Mind Science

1609 Submissions

[13] viXra:1609.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 04:54:05

A Topological Theory of Knowledge in the Human Brain

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 16 Pages.

Experience is a process of awareness and mastery of facts or events, gained through actual observation or second-hand knowledge. Recent findings reinforce the idea that a naturalized epistemological approach is needed to further advance our understanding of the nervous mechanisms underlying experience. This essay is an effort to build a coherent topological-based framework able to elucidate particular aspects of experience, e.g., how it is acquired by a single individual, transmitted to others and collectively stored in form of general ideas. Taking into account concepts from neuroscience, algebraic topology and Richard Avenarius’ philosophical analytical approach, we provide a scheme which is cast in an empirically testable fashion. In particular, we emphasize the foremost role of variants of the Borsuk- Ulam theorem, which tells us that, when a pair of opposite (antipodal) points on a sphere are mapped onto a single point in Euclidean space, the projection provides a description of both antipodal points. These antipodes stand for nervous functions and activities of the brain correlated with the mechanisms of acquisition and transmission of experience.
Category: Mind Science

[12] viXra:1609.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-28 04:42:00

Topology Underlying GIBSON’S Echological Theory of Perception

Authors: James F Peters, Arturo Tozzi, Sheela Ramanna
Comments: 12 Pages.

During the exploration of the surrounding environment, the brain links together external inputs in a complex of sensations, giving rise to the perception of a persisting object. During imaginative processes, the same object can be recalled in mind even if it is out of sight. Here, Borsuk’s theory of shape and the Borsuk-Ulam theorem provide a mathematical foundation for Gibson’s notion of persistence perception. Real-scene visual signals are collectively the umbra of physical shapes impinging on the optic nerves, which we map to similar shape representations. We show how Gibson’s ecological theory of perception accounts for our knowledge of world objects by borrowing a concept of invariance in topology. A series of transformations can be endlessly and gradually applied to a pattern, in particular to the shape of an object, without affecting its invariant properties, such as connectedness and boundedness of parts of a visual scene. In sum, high-level representations of objects in our environment are mapped to simplified views (our interpretations) of the objects, in order to construct a symbolic representation of the environment. The fact that our perception of an object continues even when it is out of sight, can be explained by viewing regions on a sphere surface as multiple representations of object shapes. The representations can be projected continuously to an ecological object that we have seen and continue to see, thanks to the mapping from shapes in our memory to shapes in Euclidean space.
Category: Mind Science

[11] viXra:1609.0355 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-25 07:48:46

The Brilliance of Dreams

Authors: Aneesh R Swamy
Comments: 3 Pages. Limbic System,Dreams,Cognitive Neuroscience,

Dreams. A concept very little understood by neuro-scientists. Why don't we know how we dream even after decades of research? To find the answer to that question;how we dream, one has to think out of the box. Or out of the mind.
Category: Mind Science

[10] viXra:1609.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-16 13:04:20

Quantum Statistical Theory of Quantum Cognition

Authors: Elio Conte
Comments: 13 Pages.

In quantum mechanics a wave function is connected to a quantum system. This abstract entity represents a description of the quantum state of this system. The wave function is a complex-valued probability amplitude and the probabilities for the possible results of measurements made on the system can be derived from it . In the present paper it is demonstrated that the tentative often adopted from scholars to attribute a wave function as representation of a mental state in current quantum cognition studies cannot be accepted. A mental state is a so complex structure , depending contextually at each instant from a so complex structure of inner and subjective elements and psychological and neurological components, to exclude its representation by a simple and elementary wave function, The mental state may be represented by a quantum wave function that, owing of the complex structure of the mental state, has an intrinsic indetermination and fluctuation of the basic probability amplitudes to respond to the basic notion of intrinsecally , incompletely specified system that was introduced by P. T. Landsberg in 1961. As consequence a simple quantum wave function cannot be adopted and instead an averaging statistical formulation is absolutely required. Therefore, the subsequent quantum statistical theory is formulated.
Category: Mind Science

[9] viXra:1609.0106 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 13:57:46

A Topological Brain Elucidates Syntactic and Semantic Processing

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 8 Pages.

When facing a proposition, the brain straightforwardly understands its grammar and discriminates whether it is true or false. Unlike computers, the brain is able to identify signs of sequences in terms of both syntactic symbols and semantic meaning. We show, based on the current literature, that a testable algebraic topological approach gives helpful insights into brain’s computational activity during semantic recognition. Indeed, recent suggestions allow us to hypothesize that the semantic properties of a proposition are processed in brain dimensions higher than the syntactic ones. Furthermore, we show how, in a fully reversible process, the syntactic elements embedded in Broca’s area might project to scattered semantic cortical zones, where the presence of higher functional dimensions gives rise to an increase in proposition’s information content. Taking into account the dictates of novel versions of the Borsuk-Ulam and the fixed-point theorems, we build a framework that provides a feasible explanation for semantics processing in the brain, and also paves the way to novel computers which nodes are built in higher dimensions.
Category: Mind Science

[8] viXra:1609.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-08 14:03:41

Energetic Link Between Spike Frequencies and Brain Fractal Dimensions

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F. Peters, Mehmet Niyazi Çankaya, Jan Korbel, Marzieh Zare, David Papo
Comments: 11 Pages.

Oscillations in brain activity exhibit a power law distribution which appears as a straight line when plotted on logarithmic scales in a log power versus log frequency plot. The line’s slope is given by a single constant, the power law exponent. Since a variation in slope may occur during different functional states, the brain waves are said to be multifractal, i.e., characterized by a spectrum of multiple possible exponents. A role for such non-stationary scaling properties has scarcely been taken into account. Here we show that changes in fractal slopes and oscillation frequencies, and in particular in electric spikes, are correlated. Taking into account techniques for parameter distribution estimates, which provide a foundation for the proposed approach, we show that modifications in power law exponents are associated with variations in the Rényi entropy, a generalization of Shannon informational entropy. Changes in Rényi entropy, in turn, are able to modify brain oscillation frequencies. Therefore, results point out that multifractal systems lead to different probability outcomes of brain activity, based solely on increases or decreases of the fractal exponents. Such approach may offer new insights in the characterization of neuroimaging diagnostic techniques and the forces required for transcranial stimulation, where doubts still exist as to the parameters that best characterize waveforms.
Category: Mind Science

[7] viXra:1609.0079 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-07 03:30:51

From Abstract Topology to Real Thermodynamic Brain Activity

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 10 Pages.

Recent approaches to brain phase spaces reinforce the foremost role of symmetries and energy requirements in the assessment of nervous activity. Changes in thermodynamic parameters and dimensions occur in the brain during symmetry breakings and transitions from one functional state to another. Based on topological results and string-like trajectories into nervous energy landscapes, we provide a novel method for the evaluation of energetic features and constraints in different brain functional activities. We show how abstract approaches, namely the Borsuk-Ulam theorem and its variants, display real, energetic physical counterparts. When topology meets the physics of the brain, we arrive at a general model of neuronal activity, in terms of multidimensional manifolds and computational geometry, that has the potential to be operationalized.
Category: Mind Science

[6] viXra:1609.0072 [pdf] replaced on 2016-09-07 02:47:56

Ordering of Lamarckism, Emerging Understanding of the Lamarckian Mechanisms

Authors: Andrzej Gecow
Comments: 16 Pages. in Polish

Understanding of Lamarck was and are very different, but currently the view clarifies where Darwinian and Lamarckian mechanisms are not conflicting. Lamarckian mechanisms exist and offer evolutionary changes “from instructions”, usually much more accurate adaptively than if they were completely random, but this instruction was found earlier by Darwinian natural selection. Lamarckian mechanisms alone do not explain the obtained purposefulness. They gain this ability only with the mechanism of their occurrence, which is Darwinian. In the case of multicellular usually their effect requires the strengthening of inherited through genetic assimilation, but in range of memes and culture "realized needs" seems to be the main mechanism.
Category: Mind Science

[5] viXra:1609.0045 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-04 10:50:43

Towards Equations for Brain Dynamics and the Concept of Extended Connectome

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 10 Pages.

The brain is a system at the edge of chaos equipped with nonlinear dynamics and functional energetic landscapes. However, still doubts exist concerning the type of attractors or the trajectories followed by particles in the nervous phase space. Starting from an unusual system governed by differential equations in which a dissipative strange attractor coexists with an invariant conservative torus, we developed a 3D model of brain phase space which has the potential to be operationalized and assessed empirically. We achieved a system displaying both a torus and a strange attractor, depending just on the initial conditions. Further, the system generates a funnel-like attractor equipped with a fractal structure. Changes in three easily detectable brain phase parameters (log frequency, excitatory/inhibitory ratio and fractal slope) lead to modifications in funnel’s breadth or in torus/attractor superimposition: it explains a large repertoire of brain functions and activities, such as sensations/perceptions, memory and self-generated thoughts.
Category: Mind Science

[4] viXra:1609.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 20:45:14

How Much Free is Freewill

Authors: Basudeba Mishra
Comments: 14 Pages.

Freewill is actually not free – it has limited degrees of freedom. Like non-living bodies, living organisms also obey mechanical laws of nature and act according to external forces to fulfill their needs, though, it is not self evident. All organisms - living or not - follow laws of nature. However, only living organisms can perceive through their sensory agencies when these impulses are reflected in the Conscious Self that illuminates every thing and is the repository of all knowledge (results of measurement) and processes. Since knowledge, i.e., result of measurement for any instant, is frozen for ever, Consciousness is universal, immutable, eternal, un-moving and timeless; thus, is the universal and ubiquitous foundation of life – it is the Observer of everything that are observables.
Category: Mind Science

[3] viXra:1609.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-03 20:49:57

Pretya Bhaava – the Mechanism of Rebirth

Authors: Basudeba Mishra
Comments: 10 Pages.

While the cause and effect sequence have been established earlier and the effect of all actions are deterministic, freewill can change the projected outcome generating not only uncertainty, but also deterministic variety subject to universality of physical laws, which can be classified into different groups. But who determines the universal laws? If there is such an Agency (God?) and if causality operates universally, then what is the effect of death? Every action has invariably a determinate reaction that may materialize immediately (eating satisfies hunger) or after certain interval, when suitable conditions appear or reactions take place (taking medicine cures later). Though the reactions take place in the physical body, they are cognized by the causal body. Cognition can initiate reaction in physical body. If we see a snake and become afraid, the cause of fear (snake) is away from us, but the adrenalin flow shoots up within our body. The causal body is unable to initiate action without a physical body. Hence what does the causal body do when physical body is destroyed? There is no proof that it also is destroyed. Thus, it must seek a new physical body. In that case, the new body must exhibit symptoms of prior knowledge. A new born child has to start learning everything starting with a blank slate. How do all new born babies know that if they cry, someone will look after their needs? How does it learn to suckle when the mother brings her breast near its mouth? Other children also show some intriguing behavior. For example, a rhino mother faints after giving birth. The new born child moves far away from the mother before she regains consciousness. The child returns only after its skin hardened just like hens laying eggs sitting on walls are not broken, as it is spongy at the beginning, which hardens immediately thereafter. Surprisingly, both the mother and the child rhinos recognize each other. This is done because the soft skin of the new born cannot tolerate the affectionate licking of the mother’s thorny tongue. How does the new born rhino know to move away immediately after birth? Since this identical perception is generated every time we look at a new born baby, it proves some prior to birth connection.
Category: Mind Science

[2] viXra:1609.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 11:49:36

The Idea of Progress: A Theoretical and Concise Goal-Structure Model

Authors: Rodolfo Henrique Cerbaro, Jamie Lyn Whisler
Comments: 4 Pages.

The idea of progress as it currently stands is not well understood. This is because it is taken to be both context-dependent and stands independently, without a formal structure. It is an idea which is applied in cases that can be as diverse as simply finishing an essay to the complex progress of humanity. If the idea appears in such diverse scenarios, is there an underlying mechanism through which we can easily understand it? Here we structure the idea and propose a simple postulate which allows us to have a more adequate knowledge of it. The expected result is the capability of realizing it’s intellectual appearance and understanding it in any given practical scenario; even if it is not totally clear based on what we define as progress. This short and simple model implies that the action of a goal definition should be handled with care, as the concept of progress is engulfed by the goal system.
Category: Mind Science

[1] viXra:1609.0026 [pdf] submitted on 2016-09-02 12:31:10

Towards a Physical Correlation Between Slow and Fast Brain Timescales

Authors: Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters
Comments: 10 Pages.

Brain electric activity exhibits two important features: oscillations with different timescales, characterized by diverse functional and psychological outcomes, and a temporal power law distribution, which appears as a straight line when plotted on logarithmic scales in a log power versus log frequency plot. In order to investigate the relationships between low- and high- frequency spikes in the brain, we used a variant of the Borsuk-Ulam theorem which states that, when we assess the nervous activity as embedded in a sphere equipped with a fractal dimension, we achieve two antipodal points with similar features (the slow and fast, scale-free oscillations). We demonstrate that slow and fast nervous oscillations are correlated and provide, through the Bloch theorem from solid-state physics, the possible equation which links the two timescale activities.
Category: Mind Science