spin.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1084] viXra:1712.0083 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-04 04:45:31

The Neutrino Cross Sections in the Scale-Symmetric Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

In the Standard Model (SM), neutrinos interact with quarks through charged current interactions (mediated by W bosons) and neutral current interactions (mediated by Z bosons). When we take into account the uncertainties then the measured in accelerator and the IceCube experiments cross-sections for neutrinos divided by their energy are consistent with the SM predictions. But there is still the proton spin crisis concerning the quarks and gluons so the SM assumptions for the neutrino-nucleon scattering are not clear. Here we calculated the ratios of cross section for neutrinos to neutrino energy using the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). According to SST, rotating neutrino produces a halo and disc (it looks as a miniature of active massive galaxy) both composed of the Einstein spacetime components which gravitate and are local i.e. are non-relativistic. The sum of masses of the neutrino halo and disc is equal to the neutrino energy. On the other hand, cross-section of neutrino is defined by radius of the disc which density is much higher than the neutrino halo. Below the threshold neutrino energy equal to 2.67 TeV, pions and other hadrons are not produced in the cost of neutrino energy (their production decreases both radii i.e. of the halo and disc) so the ratio of cross-section to neutrino energy is invariant. Above the threshold energy, more and more neutrino energy is consumed on the production of pions and heavier hadrons - it leads to a slower increase in cross section at higher energies in such a way that the ratio of cross section to neutrino energy decreases practically to zero for neutrino energy about 2,800 TeV (this is due to the scattering on heaviest atomic nuclei). The threshold energy for antineutrinos is two times higher than for neutrinos but the ratio of cross section to antineutrino energy for energies lower than the threshold energy is two times lower than for neutrinos - it follows from the internal helicities of nucleons, muons, neutrinos and antineutrinos. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data and we can verify presented here model because of the SST predictions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1083] viXra:1712.0021 [pdf] submitted on 2017-12-02 10:10:29

The Colour-Independent Charges of Quarks of Magnitude 2/3 and -1/3 in the Standard Model are Basically Wrong!

Authors: Syed Afsar Abbas, Mohsin Ilahi, Sajad Ahmad Sheikh, Sheikh Salahudin
Comments: 4 Pages.

The Standard Model in spite of being the most successful model of particle physics, has a well-known shortcoming/weakness; and which is that the electric charges of quarks of magnitude 2/3 and -1/3 are not properly quantized in it and are actually fixed arbitrarily. In this paper we show that under a proper in-depth study, in reality these charges are found to be basically "wrong". This is attributed to their lack of proper colour-dependence. Here the proper and correct quark charges are shown to be actually intrinsically colour dependent and which in turn give consistent and correct description of baryons in QCD. Hence these colour dependent charges are the correct ones to use in particle physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1082] viXra:1711.0476 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-30 21:36:14

History of Our Universe

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 14 Pages.

All Universes obey the same Laws of Physics and have the same Particle Masses, Force Strengths, and Spacetime Structure because they all begin with Void and evolve according to the Quantum Process of David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras. Our Universe began with a Big Bang Planck-Scale Compact Fluctuation in its Parent Universe, followed by an Octonionic Inflation of its Spacetime, and then its present state of Quaternionic Conformal Gravity + Dark Energy Expansion. This paper is only a sketch-overview of the History of Our Universe. For details and references, see viXra 1602.0319 , 1701.0495 , 1701.0496 , 11709.0265 , 1208.0145 Table of Contents From Void to Algebraic Quantum Field Theory via David Finkelstein’s Iteration of Real Clifford Algebras ... page 2, Initial Planck Cell Big Bang ... page 4, Octonionic Inflation ... page 6, 26D String Theory and Bohm Quantum Consciouness ... page 8, Quaternionic Conformal Expansion ... page 10, Low Entropy of Our Universe after Inflation ... page 10, Quaternionic Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy Lagrangian ... page 11, Particle Masses, Force Strengths, K-M parameters ... page 12, History of Our Universe Timetable ... page 13, Human - Universe Consciousness Resonant Connection ... page 14
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1081] viXra:1711.0426 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-27 07:27:52

A Theory with Consolidation: Linking Everything to Explain Everything

Authors: Gaurav Biraris
Comments: 24 Pages.

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1080] viXra:1711.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-23 22:30:32

Gravitational Waves, Neutrinos, and Niels Bohr

Authors: Robert L. Oldershaw
Comments: 8 Pages.

The radical idea that neutrinos are subatomic gravitational waves is presented. Given the available empirical evidence, as opposed to theoretical assumptions, this idea is not as bizarre and ignorable as it may at first sound.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1079] viXra:1711.0389 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-22 17:03:59

What is Fundamental ? NOTHING is Fundamental !!!

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 46 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-42 are my 2018 Calendar with Physics Graphics. Pages 43-46 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1078] viXra:1711.0388 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-23 02:43:48

Emperically Derived Fermion Higgs Yukawa Couplings and Pole Masses

Authors: Kevin Loch
Comments: 4 Pages.

Empirically derived formulas are proposed for calculating the Higgs field Yukawa couplings and pole masses of the twelve known fundamental fermions with experimental inputs me, mμ and the Fermi constant G0F.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1077] viXra:1711.0337 [pdf] submitted on 2017-11-16 12:53:45

“Quantum Polyhedronic Concept of Gauge Particles and Gauge Fields in Correlations with Lepton–neutrino Particles Incorporated in Standard Model (SM)”

Authors: Imrich Krištof
Comments: 5 Pages.

This an expert text is focused on still unknown questions and answers of physics of elementary particles, elementary fields and its entangled particles. The text is built on new concept of theory of elementary particles in Standard Model, namely interactions of gauge bosons, hypothetically neutrinic gaugino – between lepton–neutrino and w (boson) wion and Z boson zion, and among vector bosons and scalar bosons, Higgs boson or graviton, gravitino and photino. Quantum theoretical particle Polyhedronic quantum prisma is possibly called Quantum Polyhedronic Soliton, and may lead to new point of view on TWISTOR THEORY, SUPERTWISTORS, TWISTOR STRING THEORY, GAUGE THEORY. Ending part of this text is dedicated to a Model situation of quantum gravity tunneling and entanglement of graviton and gravitinos. In this text is re–discovered scientifical work of scientists like Sir Roger Penrose, Cornelius Lanczos, Alan Faber, Kenneth G. Wilson, Alexander Polyakov.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1076] viXra:1710.0328 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-30 09:45:16

Formula for the Mass Spectrum of Charged Fermions and Bosons

Authors: Anatoli Kuznetsov
Comments: 12 Pages.

We present the formula for the mass spectrum of the charged composite particles (CP). This formula includes the renormalized fine-structure constant a =1/128.330593928, the rest mass of a new electrically charged particle m = 156.3699214 eV/c2 and two quantum numbers of n and k. The half–integer and integer quantum number n is the projection of an orbital angular momentum electrically charged particle on the symmetry axis of the CP, and the integer k defines the magnetic charges of two Dirac magnetic monopoles, which have opposite signs of magnetic charges and masses. The presented model predicts the values of spins, masses, charge orbit radii and magnetic moments for an infinite number of charged fermions and bosons in the infinite range of mass.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[1075] viXra:1710.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2017-10-28 17:41:13

Schrodinger Fundamentals for Mesons and Baryons

Authors: Gene H. Barbee
Comments: 49 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

A mass model of the neutron and proton reported previously was successful in providing insights into physics and cosmology [9][13]. The equation E=e0*exp(N), where e0 is a constant, was used to characterize energy. This equation works but Edwin Klingman [17] indicated that it needed a clear derivation. This document presents the Schrodinger based fundamentals of the relationship and an understanding of N values for the proton mass model. The fundamentals indicate that zero energy, probability one and quanta found in the neutron model should apply to all mesons and baryons. To study this, data from the new Particle Data Group (PDG) 2016 Particle Physics Booklet [18] was placed in an Excel© spreadsheet and analyzed. The principles zero energy and probability one are consistent with PDG data (even though the particle accelerator must supply energy to create the particles). Understanding mesons and baryons including their properties and fields is important to physics (a subject known as chromodynamics). It is intriguing that results also extend Schrodinger’s equation to quantum gravity and cosmology. New in this document: 1. Nature is extremely simple at the most fundamental level. Schrodinger “quantum circles” at probability one are the source of Charge, Parity, Time (spin) and Fields. Nature creates everything by separating properties from zero (CPTF=0). Energy was originally zero and separated into mass+ kinetic energy and opposite field energy. Parity conjugation is involved in some separations. 2. Quark masses were correlated and their fields identified. It is proposed that “tunneling” allows mesons and baryons to form at various energies rather than their “ideal” energy (the energy where mass+ kinetic energy is equal and opposite the field energy). This explains the large number of mesons and baryons. 3. Fundamentals of decay time are presented and demonstrated for the neutron. Meson and baron decay times are based on N values for their quarks. Some mesons have positive and negative field components correlated with longer decay times (11 orders of magnitude longer). 4. Currently literature suggests that charge, parity and time (CPT) is violated in the weak interaction. New properties of the Up and Down quarks were discovered that cast doubt on this result. The new properties explain Iso-spin (I) and allow baryons to conserve CPTIF=0.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

Replacements of recent Submissions

[836] viXra:1804.0121 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-16 06:34:38

E8 Physics

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 434 Pages.

This paper describes a research program based on the 240 E8 Root Vectors encoding the basic structure of a Unified Theory of Fundamental Physics by forming a local classical Lagrangian for the Standard Model plus Gravity and Dark Energy. The Root Vectors know where they belong in the Lagrangian because of their place in the geometric structure of E8 and its related symmetric spaces such as: E8 / D8 = 128-dim (OxO)P2; E8 / E7 x SU(2) = 112-dim set of (QxO)P2 in (OxO)P2; D8 / D4 x D4 = 64-dim Gr(8,16). Embedding E8 local classical Lagrangian into Cl(0,16) Clifford Algebra and taking the completion of the union of all tensor products of all the Cl(0,16)s produces a generalization of hyperfinite II1 von Neumann factor fermionic Fock space forming a global AQFT describing spacetime, the Standard Model, and Gravity with Dark Energy. The structure is related to unconventional 26D String Theory by Cl(0,16) -> Cl(0,16)xCl(0,8) = Cl(0,24) -> M(2,Cl(0,24)) = Cl(1,25). Completion of Union of All Tensor Products of Cl(1,25) = 2x2 matrices of Cl(0,24) is the String Theory formulation of the hyperfinite AQFT. The Cl(1,25) of 26D String Theory contains Cl(0,16) which contains E8 whose root vectors describe a Lagrangian for the Standard Model and Gravity + Dark Energy. The paper describes physical interpretations of the 240 Root Vectors and how they are used in calculating force strengths, particle masses, Kobayashi-Maskawa parameters, Dark Energy : Dark Matter : Ordinary Matter ratios, etc. that can be compared with Experimental Observations which are given up to and including the 2016 run of the LHC in the Higgs -> ZZ -> 4l channel which is relevant to the E8 Physics prediction of 3 Mass States of the Higgs and Truth Quark.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[835] viXra:1803.0303 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-21 07:10:36

The Experiments Of The Bottle And The Beam For The Lifetime Of The Neutron: A Theoretical Approximation Derived From The Casimir Effect

Authors: Angel Garcés Doz
Comments: 9 Pages. Corrected Feynman diagram writing error

The last neutron life-time experiments using the bottle method rule out possible experimental errors and possible sources of interference; mainly the interaction of the neutrons with the material of the walls of the bottle. Therefore, the discrepancy between the lifetimes of the neutron by experiments of the beam and the bottle require a theoretical explanation.The main and crucial difference between the beam and bottle experiments is the different topology of the experiments. While in the beam experiment the neutrons are not confined; in the experiment of the bottle a confinement takes place. In our theoretical approach we postulate the existence of a type of Casimir effect that due to the different geometry-topology of the experiments; it produces an induction-polarization of the vacuum by the confinement and the existence of the trapped neutrons; in such a way that there is an increase in the density of the quarks u, d, gluons and the virtual W and Z bosons. This density increase, mainly, of the neutral Z bosons; would be responsible for the increased probability of the decay of a neutron in a proton; and therefore of the shortening of the decay time of the neutron in the experiment of the bottle; of 877.7 seconds.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[834] viXra:1803.0250 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-24 09:43:00

The Simplest and Accurate Theory of Proton and Neutron Based on Only Six Parameters that are Experimental Values

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 14 Pages.

Here, we present the simplest version of the atom-like structure of baryons. We use six parameters only that are experimental values. They are the three fundamental physical constants, the mass of electron and the two masses of pions. There do not appear free parameters. We calculated masses of nucleons and their magnetic moments. Obtained results are in very good consistency with experimental data. For example, calculated magnetic moment of proton is +2.7928471 (the experimental value is +2.792847351(9) [2]) so the 7 first significant digits are the same. The same is for the mass of proton - we obtained 938.272065 MeV (the experimental result is 938.272081(6) MeV [2]). Here we apply the experimental central values for five from the six parameters because accuracy of the experimental mass of neutral pion is very low. To obtain the perfect results, we use the theoretical mass of neutral pion (134.97678 MeV) which overlaps with the interval defined by experiments: 134.9770(5) MeV [2]. Due to future more precise data for mass of neutral pion, we will able to verify presented here theory of nucleons. Emphasize that our results are much, much better than values obtained within the Standard Model despite the fact that our model contains at least 5 times less parameters.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[833] viXra:1803.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-18 17:34:17

Answer to One of the Most Important Unsolved Problems of All Time: the Nature of Matter, Hadronic Reactions, the Issue of Massive Electrons, the Photo Electric Effect, Determination of a Photon's Mass, Radioactivity, and Wave–particle Duality

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 14 Pages.

This paper just is a beginning introduction to describe the nature of matter, to solve the issue of massive electrons, to determine the mass of a photon, and to describe the issue of wave–particle duality of photons. The first time relativistic approach to make a solution to one of the most important unsolved problems of all time. The concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. I would describe photons which are existed inside atoms, atomic diffuse plasmas, atomic dust, and probably atomic dark matter and dark energy too.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[832] viXra:1803.0116 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-15 16:09:47

Answer to One of the Most Important Unsolved Problems of All Time: the Nature of Matter, Hadronic Reactions, the Issue of Massive Electrons, the Photo Electric Effect, Determination of a Photon's Mass, Radioactivity, and Wave–particle Duality

Authors: Peiman Ghasemi
Comments: 12 Pages.

This paper just is a beginning introduction to describe the nature of matter, to solve the issue of massive electrons, to determine the mass of a photon, and to describe the issue of wave–particle duality of photons. The first time relativistic approach to make a solution to one of the most important unsolved problems of all time. The concept in quantum mechanics that every particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts "particle" or "wave" to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. I would describe photons which are existed inside atoms, atomic diffuse plasmas, atomic dust, and probably atomic dark matter and dark energy too.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[831] viXra:1802.0378 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-26 15:52:26

Lifetimes of the Muon, Hyperons and Tau Lepton

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Here, using the atom-like structure of baryons described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the lifetimes of the muon, hyperons and tau lepton. SST gives the opportunity to show the origin of the time distances between the lifetimes of the hyperons. Theoretical results are very close to experimental ones.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[830] viXra:1802.0376 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-10 17:13:33

Lost in Math ? Try Thinking Like a Physicist

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 4 Pages.

If you think that today’s dominant Physics Theory - Superstrings - is All Math and No Connection to Experimental Results (LHC etc) and if that has you feeling Lost in Math then I suggest you go back to Physics 101 and methodically Think Physics: (Note - There is Math in this outline and some of it is Advanced but here Physics Intuition tells you what to do and the Math is just there to carry out the Physics Ideas. Also For Details about this Construction, see viXra 1602.0319 ) Version 2 (v2) modifies CMS 2016 Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l histogram by merging some adjacent 5 GeV bins into 10 GeV bins.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[829] viXra:1802.0246 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-27 06:06:55

Platonic Solids and Elementary Particles

Authors: Lev I. Verkhovsky
Comments: 8 Pages. This is a translation into English of the abridged version of an article published in the Russian popular science journal `Chemistry and Life` (2006, No 6)

The groups of symmetry of regular polyhedra are considered. It is shown that a total number and types of gauge bosons in the Grand Unified Theory with the group SU(5) can be deduced from the structure of the cube rotation group. Possible connections of fundamental fermions with the icosahedral symmetry are discussed.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[828] viXra:1802.0178 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-24 07:51:43

Lifetime of the Neutron

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that in the bottle experiments, measured mean lifetime of the neutron should be 879.9 s whereas the beam experiments should lead to 888.4 s. The difference is due to the fact that in a bottle, neutrons move in a disorderly way, while in a beam they move in an orderly manner. The ordered motions in the beam force creation of two virtual quadrupoles per decaying neutron (the total spin and charge of quadrupole is equal to zero) instead one quadrupole per neutron in the bottle. Obtained here results are consistent with experimental data.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[827] viXra:1712.0531 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-23 17:07:23

Searching for the Gravific Photons

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 3 Pages.

It was show that the linear momentum transported by electromagnetic waves has a negative component, in such way that, when a radiation incides on a surface, it is exerted a pressure on opposite direction to the direction of propagation of the radiation. In addition, it was predicted the existence of photons in which the negative component of the momentum is greater than the positive one. These photons were called attractive photons or gravific photons. Here, we show how to produce and to detect this type of photons.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[826] viXra:1712.0511 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-21 15:20:08

A Strange Coincidence in the Behaviour of Leptons and Mesons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), all hadrons are built of the Einstein-spacetime (ES) components (they are the neutrino-antineutrino pairs - their detection is much difficult than neutrinos) and neutrino(s). The ES components are the carriers of the photons and gluons (they are the rotational energies). It leads to conclusion that sometimes we should observe some coincidences in the behaviour of neutrinos and hadrons. Here we show one of such lepton-meson coincidence - there is the similarity of the curves for the neutrino cross-section per neutrino energy in quasi-elastic (QE) scattering and for the kaon-to-pion ratio - in both curves, there is a “horn” and the origin of the separated two curves is the same.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[825] viXra:1712.0344 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-16 06:39:49

Higgs-Tquark NJL 3-State System at LHC (for Higgs) and at Fermilab (for Tquark)

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 35 Pages.

E8 Physics (viXra 1804.0121) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Truth Quark -Truth antiQuark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Truth Quark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Truth Quark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Truth Quark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Truth Quark. This paper is about observations of Higgs and Truth Quark mass states and data analysis such as histogram Error Bars and Bin Widths.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[824] viXra:1712.0344 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-10 17:06:40

Higgs-Tquark NJL 3-State System: A Detailed History of Observations

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 24 Pages.

E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 50 fb(-1) at 13 TeV. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. Version 3 (v3) modifies CMS histogram of 2016 Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l data by merging some 5 GeV bins into 10 GeV bins.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[823] viXra:1712.0344 [pdf] replaced on 2017-12-16 12:13:37

Higgs-Tquark NJL 3-State System: A Detailed History of Observations

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 28 Pages.

The Consensus view of the Physics Community is that the Standard Model has one Higgs mass state at 125 GeV and one Tquark mass state at 174 GeV. E8 Physics (viXra 1602.0319, 1701.0495, 1701.0496) views Higgs as a Nambu-Jona-Lasinio (NJL) type Tquark -Tantiquark Condensate with 3 mass states for Higgs and Tquark: Low-mass - 125 GeV Higgs and 130 GeV Tquark; Middle-mass - 200 GeV Higgs and 174 GeV Tquark; High-mass - 240 GeV Higgs and 220 GeV Tquark. This paper is a chronological listing of observations of Higgs and Tquark mass states by experiments such as (descriptions from Wikipedia): ARGUS - a particle physics experiment at the electron-positron collider DORIS II at DESY in Hamburg - commissioned in 1982 - operated until 1992. HERA - DESY’s largest synchrotron and storage ring for electrons and positrons - began operation in 1990 - started taking data in 1992 - closed in 2007 - detectors H1 and HERA. FERMILAB - site of Tevatron proton-antiproton collider at Batavia, Illinois - Tevatron was completed in 1983 and closed in 2011 - detectors CDF and D0. LEP - electron-positron collider at CERN in Geneva used from 1989 until 2000. LHC - proton-proton collider at CERN re-using the LEP tunnel - the largest single machine on Earth - built between 1998 and 2008 - detectors CMS and ATLAS - first research run at 7 to 8 TeV was from 2010 to 2013 - restarted at 13 TeV in 2015 - by the end of 2016 had 36 fb(-1) at 13 TeV - during 2017 had collected an additional 45 fb(-1) at 13 TeV for a total of 80 fb(-1) = 80 x 100 Trillion = 8 Quadrillion = 8 x 10^15 events. ATLAS analysis of Higgs -> ZZ* -> 4l of 2016 LHC run was in ATLAS-CONF-2017-058 saying: “... proton–proton collision data at a centre-of-mass energy of 13 TeV corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 36.1 fb-1 collected with the ATLAS detector during 2015 and 2016 at the Large Hadron Collider ... excess ...[is]... observed ...around 240 ... GeV ... with local significance 3.6 sigma. CMS disagrees with ATLAS. CMS PAS HIG-17-012 (2017/12/08) says “... in the mass range from 130 GeV to 3 TeV ... No significant excess of events is observed ...” If CMS is right, then Our Universe is MetaStable (see page 26). If CMS is wrong due to misuse of Look Elsewhere Effect (LEE), then Higgs and Tquark form a 3-State NJL type System (see page 28).
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[822] viXra:1712.0118 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-09 09:48:19

Lorentz Symmetry from Multifractal Scaling

Authors: Ervin Goldfain
Comments: 11 Pages. Work in progress.

We show that relativistic invariance is encoded in the multifractal structure of the Standard Model near the electroweak scale. The approximate scale invariance of this structure accounts for the flavor hierarchy and chiral symmetry breaking in the electroweak sector. Surprisingly, it also accounts for breaking of conformal symmetry in General Relativity and the emergence of a non-vanishing cosmological constant.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[821] viXra:1711.0426 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-18 08:38:55

A Theory with Consolidation: Linking Everything to Explain Everything

Authors: Gaurav Biraris
Comments: 24 Pages. Results in Physics, 7 (2017) 1650–1673

The paper reports a theory which gives explicit (ontic) understanding of the abstract (epistemic) mechanisms spanning many branches of physics. It results to most modern physics starting from Newtonian physics by abandoning progress in twentieth century. The theory assumes consolidation of points in 4-balls of specific radius in the universe. Thus the 4-balls are fundamental elements of the universe. Analogue of momentum defined as soul vector is assumed to be induced on the 4-balls at the beginning of the universe. Then with progression of local time, collisions happen leading to different rotations of CNs. For such rotations, the consolidation provides centripetal binding. By using general terminologies of force and work, the mass energy mechanism gets revealed. The theory provides explicit interpretation of intrinsic properties of mass, electric charge, color charge, weak charge, spin etc. It also provides explicit understanding of the wave-particle duality & quantum mechanics. Epistemic study of the universe with the consolidation results to conventional quantum theories. Elementary mechanism of the field interactions is evident due to conservation of the soul vectors, and its epistemic expectation results to the gauge theories. The theory predicts that four types of interaction would exist in the universe along with the acceptable relative strengths; it provides fundamental interpretation of the physical forces. Further, it explains the basic mechanisms which can be identified with dark energy & dark matter. It also results to (or explains) entanglement, chirality, excess of matter, 4-component spinor, real-abstract (ontic-epistemic) correspondence etc. The theory is beyond standard model and results to the standard model, relativity, dark energy & dark matter, starting by simple assumptions.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[820] viXra:1711.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2018-04-08 15:26:41

What is Fundamental ? NOTHING is Fundamental !!!

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 121 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-110 are my 2018-2019 Calendar with Physics Graphics and Red Book appendix. Pages 111-114 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8. Version2 (v2) has 2018-2019 Calendar. Version 3 (v3) has Red Book Physics appendix. Version 4 (v4) adds material about relations among E8 - H4 - F4 - D4 - D3=A3 - H3 - H2 = Penrose STAR tiling of 2-dim space. Version 5 (v5) updates Red Book Physics.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[819] viXra:1711.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-19 21:28:39

What is Fundamental ? NOTHING is Fundamental !!!

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 114 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-110 are my 2018-2019 Calendar with Physics Graphics and Red Book appendix. Pages 111-114 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8. Version2 (v2) has 2018-2019 Calendar. Version 3 (v3) has Red Book physics appendix. Version 4 (v4) adds material about relations among E8 - H4 - F4 - D4 - D3=A3 - H3 - H2 = Penrose STAR tiling of 2-dim space.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[818] viXra:1711.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-17 19:19:17

What is Fundamental ? NOTHING is Fundamental !!!

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 109 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-105 are my 2018-2019 Calendar with Physics Graphics and Red Book appendix. Pages 106-109 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8. Version2 (v2) has 2018-2019 Calendar. Version 3 (v3) has Red Book physics appendix.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics

[817] viXra:1711.0389 [pdf] replaced on 2018-03-11 04:00:25

What is Fundamental ? NOTHING is Fundamental !!!

Authors: Frank Dodd Tony Smith Jr
Comments: 68 Pages.

Fundamental = Starting Point of a Process Describing Realistic Physics including Lagrangian and Algebraic Quantum Field Theory (AQFT). The Starting Point of Our Universe was a Fundamental Spinor Void Void = NOTHING so NOTHING is Fundamental. This paper explores the Process, which allows calculation of Standard Model Particle Masses and Force Strengths.Page 2 is a Graphic Overview. Pages 3-13 What is Fundamental? NOTHING is Fundamental !!! Pages 14-64 are my 2018-2019 Calendar with Physics Graphics. Pages 65-68 are about Leonardo DaVinci’s Salvator Mundi and E8. Version2 (v2) has 2018-2019 Calendar.
Category: High Energy Particle Physics