[13] **viXra:1710.0328 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-30 09:45:16*

**Authors:** Anatoli Kuznetsov

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

We present the formula for the mass spectrum of the charged composite particles (CP). This formula includes the renormalized fine-structure constant a =1/128.330593928, the rest mass of a new electrically charged particle m = 156.3699214 eV/c2 and two quantum numbers of n and k. The half–integer and integer quantum number n is the projection of an orbital angular momentum electrically charged particle on the symmetry axis of the CP, and the integer k defines the magnetic charges of two Dirac magnetic monopoles, which have opposite signs of magnetic charges and masses. The presented model predicts the values of spins, masses, charge orbit radii and magnetic moments for an infinite number of charged fermions and bosons in the infinite range of mass.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[12] **viXra:1710.0306 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-28 17:41:13*

**Authors:** Gene H. Barbee

**Comments:** 49 Pages. Please contact me at genebarbee@msn.com

A mass model of the neutron and proton reported previously was successful in providing insights into physics and cosmology [9][13]. The equation E=e0*exp(N), where e0 is a constant, was used to characterize energy. This equation works but Edwin Klingman [17] indicated that it needed a clear derivation. This document presents the Schrodinger based fundamentals of the relationship and an understanding of N values for the proton mass model. The fundamentals indicate that zero energy, probability one and quanta found in the neutron model should apply to all mesons and baryons. To study this, data from the new Particle Data Group (PDG) 2016 Particle Physics Booklet [18] was placed in an Excel© spreadsheet and analyzed. The principles zero energy and probability one are consistent with PDG data (even though the particle accelerator must supply energy to create the particles). Understanding mesons and baryons including their properties and fields is important to physics (a subject known as chromodynamics). It is intriguing that results also extend Schrodinger’s equation to quantum gravity and cosmology. New in this document:
1. Nature is extremely simple at the most fundamental level. Schrodinger “quantum circles” at probability one are the source of Charge, Parity, Time (spin) and Fields. Nature creates everything by separating properties from zero (CPTF=0). Energy was originally zero and separated into mass+ kinetic energy and opposite field energy. Parity conjugation is involved in some separations.
2. Quark masses were correlated and their fields identified. It is proposed that “tunneling” allows mesons and baryons to form at various energies rather than their “ideal” energy (the energy where mass+ kinetic energy is equal and opposite the field energy). This explains the large number of mesons and baryons.
3. Fundamentals of decay time are presented and demonstrated for the neutron. Meson and baron decay times are based on N values for their quarks. Some mesons have positive and negative field components correlated with longer decay times (11 orders of magnitude longer).
4. Currently literature suggests that charge, parity and time (CPT) is violated in the weak interaction. New properties of the Up and Down quarks were discovered that cast doubt on this result. The new properties explain Iso-spin (I) and allow baryons to conserve CPTIF=0.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[11] **viXra:1710.0258 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-11-03 16:58:34*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Richard Feynman said in the 80s: "There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e - the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!". In fact, Armand Wyler had pointed out in 1969 that (9/16\[Pi]^3)(\[Pi]/5!)^1/4 is close to 1/137 (2), but failed to convince anyone that his explanation of the connection -that the number is a property of a 7-dimensional space-time- was viable. In this note, it is suggested that the reason for the closeness of another expression to 1/137 is, not a numerical curiosity, but -ironically- an indicator of the truth of a multi-dimensional physical theory.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[10] **viXra:1710.0239 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 07:34:40*

**Authors:** Arayik Emilevich Danghyan

**Comments:** 10 Pages. The article is a translation from the Russian language previously published work.

In this paper, by solving the equations of the relativistic M2 [2] it will show that elementary
particles, such as electrons, can contain the wave process with very specific properties. The wave
model of a stationary electron is represented in the form of a spherical wave process.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[9] **viXra:1710.0236 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-21 14:55:42*

**Authors:** Osvaldo F. Schilling

**Comments:** 23 Pages. 2 tables, 3 figures

In a previous paper we have related rest energy to magnetodynamic energy for the baryons. The hypothesis of a zitterbewegung vibrating motion is essential to the scheme. To impose gauge invariance to the model and the continuity of the wavefunctions, we adopted the criterion that the magnetic flux linked through the region covered by the particle vibrations should be quantized in units n of hc/e. Our results, however, displayed some “scattering” of the data around the theoretical line, which was not analyzed in that previous work. To elucidate this point, the imposition of a fixed criterion on the possible values for n has been replaced in the present paper by the calculation of n from the model equations. Such procedure led to advances in our interpretation of mass in terms of magnetodynamic energy. It has now been shown that the data actually follow a sinusoidal pattern in a plot of mass against n. The previous criterion implied the exclusive existence of fully coherent wavefunctions ( several baryons indeed comply with strict flux quantization), but the sinusoidal behavior can be attributed to additional interference involving also incoherent waves, which are now introduced in the model. Therefore, confined magnetic flux modulates currents which cross through internal boundaries ( or topological constraints) inside baryons, in analogy with transport through Josephson Junctions between superconductors. This results in the undulations observed in our new plots of n against the magnetic moments of particles, and of the mass against n for all baryons. The proposal by A.O.Barut in the 1970s that every baryon contains a proton as constituent is also consistent with our data analysis, as well as the conclusion that inner constituents of baryons manifest as correlated unit-charged quasiparticles of topology dictated by the symmetry properties of each baryon.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[8] **viXra:1710.0234 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-10-22 19:02:52*

**Authors:** John Smith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

"There is a most profound and beautiful question associated with the observed coupling constant, e \[Dash] the amplitude for a real electron to emit or absorb a real photon. It is a simple number that has been experimentally determined to be close to 0.08542455. (My physicist friends won't recognize this number, because they like to remember it as the inverse of its square: about 137.03597 with about an uncertainty of about 2 in the last decimal place. It has been a mystery ever since it was discovered more than fifty years ago, and all good theoretical physicists put this number up on their wall and worry about it.) Immediately you would like to know where this number for a coupling comes from: is it related to pi or perhaps to the base of natural logarithms? Nobody knows. It's one of the greatest damn mysteries of physics: a magic number that comes to us with no understanding by man. You might say the "hand of G-d" wrote that number, and "we don't know how He pushed his pencil." We know what kind of a dance to do experimentally to measure this number very accurately, but we don't know what kind of dance to do on the computer to make this number come out, without putting it in secretly!" Not to be put too fine a point on it, I know exactly what kind of dance to do on the computer to makes this number come out, without putting it in secretly...

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[7] **viXra:1710.0227 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-20 07:42:54*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

I search for concepts that would allow self-consistent generation of dressed fermions in theories of gravitation. Self-consistency means here having the Compton wave lengths of the same order of magnitude for all particles and the four interactions. To build the quarks and leptons of the standard model preons of spin 1/2 and charge 1/3 or 0 have been introduced by the author. Classification of preons, quarks and leptons is provided by the two lowest representations of the quantum group SLq(2). Three extensions of general relativity are considered for self-consistency: (a) propagating and (b) non-propagating torsion theories in Einstein-Cartan spacetime and (c) a Kerr-Newman metric based theory in general relativity (GR). For self-consistency, the case (a) is not excluded, (b) is possible and (c) has been shown to provide it, reinforcing the preon model, too. Therefore I propose that semiclassical GR with its quantum extension (c) and the preon model will be considered a basis for unification of physics. The possibility remains that there are 'true' quantum gravitational phenomena at or near the Planck scale.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[6] **viXra:1710.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-19 01:55:50*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

An asymmetry must exist here somewhere but we simply do not understand where the difference is. What is the source of the symmetry break? [13] They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[5] **viXra:1710.0111 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-10 08:50:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

They have successfully deciphered the total angular momentum (spin) of the nucleon, determining how it's shared among its constituents. [12] The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11] In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10] The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton's electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[4] **viXra:1710.0089 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-08 10:56:59*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The resulting values for the Rydberg constant and the proton radius are in excellent agreement with the muonic results (Nature 466, 213 (2010)), but disagree by 3.3 standard deviations with the average of the previous determinations from regular hydrogen. [11]
In a stringent test of a fundamental property of the standard model of particle physics, known as CPT symmetry, researchers from the RIKEN-led BASE collaboration at CERN have made the most precise measurements so far of the charge-to-mass ratio of protons and their antimatter counterparts, antiprotons. [10]
The puzzle comes from experiments that aimed to determine how quarks, the building blocks of the proton, are arranged inside that particle. That information is locked inside a quantity that scientists refer to as the proton’s electric form factor. The electric form factor describes the spatial distribution of the quarks inside the proton by mapping the charge that the quarks carry. [9]
Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[3] **viXra:1710.0069 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 08:26:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Nuclear physicists are now poised to embark on a new journey of discovery into the fundamental building blocks of the nucleus of the atom. [10] The drop of plasma was created in the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). It is made up of two types of subatomic particles: quarks and gluons. Quarks are the building blocks of particles like protons and neutrons, while gluons are in charge of the strong interaction force between quarks. The new quark-gluon plasma is the hottest liquid that has ever been created in a laboratory at 4 trillion C (7 trillion F). Fitting for a plasma like the one at the birth of the universe. [9] Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Lattice QCD gives the same results as the diffraction patterns of the electromagnetic oscillators, explaining the color confinement and the asymptotic freedom of the Strong Interactions.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[2] **viXra:1710.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-06 01:38:44*

**Authors:** Nikola Perkovic

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In my attempt to eliminate the Landau Pole from QED by “borrowing” asymptotic freedom from
QCD, I was successful in uniting the coupling constants of the two, respectively. This equation,
together with the already established electroweak unification forms a basis, within the Standard
Model, to experimentally test Grand Unification. The part that can be tested experimentally is the
value of the strong coupling constant for the energy value of the QCD integration parameter Λ,
offering such a prediction for the first time. It should be also noted that I was successful in
eliminating the Landau Pole.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics

[1] **viXra:1710.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-10-03 00:37:53*

**Authors:** Syed Afsar Abbas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

We point to a significant mismatch between the nature of the baryon number and
of the electric charge of baryons in the Skyrme topological model. Requirement
of consistency between these two then demands a significant improvement in
how the electric charge is defined in this model. The Skyrme model thereafter
has a consistent electric charge which has a unique colour dependence built into
it. Its relationship with other theoretical model structures is also studied.

**Category:** High Energy Particle Physics