[8] **viXra:1612.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-30 06:53:28*

**Authors:** Valdir Monteiro dos Santos Godoi

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Em português

Por ocasião da triste notícia do falecimento do físico brasileiro Cesar Lattes em 8 de março de 2005, um cientista injustiçado e quase ganhador do prêmio Nobel de Física, enviei uma nota minha para a página da Unicamp que o homenageava, uma síntese do que sentia no momento e que gostaria de dizer, deixar publicado. César Lattes era (e é) um dos meus heróis na Física, e certamente fiquei triste por sua morte. Não encontro mais a página para onde enviei minha homenagem, pela primeira vez (30/12/2016) após muitos anos, por este motivo eu escrevo este texto e deixo publicado onde costumo gravar meus artigos, para que não sejam perdidas nem minha homenagem nem a de vários físicos renomados brasileiros que também escreveram antes de mim. Havia ainda outros depoimentos, amáveis e curiosos, mas que não gravei anteriormente e por isso não há como transcrevê-los aqui.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[7] **viXra:1612.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 19:15:50*

**Authors:** Georgina Woodward

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

An examination of time. Presentation of Uni-temporalism, an advance on Presentism that provides both unambiguous foundational sequential time (that is the temporal expression for the continually changing configuration of the material universe) and emergent, information derived, relative time. Some ideas about time are given for comparison. Uni-temporal time is compared with Newtonian time and proper time. The two kinds of time presented dispel the temporal paradoxes. Time reversibility is removed from Classical mechanics if uni-temporal (-Now) time is used instead of Newtonian time. The arrows of time provided by Uni-temporalism are set out. Past, present and future are re-considered. The two kinds of time allow physics using sequential time and physics using relativistic time to co-exist without there being incompatibility or contradiction.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[6] **viXra:1612.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 02:37:33*

**Authors:** Miguel A. Sanchez-Rey

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Exploration and philosophy...

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[5] **viXra:1612.0323 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 11:19:59*

**Authors:** Martín López-Corredoira

**Comments:** 27 Pages. invited chapter in the book "Free Will: Interpretations, Implementations and Assessments", to be published by Nova Science Publ.

The claim of the freedom of the will (understood as an individual who is transcendent to Nature) in the name of XXth century scientific knowledge, against the perspective of XVIIIth-XIXth century scientific materialism, is analysed and refuted in the present paper. The hypothesis of reductionism finds no obstacle within contemporary natural sciences. Determinism in classical physics is irrefutable, unless classical physics is itself refuted. From quantum mechanics, some authors argue that free will is possible because there is an ontological indeterminism in the natural laws, and that the mind is responsible for the wave function collapse of matter, which leads to a choice among the different possibilities for the body. However, here I defend the opposite thesis because indeterminism does not imply free will, and because the considerations about an autonomous mind sending orders to the body is against neuroscience or evolutionary theories about human beings. The quantum theory of measurement can be interpreted without the intervention of human minds, but other fields of science cannot contemplate the mentalist scenario. A fatalistic or materialist view, which denies the possibility of a free will, makes much more sense in scientific terms.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[4] **viXra:1612.0285 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-17 23:45:41*

**Authors:** Roger Granet

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

This paper discusses how an infinite set would appear to different observers and how this applies to both physics and mathematics. Consider a set, N, defined as containing an infinite number of discrete, finite-sized elements such as balls. Any one of these balls can be defined as an internal observer, O. The balls extend outward in infinite numbers relative to any location and orientation of any internal observer O. That is, wherever O is in the set and in whichever direction O is “looking”, the elements of the set extend without bounds the same potentially infinite distance in all directions relative to O. To observer O, set N appears as a potentially infinite space composed of discrete, finite-sized elements. Now, consider a hypothetical second observer, P who is outside the same set N and whose size relative to internal observer O is actually infinite. That is, P is of the same size “scale” as the entire set N, which is actually infinite relative to O. To observer P, each ball O is infinitesimally small, so that P can not distinguish the boundary of each ball O. Therefore, to P, set N appears as a finite-sized object containing a smooth, infinitely divisible internal space. The implications of these differing views of the same set depending on the reference frame of the observer are discussed for both mathematics and physics.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[3] **viXra:1612.0255 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-15 12:32:42*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 145 Pages. A fundamental challenge to one of the pillars of modern physics.

This is the fourth report on a new research programme investigating the electromagnetic interaction. In contrast to the previous paper in this series, which analyzed the continuous interaction of pairs of charged point particles, this paper focuses on the hypothesis that the inter-electron interaction only occurs discontinuously over time. This new hypothesis is in response to the previous results showing that all continuous interaction (force) theories between point particles that exhibit inertial resistance to changes in their motion are inconsistent with asynchronous forms of action-at-a-distance or equivalently, interactions limited to points ‘on their mutual light-cone’. It is shown here that the conventional approach to the special theory of relativity has been based on an implied merger of two distinct but incompatible theories. The continuous electric charge model (now used to develop Maxwell’s Equations of classical electromagnetism) leads directly to Relativistic Transformations of the space and time co-ordinates; while Planck’s 1906/7 Proposal for redefining an inertial point particle’s momentum came to replace classical Newtonian mechanics with its central concept of invariant particle mass. However, both of these theories are fatally flawed: electricity is NOT continuous but is particulate (point electrons with finite and discrete charge and mass values) while Planck’s relativistic derivation relied on a mysterious constant force that contradicts both the inverse square Coulomb force or the Heaviside velocity-sensitive force that are central to electromagnetism. An alternative model is now proposed here for the basic interaction between pairs of electrons that is shown to be consistent with classical electromagnetism and provides an alternative (but now readily understandable) physical explanation for the dynamical results of relativity without requiring the Relativistic transform to redefine the foundations of space and time. Physicists now must make a choice:- they can continue to use continuum mathematics (grounded in the traditional calculus used to describe local but mass-less field theories that cover all of space and time, subject to the bizarre interpretations of relativity). Alternatively, theoretical physics can return to the physical models of impulse interactions between point particles (described by the mathematics of FINITE differences acting within the passive, but common-sense, view of space and time introduced by Newton in the Principia) but now acknowledging that the fundamental interaction is asynchronous. This latter choice means that the TWO interaction times must always be considered in a symmetric manner: the venerable, single-time approach can no longer be viewed as a suitable model of reality.

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[2] **viXra:1612.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-14 09:40:40*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 121 Pages. This is the next paper in the EM series building on earlier Natural Vectors.

This research programme continues with its fundamental analysis of the electromagnetic interaction. In contrast to the continuous charge model of electricity that is today used as the foundation for presentations of classical electro-magnetism (CEM), this paper now analyzes the continuous interaction of pairs of charged point particles that better reflects the known basis of electricity – electrons. This analysis first demonstrates that all continuous theories of interaction between point particles that exhibit inertial resistance to changes in their motion are inconsistent with all asynchronous action-at-a-distance forms of interaction or equivalently, interactions limited to points on their ‘light-cone’. This research programme is an extension of the Newtonian scheme of classical mechanics that represents the locations of point particles, not by standard algebraic vectors but by a more powerful, non-commutative complex algebra, based on Hamilton’s quaternions, called here ‘Natural Vectors’. This NV representation is extended here from representing a single location (the ‘field point’) to representing the differences between pairs of point objects; this automatically advances the idea that even ‘classical’ electrons must be treated as ‘fermions’ (as this is an anti-symmetric algebraic representation). Adding the assumption of separability of the electromagnetic momentum to the previous single-time version now reproduces Planck’s 1907 infamous proposal (not Einstein’s) for defining relativistic forms of single particle momentum and energy but now in terms of EM electro-kinetic momentum between two particles, in contrast to Planck’s original but unphysical assumption of a constant, mechanical force on a single particle that required the Lorentz transformation.
This paper also extends this new two-electron viewpoint to many-body situations involving myriads of pair-wise interactions by showing that classical electromagnetism is a consequence of the statistical effects of very many of these interactions arising from multiple, remote electrons moving within metallic conductors on one or many ‘target’ electrons. A new discrete, many-body approximation model (“Mesoscopic Electrodynamics”) is developed here that is shown to be a covering theory for the standard (continuum) model of CEM. The emphasis here is shifted back from empty space to the actual experiments involving electrical currents in metallic wires that were the real foundation for CEM’s integral and differential equations, which only summarized these effects mathematically but never provided any physical justification or insights. This theory now extends the rival, forgotten (‘continental’) approach to CEM to directly include radiation, as just a long-range induction effect, removing the only advantage previously associated with Maxwell’s field theory. It also links directly to Newtonian mechanics to provide a seamless unity to all of classical physics. These results now demonstrate that, contrary to the orthodox consensus, Maxwell’s Equations (as a field theory) are not a fundamental model for understanding the basic interaction between any types of elementary particles. This view challenges the last 150 years in theoretical physics that has been constructed only on the mathematics of continuous fields, leading to quantum field theories. This approach eliminates the force densities (electric and magnetic fields), the ‘instant’ Coulomb potential and the single-time (‘God-like’) view of nature that have dominated physics for 300 years, only because these ideas could use the simplified (but well-studied) mathematical representation of differential equations.
*Surrey B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299spsi@shaw.ca
© H. J. Spencer Version 2.180 29-04-2011 Version 1.0 21-10-2007 [123 pp;94Kw]

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics

[1] **viXra:1612.0212 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-12 11:51:02*

**Authors:** H. J. Spencer

**Comments:** 44 Pages. The first paper in a new research programme investigating the foundations of physics.

A new algebra is introduced that is found to be suitable for representing asynchronous action-at-a-distance. This “Natural Vector” representation is based on Hamilton’s quaternions with the four bases constructed from real (4x4) matrices with the scalar component explicitly including the standard square root of minus one, so that natural vectors operate like a simple non-commuting, complex algebra. This algebra can replace calculus in much physics and directly relates the Wave equation, the Continuity equation and the Flow equation together, which are at the center of mathematical physics. This new representation forms the mathematical foundation for a new research programme that challenges several of the basic assumptions of modern physics that are directly related to the metaphysical “Continuum Hypothesis”. This new form of quaternion algebra described here is found to be mathematically simpler than the somewhat similar biquaternions and appears to be the natural algebraic form for describing ‘relativistic’ interactions that implicitly incorporate the asynchronous delays occurring in the electromagnetic interaction. These complex four-component vectors are inherently simpler than other alternatives, such as Clifford algebra or Minkowski 4-vectors – they are more physically transparent than tensor calculus. Natural vectors are always anti-symmetric for two point-particles, so they form a natural fermionic representation even for ‘classical’ electrons; their anti-commutative properties lead naturally into a suitable representation for quantum mechanics. The new focus is on the interaction between two electrons at two different times, rather than other standard theories centered on a single particle or field-point in empty space, at one single time. Asynchronous inter-particle interactions, like those found in electromagnetism, are here represented by natural vectors that are both separable and temporally invariant. This is the first paper in a new research programme investigating the foundations of physics; this programme is aimed to recognize that continuum assumptions in physics (used everywhere since Isaac Newton created calculus for particle motion) needs to be replaced with discrete mathematics.
*SPSI, Surrey, B.C. Canada (604) 542-2299* spsi99@telus.net
© H. J. Spencer [2016] * (Version 2.6 19-08-2016 Version 1.0 31-7-2007)

**Category:** History and Philosophy of Physics