# Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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## Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1456] viXra:1901.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 14:01:08

### A Universe from Nothing or Big Bounce?

Authors: S.Natarajan, R.Chandramohan
Comments: 6 Pages. article published in IJRAR - International Journal of Research and Analytical Reviews. DoI: http://doi.one/10.1729/Journal.19102

The beginning of the universe is explained by many theoretical aspects. The cosmological evolution begins with the singularity. Such singularities predict the initial conditions of the universe. To deal the singularity there are lots of mathematical models have been proposed. In particular universe from nothing model, that deals the beginning of the universe as nonsingular and initiated out of nothing scenario. Similarly loop quantum cosmology resolves the initial singularity with quantum geometry. That resolution replaces the big bang with big bounce. Initial conditions of the universe in vacuum dominated states and loop quantum cosmological bouncing solutions is analyzed in this work. Minimal scale factor and critical density is analyzed to scrutinize the formation of universe from nothing. It is been interpreted that the universe from vacuum solutions replicate the dark energy dominated final stages of the universe , which leads to cyclic cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1455] viXra:1901.0218 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 07:01:36

### Thermal Relativity, Corrections to Black-Hole Entropy, Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory and Quantum Gravity

Authors: Carlos Castro

Starting with a brief description of Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT), based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light, inertial and non-inertial observers, we derive the $exact$ Thermal Relativistic $corrections$ to the Schwarzschild, Reissner-Nordstrom, Kerr-Newman black hole entropies, and provide a detailed analysis of the many $novel$ applications and consequences to the physics of black holes, quantum gravity, minimal area, minimal mass, Yang-Mills mass gap, information paradox, arrow of time, dark matter, and dark energy. We finalize by outlining our proposal towards a Space-Time-Matter Unification program where matter can be converted into spacetime quanta, and vice versa.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1454] viXra:1901.0207 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-14 23:21:31

### The Logic of the Success/failure System

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau

Understanding the universe is a treasured pursuit of humanity. The success/failure system hypothesis (success/failure system) reflects the mesoscopic structure of the universe, just as quantum mechanics formalizes the microcosmos, and general relativity, the macrocosmos. Herein, we depict the logical analysis of the success/failure system using Einstein’s principle theory and apply Russell’s analytic philosophy to examine the logical structure of the universe critically. This paper has two goals. First, it aims to show that humanity is able to analyse the cosmos to reveal rationality or intelligence manifested in the universe, as demonstrated by the success/failure system. Second, it emphasizes that the success/failure system may need to be incorporated into our understanding of the cosmos or a final theory of our universe, which would become the triad of quantum mechanics, general relativity and success/failure system.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1453] viXra:1901.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-15 04:07:42

### New Quantum Gravity Theory and Rotation Curve of Galaxies

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase

The rotation curve of galaxy is a graph of the rotational velocity of stars, gas and other bodies orbiting around the center of galaxy and their radial distance from the centre of galaxy. The orbital speeds of stars, gas and other bodies contained in the galaxy do not obey the rules found in the other orbital systems. Stars are orbiting around their galaxy's centre at equal or increasing speed over a large range of distances. In contrast, the orbital velocities of planets in solar system and moons orbiting around the planets decrease with distance. The galaxy rotation problem is the discrepancy between observed galaxy rotation curve and theoretical prediction based on the observed luminous or baryonic material or bodies. When mass profiles of galaxies are calculated from the distribution of stars and mass- to- light ratios in stellar disk, they do not match with the masses derived from the observed rotation curve and law of gravity. None of the existing theories including Newtonian gravity and general relativity can explain the Galaxy rotation curve correctly. The rotation curve of galaxies will be explained by using new quantum gravity developed by me.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1452] viXra:1901.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-13 08:53:59

### The Origin of Jarlskog Invariant and Applications

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

The different size scales in Nature and CP violation lead to very simple our pre-Cosmos with left-handed polarization which has transformed into the left-handed internal helicity of the baryons - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The simplest grainy surface that can have internal helicity is the torus/charge/spin (or loop) with toroidal and poloidal speeds. Here we showed that the ratio of such speeds leads to both the Jarlskog invariant and a spilled half-jet in grainy spacetime (i.e. to an additional arrow of time) which is responsible for CP violation. The Jarlskog invariant allows you to calculate the lifetimes of the neutron and weakly decaying hyperons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1451] viXra:1901.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-10 07:56:39

### A Rough Calculation Relating the Extremely Small Cosmological Constant to the Extremely Large QFT Vacuum Energy Density

Authors: Remi Cornwall

This enquiry follows the investigation into a propulsion system purportedly utilising the QED vacuum as reactive momenergy. The QFT vacuum is contentious because the “naïve” value for it is extraordinarily large, yet on the cosmic scale it is hardly present. This begs the question as to whether it is really real and further highlights the problem between General Relativity on very large scales, with Quantum Mechanics on very small scales. We find a mathematical procedure that: to the 1st order removes the “embarrassing” QFT vacuum constant from the Einstein tensor and then covers nearly all of the 120 orders of magnitude difference between the Cosmological Constant and Vacuum Energy by introducing it as an higher order correction in (G/c4)3. There is a proviso for further work, that the difference of a few orders we calculate, might be made up by considering fluctuations or running constants in the QFT vacuum and Cosmic Inflation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1450] viXra:1901.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-08 03:46:50

### Holographic Geometry Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

Holographic the time and holographic principle
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1449] viXra:1901.0081 [pdf] submitted on 2019-01-06 13:04:56

### How Unsolved Problems in Orthodox Physics are Solved in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST)?

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

To make it easier to confront unsolved problems in orthodox physics with the solutions proposed in the SST, we grouped problems in the same way as it is done in Wikipedia. Here we have very roughly described the way of solving the problem and refer to the SST literature where you can find more detailed qualitative and quantitative descriptions. Emphasize that SST is derived ab initio.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1448] viXra:1812.0479 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-31 00:47:52

### Predictions of New Quantum Gravity Theory

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase

A number of theories of gravity have been developed by many physicists to explain the different unsolved problems in physics. None of them is able to explain all the observed unsolved problems like perihelion precession of mercury, precession of orbits of stars near super dense bodies (black holes), galaxy rotation curve, accelerating bodies after super nova explosion and few others. A new theory of quantum gravity has been developed by me. This theory explains many of the unsolved problems in the field of gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1447] viXra:1812.0433 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-26 12:34:45

### The Demise of the Current M-Theory

Authors: Savior F. Eason

This paper proposes not a 5th, but 9 fundamental forces, and why the 8th might establish M-theory as not just incomplete, but wrong, and presents a hypersymettric marrying of relativity and quantum mechanics, in a thought proposing a cheat to the infamous e=mc^2. A solution we've been on a quest for since the 20th century.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1446] viXra:1812.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-25 13:17:50

### Theory of Everything Called Quantum Hook Theory

Authors: Antoine Khai Nguyen

A new attempt to find a theory of everything based on theoretical quantum hook elements. The quantum hooks were deduced from actual quantum facts (link between double slit experiment and photon based image projection) and cosmic facts (link between flipped pole of Venus, Saturn's rings, Uranus' horizontal pole, tidal lock of celestial bodies, synchronized orbital planes of planets in the solar system,...)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1445] viXra:1812.0405 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-23 15:34:33

### Three Dimensions from Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard

Important polytope sequences, like the associahedra and permutohedra, contain one object in each dimension. The more particles labelling the leaves of a tree, the higher the dimension required to compute physical amplitudes, where we speak of an abstract categorical dimension. Yet for most purposes, we care only about low dimensional arrows, particularly associators and braiding arrows. In the emerging theory of motivic quantum gravity, the structure of three dimensions explains why we perceive three dimensions. Some higher dimensional data, such as the e8 lattice, is encoded in two or three dimensions. Here we give a very elementary overview of the key quantum data from an axiomatic perspective, focusing on the permutoassociahedra of Kapranov.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1444] viXra:1812.0380 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-22 00:23:45

### Quantum Gravity that Lead to Demise of Einstein’s Theories of Relativity

Authors: Satish Malhotra
Comments: 11 Pages. with the foundation of physics gone, we will need to rewrite all physics

: Einstein told us that gravity has some intrinsic (yet not understood) connection to the geometry of spacetime. To understand this real connection between geometry of space and gravity we restate the postulates (same postulates explain special theory of relativity as well as the general theory) nothing new needs to be added): a) space and time are the continuing absolute (equivalent to the absoluteness of velocity of light) quantum gravity flow it gives us the meaning to length, mass and time. Working through this postulate, we derive a law of force which tells us that force does not act on the body on which force is applied, but it acts to change the homogeneity and isotropy of space and bodies move in the curved space and time. This is what the Einstein’s unknown connection between the gravity and curvature in space is; the curvature is, however, local and not general for the entire space. This is the a new falsifiable version on quantum gravity (which has nothing to do with quantum mechanics) which revolutionizes entire physics). There is a) an absolute space, a flow of quantum gravity, and b) it is this absolute space that matter curves only locally, which otherwise i.e. in the absence of matter is flat (inside of a large spreading sphere can only be flat)! What was rejected by Einstein (the absolute character of space and time) now returns (as an absolute flow of quantum gravity) to solve all the contentious problem physics faces today, including the velocity-curvature relation and the equivalence principle. In the bargain get a common law of force (including gravity) which is not the way Newton applied, or the way Einstein worked with, but which has something from both.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1443] viXra:1812.0373 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-20 05:43:31

### Sphere Theory Explains the Prevalence of the Golden Ratio in Nature

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the charge or gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity or the electromagnetic force of particles, increases as we get farther from the center of the sphere linearly, the gravity or electromagnetic force from adjacent elementary particles decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that sphere. The point at which these two accelerations, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1442] viXra:1812.0320 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 12:41:59

### Gravity and Subatomic Particles

Authors: George Rajna

The relationship may even unlock the quantum nature of gravity. "It is among our best clues to understand gravity from a quantum perspective," said Witten. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1441] viXra:1812.0315 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-18 19:04:03

### Worm Holes, Quantization and Galois Theory

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 53 Pages. being reviewed by JHEPGC for possible acceptance. Lots of comments from interaction with a referee

53 page thought experiment as to how Quantum gravity emerges from a quintic polynomial, and its relationship to galois theory. Focus is on wormhole throats, as a precursor to the thought experiment
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1440] viXra:1812.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-19 03:57:11

### The Alternative Schrödinger’s Equation

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas

According to the unified theory of dynamic space the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces has been developed. These forces act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). So, by this inductive phenomenon and the phenomenon of motion the wave function will be calculated. This wave function, which essentially interprets the phenomena of motion waves, replaces the Schrödinger’s equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1439] viXra:1812.0311 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-17 05:51:21

### Easier Gravity Measure

Authors: George Rajna

Instead, a kilogram will be defined by choosing an exact value of Planck's constant, a quantity that relates weight to electrical current. [10] A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and one in Russia has devised two new ways to measure the gravitational constant. [9] The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It’s estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5]
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1438] viXra:1812.0243 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-13 08:06:20

### Mini Gravitational Wave Detector

Authors: George Rajna

The gravitational waves created by black holes or neutron stars in the depths of space have been found to reach Earth. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1437] viXra:1812.0210 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-11 08:23:49

### What Do We See: Signs Of Quantum Gravity Or Dark Energy?

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 6 Pages. Contribution to the 15th Marcel Grossmann Meeting (MG15), Rome, Italy, July 1-7, 2018

Cosmological observations of remote objects may be interpreted in the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author without dark energy. The theoretical Hubble diagram of the model fits observations very well. Additionally, this diagram should be the multivalued function of the redshift for soft and hard radiations; perhaps, this feature may be seen for the GRBs data set with the Yonetoku calibration. In the model, the ratio H(z)/(1+z) should be equal to the Hubble constant; the constancy of this ratio is verified up to $z< 2$ with high probability using compilations of H(z) observations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1436] viXra:1812.0145 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-09 01:46:35

### Tunneling Wave Function and the Inreval of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

A link is established between tunneling and the nature of space-time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1435] viXra:1812.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 18:47:19

### A Multi-Dimensional Puppet Show

Authors: Savior F. Eason

Infinite dimensions, the sub-planck Quantum realm, and the Quantum web of dimensional interactions, and it's implications for our universe, the physical forces, and even consciousness.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1434] viXra:1812.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-05 00:29:38

### The Strong Force or Strong Gravitational Force

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

Most everyone is aware off gravity, some are aware of the gravitational constant, less are aware of the strong force, and virtually no one knows about the strong gravitational constant or what it would be. The author proposes that the same format can be used for the strong force that is used for the gravitational constant. The calculations will be shown here. Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is made of spheres that are made of spheres perhaps indefinitely. It is the discontinuities in the spheres that give rise to imperfection and make the universe interesting. The equations, so far have shown the forces from elementary charge, weak charge, and gravity. This paper shows the building of the equation for the unit strong force. The unit strong force is the force of one strong force carrier at its closest interaction. The unit strong force has a very short distance of action as the attraction loops back on itself very quickly due to its extreme strength that basically pulls apart space and makes new quarks. The equation developed herein is only for the force at its closest interaction, which is strong enough to hold the protons and neutrons and other nucleons together within the nucleus of the atom.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1433] viXra:1812.0041 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-04 00:47:46

### The Discreteness of Space is the Cause of the Quantization of the Wavelength

The requirement of invariance with respect to phase change imposed on free oscillations in discrete space limits the wavelength of free oscillations to discrete values that are multiples of the minimum wavelength. The minimum wavelength is twice the fundamental length — the distance between adjacent lattice points of a discrete space. The old calculations of the cosmological constant do not contain significant errors. The result of the calculations was incorrectly interpreted. Since the energy of standing oscillations related to the size of the discrete space was summed, the energy density of the discrete space was obtained. In fact, the binding energy was obtained, ensuring connectivity and stability of space. Our universe was formed from free oscillations of discrete space, therefore its density is 120 orders of magnitude lower than the density of discrete space in which it exists.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1432] viXra:1812.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-12-02 22:27:07

### The Unit Strong Force in Sphere Theory Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is made of spheres that are made of spheres perhaps indefinitely. It is the discontinuities in the spheres that give rise to imperfection and make the universe interesting. The equations, so far have shown the forces from elementary charge, weak charge, and gravity. This paper shows the building of the equation for the unit strong force. The unit strong force is the force of one strong force carrier at its closest interaction. The unit strong force has a very short distance of action as the attraction loops back on itself very quickly due to its extreme strength. The equation developed herein is only for the force at its closest interaction, which is strong enough to hold the protons and neutrons and other nucleons together within the nucleus of the atom. An article from Nature “The pressure distribution inside the proton”[1] states the peak pressure is on the order of 10^35 Pascals. This peak pressure can be converted to a force, which the other proposes it mostly due to the strong force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1431] viXra:1811.0494 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 07:18:11

### Neo-String Theory

Authors: Savior F. Eason

This paper goes more in-depth about Hyperstrings and Filloms, which presents a model suggesting space-time to be a Multi-dimensional fluid. All matter exists on the surface of an infinite, eternal ocean of space-time, influenced by dark matter and dark energy, but "Underwater", you have hyperspace; Multi-dimensional space consisting of infinite dimensions. Integrated into the "Surface" are hyper-strings; A grid of strings existing in multiple dimensional states simultaneously, infinite, the grid spanning across the entire surface of the spatial ocean. If we are to think of quantum code in lines of coding, these hyper-strings would be physical lines of code, both generating and procedurally generative. This also introduces Eason particles, or femeons, multi-dimensional units further described in this model. Further more, detected through neurotomic waves, it also introduces filloms as the nature of particles. Filloms, coming from the latin word for string, are born when 2 hyperstrings intercross on the grid, creatings a string that extends into hyperspace. However, the end of this string or "Front" of it, created by the fusion of Quantum digits, appears to be a point or sphere, which is what we call a particle. However, depending on which hyperstrings collide, a sphere could be created instead, resulting in a multi-dimensional particle. This also explains electromagnetism as the entanglement of these strings combined with dark matter. This paper also talks about the multiverse, reality planes, the cosmic Mandelbrot, and the infinity web, and ways I've already proven this and ways we could further test this in the future. Also details unpardonable mistakes in physics leading to falsely accepted theories, and the misinterpretation of the Cosmic microwave background and what it REALLY means.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1430] viXra:1811.0481 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 11:58:24

### Further Analysis of the Schrödinger Cat; Who is the Observer and Why it Sounds Impossible to Reach to the Final Theory of Physics

In this paper we analyze the subject of the wave function and observer. we propose a solution to the problem of the Schrödinger cat. we elucidate the relation between consciousness, identity and the final theory of physics and finally explain the hardship that we face in reaching to the final theory of physics in passing from the quantum model to another mechanism that admit the final reasonable and universal answer to the paradox of the Schrödinger cat.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1429] viXra:1811.0478 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 16:45:02

### Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 3 Pages. Dirac's Large Numbers Hypothesis

The Dirac large numbers hypothesis (LNH) is an observation made by Paul Dirac in 1937 relating ratios of size scales in the Universe to that of force scales. The ratios constitute very large, dimensionless numbers: some 40 orders of magnitude in the present cosmological epoch. According to Dirac's hypothesis, the apparent similarity of these ratios might not be a mere coincidence but instead could imply a cosmology with these unusual features:[1] In this paper we show the start of the Large Numbers Hypothesis, but we find that the numbers that have been used aren’t quite correct, and if the correct number is used we can find what the Planck units are really referring to.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1428] viXra:1811.0477 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 18:08:04

### Kaluza Klein Treatment of a Graviton and Deceleration Parameter Q(Z) as an Alternative to Standard DE and Its Possible Link to Standard DE Equation of State as Given by Li, Li, Wang and Wang, in 2017, as Given in Reference [15] Below.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith

Abstract.First of all, we will reiterate a mechanism for relic early universe gravitons. This is the precursor of the main result of this paper and involves the decay of micro black holes, with relic graviton production. . For the 2nd part of graviton physics, we invoke re acceleration of the universe The case for a four-dimensional graviton mass (non-zero) influencing reacceleration of the universe in five dimensions is stated, with particular emphasis on whether five-dimensional geometries as given below give us new physical insights as to cosmological evolution . The final question is, can DM/DE be explained by a Kaluza Klein particle construction? I.e., the author presents a Kaluza Klein particle representation of a graviton mass with the first term to the right equal to a DM contribution and with the 2nd term to the right being effective DE. This is the 2nd era of DE production. Finally we in the third part invoke the methodology of a modification of 1/r potentials, and the re acceleration of the universe as a bridge between the first and second parts of this document, in terms of the physics of DE and gravitons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1427] viXra:1811.0449 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-27 15:54:51

### Short Work Made of a Major Physics Problem

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 56.7 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as nuclear acceleration, are authorized by the NSA.

Proposes a solution to dark matter, stating that all gravity has mass just as all mass has gravity, and this mass of gravity is a 5th-dimensional quintessence that causes things to sink into the fabric of space-time, creating gravity. But this mass is also Multi-universal, meaning it exists in all universes with gravity simultaneously. The Quintessence accumulates into a physical concentration when large amounts of itself are concentrated into a small point resulting from the implosion of mass, creating a black hole. The singularity is a point of planck energy, infinitely dense, and surrounding it is a field of weirdness resulting from every possible state of the quintessence existing as one, devoid of any consistent quantum programming beyond the event horizon(Which our quantum computer brains don't process, hence the illusion of an event horizon). It also suggests space-time to be a hyperfluid, proposes concepts such as hyperstrings and filloms(As the state of particles), suggests an infinite universe and an infinite vibrational multiverse in which there is no expansion because dark matter simply displaces the fluid into hyperspace(Dark energy), and presents various possible applications for this theory, including Massively faster than light space travel and a power source so powerful, both philosophically and energetically, that scientists would have to see it personally with their own eyes to believe it; A contained universe as a source of infinite power, procedurally generating and expanding within a 5th-dimensional vacuum allowing it to be contained within something the size of a shoe box, riding on an arrow of time we could control. Ridiculous? Read this paper to find out more about why it's not, and the proof of it; And how a civilization once millenia away, could be just around the corner with this theory and it's applications.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1426] viXra:1811.0438 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-28 02:08:11

### Deriving Spacetime in Four-Dimensional Euclidean Space Without Time and Dynamics

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov

A model based on subjective idealism, allowing the deriving of spacetime with the Lorentz metric on Euclidean space without time and dynamics, is proposed. This model also allows the deriving of curved spacetime with the metrics of the general theory of relativity. It is shown that the principle of causality and the anthropic principle follow from the model. It is shown that a strong principle of equivalence of gravity and acceleration follows from the model. All principles and postulates on which the special and general theories of relativity are based are derived. The article proposes a fundamentally new model for the construction of physical theories.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1425] viXra:1811.0418 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-26 22:04:04

### The Thermodynamic Properties of Zero Oscillations of a Homogeneous Universe Are Specified

It is shown that the share of zero-point oscillations ¾ in the energy of a homogeneous universe does not depend on the chosen shape factor. The temperature of zero-point oscillations is weak and indirectly depends on the shape factor, through the minimum wavelength. It is shown that the coefficient of the form must be taken equal to the classical value - 8π. At the same time, in a homogeneous universe with a gravitational radius of 4.4 × 1026 m, the temperature of zero-point oscillations is T = 2,76 K.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1424] viXra:1811.0378 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-23 09:14:10

### A New Infinity(quantum Matrix Theory)

Authors: Savior F. Eason
Comments: 42 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as Quantum experimentation, are authorized by the NSA.

In light of the positive, albeit scarce reviews of my prior paper, I now present a view diverging from but continuing to build on the separate concept for a theory of everything discussed in another paper. In this is discuss a radical but almost certainly correct alternative perspective in science. In the book "Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy", a computer by the name of deep thought calculates the meaning of life, the universe, and everything, to be a number; 42. Confusing? It was to the computer's creators too. Thing is, they didn't actually know what they were asking for with such a question. Could they ever comprehend what they truly meant. Dare we admit this? Apparently not, as our search for a unifying theory abounds. But the true 42 eludes us. What is the actual "42"? In this extensive paper, I postulate a new perspective divergent of both the views expressed in the writings of a younger me and all existing scientific views. What continuously puzzles me is not just the cosmos, but how we consider it. The universe has no requirement to seem logical to us, and yet we treat it that way, using conventional and contemporary thinking as though they were the universe's thoughts themselves. Mathematical frameworks as though they were the cosmic blueprint. And then we are surprised, when the universe throws a curveball? This is a paradox most use to latch on the notion of giving up on a theory of everything, or claiming only god can explain it all. I say that's just as illogical. In my contemplations, I've concluded the way to a TOE is simple; We have to alter how we think, and scientific logic at it's most foundational pillars. Realizing that consistently sufficient doesn't mean infinitely applicable. In my ceaseless postulations and relentless research, I've had both revelations and breakthroughs amounting to my conclusion of a new theory of everything, and a new thinking. To develop a true theory of everything, we needed a new way of thinking. A transcendental way of thinking and even language; a new form of math, based on this new thinking, beyond the fabricated barriers of human thinking, allowing for a theory of everything, redefining what that would mean in an exploration of a new cosmos based on Quantum 1s and 0s, a new kind of cosmic component replacing string theory, beyond what we could truly comprehend, which I've dubbed simply "Quantum digits". A theory exploring our possible nature as Quantum computers, the structure of this information as an infinite Mandelbrot set, and the body of infinity in an equation I developed describing the cosmic code, our universe's Quantum HTML in all it's unbounded infinity. Exploring my research and why this can't be another misinterpretation and Introducing a new cosmic and scientific perspective. A proposal rewriting science at it's most fundamental foundations of thinking, realizing "Consistently sufficient" doesn't mean "Infinitely applicable", and rewriting our thinking so that our method is that way. A concept not simply diverging from, but building on all previous scientific thinking, ending with a reflection on the implications of this latest candidate for "42", and a radical solution to the Rubik's cube of the universe's mysteries and the most fundamental aspects of human existence. (I just realized the irony of this paper numbering 42 pages in length)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1423] viXra:1811.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 07:24:05

### The Thermodynamic Properties of Zero Oscillations of a Homogeneous Universe Are Determined from Its Size.

Comments: 4 pages, book S.V. Miheev (2006) ISBN 5-9710-0074-8

It is shown that the zero-point energy determines 3⁄4 of the energy of a homogeneous universe. The zero-point temperature was calculated, which is close to the background radiation temperature. The problem of the cosmological constant is solved by wavelength quantization. The minimum wavelength is determined, which divides any wavelength by an integer number of parts.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1422] viXra:1811.0354 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 22:02:38

### The Cosmos with the Success/failure System

Authors: Dong-Yih Bau

The ancient Greeks saw the universe as a well-ordered system called the cosmos. Current scientific research seeks the cosmos in terms of a final theory, which remains in progress. By applying Einstein’s principle theory, we developed the success/failure system hypothesis (success/failure system) and recently made it available in the literature. Herein, we consider the cosmos subsequent to the existence of this hypothesis. After a brief introduction, we focus on two themes: the success/failure system principle and a final theory of our universe. A key message is that the success/failure system principle is a new universal biological principle identified in the twenty-first century, and the success/failure system hypothesis may need to be incorporated into a final theory of the life-laden universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1421] viXra:1811.0327 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-22 05:20:04

### Relativistic Supersymmetric Atomic Model

Authors: Alfonso De Miguel

Thinking of the atom as a dual topological system of two intersected manifolds vibrating with the same or opposite phases, the submanifolds created by their intersection will be the subatomic particles of the nucleus shared by the dual atom, acting as fermions when the phases of variation of the intersecting manifolds are opposite and acting as bosons when those phases synchronize becoming equal. The quarks of the system - considered as the pushing forces caused by the displacement of the two intersecting manifolds while vibrating - will remain identical in the bosonic and fermionic times. The point of the intersection of the system, that also will remain the same during the whole phases of variation but moving left to right in the fermionic phase and upward and downward in the bosonic one, will be the point of convergence of all the fermionic and bosonic weak and strong interactions, constituting the structural unification of the gauge couplings.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1420] viXra:1811.0314 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-20 13:44:12

### Abstract of the Unified Field Theory

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 7 Pages. new and long abstract summarizes work

The conceptual basis of the Unified Field Theory as presented in these pages may be deduced from "Noether's Theorem": The charges of matter are symmetry debts of light.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1419] viXra:1811.0297 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-19 13:11:23

### Quantum Bang Theory

Authors: Seamus McCelt

Quantum Bang Theory is a universe creation theory.
It is based on real things - neutrinos - with absolutely no magic involved.
It also explains the creation and expansion of new space and dark energy stretching.
The fabric of space is created from the expansion of neutrinos - The Microcosmic Bang.
A neutrino ● can expand - Bang - into one unit of fabric-of-space ∗
The same thing happened everywhere and is still happening everywhere now.
That is why the CMB is smooth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1418] viXra:1811.0245 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-17 05:41:24

### An Inherently Relativistic Force Carrier Mechanism for Unifying Electromagnetism and Gravity Based on Weber Electrodynamics

Authors: Steffen Kühn

The report summarizes the current state of research of quantino-theory, which is an approach to explain fundamental physical phenomena based on Weber electrodynamics. The core concept of quantino-theory is a force-carrier model, which fulfils the postulates of special relativity without the spacetime. The field theory that follows out of this model does not turn for slow charge-carrier velocities into Maxwell electrodynamics but Weber electrodynamics. Based on the quantino-mechanism, numerous physical effects can be reinterpreted and explained. For example, it is possible to show that gravity is a thermodynamic electromagnetic relativistic effect of fourth order. Furthermore, quantino-theory seems to be an interesting approach to explain the reason for the existence of quantum mechanical effects, inertia and anti-matter. The report furthermore discusses the perihelion precession of the planet Mercury, the mass-energy-relation, photons and electromagnetic waves.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1417] viXra:1811.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 07:27:56

### The Quantised Angular Momenta of Astronomical Bodies

Authors: Bernard Riley

The spin angular momentum of the sun precisely equals the quantum h-bar multiplied by 2 raised to the power 250. Between them the next five nearest G or K-type stars take the exponents 247, 248, 249, 250 and 251, the binary star Alpha Centauri AB taking exponents (249 and 251) either side of 250 and Epsilon Eridani taking the exponent 250. The red dwarfs Proxima Centauri and Barnard’s Star both take the exponent 240. The spin angular momentum quantisation scheme also applies to the planets of the solar system. Again, exponents that are multiples of 5 are preferred. Jupiter and Saturn behave as a binary planet, with exponents centred on 240. Uranus and Neptune behave as a binary planet, with exponents centred on 233. Earth and Mars take the exponents 225 and 220, respectively. The geometric mean orbital angular momentum of the eight planets equals the spin angular momentum of the sun. With spin parameters of intermediate value, the supermassive black holes located in the Milky Way and M31 galaxies take the exponents 295 and 305, respectively.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1416] viXra:1811.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 13:55:10

### Einstein Did not Explain the Photoelectric Effect. there Are not Black Holes at Planck Wall

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1415] viXra:1811.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 00:46:56

### Holographic Interval of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

The emergence of space-time from a common Hilbert space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1414] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 22:16:25

### Atiyah Constant Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis

Authors: F.M.Sanchez

A simple fine tuning relation using the Atiyah Constant, the Eddington number 137 and the Fermi coupling constant defines the latter in its 5 × 10-7 indetermination, compatible with the 2 × 10-8 muon mass indetermination in another Cosmic Oscillation fine tuning relation. This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1413] viXra:1811.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 04:17:34

### On the Fundamental Role of the Massless Form of Matter in Particle Physics

Authors: AP Klimets

In the article, with the help of various models, the thesis about the fundamental nature of the field form of matter as the basis of elementary particles is considered. In the first chapter a model of special relativity is constructed, on the basis of which the priority of the massless form of matter is revealed. In the second chapter a field model of inert and heavy mass is constructed and the mechanism of inertness and gravity of weighty bodies is revealed. In the third chapter, the example of geons shows the fundamental nature of a massless form of matter on the Planck scale. The three-dimensionality of the observable space is substantiated. In the fourth chapter, we consider a variant of solving the problem of singularities in general relativity using the example of multidimensional spaces. The last chapter examines the author's approach to quantum gravity. The conclusions do not contradict the main thesis of the article on the fundamental nature of the massless form of matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1412] viXra:1811.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 06:32:41

### Matter does not have Gravitation. Moving Faster Than Light you will see Black Holes

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1411] viXra:1811.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 03:15:29

### C x H x O-valued Gravity, [SU(4)]$^4$ Unification, Hermitian Matrix Geometry and Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro

We review briefly how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity (real-complex-quaterno-octonionic Gravity) naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity with a Yang-Mills theory containing the Standard Model group $SU(3) \times SU(2) \times U(1)$. In particular, the $C \otimes H \otimes O$ algebra is explored deeper. It is found that it can furnish the gauge group {\bf [SU(4)]}$^4$ revealing the possibility of extending the Standard Model by introducing additional gauge bosons, heavy quarks and leptons, and a $fourth$ family of fermions with profound physical implications. An analysis of $C \otimes H \otimes O$-valued gravity reveals that it bears a connection to Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein theories and complex Hermitian Matrix Geometry. The key behind these connections is in finding the relation between $C \otimes H \otimes O$-valued metrics in $two$ $complex$ dimensions with metrics in $higher$ dimensional $real$ manifolds ($D = 32$ real dimensions in particular). It is desirable to extend these results to hypercomplex, quaternionic manifolds and Exceptional Jordan Matrix Models.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1410] viXra:1811.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 04:52:52

### Mystery Particle Spotted at 28 Gev! Discovery Would Require Physics so Weird that Nobody Has Even Thought of It.

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

In Sphere Theory, the universe is a sphere made of spheres. Most of these spheres are packed in a cuboctahedron structure, but there are inclusion and dislocation defects. As part of the theory the high mass particles come from combinations of the layers of the cuboctahedron structures. Especially the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure. The new 28 GeV particle conforms to this model. It is shown, in this model to come from the 3rd layer of the cuboctahedron with 92 spheres. Also included in this paper are the other high mass particles, all of which conform to a cuboctahedron structure layers for their mass. Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between the larger mass quarks and bosons, and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres. The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1409] viXra:1811.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 20:12:00

### Eternal Infinity

Authors: Savior F. Eason, Gifted Physics enthusiast
Comments: 21 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as nuclear acceleration, are authorized by the NSA.

In my paper, I discuss a possibility posing a solution to one of the largest problems in theoretical physics, presenting a possible explanation of what space-time actually is, as well as positing an explanation for dark matter, Hyperspace, An infinite multiverse, and a galilean-possibility of the nature of space, time, consciousness, energy, explaining matter, information, and positing an eternal universe with no beginning or end, in a vibrational multiverse rather than an inflationary or bubble one, and additionally presenting a trippy new reality for how we perceive the universe physically and philosophically; A new theory of everything, as presented by a physics-enthusiastic child in sinking spring.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1408] viXra:1811.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 05:48:57

### Big Bang Energy out of Nothing, or a Compressed Rigid String Nucleus

Authors: Leo Vuyk

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory is a Rigid String Theory which states, that all attraction forces are subjected to a dual repulsion process between the dark energy of the oscillating Axion Higgs string vacuum lattice and less repulsion force of graviton strings or monopole photon strings ( electric- magnetic) radiated by fermionic matter. Black hole nuclei are assumed to be rigid stringy quantum knots highly compressed by the external attack of the oscillating vacuum particles, which mostly are added to the outside of the growing nucleus depending on the pressure difference between the vacuum and the internal black hole quantum knot. As a consequence most black holes are growing by consuming vacuum strings and also by merging with other black holes of different sizes. Black hole with equal sizes do not merge, but are supposed to pair up to a certain distance after which they recede from each other to become a Herbig Haro system with star formation in the middle . The giant central black holes often present inside galaxies are also supposed to merge with other black holes to grow in size. As the ultimate consequence, however, the universe will contract into a Big Crunch, (BC) by the growing black holes which constantly consume the vacuum lattice around us. However the vacuum pressure at the BC nucleus will decrease in time and become in balance with the growing internal rigid string pressure between the rigid strings inside the BC nucleus, which is the moment of the start of the big bang into chunks of smaller black hole nuclei evaporating also gradually into a surrounding oscillating vacuum lattice. As a consequence we seem to live inside one of the super symmetric “material” bubble universe created by the explosion of a black hole.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1407] viXra:1810.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 20:11:45

### Where is the Antimatter

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

The standard model predicts there should be equal parts of matter and antimatter. This paper proposes a simple mathematical solution to this problem. It basically proposes that the universe is built from the ground up, and antimatter is just a temporary state created by tearing the universe up a little and then reconstructing. It. In “The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything is an Entangled 42”, (1) we found that the smallest realm in the universe was spheres packed in a cuboctahedron of 3 layers. In the first realm of the cuboctahedron there was a perfect 42 spheres on the outside of 3 layer cuboctahedron. When one looks at the equation of breaking up a layer, there are positive and negative real solutions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1406] viXra:1810.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-29 11:01:25

### Fine-Structure Constant at High Energy and Cooper Pairs

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Higgs boson can not shrink spacetime to zero because its components are indestructible. The created electron-positron pairs inside the uncharged scalar in centre of baryons force contraction of the distances between spacetime components. At energy equal to mass of the W boson, we obtain that the fine-structure constant is about 1/128. We show also that particles emitted by fermions increase their effective ranges. We calculated that maximum distance between electrons in Cooper pairs should be 1161 nm.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1405] viXra:1810.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 16:43:31

### Virtual Particles in the Vacuum as the Source of Gravity

Authors: Eran Sinbar

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in energy and time, comes in the form of virtual particle pairs in empty space. These virtual pairs of matter and anti-matter in empty space pop in and out of existence. Their short existence can be measured directly through the Casimir effect [1]. These virtual particles constitute the Hawking radiation. They carry the latent black hole information from the surface of the event horizon into the void of space during the evaporation process of the black hole[2],[3].In this article I suggest a model in which these virtual particles in the vacuum are the source for gravity, curvature of space and time dilation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1404] viXra:1810.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 18:21:26

### Our Lumpy Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

In “The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything is an Entangled 42”, (1) we found that the smallest realm in the universe was spheres packed in a cuboctahedron of 3 layers. In the first realm of the cuboctahedron there was a perfect 42 spheres on the outside of 3 layer cuboctahedron. In each subsequent layer the packing of spheres formed a larger sphere. But, the final layer of spheres the average number was not a whole integer. I suspect that in actuality each sphere does have integer number of spheres, but adjacent spheres have a slightly number of spheres. This slightly different number gives us a slightly different constant of nature, ever so small and different, but enough to contribute to a lumpy universe. In “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”(2). We found that the amount of discontinuities, or imperfections, when packing spheres around a group of spheres in equal to 4pir^2+4pir. This is basically the outside of the sphere contains the amount of information a universe can carry. The discontinuities or imperfections formed when packing spheres around a sphere, however small a percentage this may be contributes to the lumpy universe. Our Realm of the universe would have a difference in particle size of about one in over ten to the 40th power. In addition What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42. The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57920 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1403] viXra:1810.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 12:02:12

### Galaxy Rotation Curve of Triangulum Galaxy (M33) by Using New Quantum Gravity Theory

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase

Galaxy rotation curve of triangulum galaxy has been explained by new quantum gravity theory. This theory correctly predicted the rotational velocities at different distances from the centre of galaxy. This is a non relativistic theory. This theory is based on baryonic matter only.This theory completely rejects dark matter hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1402] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 01:36:40

### Wow! Signal Decoded as Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here I present a structured extension of the content from the three previous articles in which I described how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions, or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed elements, especially the SST manifolds, are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1401] viXra:1810.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 23:11:19

### Spacetime is the Maximum Complex Hilbert Space.

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

This paper explains the emergence of a space-time interval using a modified holographic principle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1400] viXra:1810.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-13 16:43:03

### Weak Force and Weak Charge in Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

The standard model predicts a weak charge of SM prediction, Q p w(SM) = 0.0710 ± 0.0007. This value, SM prediction, Q p w(SM) = 0.0710 ± 0.0007, is the ratio of the weak charge to elementary charge. This paper shows that granular spacetime equations show a ratio of weak charge to elementary charge of .071776±.000001 We also show that the ratio of weak charge and elementary charge are simply the square root of the mass of the neutron to the mass of two times the z boson.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1399] viXra:1810.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-11 07:01:28

### Gravitational Wave Data Transfer

Authors: George Rajna

RUDN mathematicians analyzed the properties of gravitational waves in a generalized affine-metrical space (an algebraic construction operating on the notions of a vector and a point) similarly to the properties of electromagnetic waves in Minkowski space-time. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1398] viXra:1810.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 20:02:35

### W and Z Boson Weak Force and Weak Charge in Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

This paper shows the magnitude of the weak force and weak charge with calculations and makes predictions of the weak charge. It also postulates that the weak force may be a result of w boson pairs and z boson pairs. Tommaso Dorigo discusses W boson pairs [2]. The equations to derive a value of weak charge to elementary charge in this paper seem to imply that weak charge, of .076447, may be the result of W boson pairs or perhaps .071776 of a Z boson pairs. This paper uses the cuboctahedron structure shown in “Proton Electron Universe and Their Directions of Force”[1]. We also show that the ratio of weak charge and elementary charge are simply the square root of the mass of the neutron to the mass of two times the w boson or perhaps two times the z boson or a combination of these two numbers.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1397] viXra:1810.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 15:10:20

### General Relativity, Non-Abelian Gauge Theories, and Quantum Gravity

Authors: F. Winterberg

We adopt here an attempt first pioneered by Dehnen to reformulate Einstein’s general theory of relativity as a kind of non-Abelian gauge theory, as is quantum chromodynamics. This approach permits the formulation of Einstein’s gravitational field equation by the same Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action, albeit with two event horizons: an “outer” one in ordinary space for Einstein’s theory with a cut-off at the Planck energy (~〖10〗^19 GeV), and an “inner” one in three-dimensional color space for quantum chromodynamics with a cut-of at ~〖10〗^2 GeV. This conclusion is reached by the analogy between general relativity and quantum chromodynamics at one hand, and Newtonian point particle classical mechanics and Helmholtz line vortex dynamics at the other hand.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1396] viXra:1810.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 04:24:58

### Supermassive Black Holes Have Very Small Mass. Dark Matter Mass, Energy and Gravitation

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1395] viXra:1810.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 22:49:04

### 《Universal and Unified Physics》

Authors: Wei Xu

For the first time in mankind, Theory of Unified and Universal Physics is philosophically and mathematically revealed the workings of Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. The nature of dark energies unfolds its Event Operations systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric dynamics systematically at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

• Complex Manifold in a duality of contravariance and covariance
• Constitution of Transform Generators and Transport Torques
• Formulations of World Equations and Universal Fields
• Fluxions of quantum scalar and vector potential Entanglements
• Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Graviton Fields
• Symmetric Fields of Gravitation, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, and Blackhold
• Law of Field Evolutions - Double Loops of Triple Entanglements
• Asymmetric Dynamics of Ontology and Cosmology

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from Newtonian to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Duality.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary,《Universal and Unified Physics》completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics, and beyond.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1394] viXra:1809.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 12:50:26

### Emergent Spacetime and Matter, Unified Field Theory

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov

An axiomatic deterministic theory of physics based on a single scalar field was proposed. In the theory model at the fundamental level there is no time and dynamics. It is shown how space-time with matter and fields emerge in this model. It is shown that the anthropic principle emerges as a consequence of the theory. The causality principle is derived as a consequence of the main principles of the theory. All three Newton's equations are obtained as consequences of the theory and in the nonrelativistic approximation. Mass, energy and other concepts of mechanics were obtained. The Schrödinger equation is derived. An explanation of the nature of particle spin is proposed. It is shown that the maximum speed of interactions must be finite and be the same in all inertial frames of reference. It is shown that the light speed and the maximum speed of interactions are exactly equal. A special theory of relativity with all its equations is obtained. The Klein-Gordon-Fock equations and, with some assumptions, the Dirac equations are obtained. Particles interaction is considered. There were given explanations of what virtual particles and quanta of field interactions are, and how renormalization works in quantum field theory. Seemingly fundamental interactions, such as strong, weak and electromagnetic are shown. Maxwell's equations are obtained, with some assumptions. It is shown that the standard model does not contradict the proposed theory. The nature of gravitation is considered. A strong equivalence principle is proved, all assumptions on which the general theory of relativity is based are proved. Based on this, it can be argued that the equations of the general relativity theory satisfy the theory of emergent space-time-matter. It is shown that gravity can not have quanta. Thus, this theory asserts that no theory of quantum gravity can exist. An explanation of the origin of the universe is proposed. An explanation is offered for the nature of dark energy and dark matter. Physical foundations of mathematics are considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1393] viXra:1809.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 14:46:48

### Without Ferent Matter, there is no Gravitation

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1392] viXra:1809.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 04:58:22

### Bohm's Potential, Classical/Quantum Duality and Repulsive Gravity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

We propose the notion of a classical/quantum $duality$ in the gravitational case (it can be extended to other interactions). By this one means $exchanging$ Bohm's quantum potential for the classical potential $V_Q \leftrightarrow V$ in the stationary quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) so that $V_Q + V = - V_0$ ($V_0$ is the ground state energy). Despite that the corresponding Schr\"{o}dinger equations, and their solutions differ, their associated quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and $ground$ state energy remains the $same$. This is how the classical/quantum duality is implemented. In this scenario Bohm's quantum potential (which coincides with the attractive Newtonian potential) is now correlated to a classical $repulsive$ gravitational potential (plus a constant ). These results suggest that there might be a $quantum$ origin to the classical $repulsive$ gravitational behavior (of the accelerated expansion) of the universe which is based on this notion of classical/quantum $duality$.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1391] viXra:1809.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 23:17:01

### Gravito-Electromagnetism Derived Mathematically from Newton’s Law Electromagnetism/gravito-Electromagnetism Duality

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 10 Pages. Mathematically derive Maxwell-type gravity-electromagnetism which can be easily quantized

In this article, we utilize the mathematic approach, which has been utilized to re-derive Maxwell equation mathematically from the Gauss/Coulomb’s law, to demonstrate that, by applying Newton’s law, the magnetic-type gravitational field exists mathematically. Namely, since a stationary gravitational charge satisfies Newton’s law, its motion generates inevitably an axial gravito-magnetic field and an axial gravito-electric field; call Gravito-electromagnetism. This mathematical derivation proves the famous sentence, “The world is built mathematically”. The so derived Electromagnetism and Gravito-electromagnetism disclose mathematically an intrinsic duality between electromagnetic force and gravitational force, which are the only two long-range forces in the Nature. The Electromagnetism/Gravito-electromagnetism duality can serves as the base for the advanced dualities between the two and for the unification of the two.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1390] viXra:1809.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 04:26:49

### The Quantum/Classical Connection

Authors: Bernard Riley

By way of the Quantum/Classical Connection, the radii of nearby G and K-type Main Sequence stars map onto the atomic masses of Period 4 transition metals while the masses of the stars map onto the atomic radii of the same elements.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1389] viXra:1809.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 07:26:48

### Gravitational Waves Extra Dimensions

Authors: George Rajna

While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1388] viXra:1809.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 23:06:26

### Constraining the Standard Model in Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 9 Pages. For the proceedings of Group32, Prague, July 2018

A physical approach to a category of motives must account for the emergent nature of spacetime, where real and complex numbers play a secondary role to discrete operations in quantum computation. In quantum logic, the cardinality of a set is initially replaced by a dimension of a linear space, making contact with the increasing dimensions in an operad. The operad of associahedra governs tree level scattering, and is closely related to the permutohedra and cube tiles, where cube vertices can encode components of a spinor in higher dimensional octonionic approaches. A study of rest mass generation begins with the cosmological infrared scale, set by the neutrino masses, and its related see-saw mechanism. We employ the anyonic ribbon spectrum for Standard Model states, and consider its relation to magic star algebras, giving a context for the Koide rest mass phenomenology of charged leptons and quarks.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1387] viXra:1809.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 04:21:39

### Apparent Violation of the Second Law, Around Black Hole Nuclei and Other Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory is a Rigid String Theory which states, that there are no singular string based repulsion forces or attraction forces. Attraction forces should be the result of the dual effect of two opposing photon pulses on a stringy Fermion. As a consequence, only the result of two opposing photons impinging on Fermions has to count as a quantum force and the so called “Feynman diagrams” should be adapted. In Q-FFF Theory, the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Axion/Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in wavelength bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local (mass related) speed of light and the origin of the so called Dark Energy observed e.g. in the Casimir effect. At the same time, only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum coming from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena in the universe. So, we may call this force a fifth force as it opposes and interacts or compensates all Photon/Gluon pressure effects on fermions in the universe. The gravity around Black Holes is assumed to be based only on the zero point oscillation spectrum from outside the black hole without the opposing repulsive gravitons coming out of the black hole. Black holes don’t emit gravitons, consequently they are massless and harbor a nucleus of massless Axion/Higgs based Quantum vacuum knots only able to absorb the incoming oscillating vacuum particles and polarize the surrounding vacuum structure. The polarization of the local vacuum is also origin of the black hole repulsion horizon of all propeller shaped Fermions at a certain distance from the nucleus and even the creation of fermions and baryons ( plasma) out of the local vacuum. Reason to accept that the vacuum energy around dark matter black holes ( fifth force) combined with the propeller shape of fermions, is the origin of apparent violation of the second law, (entropy decrease) observed on earth and in space. Examples are: plasma tails of Ball lightning and (micro) Comets and Proplyds.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1386] viXra:1809.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 18:59:30

### How an Artificial Kerr-Newman Black Hole Can Release Gravitational Waves

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 38 Pages. will be received by Christian Corda who will reccomend what to do with this paper

We initiate a model of an artificially induced Kerr-Newman black Holes, with specific angular momentum J, and then from there model was to what would happen as to an effective charge, Q, creating an E and B field, commensurate with the release of GWs. The idea is that using a frame of reference trick, plus E + i B = - function of the derivative of a complex valued scalar field, as given by Appell, in 1887, and reviewed by Whittaker and Watson, 1927 of their “A Course of Modern Analysis” tome that a first principle identification of a B field, commensurate with increase of thermal temperature, T, so as to have artificially induced GW production. This is compared in part with the Park 1955 paper of a spinning rod, producing GW, with the proviso that both the spinning rod paper, and this artificial Kerr-Newman Black hole will employ the idea of lasers in implementation of their respective GW radiation. The idea is in part partly similar to an idea the author discussed with Dr. Robert Baker, in 2016 with the difference that a B field would be generated and linked to effects linked with induced spin to the Kerr - Newman Black hole. We close with some observations about the “black holes have no hair” theorem, and our problem. Citing some recent suppositions that this “theorem” may not be completely true and how that may relate to our experimental situation. We close with observations from Haijicek, 2008 as which may be pertinent to Quantization of Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1385] viXra:1809.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 10:30:14

### Anti-Information and Ghost Fields

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 25 Pages. I can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com

Here the author attempts to give a unified picture of the multiverse and our universe in particular. The concept of AntiInformation is introduced and the existence of ghost fields, which are logical constructs is proposed. This unifies general relativity with quantum mechanics. This is a good read for physicists with an undergrad education. The paper is on Vixra while awaiting publication in a journal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1384] viXra:1809.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 05:51:04

### The Elementary Particles Contain Dark Matter

“The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The photons contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent Where: h – is the Planck constant a – is the Ferent constant In this equation the Dark Matter term is a × f , this means the photons contain Dark Matter. “The photons contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Because of mass-energy equivalence, the rest energy of a particle it is E = mc2, and because the photons contains Dark Matter this imply that all the particles contain Dark Matter. Because all the elementary particles have Gravitational Field, this means all of them have a Dark Matter component in their equations, this means all the elementary particles contain Dark Matter. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Physicists today plagiarize my Gravitation theory, all of theom say: ‘Black holes are Dark matter’, stolen from my Gravitation theory. The Physicists do not know what is Dark Matter, but they know that ‘Black holes are Dark matter’; it is amazing how far can go the plagiarism today! This equation unify Matter with Dark Matter! 101. I am the first who discovered that all the elementary particles contain Dark Matter 102. I am the first who unified Matter with Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1383] viXra:1809.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 19:04:25

### Elementary Particles, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Cosmology, and Galaxy Evolution

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz

We suggest united models and specific predictions regarding elementary particles, dark matter, dark energy, aspects of the cosmology timeline, and aspects of galaxy evolution. Results include specific predictions for new elementary particles and specific descriptions of dark matter and dark energy. Some modeling matches known elementary particles and extrapolates to predict other elementary particles, including bases for dark matter. Some models complement traditional quantum field theory. Some modeling features Hamiltonian mathematics and originally de-emphasizes motion. We incorporate results from traditional motion-centric and action-based Lagrangian math into our Hamiltonian-centric framework. Our modeling framework features mathematics for isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1382] viXra:1808.0671 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 08:42:10

### Measure the Gravitational Constant

Authors: George Rajna

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and one in Russia has devised two new ways to measure the gravitational constant. [9] The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

## Replacements of recent Submissions

[1230] viXra:1901.0181 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-14 13:42:22

### The Origin of Jarlskog Invariant and Applications

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

The different size scales in Nature and CP violation lead to very simple our pre-Cosmos with left-handed polarization which has transformed into the left-handed internal helicity of the baryons - it solves the matter-antimatter asymmetry. The simplest grainy surface that can have internal helicity is the torus/charge/spin (or loop) with toroidal and poloidal speeds. Here we showed that the ratio of such speeds leads to both the Jarlskog invariant and a spilled half-jet in grainy spacetime (i.e. to an additional arrow of time) which is responsible for CP violation. The Jarlskog invariant allows you to calculate the lifetimes of the neutron and weakly decaying hyperons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1229] viXra:1901.0143 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-11 06:43:36

### A Rough Calculation Relating the Extremely Small Cosmological Constant to the Extremely Large QFT Vacuum Energy Density

Authors: Remi Cornwall

This enquiry follows the investigation into a propulsion system purportedly utilising the QED vacuum as reactive momenergy. The QFT vacuum is contentious because the “naïve” value for it is extraordinarily large, yet on the cosmic scale it is hardly present. This begs the question as to whether it is really real and further highlights the problem between General Relativity on very large scales, with Quantum Mechanics on very small scales. We find a mathematical procedure that: to the 1st order removes the “embarrassing” QFT vacuum constant from the Einstein tensor and then covers nearly all of the 120 orders of magnitude difference between the Cosmological Constant and Vacuum Energy by introducing it as an higher order correction in (G/c4)3. There is a proviso for further work, that the difference of a few orders we calculate, might be made up by considering fluctuations, running constants in the QFT vacuum, extra degrees of freedom/dimensions, Inflation or even non-constant G.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1228] viXra:1812.0405 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-06 15:31:43

### Three Dimensions in Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard

Important polytope sequences, like the associahedra and permutohedra, contain one object in each dimension. The more particles labelling the leaves of a tree, the higher the dimension required to compute physical amplitudes, where we speak of an abstract categorical dimension. Yet for most purposes, we care only about low dimensional arrows, particularly associators and braiding arrows. In the emerging theory of motivic quantum gravity, the structure of three dimensions explains why we perceive three dimensions. The Leech lattice is a simple consequence of quantum mechanics. Higher dimensional data, like the e8 lattice, is encoded in three dimensions. Here we give a very elementary overview of key data from an axiomatic perspective, focusing on the permutoassociahedra of Kapranov.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1227] viXra:1812.0315 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-23 01:07:02

### Worm Holes, Quantization and Galois Theory

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 45 page re do. Accepted after being reformatted as to JHEPGC instructions. Added one Eq. (53) as to Kaluza Klein, plus material as to polarization for future work and review. Deleted over 2/3rds of the referee questions at request of JHEPGC type setters

45 page thought experiment as to how Quantum gravity emerges from a quintic polynomial, and its relationship to galois theory. Focus is on wormhole throats, as a precursor to the thought experiment. Added material and cut referee questions and replies at request of JHEPGC editors, and the present form of paper is accepted by JHEPGC
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1226] viXra:1812.0068 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-07 14:39:27

### The Peak Strong Force or Peak Strong Gravitational Force

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

Most everyone is aware off gravity, some are aware of the gravitational constant, less are aware of the strong force, and virtually no one knows about the strong gravitational constant or what it would be. The author proposes that the same format can be used for the strong force that is used for the gravitational constant. The calculations will be shown here. Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is made of spheres that are made of spheres perhaps indefinitely. It is the discontinuities in the spheres that give rise to imperfection and make the universe interesting. The equations, so far have shown the forces from elementary charge, weak charge, and gravity. This paper shows the building of the equation for the unit strong force. The unit strong force is the force of one strong force carrier at its closest interaction. The unit strong force has a very short distance of action as the attraction loops back on itself very quickly due to its extreme strength that basically pulls apart space and makes new quarks. The equation developed herein is only for the force at its closest interaction, which is strong enough to hold the protons and neutrons and other nucleons together within the nucleus of the atom.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1225] viXra:1812.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-07 14:57:33

### The Unit Strong Force in Sphere Theory Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

We find that the peak force measured at Jefferson Laboratory could be about 7000 newtons inside the proton, and the peak strong force calculated in equation 16,17 to be about 6150 Newtons. Both are similar and the author proposes that what Jefferson Laboratory measured in their test was mostly the strong force. It is not clear what surface area Jefferson Laboratory was using for their calculation of pressure. The author believes it was an area from a space that had a radius of 0.6 femtometers as discussed in the Nature article [1]. Also, in Nature article, it is clear that the Pascals, is a rough number, on which they intend to find improvement. The author of this paper proposes that Jefferson Laboratory only state what the force was as the area may not be measurable and could in fact be the Planck Area, which would put the pressure up into the Pascals pressure.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1224] viXra:1812.0030 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-03 19:09:03

### The Unit Strong Force in Sphere Theory Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is made of spheres that are made of spheres perhaps indefinitely. It is the discontinuities in the spheres that give rise to imperfection and make the universe interesting. The equations, so far have shown the forces from elementary charge, weak charge, and gravity. This paper shows the building of the equation for the unit strong force. The unit strong force is the force of one strong force carrier at its closest interaction. The unit strong force has a very short distance of action as the attraction loops back on itself very quickly due to its extreme strength that basically pulls apart space and makes new quarks. The equation developed herein is only for the force at its closest interaction, which is strong enough to hold the protons and neutrons and other nucleons together within the nucleus of the atom. An article from Nature “The pressure distribution inside the proton”[1] states the peak pressure is on the order of Pascals. This peak pressure can be converted to a force, which the author proposes is mostly due to the strong force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1223] viXra:1811.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-24 21:19:36

### Holographic Interval of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

The emergence of space-time from a common Hilbert space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1222] viXra:1811.0201 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-20 01:57:07

### Holographic Interval of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly

The emergence of space-time from a common Hilbert space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1221] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-25 00:31:39

### Fine-Tuning Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis and Confirms Coherent Cosmology, Eddington's and String Theory

Authors: F. M. Sanchez

Fine tuning relations using Eddington number 137 and the central mathematical constants e, pi, gamma connect with the Fermi coupling constant, the muon and tau masses, and the G value. The latter is compatible, within 10^-7 with the G value deduced from the Coherent Cosmology, and within 10^-9 to the electron magnetic moment. The formula simplify by introducing a super Euler - constant, and show a 9D reduction to 3D, confirming Superstring Theory, while c-free analysis confirms the Topological Axis and the tachyonic Bosonic String Theory, with emphasis on a 30 dimension Space, connected through triple Bott reduction with a massive Gluon in 6 dimension space. The 26 sporadic groups are tied to the three microphysics coupling constant and the gauge group dimension 496, whose square give the Higgs boson/Electron mass ratio. The Baby-Monster is directly tied to the observable Universe. The Monster Group, whose cardinal order is directly tied to Rydbergh energy appears in the c-free analysis giving the overall periodicity of a Deterministic Grandcosmos Computer. This confirms the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis and Eddington's rehabilitation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1220] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-23 10:38:34

### Fine-Tuning Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis and Confirms Coherent Cosmology, Eddington's and String Theory

Authors: F. M. Sanchez

Fine tuning relations using Eddington number 137 connect with the Fermi coupling constant, the muon mass, the electron magnetic moment and the G value, compatible within 10^-7 with G deduced from the Coherent Cosmology. The tachyonic Bosonic String Theory is confirmed by c-free analysis, with emphasis on a 30 dimension Space. This confirms Eddington's rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1219] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-22 02:26:40

### Atiyah Approach Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis and Confirms Coherent Cosmology, Eddington's and String Theories

Authors: F. M. Sanchez

Fine tuning relations using Atiyah constant and Eddington number 137 connect with the Fermi coupling constant, the muon mass, the electron magnetic moment and the G value, compatible within 10^-7 with G deduced from the Coherent Cosmology. This shows a 9D and 6D reduction to 3D, confirming Superstring Theory, while the tachyonic Bosonic String Theory is confirmed by c-free analysis, with emphasis on a 30 dimension Space. This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1218] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-21 03:31:43

### Atiyah Approach Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis and Confirms Coherent Cosmology, Eddington's and String Theories

Authors: Atiyah Approach excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis, confirms Coherent Cosmology, Eddington's, String Theories

Fine tuning relations using Atiyah cosnstant and Eddington number 137 connect with the Fermi coupling constant, the muon mass and the G value, in 10-9 compatibility with both the Coherent Cosmology G value and the electron magnetic moment. This shows a 9D and 6D reduction to 3D, confirming Superstring Theory, while the tachyonic Bosonic one is confirmed by c-free analysis, with emphasis on a 30 dimension Space. This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1217] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-19 09:33:28

### Atiyah Constant Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis and Confirm Eddington's and Superstring Theories

Authors: F. M. Sanchez

A simple fine tuning relation using the Atiyah Constant, the Eddington number 137 and the Fermi coupling constant defines the latter in its 5 × 10^-7 indetermination, compatible with the 2 × 10^-8 muon mass indetermination in another Cosmic Oscillation fine tuning relation. A symmetrical extension showing superstring 6D and 9D spaces gives a G value compatible with the Quinn measurement (2.5 × 10^-5), and the Coherent Cosmology value (10^-7), showing the superstring reduction from 9D to 3D. A very simple formula connects G and the electron magnetic moment to 10^-9. This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1216] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-16 23:37:25

### Atiyah Constant Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis and Confirm Eddington's and Superstring Theories

Authors: F. M. Sanchez

A simple fine tuning relation using the Atiyah Constant, the Eddington number 137 and the Fermi coupling constant defines the latter in its 5 × 10-7 indetermination, compatible with the 2 × 10-8 muon mass indetermination in another Cosmic Oscillation fine tuning relation. A symmetrical extension showing superstring 6D and 9D spaces, showing the superstring reduction from 9D to 3D, gives a G value compatible with the Quinn measurement (2.5 × 10^-5) and the Coherent Cosmology value (10^-7). This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1215] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-15 00:18:01

### Atiyah Constant Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis

Authors: F. M. Sanchez

A simple fine tuning relation using the Atiyah Constant, the Eddington number 137 and the Fermi coupling constant defines the latter in its 5 × 10-7 indetermination, compatible with the 2 × 10-8 muon mass indetermination in another Cosmic Oscillation fine tuning relation. A symmetrical extension showing superstring 6D and 9D spaces gives a G value compatible with the Quinn measurement (2.5 × 10-5), and the Coherent Cosmology value (10-7). This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1214] viXra:1810.0427 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-23 10:09:40

### Galaxy Rotation Curve of Triangulum Galaxy (M-33) By Using New Quantum Gravity Theory

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase

A detailed study of roatation curve of triangulum galaxy(M33) has been done using new quantum gravity theory.The new quantum gravity theory is based on baryonic matter only. This new theory is not based on the dark matter. Hence the existence of dark matter is rejected. The new theory is different from Newton’s gravitational theory or any other gravitational theory postulated at present. The new theory is non-relativistic theory in which space and time are constant and not related to each other. This theory is a quantum gravity theory in which gravity is made up of small quantas.It is observed that the theoretical rotational velocities curve form a cusp at the radius of 20 kly. This is a dominant and most important aspect of new quantum gravitational theory. The halo cusp problem cannot be solved by dark matter hypothesis. Inability to solve halo cusp problem is main drawback of dark matter hypothesis. This new quantum gravitational theory solves the halo cusp problem of rotation curve of galaxy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1213] viXra:1810.0427 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 22:47:42

### Galaxy Rotation Curve of Triangulum Galaxy (M-33) By Using New Quantum Gravity Theory

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase

A detailed study of roatation curve of triangulum galaxy(M33) has been done using new quantum gravity theory.The new quantum gravity theory is based on baryonic matter only. This new theory is not based on the dark matter. Hence the existence of dark matter is rejected. The new theory is different from Newton’s gravitational theory or any other gravitational theory postulated at present. The new theory is non-relativistic theory in which space and time are constant and not related to each other. This theory is a quantum gravity theory in which gravity is made up of small quantas.It is observed that the theoretical rotational velocities curve form a cusp at the radius of 20 kly. This is a dominant and most important aspect of new quantum gravitational theory. The halo cusp problem cannot be solved by dark matter hypothesis. Inability to solve halo cusp problem is main drawback of dark matter hypothesis. This new quantum gravitational theory solves the halo cusp problem of rotation curve of galaxy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1212] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-11 06:44:57

### Wow! Signal Decoded as Foundations of Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here I show how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed here elements are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1211] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-10 12:40:45

### Wow! Signal Decoded as Foundations of Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here I show how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed here elements are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1210] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-04 10:00:50

### Wow! Signal Decoded as Foundations of Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski

Here I show how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed here elements are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1209] viXra:1810.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-10 08:36:39

### W and Z Boson Weak Force and Weak Charge in Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski

This paper shows the magnitude of the weak force and weak charge with calculations and makes predictions of the weak charge. It also postulates that the weak force may be a result of w boson pairs and z boson pairs. Tommaso Dorigo discusses W boson pairs [2]. The equations to derive a value of weak charge to elementary charge in this paper seem to imply that weak charge, of .076447, may be the result of W boson pairs or perhaps .071776 of a Z boson pairs. This paper uses the cuboctahedron structure shown in “Proton Electron Universe and Their Directions of Force”[1]. We also show that the ratio of weak charge and elementary charge are simply the square root of the mass of the neutron to the mass of two times the w boson or perhaps two times the z boson or a combination of these two numbers.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1208] viXra:1810.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2018-12-16 21:44:38

### On a Possible Cause of Negative Sign of Gravitational Interaction Between Matter and Antimatter

Authors: Zbigniew Modrzejewski

Based on the mass-energy equivalence from special theory of relativity, we conjecture simple and clear framework for the purpose of conceptualizing atomic mass generation mechanism for a single hydrogen atom. We then apply it to see if it would offer conclusive clarification of the issue of the sign of gravitational interaction between the Earth and antihydrogen atoms at CERN. Our testable prediction is that the interaction will be conclusively repulsive, i.e. of equal and opposite magnitude as compared to the attractive one. We are confident that, if experimentally verified, our conjecture has sufficient potential to result in a theoretical basis of the first experimentally testable quantum gravity hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1207] viXra:1810.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2019-01-05 10:22:55

### 《Universal and Unified Physics》

Authors: Wei Xu

For the first time in mankind, Theory of Unified and Universal Physics is philosophically and mathematically revealed the workings of Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. The nature of dark energies unfolds its Event Operations systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric dynamics systematically at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

• Complex Manifold in a duality of contravariance and covariance
• Constitution of Transform Generators and Transport Torques
• Formulations of World Equations and Universal Fields
• Fluxions of quantum scalar and vector potential Entanglements
• Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Graviton Fields
• Symmetric Fields of Gravitation, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, and Blackhold
• Law of Field Evolutions - Double Loops of Triple Entanglements
• Asymmetric Dynamics of Ontology and Cosmology

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from Newtonian to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Duality.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary,《Universal and Unified Physics》completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics, and beyond.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1206] viXra:1810.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-28 19:13:36

### 《Universal and Unified Physics》

Authors: Wei Xu

For the first time in mankind, Theory of Unified and Universal Physics is philosophically and mathematically revealed the workings of Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. The nature of dark energies unfolds its Event Operations systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric dynamics systematically at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

• Complex Manifold in a duality of contravariance and covariance
• Constitution of Transform Generators and Transport Torques
• Formulations of World Equations and Universal Fields
• Fluxions of quantum scalar and vector potential Entanglements
• Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Graviton Fields
• Symmetric Fields of Gravitation, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, and Blackhold
• Law of Field Evolutions - Double Loops of Triple Entanglements
• Asymmetric Dynamics of Ontology and Cosmology

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from Newtonian to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Duality.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary,《Universal and Unified Physics》completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics, and beyond.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1205] viXra:1810.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-12 21:42:32

### 《Universal and Unified Physics》

Authors: Wei Xu

For the first time in mankind, Theory of Unified and Universal Physics is philosophically and mathematically revealed the workings of Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. The nature of dark energies unfolds its Event Operations systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric dynamics systematically at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

• Complex Manifold in a duality of contravariance and covariance
• Constitution of Transform Generators and Transport Torques
• Formulations of World Equations and Universal Fields
• Fluxions of quantum scalar and vector potential Entanglements
• Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Graviton Fields
• Symmetric Fields of Gravitation, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, and Blackhold
• Law of Field Evolutions - Double Loops of Triple Entanglements
• Asymmetric Dynamics of Ontology and Cosmology

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from Newtonian to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Duality.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary,《Universal and Unified Physics》completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics, and beyond.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory