[5] **viXra:1505.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 05:47:23*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Current theories hold that there are two mechanisms that support the presence of an electric charge, the presence of a charged particle and a changing magnetic field.
Here it is argued that this is highly unlikely indicating the presence of one or more charged particles in the photon.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[4] **viXra:1505.0180 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 05:53:20*

**Authors:** Norman Graves

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Arguably the most important scientific debate of the 20th Century was that which took place between Albert Einstein and Niels Bohr over the nature of reality. Bohr argued that reality was subjective in nature and therefore depended on the presence of an observer or observing process, while Einstein argued that reality had to be objective.
The debate was never resolved, ending prematurely with Einstein's death in 1955. Having outlived Einstein, Bohr's ideas have come to dominate modern physics and Einstein has been somewhat sidelined. Perhaps now it is time to revisit the debate to see if Einstein was correct all along.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[3] **viXra:1505.0143 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-24 22:49:07*

**Authors:** S.C. Gaudie

**Comments:** 4 pages; A4 paper; portrait orientation; mostly font 11; UK English; Freelance scientist.

Abstract::
From the standard definitions of
volume of a sphere &
density of a solid:-
(cube root [mass/density]) = (cube root [volume]) & is proportional to radius.
If density is almost constant,
cube root [mass/d] = is proportional to radius, where d is constant.
[cube root of the mass], equivalent to a radius parameter, is quantized & the radius ratios form consistent patterns for the different levels of matter.
The cube root of the masses of the fundamental particles become calculable relative to the cube root of the mass of the electron! [The cube of the values then give the masses (MeV).]
[Note:- The “standard letters” for the fundamental particles below are not for for the particles themselves but one of their properties i.e. (cube root of the mass of the electron)]
[A “new” fourth level of matter is a possibility.]
[A “new “high-energy” “photon type”” is a possibility.]
[Initial “creation o is a possibility.]
4*(e1=e/4) + u{=10*e1} = d{=14*e1}, where e1 = (cube root of the mass of the electron)/4
8*(e2 = [mU]) + s{=6*e2} = c{=14*e2}, where e2 = 6*e1
10*(e3 = [tU]) + b{=4*e3} = t{=14*e3}, where e3 = 14*e1
Also:- Higgs boson = 50: w[+-] boson = 43: (3*14 =42)z[0] boson = 45:

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[2] **viXra:1505.0130 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-25 14:27:58*

**Authors:** Valery B. Smolensky

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Abstract: the article presents the author developed an original analytical method for determining the values of the fundamental physical constants (FPC). Given a finite formulas and the exact results of theoretical calculations 27 constants, including the fine-structure constant, the electron mass, Newton's gravitational constant, the Boltzmann constant and the molar gas constant. Presents a table comparing the results of calculations with the data CODATA 2010.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics

[1] **viXra:1505.0092 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-12 00:43:47*

**Authors:** A. Lipovka, I. Cardenas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In present paper the Duane-Hunt relation for direct measurement of the Planck constant is improved by including of relativistic corrections. New relation to determine the Planck constant, suggested in this paper contains Duane-Hunt relation as first term and can be applied in a wide range of energies.

**Category:** Nuclear and Atomic Physics