Quantum Gravity and String Theory

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Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1396] viXra:1809.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 23:17:01

Gravito-Electromagnetism Derived Mathematically from Newton’s Law Electromagnetism/gravito-Electromagnetism Duality

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 10 Pages. Mathematically derive Maxwell-type gravity-electromagnetism which can be easily quantized

In this article, we utilize the mathematic approach, which has been utilized to re-derive Maxwell equation mathematically from the Gauss/Coulomb’s law, to demonstrate that, by applying Newton’s law, the magnetic-type gravitational field exists mathematically. Namely, since a stationary gravitational charge satisfies Newton’s law, its motion generates inevitably an axial gravito-magnetic field and an axial gravito-electric field; call Gravito-electromagnetism. This mathematical derivation proves the famous sentence, “The world is built mathematically”. The so derived Electromagnetism and Gravito-electromagnetism disclose mathematically an intrinsic duality between electromagnetic force and gravitational force, which are the only two long-range forces in the Nature. The Electromagnetism/Gravito-electromagnetism duality can serves as the base for the advanced dualities between the two and for the unification of the two.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1395] viXra:1809.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 04:26:49

The Quantum/Classical Connection

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 11 pages

By way of the Quantum/Classical Connection, the radii of nearby G and K-type Main Sequence stars map onto the atomic masses of Period 4 transition metals while the masses of the stars map onto the atomic radii of the same elements.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1394] viXra:1809.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 07:26:48

Gravitational Waves Extra Dimensions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1393] viXra:1809.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 23:06:26

Constraining the Standard Model in Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 9 Pages. For the proceedings of Group32, Prague, July 2018

A physical approach to a category of motives must account for the emergent nature of spacetime, where real and complex numbers play a secondary role to discrete operations in quantum computation. In quantum logic, the cardinality of a set is initially replaced by a dimension of a linear space, making contact with the increasing dimensions in an operad. The operad of associahedra governs tree level scattering, and is closely related to the permutohedra and cube tiles, where cube vertices can encode components of a spinor in higher dimensional octonionic approaches. A study of rest mass generation begins with the cosmological infrared scale, set by the neutrino masses, and its related see-saw mechanism. We employ the anyonic ribbon spectrum for Standard Model states, and consider its relation to magic star algebras, giving a context for the Koide rest mass phenomenology of charged leptons and quarks.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1392] viXra:1809.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 04:21:39

Apparent Violation of the Second Law, Around Black Hole Nuclei and Other Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 13 Pages.

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory is a Rigid String Theory which states, that there are no singular string based repulsion forces or attraction forces. Attraction forces should be the result of the dual effect of two opposing photon pulses on a stringy Fermion. As a consequence, only the result of two opposing photons impinging on Fermions has to count as a quantum force and the so called “Feynman diagrams” should be adapted. In Q-FFF Theory, the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Axion/Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in wavelength bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local (mass related) speed of light and the origin of the so called Dark Energy observed e.g. in the Casimir effect. At the same time, only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum coming from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena in the universe. So, we may call this force a fifth force as it opposes and interacts or compensates all Photon/Gluon pressure effects on fermions in the universe. The gravity around Black Holes is assumed to be based only on the zero point oscillation spectrum from outside the black hole without the opposing repulsive gravitons coming out of the black hole. Black holes don’t emit gravitons, consequently they are massless and harbor a nucleus of massless Axion/Higgs based Quantum vacuum knots only able to absorb the incoming oscillating vacuum particles and polarize the surrounding vacuum structure. The polarization of the local vacuum is also origin of the black hole repulsion horizon of all propeller shaped Fermions at a certain distance from the nucleus and even the creation of fermions and baryons ( plasma) out of the local vacuum. Reason to accept that the vacuum energy around dark matter black holes ( fifth force) combined with the propeller shape of fermions, is the origin of apparent violation of the second law, (entropy decrease) observed on earth and in space. Examples are: plasma tails of Ball lightning and (micro) Comets and Proplyds.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1391] viXra:1809.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 18:59:30

How an Artificial Kerr-Newman Black Hole Can Release Gravitational Waves

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 38 Pages. will be received by Christian Corda who will reccomend what to do with this paper

We initiate a model of an artificially induced Kerr-Newman black Holes, with specific angular momentum J, and then from there model was to what would happen as to an effective charge, Q, creating an E and B field, commensurate with the release of GWs. The idea is that using a frame of reference trick, plus E + i B = - function of the derivative of a complex valued scalar field, as given by Appell, in 1887, and reviewed by Whittaker and Watson, 1927 of their “A Course of Modern Analysis” tome that a first principle identification of a B field, commensurate with increase of thermal temperature, T, so as to have artificially induced GW production. This is compared in part with the Park 1955 paper of a spinning rod, producing GW, with the proviso that both the spinning rod paper, and this artificial Kerr-Newman Black hole will employ the idea of lasers in implementation of their respective GW radiation. The idea is in part partly similar to an idea the author discussed with Dr. Robert Baker, in 2016 with the difference that a B field would be generated and linked to effects linked with induced spin to the Kerr - Newman Black hole. We close with some observations about the “black holes have no hair” theorem, and our problem. Citing some recent suppositions that this “theorem” may not be completely true and how that may relate to our experimental situation. We close with observations from Haijicek, 2008 as which may be pertinent to Quantization of Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1390] viXra:1809.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 10:30:14

Anti-Information and Ghost Fields

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 25 Pages. I can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com

Here the author attempts to give a unified picture of the multiverse and our universe in particular. The concept of AntiInformation is introduced and the existence of ghost fields, which are logical constructs is proposed. This unifies general relativity with quantum mechanics. This is a good read for physicists with an undergrad education. The paper is on Vixra while awaiting publication in a journal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1389] viXra:1809.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 05:51:04

The Elementary Particles Contain Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 195 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The photons contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent Where: h – is the Planck constant a – is the Ferent constant In this equation the Dark Matter term is a × f , this means the photons contain Dark Matter. “The photons contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Because of mass-energy equivalence, the rest energy of a particle it is E = mc2, and because the photons contains Dark Matter this imply that all the particles contain Dark Matter. Because all the elementary particles have Gravitational Field, this means all of them have a Dark Matter component in their equations, this means all the elementary particles contain Dark Matter. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Physicists today plagiarize my Gravitation theory, all of theom say: ‘Black holes are Dark matter’, stolen from my Gravitation theory. The Physicists do not know what is Dark Matter, but they know that ‘Black holes are Dark matter’; it is amazing how far can go the plagiarism today! This equation unify Matter with Dark Matter! 101. I am the first who discovered that all the elementary particles contain Dark Matter 102. I am the first who unified Matter with Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1388] viXra:1809.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 19:04:25

Elementary Particles, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Cosmology, and Galaxy Evolution

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 26 Pages.

We suggest united models and specific predictions regarding elementary particles, dark matter, dark energy, aspects of the cosmology timeline, and aspects of galaxy evolution. Results include specific predictions for new elementary particles and specific descriptions of dark matter and dark energy. Some modeling matches known elementary particles and extrapolates to predict other elementary particles, including bases for dark matter. Some models complement traditional quantum field theory. Some modeling features Hamiltonian mathematics and originally de-emphasizes motion. We incorporate results from traditional motion-centric and action-based Lagrangian math into our Hamiltonian-centric framework. Our modeling framework features mathematics for isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1387] viXra:1808.0671 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 08:42:10

Measure the Gravitational Constant

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and one in Russia has devised two new ways to measure the gravitational constant. [9] The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1386] viXra:1808.0600 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-28 00:02:53

Emergent Spacetime and Matter, Unified Field Theory (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 27 Pages.

An axiomatic deterministic theory of physics based on a single scalar field is proposed. In the theory model at the fundamental level there is no time and there is no dynamics. It is shown how in this model space and time arises with matter and fields. It is shown that the anthropic principle arises as a consequence of the theory. The principle of causality is derived as a consequence of the main provisions of the theory. All three Newton's equations are obtained, as consequences of the theory and in the nonrelativistic approximation. Mass, energy and other concepts of mechanics were obtained. The Schrödinger equation is derived. An explanation of the nature of particle spin is proposed. It is shown that the maximum speed of interactions must be finite and be the same in all inertial frames of reference. It is shown that the speed of light and the maximum speed of interactions are exactly equal. A special theory of relativity with all its equations is obtained. The Klein-Gordon-Fock equations and, with some assumptions, the Dirac equations are obtained. The interaction of particles is considered. It is explained what virtual particles are, what are quant of field interactions, how renormalization works in quantum field theory. It is shown that such seemingly fundamental interactions, such as strong, weak and electromagnetic. Maxwell's equations are obtained, with some assumptions. It is shown that the standard model does not contradict the proposed theory. The nature of gravitation is considered. A strong equivalence principle is proved, all assumptions on which the general theory of relativity is based are proved. On the basis of this, it can be argued that the equations of the general theory of relativity satisfy the theory of generated space-time-matter. It is shown that gravity can not have quants. Thus, this theory asserts that no theory of quantum gravity can exist. An explanation of the origin of the universe is proposed. An explanation is offered for the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The physical foundations of mathematics are considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1385] viXra:1808.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 01:49:44

The Accelerated Expansion of the Universe is Explained by Quantum Field Theory.

Authors: Elkin Igor
Comments: 5 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Formulas describing interactions, in fact, use the limiting speed of information transfer, and not the speed of light. This speed depends, both on the speed of light itself and on the expansion of the universe by Hubble. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1384] viXra:1808.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 01:52:08

Ускоренное расширение Вселенной объясняет квантовая теория поля.

Authors: Elkin Igore Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Формулы, описывающие взаимодействия, на самом деле используют предельную скорость передачи информации, а не скорость света. Эта скорость зависит, как от самой скорости света, так и от расширения Вселенной по Хабблу. Это приводит к тому, что предельная скорость передачи информации меняется в зависимости от расстояния и в зависимости от рассматриваемого локального участка. Это дает различное взаимодействие при отталкивании частиц друг от друга и при их притяжении. Что приводит к появлению не нулевого остаточного взаимодействия. А это приводит к объяснению ускоренного расширения.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1383] viXra:1808.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 11:05:44

Quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.

Authors: Elkin Igor
Comments: 4 Pages. ieelkin@yandex.ru

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1382] viXra:1808.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-17 08:30:24

Equivalence Principle in the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In a state unique to quantum physics, energy and mass can exist in a 'quantum superposition' – as if they consisted of two different values 'at the same time'. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1381] viXra:1808.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 07:17:14

Quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1380] viXra:1808.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 08:40:38

R x C x H x O-valued Gravity as a Grand Unified Field Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We argue how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity with an $ U(8)$ Yang-Mills theory. In particular, it allows for an extension of the Standard Model by including a $3$-family $SU(3)_F$ symmetry group and an extra $ U(1)$ symmetry. A unification of left-right $SU(3)_L \times SU(3)_R$, color $SU(3)_C$ and family $SU(3)_F$ symmetries in a maximal rank-$8$ subgroup of $E_8$ has been proposed by \cite{Molina} as a landmark for future explorations beyond the Standard Model. It is warranted to explore further if this latter model also admits a similar gravitational interpretation based on the above composition of normed division algebras. Furthermore, our construction leads also to a $bimetric$ theory of gravity which may have a role in dark energy. The crux of this approach is that we have $replaced$ the Kaluza-Klein prescription to generate gauge symmetries in lower dimensions from isometries of the internal manifold, by $U (8)$ isometry transformations of the {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued metric.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1379] viXra:1808.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-11 05:43:21

The Origin of the Gravitational Force, Inertia and Kinematics of Comic Bodies

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 12 Pages.

In physics, the mysterious origin of the gravitational force, inertia and the source of the kinetic energy of stars have long been unsolved problems. In the recent research,I have tried to jump out of the constraint of Newton’s laws and classical mechanics and tried to figure out sources of those universal laws with Potential Theory, and eventually solved problems above.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1378] viXra:1808.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-10 14:58:42

Negative Mass Masquerading as Positive Mass; and What Happened to All the Antimatter?

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 4 Pages.

All masses measured in a laboratory using simple measurement methods must give outcomes as positive or zero masses. A method is given in principle to determine between negative and positive masses for matter and antimatter particle pairs. Negative mass masquerades as positive mass and simple measurements would always show negative mass to have apparent positive mass. This means that antimatter particles could have negative masses despite measurements showing them to have positive masses. If antimatter has negative mass masquerading as positive mass then antimatter cannot form lumps in the same way that matter does. Antimatter would then be the main component of dark energy, which would answer the question of what happened to all the antimatter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1377] viXra:1808.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-05 09:22:19

Earth’s Core is High Density Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 185 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Earth’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent This means: “High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent “I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons” Adrian Ferent Moon mass: 7.3 × 10^22 kg Distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Moon is 384,400,000 m Gravitational force between Moon and Earth: 1.9 × 10^20 N The gravitational potential energy between Moon and Earth: 7.6 × 10^28 J What is the energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon? I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz I consider the Moon made of electrons. The Moon is made of 8 × 10^52 electrons Each electron emits a Graviton. The energy of each Graviton: 9.5 × 10^(-25) J Graviton energy: a×f This means the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon: 5.9 × 10^51 Hz I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth, Moon must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right! Now I have to calculate the gravitational potential energy between 2 electrons, one on Moon and one on Earth; this is the energy of one graviton: Eg = 5.49 × 10^(-77) J Because Eg << 9.5 × 10^(-25) J, matter does not have influence on the Gravitational force between Moon and Earth. That is why: “Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Because only high density Dark Matter, emits Gravitons with the energy equal or higher to 9.5 × 10^(-25) J. “Ferent matter is Dark matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent This means: “Earth’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent Matter looks like foam or bubbles in contrast with Ferent matter that is why: “The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent The Earth’s Dark Matter density is much smaller than Black Holes’ Dark Matter density, because: “The energy of the Gravitons inside a black hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent This means: “High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent 90. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter 91. I am the first who discovered that Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter 92. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is Ferent Matter 93. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 94. I am the first who discovered that the Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 95. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 96. I am the first who discovered that high density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe 97. I am the first who discovered that Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1376] viXra:1807.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 18:49:19

Proton Electron Universe and Their Directions of Force

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 15 Pages.

Lately we found that the proton is most associated with gravitation and the electron with charge. In this paper we find that gravitation is from a force in just one direction, associated with the mass of the proton and the electron, and charge is from a force in a combination of the x, y, and z perpendicular directions. This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1375] viXra:1807.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 12:19:09

Generalised Quantum-Electrodynamics: A Theory of Quantum Gravity.

Authors: Sp Cottle
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this model the force of gravity is mediated by the electron, the W+ and the W- particle. The electron, from its bound state around a nucleus, tunnels into other atoms and exerts a force of attraction over the proton(s) in the nucleus of those atoms. This attractive force amounts to the exchange of a W+ boson to, or from, the nucleus. To make this consistent with quantum mechanics, the electron in its bound state must tunnel roughly once every Planck time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1374] viXra:1807.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:34:49

Explanation of Double-Slit Experiment

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space, the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces has been developed. These forces act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). The nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated electron. So, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical signicance of magnetic quantities and the so called strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic dipole moment are interpreted. Additionally, due to in-phase motion of grouping units, a parallel common course of their electrons and a superposition picture of their motion waves are caused as in the double-slit experiment is displayed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1373] viXra:1807.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 03:24:42

The Higgs Boson and the Supposedly Unrelated Graviton

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages. CITATION - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v1

ALBERT EINSTEIN’S DREAM OF UNITING ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION, PLUS EXISTENCE OF GRAVITON, CONFIRMED BY DISCOVERY OF HIGGS BOSON AND WOLFGANG PAULI’S APPROACH TO QUANTUM SPIN
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1372] viXra:1807.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 16:06:06

A Theory for How Gravity Causes Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Steven M. Scully
Comments: Pages. 6

Electromagnetic fields are considered to be the result of the fundamental force of electromagnetism. Using classical mechanics, a description for how gravity could theoretically cause electromagnetic fields is presented. Due to the capability of particles to physically travel through systems which they orbit, the existence of gravitational orbital patterns in the shape of a Figure-8 is proposed. As a result, it is proposed that gravity produces electromagnetic fields by the flow of particles in a Figure-8 orbital. Thereby, according to the theory, gravity is demonstrably the cause of electromagnetism.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1371] viXra:1807.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 16:37:07

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy

Authors: Steven M. Scully
Comments: 30 Pages.

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy states that the universe consists only of infinitely divisible mass, infinite volume, and gravity. This is realized due to a model which explains the cosmic microwave background, the redshift in the light spectrum of all distant galaxies as well as supercluster observations using gravitational redshift and gravitational lensing alone. Evidence is shown that gravity is the only fundamental law of the universe, and that electromagnetism, weak interaction, and strong interaction are the results of gravity, and therefore the Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy can be realized.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1370] viXra:1807.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 18:39:57

Fundamental Particle Pulsation Principle-Theoretical Physics Hypothesis

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 16 Pages.

Relativism and quantum mechanics are a basis of present-day physics. This hypothesis returns quantum mechanics to real physics from physics of a probability and I tried fusion of relativism and quantum mechanics. By quantum mechanics a fundamental particle is a particle and is a wave at the same time and probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics was born. This hypothesis denies the same time. That isn't simultaneous. A fundamental particle is repeating a change in a particle and a wave at superspeed. I am thinking this is the variable from which hid.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1369] viXra:1807.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 14:33:49

Adapting Newton's Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's theory of gravitation states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe, but that is not correct. Newton's theory of gravitation also states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. That is mathematically seen correct, but gravity is not the reason why most celestial objects stay in their orbit.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1368] viXra:1807.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 12:30:51

A Niels Bohr Approach to a Pre-Quantum Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 12 Pages.

As a first step towards a theory of quantum gravity, a Niels Bohr pre-quantum mechanics theory of quantum gravity is proposed. It predicts the existence of gravitons with an energy of 3.47×〖10〗^11 GeV, close to the rarely observed particles coming from a region of the Ursa Major constellation, with the largest energy of 3.2×〖10〗^11 GeV, well above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit, suggesting that these particles are high-energy gravitons. It was noted that the proposed provisionary theory can explain Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation as a result of a mathematical theorem by Bruns, where the nonlinearity of the equations of motion, such as Newton’s and Einstein’s equations, leads to divergent dense manifold for infinitely closed initial conditions as their solutions. In addition, the theory can also explain the gravitational origin of the quantum potential in the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. It explains the ratio of dark energy to dark matter, approximately 3:1, as the Madelung constant of a gravitationally interacting fluid made up of positive and negative mass pole-dipole particles filling the vacuum of space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1367] viXra:1807.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 06:37:28

Negative Mass as a Cause of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 10 Pages.

Simulations using Visual Basic code are carried out on motions, along a one dimensional line, of a population of 100 positive and negative masses under their own gravitational forces. The negative masses were seen to repel one another along the line and uniformly occupy the line. The positive masses were initially located as two static clumps and they remained as two clumps without greatly expanding the sizes of the clumps. The clumps separated further apart, in time, accelerating away from each other. Some of the negative masses clustered near the two positive mass clumps, in a similar way to how dark matter clusters near galaxies. The negative masses act to constrain a positive mass clump by surrounding it and repelling the masses back towards the centre of the clump. So negative mass operates by repulsion to obtain a similar effect that dark matter is supposed to obtain by attraction. Replenishment of negative masses as they fill the space along the line is unnecessary as the results show continuous acceleration.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1366] viXra:1807.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 21:33:34

Negative Energy Enthalpic em Gravity “WARP” Drive (Em Resonant Cavity Thruster)

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1365] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 10:50:52

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle is applied to Grandcosmology, for which the horizon radius of the visible Universe is invariant. The Fundamental Eddington Theory is rehabilitated, while Primordial Bang model and anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1364] viXra:1807.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:24:51

Mathematical Nature of Reality, Plus Gravitation-Electromagnetism Unification, Derived from Revised Gravitational Tidal Forces and Mass-from-Gravity Concept

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 33 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6678350.v2

This article had its beginning with Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" Together with General Relativity's statement that gravity is not a pull but is a push caused by the curvature of space-time, a hypothesis for Earth's ocean tides was developed that does not solely depend on the Sun and Moon as Kepler and Newton believed. It also borrows from Galileo. The breakup of planets and asteroids by white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes is popularly ascribed by today's science to tidal forces (gravitation emanating from the stellar body and having a greater effect on the near side of a planet/asteroid than the farthest side). Remembering Einstein's 1919 paper, it was apparent that my revised idea of tidal forces improves on current accounts because it views matter and mass as unified with space-time whose curvature is gravitation. Unification is a necessity for modern science's developing view of one united and entangled universe – expressed in the Unified Field Theory, the Theory of Everything, String theory and Loop Quantum Gravity. The writing of this article was also assisted by visualizing the gravitational fields forming space-time being themselves formed by a multitude of weak and presently undetectable gravitational waves. The final part of this article concludes that the section BITS AND TOPOLOGY will lead to the conclusions in ETERNAL LIFE, WORLD PEACE AND PHYSICS' UNIFICATION. The final part also compares cosmology to biological enzymes and biology's substrate of reacting "chemicals" - using virtual particles, hidden variables, gravitation, electromagnetism, electronics’ binary digits, plus topology’s Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle. The product is mass - enzyme, substrate and product are all considered mathematical in nature. Also, gravitation and electromagnetism are united using logic and topology – showing there’s no need in this article for things like mathematical formalism, field equations or tensor calculus. Keywords - Gravitational Tidal Forces, Mass-from-Gravity, Breakup of Celestial Bodies, Earth's Ocean Tides, Universe's Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, Eternal Life, World Peace, Matter, Mass, Mathematical Reality, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Unification, Large-scale Extra Dimensions, Evolution, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Special Relativity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1363] viXra:1807.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 14:28:12

A Covariant Formulation of the Ashtekar-Kodama Quantum Gravity and Its Solutions

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 88 Pages.

Abstract This article consists of two parts. In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints. In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity. In chapter B1-4 we present the equations and their solutions. We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn (inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) . For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon. In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for Amn and Emn we get a gravitational wave equations , which yields appropriate solutions only for angular momentum lx>=2 (quadrupole wave) the tetrad is locally damped with exp(-4 sqrt(r/3)), only the wave tensor Amn carries the energy. In chapter B5 and 6 numerical solutions for special cases of the time-independent and of time-dependent equations are discussed. In chapter B7 the energy tensor of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity is introduced. In chapter B8 we present the quantum field version of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity and demonstrate the calculation of cross-sections. Finally, in chapter B9 we give as an outlook an overview of the QFT including the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity. All derivations and calculations were carried out in Mathematica-programs, so the results can be considered with high probability as error-free, the programs are cited in the literature index. In the chapters B1-4, which deal with the solutions, every subchapter consists of a flow-diagram, which gives the overview and a text part, which describes the corresponding program in detail and can be skipped at first reading.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1362] viXra:1807.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 21:29:24

Fibonacci Oscillators and (P, q)-Deformed Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages.

The two-parameter quantum calculus used in the construction of Fibonacci oscillators is briefly reviewed before presenting the $ (p, q)$-deformed Lorentz transformations which leave invariant the Minkowski spacetime interval $ t^2 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2$. Such transformations require the introduction of three different types of exponential functions leading to the $(p, q)$-analogs of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions. The composition law of two successive Lorentz boosts (rotations) is $no$ longer additive $ \xi_3 \not= \xi_1 + \xi_2$ ( $ \theta_3 \not= \theta_1 + \theta_2$). We finalize with a discussion on quantum groups, noncommutative spacetimes, $\kappa$-deformed Poincare algebra and quasi-crystals.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1361] viXra:1806.0397 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-26 18:29:42

Gravity Without Newton’s Gravitational Constant and no Knowledge of Mass Size

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 6 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Schwarzschild radius can be extracted easily from any gravitationally-linked phenomena without having knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant or the mass size of the gravitational object. Further, the Schwarzschild radius can be used to predict any gravity phenomena accurately, again without knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant and also without knowledge of the size of the mass, although this may seem surprising at first. Hidden within the Schwarzschild radius are the Planck mass and the Planck length, which we will assert, that in addition to the speed of light, (the speed of gravity) contain the secret essence related to gravity. We do not claim to have all the answers, but this seems to indicate that gravity is quantized, even at a cosmological scale, and this quantization is directly linked to the Planck units. This also supports our view that the Newton gravitational constant is a universal composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3/hbar, rather than relying on the Planck units and a function of G. This does not mean that Newton's gravitational constant is not a universal constant, but that it is instead a composite universal constant that depends on the Planck length, the speed of light, and the Planck constant. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper that shows how a long series of major gravity predictions and measurements can be completed without any knowledge of the mass of the object, or Newton's gravitational constant. As a minimum we think it provides an interesting new angle for evaluating existing gravity theories, and it may even give us a small hint on how to combine quantum gravity with Newton and Einstein gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1360] viXra:1806.0294 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-20 22:35:34

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 174 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

Unification of Gravity and Electromagnetism “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton” Adrian Ferent “Ferent wave equation of the graviton: Ψ – the wave function of the graviton” Adrian Ferent “The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity” Adrian Ferent “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton” Adrian Ferent “The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency” Adrian Ferent I replaced Planck equation E = h × f with the a new equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f Theory of general relativity is the most successful theory of gravity. Einstein’s idea is that gravity is not an ordinary force, but rather a property of space-time geometry. In the last 100 years famous physicists including Einstein himself, have tried and failed to unify general relativity and quantum theory. Einstein’s theory of general relativity is wrong because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong. Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravity energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy. When they tried to unify Einstein’s theory of general relativity, a wrong theory, with electromagnetism the scientists discovered wrong theories like String theory, LQG… In Ferent gravitation theory gravity is reformulated using quantum theory, using gravitons. “Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity” Adrian Ferent ToE is the Theory of Everything, the ultimate theory, the final theory links together all physical aspects of the universe and is the major unsolved problem in physics. The four fundamental forces: the gravitational force, the electromagnetic force, the strong nuclear force and the weak nuclear force are the four fundamental forces. In my gravity theory the gravitational force is mediated by a massless particle called graviton. All quantum gravity theories like String theory, LQG… are wrong theories because are limited to speed of light. “The perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton” Adrian Ferent How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field? It is the electromagnetic force divided by gravitational force, it is the photon energy divided by graviton energy. I found the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall, with a length smaller than Planck length. “The Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force” Adrian Ferent Planck discovered that physical action could not take on any indiscriminate value. Instead, the action must be some multiple of a very small quantity called Planck constant. The energy E contained in a photon, which represents the smallest possible 'packet' of energy in an electromagnetic wave, is Planck’s constant times the photon frequency: E = Planck’s constant × frequency. E = h × f Planck equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f is incorrect because does not contains the energy of the graviton, because light has gravitation! My equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f The oscillation of an electron emits, radiates to space a photon and a coupled graviton, with the same speed, the speed of light and the same frequency. The magnetic force always acts at right angles to the motion of a charge, it can only turn the charge, it cannot do work on the charge. The strength s, of the electromagnetic force relative to gravity force: s = 4.166 × 1042 How big is the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field? It is the graviton energy: a × f We have s = h / a “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field is a graviton with the energy: a × f” Adrian Ferent “Ferent wave equation of the graviton: Ψ – the wave function of the graviton” Adrian Ferent The energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f This new equation of the photon represents the unification of Electromagnetism and Gravity. “Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent Graviton’s frequency emitted by a photon What means the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field? In my quantum gravity theory this means that photons emit gravitons! “The perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton” Adrian Ferent Graviton’s energy emitted by a photon is a × f . This means the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency. “The graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency” Adrian Ferent 83. I am the first who unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f 84. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in a gravitational field is equal with one graviton 85. I am the first who explained that Einstein in his theory of general relativity did not explain gravity, he calculated gravity 86. I am the first who discovered that the Photon – Graviton pair has the same speed and frequency, and the photon energy divided by the graviton energy is the electromagnetic energy divided by the gravitational energy, the electromagnetic force divided by the gravitational force 87. I am the first who discovered that the perturbation done by a photon in the gravitational field in Ferent quantum gravity theory means: the photon emits a graviton 88. I am the first who discovered that the graviton frequency emitted by a photon is f, the photon frequency
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1359] viXra:1806.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-17 02:48:26

What is de Broglie's Wave-Particle?

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 11 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces will be developed, which act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). So, the nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated electron. Additionally, it is proved the so called de Broglie's wave-particle is a motion wave (wave-like form) as a result the dynamics of the extremely fine texture of the particle motion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1358] viXra:1806.0173 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 10:47:39

Physical Foundations of Mathematics in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 2 Pages.

The physical foundations of mathematics in the theory of emergent space-time-matter were considered. It is shown that mathematics, including logic, is a consequence of equation which describes the fundamental field. If the most fundamental level were described not by mathematics, but something else, then instead of mathematics there would be consequences of this something else.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1357] viXra:1806.0168 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-12 14:14:14

Proof that Space is Equivalent to Energy, and that Compactification Necessarily Leads to Changes in Volume, Energy and Entropy

Authors: Christopher Pilot
Comments: 10 Pages.

Using simple box quantization, we demonstrate explicitly that space is equivalent to energy, and that compactification releases latent heat with an attendant change in volume and entropy. Increasing spatial dimension costs energy while decreasing dimensions releases energy, which can be quantified, using a generalized version of the Clausius-Clapyeron relation. We show this for a massive particle trapped in a box. Compactification from N-dimensional space to (N-1) spatial dimensions is also simply demonstrated and the correct limit to achieve a lower energy result is to take the limit where Lw  0, where Lw is the compactification length parameter. Higher dimensional space has more energy and more entropy, all other things being equal, for a given cutoff in energy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1356] viXra:1806.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-09 05:33:26

Theory of 4-Dimensional Matter Waves – a Vivid Summary

Authors: Randolf Rolff
Comments: 7 pages; German language; Deutsch: Theorie der 4-dimensionalen Materiewellen – Eine anschauliche Zusammenfassung

The theory of 4-dimensional matter waves describes a physical model which explains the effects of relativity and quantum theory in a unified theory. It explains and quantifies the observations in an intuitive manner. Since in the scientifically and mathematically exact explanations of this theory you can easy lose the whole picture, this is an attempt of a comprehensible summary. The mathematically and logically exact derivations can be found in the listed literature. I hope to hereby support the overall view of the model.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1355] viXra:1806.0097 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-07 06:15:22

Gravitational Waves Will Propagate at 299800 km Pr. Second Inside Earth

Authors: Stein Sivertsen
Comments: 3 Pages.

Based upon my theory http://vixra.org/abs/1010.0035) I predict that gravitational waves will propagate at 299800,5 km/s through earth. This can be tested when two or more gravitational-wave detectors, located at different places on earth, observe the same gravitational wave and measure its speed when it propagate from detector A, through earth, to detector B. According to my theory, gravitational waves will still propagate with the speed 299792,458 km/s in vacuum outside earth. This is the same speed as we already have observed light and gravitational waves propagate with in vacuum outside earth. However, according to my theory, it will propagate with a slightly higher speed in the frame of reference inside earth.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1354] viXra:1806.0066 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-05 08:31:06

Quantum Gravity Unification Model with Fundamental Conservation

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 7 Pages.

A fundamental conservation and symmetry is proposed, as a unification between General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory (QT). Unification is then demonstrated across multiple applications. First, as applied to cosmological redshift z and energy density ρ. Then, a local system galaxy rotational curve is examined. Next, as applied to Quantum Mechanics’ ”time problem”: Absolute and relative notions of time are shown to be reconcilable, as well as renormalization values between scales. Finally, as applied to the Cosmological Constant: The discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in GR at critical density: ρcr = 3H^2/8πG = 1.88(H^2)x10−29g/cm^3, and the much greater zero-point energy delta value as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT) with a Planck scale ultraviolet cutoff: ρhep = M4c^3/h^3 = 2.44x1091g/cm^3 is resolved to null orders of magnitude.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1353] viXra:1806.0028 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-03 09:20:32

Quantum Chaotic Motion Atoms of Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 3 Pages.

The quantum diffusion motion of space atoms has a similarity to Brownian motion. The measure of mobility of a quantum of space is proportional to the time of reference.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1352] viXra:1806.0008 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 04:34:38

(DVTM Psij Short Research Article 30.05.2018 19 Pages) (Toy-Model) a Simple “Digital” Vacuum Composed of Space Voxels with Quantized Energetic States (Physical Science International Journal, Issn: 2348-0130,vol.: 18, Issue.: 1)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 19 Pages.

Based on a plausible electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature, this paper proposes a relatively simple “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM) based on a quantized 3D space composed of space voxels with quantized energetic states. DVTM contains a relatively small set observations and statements (the assumptions of the model) that may generate a relatively large number of explanations (on the common origin of both gravitational and inertial masses and Einstein’s special/general relativity) and predictions “inside” and beyond the Standard Model (SM) of particle physics: a model of movement, a Big Bounce universe and a unification pattern for all known fundamental fields. DVTM can be considered a kind of “patch” for some Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs) and for M-Theory (MT). Keywords: Electro-gravitational scaling factor of nature; “digital” vacuum toy model (DVTM); quantized 3D space; space voxels with quantized energetic states; Standard Model (SM) of particle physics; model of movement; Big Bounce universe; unification pattern for all known fundamental fields; Loop Quantum Gravity theories (LQGTs); M-Theory (MT). OFFICIAL PUBLICATION SITE LINKS: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/24892 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/24892 http://www.journalrepository.org/media/journals/PSIJ_33/2018/Jun/Dragoi1812018PSIJ41391.pdf http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/3559
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1351] viXra:1806.0006 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-02 04:39:20

(PSIJ - Short Research Article - 19 pages - 29.07.2017) On a Plausible Triple Electro-gravito-informational Significance of the Fine Structure Constant (Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 3)

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 19 Pages.

In the last century, a small minority of physicists considered a hypothetical binary logarithmic connection between the large and the small constants of physics, which also implies a base-2 logarithm). This paper brings to attention a plausible triple electro-gravito-informational significance of the fine structure constant, with its implications in a plausible four fields unification pattern at Planck scales: this triple significance is based on the existence of a unifying global scaling factor of nature which appears in a hypothetical fine tuning of all the non-zero rest masses of the all the elementary particles in the Standard Model. Furthermore, this paper also proposes the dimensional relativity hypothesis (DRH) stating that the 3D appearance of space (or the 4D nature of spacetime) may be actually explained by the relative magnitude of the photon (angular) quantum momentum (and the hypothetical graviton quantum momentum respectively) and this global scaling factor (GSF): DRH also includes a generalized electrograviton model (EGM) for any hypothetical graviton. This paper also proposes a set of strong (and very strong) gravity constants and a gravitational field varying with the energy (and length) scale, all with potential importance in the unification of the four fundamental fields. Each of these hypotheses is a potential update for the Standard Model of particle physics. Keywords: Fine structure constant with triple electro-gravito-informational significance; unifying global scaling factor of nature; four fields unification; the standard model of particle physics; dimensional relativity hypothesis; electrograviton model. Short Research Article Drăgoi; PSIJ, 15(3): 1-19, 2017; Article no.PSIJ.34613 2 Physical Science International Journal, ISSN: 2348-0130,Vol.: 15, Issue.: 3 Short Research Article DOI: 10.9734/PSIJ/2017/34613 OFFICIAL LINKS OF THIS PUBLISHED (OPEN) PEER-REVIEWED ARTICLE: http://www.sciencedomain.org/abstract/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/metrics/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/review-history/20204 http://www.sciencedomain.org/post-comments/20204#disqus_thread http://www.sciencedomain.org/issue/2829 Crossref.org meta-data: https://search.crossref.org/?q=10.9734%2FPSIJ%2F2017%2F34613
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1350] viXra:1806.0005 [pdf] submitted on 2018-06-01 05:58:33

On Finsler Geometry, MOND and Diffeomorphic Metrics to the Schwarzschild Solution

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. The solutions relevant to Black Holes are those which require the introduction of non-trivial areal-radial functions that are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the firewall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. Next we show how modified Newtonian dynamics (MOND) can be obtained from solutions to Finsler gravity, and which in turn, can also be modeled by metrics which are diffeomorphic but not isometric to the Schwarzschild metric. The key point now is that one will have to dispense with the asymptotic flatness condition, by choosing an areal radial function which is $finite$ at $ r = \infty$. Consequently, changing the boundary condition at $ r = \infty$ leads to MONDian dynamics. We conclude with some discussions on the role of scale invariance and Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory based on the existence of a maximal proper force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1349] viXra:1805.0531 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 19:26:39

Quantum Gravity Field

Authors: Malik Matwi
Comments: 31 Pages.

We study the dynamics of the gravity field according to the quantum fields theory on arbitrary spacetime $x^{\mu}$. Therefore, we suggest a canonical momentum $\pi _I$ as a momentum conjugate to the canonical gravity field $\tilde e^I = ee_{\mu}^I n^{\mu}$. We derive both the canonical gravity field and its conjugate momentum from the holonomy $ U\left( {\gamma ,A} \right)$ of the complex selfdual connection $ A_{a}^i$. The canonical momentum $\pi _I$ is represented in the Lorentz group. We use it in deriving the path integral of the gravity field according to the quantum fields theory. Then, we discuss the situation of the free gravity field (like the electromagnetic field). We find that this situation takes place only in the background spacetime approximation, the situation of low matter density(weak gravity). Then, we derive the Lagrange of the Plebanski two form complex field $\Sigma ^{i}$, which is represented in selfdual representation $\left| {\Sigma ^i } \right\rangle$. We try to combine the two fields(gravity and Plebanski) in one field: $K_{\mu}^i$. Finally, we derive the static potential of exchanging gravitons in scalar and spinor fields, the Newtonian gravitational potential.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1348] viXra:1805.0530 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-30 20:54:09

Mathematical Relations of Natural Constants

Authors: BingZhuo Liu, DongZe Liu, XiangHua Liu, WeiDong
Comments: 23 Pages. Four basic forces; Dimensionless number; Neutrino; Dark matter; Cosmic quantization; Microwave background radiation

Through the study of the natural constants, mainly the fundamental physical constants. This paper found the mathematical relations between the universal gravitational constant, Fermi weak force constant and fine structure constant. The mathematical expressions of the mass of the dark matter and all elementary particles, such as neutron, proton, electron, neutrinos, quarks, W^±, Z^0 bosons and Higgs boson are also found. Besides that, we also noticed and applied a series of the cosmic quantization laws, worked out the temperature of the cosmic microwave background radiation and the two mass limits of the compact star, namely Chandrasekhar Limit and Tolman-Oppenheimer-Volkoff Limit. Thus, a breakthrough has been made for the completion of the ultimate grand unification theory. And unintentionally, also in order to solve Hilbert's sixth problem made a breakthrough.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1347] viXra:1805.0401 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-21 15:40:17

About Much Physics: United Models and Specific Predictions (extract 1)

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 23 Pages.

We address four physics opportunities. First, suggest new elementary particles and forces. Second, explain phenomena such as dark matter. Third, augment and unite physics theories and models. Fourth, point to opportunities for further research.

We use models based on solutions to equations featuring isotropic pairs of isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.

First, we show solutions that match the known elementary particles. We propose that other solutions correlate with elementary particles that people have yet to detect and with dark energy forces leading to three known eras - early acceleration, subsequent deceleration, and current acceleration - pertaining to the rate of expansion of the universe.

Second, we extend solutions to encompass known conservation-law symmetries. Extended solutions correlate with known kinematics. We suggest that extended solutions describe dark matter, explain ratios of density of dark matter to density of ordinary matter, correlate with dark energy density, and explain other phenomena.

Third, we propose that our work unites, suggests details regarding, extends, suggests complements to, and suggests limits regarding aspects of traditional physics theory. Those aspects include classical physics, special relativity, general relativity, quantum mechanics, the elementary particle Standard Model, the cosmology timeline, and galaxy evolution scenarios. The work provides possible insight regarding foundation of physics topics.

Fourth, we suggest opportunities for people. We suggest opportunities for observational, experimental, and theoretical physics research. We suggest quantum field theory that features few interaction vertices, sums of few terms as alternatives to conditionally convergent sums of infinite numbers of terms, and no needs to deal with some infinities. We point to possible opportunities to further develop and apply modeling and math we use.


Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1346] viXra:1805.0381 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-22 12:59:23

Does Einstein's Field Equation(s) Provide an Exact Description of Classical Space-Time?

Authors: Satwik Choudhury
Comments: 26 Pages.

It will be showed based on the ground of pure reasoning, that classical space-time as derived from Einstein’s Field Equation(s) is not in conformity with an exact relativistic theory of Gravitation (surprisingly!), contrary to usual belief. Also it signs for a distance-scale, for which the exact nature of space-time, and as found from Field-Equations must have a significant discrepancy between them. And most importantly, this will be showed WITHOUT using any ad-hoc basis assumption or hypothesis or untested theories. Only known and unambiguous laws of Physics will be used in a coherent and consistent manner to arrive at this conclusion. The author strongly believes in the fact that all deep and beautiful things in nature must be simple enough! Therefore simplicity has been tried at best to preserve everywhere. First this conjecture will be proved for Schwarzschild space-time, one of the simplest solutions of Einstein’s Field Equation(s). Later same will be shown for other known space-times, pointing to the fact that the trouble is not inherent in solution(s), but in the key-equation (EFE) itself. Finally experimental support towards this proposition will also be presented; it will be showed that, the key-ingredient (of a relativistic-theory of gravity) which is proposed to be missing in General Relativity, if we include its effect correctly to the solutions of the field-equations, it can properly describe some gravitational anomaly quantitatively (not describable by GR), long been superseded from Scientific Community.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1345] viXra:1805.0344 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-18 08:10:39

Mathematical Nature of Gravity

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 35 Pages. Cite: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6214049.v4

General Relativity says gravity is a push caused by space-time's curvature. Combining it with E=mc2 results in distances being totally deleted from space-time/gravity by future technology, and in expansion or contraction of the universe as a whole being eliminated. The road to these conclusions has branches shining light on supersymmetry and superconductivity. Advanced waves are usually discarded by most scientists because they're thought to be detectable before even being emitted, and thus to violate causality. Richard Feynman found that adding the contributions of advanced and retarded waves creates a consistent quantum theory called Quantum Electrodynamics in which the terms that might violate causality cancel precisely. Here, causality's violation is viewed through Isaac Newton's idea of gravity and the modern idea of entanglement. Just as advanced waves are usually discarded, few physicists or mathematicians will venture to ascribe a physical meaning to Wick rotation and "imaginary" time. Here, that maths (when joined with Mobius-strip and Klein-bottle topology) unifies space and time into one space-time, and allows construction of what may be called "imaginary computers". Starting with the previous version of this article (Matter, Antimatter, Dark Matter and Space-Time Travel in an Infinite and Eternal Universe with Extra Dimensions), this gained an Altmetric Score of 1: high-level measure of the quality and quantity of online attention that it has received as research output. From start to finish, this article consists of the best parts of my layman-style ORCID and paperback contributions over the last 12 years and includes a reference to those contributions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1344] viXra:1805.0333 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-19 00:02:59

An Acceptable Hybrid Framework

Authors: Salvatore Gerard Micheal
Comments: 1 Page.

a summary essay about a hybrid unification framework
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1343] viXra:1805.0313 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 09:02:16

Low-Energy Quantum Gravity and Cosmology Without Dark Energy

Authors: Michael A. Ivanov
Comments: 8 Pages. Contribution to the Third Zeldovich meeting, 23-27 April 2018, Minsk, Belarus

The model of low-energy quantum gravity leads to small additional effects having essential cosmological consequences: redshifts of remote objects and the additional dimming of them may be interpreted without any expansion of the Universe and without dark energy. The theoretical luminosity distance of the model fits the observational Hubble diagrams with high confidence levels. In the model, the ratio H(z)/(1+z) should be equal to the Hubble constant. The constancy of this ratio is confirmed with high probabilities by fitting the compilation of H(z) observations. A deceleration of massive bodies due to forehead and backhead collisions with gravitons is re-computed here.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1342] viXra:1805.0307 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-15 12:37:42

Fulgurite Created by Lightning Bullet Also Known as Ball Lightning, According to Quantum FFF Theory.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 23 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY. The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs, Ball Lightning and even sandy ground pipes called fulgurites, as the result of x-ray lightning bolt linear heating and splitting or evaporation, often found in large numbers at sandy beaches. Fulgurites according to Quantum FFF Theory, are assumed to be the result of the splitting and evaporation of smallest form of “electric dark matter black hole” or rigid string based quantum knots. nuclei.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1341] viXra:1805.0298 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 14:57:54

Classical Physics Derived from the Space-Time Entropy of Quantum Fields

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 4 Pages.

We show that the statistical physics treatment of an arbitrary space-time entropy exactly reproduces most of the classical physics missing from quantum field theory; inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time. The laws are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1340] viXra:1805.0265 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-14 02:46:24

Maxwell Equations in Theory of Emergent Space-Time-Matter (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 3 Pages.

Maxwell's equations are obtained within the framework of the model of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1339] viXra:1805.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-09 13:38:18

Knots, Energy and Loop Gravity

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

Loop quantum gravity, topological particle and knots
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1338] viXra:1805.0186 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-09 16:04:13

Einstein’s wrong way: from STR to GTR

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 150 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Starting from STR, it is not possible to find a Quantum Gravity theory” Adrian Ferent “Einstein was on the wrong way: from STR to GTR” Adrian Ferent “Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Starting from STR, Einstein was not able to explain Gravitation, he calculated Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong because the gravitational force experienced locally is caused by a negative energy, gravitons energy and the force experienced by an observer in a non-inertial (accelerated) frame of reference is caused by a positive energy.” Adrian Ferent “Because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong, Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong.” Adrian Ferent “Because Einstein’s gravitation theory is wrong, LQG, String theory…are wrong theories” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space” Adrian Ferent “Einstein bent the time, Ferent unbent the time” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!” Adrian Ferent “I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational field is a discrete function” Adrian Ferent “Gravitational waves are carried by gravitons” Adrian Ferent In STR and GTR there are continuous functions. This is another proof that LIGO is a fraud. The 2017 Nobel Prize in Physics has been awarded for a project, the Laser Interferometer Gravitational-wave Observatory (LIGO) not for a scientific discovery; they did not detect anything because Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist. The same fraud was in 2013 with the Higgs Boson, the so-called “God particle”. They obtained Higgs bosons as a pairs of photons with a combined energy of 750 gigaelectronvolts. After they received the Nobel Prize there are not anymore gravitational waves in the universe. “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent As a consequence of Einstein wrong gravitation theory, the physicists explained how they can travel trough a black hole, trough a wormhole. Alice and Bob thought experiments: Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon. Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon. You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes! “Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature” Adrian Ferent Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes. That is why: “The holographic principle is wrong” Adrian Ferent “My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons” Adrian Ferent That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon. “Einstein started from Special Theory of Relativity to explain Gravitation and he discovered a wrong gravitation theory the General Theory of Relativity.” Adrian Ferent
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1337] viXra:1805.0181 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-09 21:22:19

The Mind of God: An Observationally Verifiable Quantum Theory of Gravity that Defines Black Holes, Explains Dark Matter, Predicts Dark Energy, and Establishes the Big Bang

Authors: Andrew Cox
Comments: 13 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as one stand-alone spatial dimension. In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart. This deductive quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to: (1) define black holes as wormholes into the fourth spatial dimension; (2) explain dark matter as photons which traveled through black holes and into the fourth spatial dimension; (3) predict dark energy to be the warping of the fourth spatial dimension in the presence of dark matter photons; and (4) establish the big bang as the beginning of three flat spatial dimensions in a cyclic universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1336] viXra:1805.0160 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 12:43:33

Sunqm-3: Solving Schrodinger Equation for Solar Quantum Mechanics {N,n} Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 14 Pages.

In this paper, Schrodinger equation is established for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model. Solving the Schrodinger equation gives the orbit energy En = -3.81E+11 *(m / n^2), where m is the orbital moving object's mass (in kg), and n is the total n of the orbit using Sun core {0,1} as r1. Combining r^2*|R(nl)|^2 to the deduced Sun's interior mass density formula D = 1.26E+23 / r^2.33, a plot of {N,n} QM calculated (that is close to the true) mass density vs. r (within Sun ball {0,2}) has been made.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1335] viXra:1805.0141 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-07 17:14:10

Sunqm-2: Expanding QM from Micro-World to Macro-World: General Planck Constant, H-C Unit, H-Quasi-Constant, and the Meaning of QM

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 17 Pages.

A general form of Planck constant has been discovered as h(general) = h(m/m'), where m is the mass of object we are studying (like electron, Earth, etc.), and m' is part of the scaling factor that scales h up or down. Although it is suitable for both micro- and macro- world's QM, as well as the EM- and G-forced QM, h(general) is not constant at all. h(general) is a variable unit (named H-C unit), which make us able to use the same QM formula for hydrogen atom to calculate the orbit movement for all kinds of attractive central-force system. The orbital energy can be written as E(n-orbit) = -Hmf(n-orbit) , where H=h/m' is a quasi constant (for all objects on all different orbits with same r1, and for both G-force and EM-force simultaneously). A new concept of high-frequency multiplier quantum number n' has been proposed. A new concept of RF (rotation diffusion, or rotafusion) has been proposed. It is the complete randomization of unit vector L/|L| at n=1 ground state. A new concept of interior {N,n} QM analysis has been proposed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1334] viXra:1805.0123 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-06 00:02:56

Sunqm-1s3: Applying {N,n} QM Structure Analysis to Planets Using Exterior and Interior {N,n} QM

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 18 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} model is so successful in describing the QM of Sun-planet system, that inevitably it has to be able to describe the QM of planet-moon system. In this paper, I used {N,n} QM model to analyze all eight planets. The result revealed that Jupiter has a p{N,n//5} QM structure, Earth has a p{N,n//2} QM structure. Neptune possibly has a p{N,n//2} or p{N,n//4} QM structure, Saturn possibly has a mixture of p{N,n//2} and p{N,n//3} QM structure. The rest planets have no clear p{N,n} QM structure. Through a global data analysis, I discovered that all eight planets were originally formed in p{N,n//2} QM structure, with an atmosphere at p{1,1//2}, a Earth-sized core at p{0,1//2}, and a inner core at p{-1,1//2}. Then after the (hydrogen fusion generated) ice-evap-line expanded and passed {1,6}, all {1,n=3..6}o orbit planets' p{1,1//2} atmosphere mass was stripped off (like the current Earth), and even part of Earth-sized core was stripped off (like the current Mars). Jupiter captured most part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 10% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's p{N,n//5}. Saturn captured small part of the stripped off mass (which grew its mass from originally 20% to today's 100%) and transformed its p{N,n} from p{N,1//2} to today's mixture of p{N,1//2} and p{N,n//3}. Among eight planets, only Uranus and Neptune still keep the original p{N,1//2} QM structure with almost intact p{1,1//2} atmosphere, p{0,1//2} Earth-sized core, and p{-1,1//2} inner core. The limitation of p{N,n} QM analysis for meter-sized objects has been discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1333] viXra:1805.0118 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 13:34:08

Sunqm-1s2: Comparing to Other Star-Planet Systems, Our Solar System Has a Nearly Perfect {N,n//6} QM Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 12 Pages.

The Solar QM {N,n//6} structure has been successful not only for modeling the Solar system from Sun core to Oort cloud, but also in matching the size of white dwarf, neutron star and even black hole. In this paper, I have used this model to further scan down (and up) in our world. It is interesting to find that on the small end, the r(s) of hydrogen atom, proton and quark match {-12,1}, {-15,1} and {-17,1} respectively. On the large end, our Milky way galaxy, the Virgo super cluster have their r(s) match {8,1}, and {10,1} respectively. In a second estimation, some elementary particles like electron, up quark, down quark, … may have their {N,n} QM structures match {-17,1}, {-17,2}, {-17,3} … respectively. In a third estimation, the r(s) of super-massive black hole of Andromeda galaxy and Milky way galaxy match {2,1} and {1,1} respectively. However, so far the Solar QM {N,n} structure has not been re-produced in other exoplanetary systems (like TRAPPIST-1, HD 10180, Kepler-90, Kelper-11, 55-Cacri). So I propose that our Sun was formed from a single large seed (with size of Jupiter or even a red dwarf) and so that it has the almost perfect {N,n} QM structure. Therefore it reflects the true G-force (and F4-degenerated-force) formed QM in our universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1332] viXra:1805.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-04 14:27:15

Sunqm-1s1: the Dynamics of the Quantum Collapse (And Quantum Expansion) of Solar QM {N,n} Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 21 Pages.

In this paper I study the evolution and dynamics of the Solar QM {N,n} structure. After discovered the Solar QM {N,n} structure, I immediately realized that the formation of our current Solar system was through a series of quantum collapse of pre-Sun ball's N super-shell from {6,1} to {0,1}. However, it took me quite a while to figure out what is the driving force for the quantized collapse: the collapse of {N,n=1..5}o super-shell increases the thermal pressure of {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell and prevent it from immediate collapse. Then after some time the heat (and mass) losing in {N-1,n=1..5}o super-shell decreased its thermal pressure and trigged a new round of collapse. A switch from the cold-G r-track for N=4 and 3 super-shells to the hot-G r-track for N=1 and 0 super-shells caused a 26% of r length increase. This r-track change revealed that the Hydrogen fusion started right after {2,1}RF pre-Sun ball had formed. (The Hydrogen fusion's heat formed) ice-evap-line expended and passed Mars orbit {1,6}, and evaporated all ice mass within {1,6}RF ball and excited them to orbit {2,2}o and {2,3}o orbits. Therefore it formed the extraordinary large (ice) mass of Jupiter, and very large mass of Saturn. The original mass density as the function of r has been modeled out as D = 4.37E+28 / r^3.279 (kg/m^3). From it, I estimated that the original (ice) mass of Venus, Earth, Mars were 34x, 25x, 19x of the current Earth's mass. The original mass of Jupiter was only 10% of current one. So 90% of Jupiter's current (ice) mass was obtained from the original Venus, Earth, and Mars's orbit shells! The same model also predicted that the four undiscovered {3,n=2..5}o planets/belts will have mass around 12x, 7x, 5x, and 3x of Earth's mass. Asteroid belt is assigned to be at {1,8}o orbit. It is also interesting to see that the mass QM {N,n} structure collapse is accompanied by a heat QM {N,n} structure expansion in the Solar QM {N,n} structure dynamics.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1331] viXra:1805.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-03 17:55:50

Sunqm-1: Quantum Mechanics of the Solar System in a {N,n//6} QM Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 16 Pages.

We all know that the QM is only for micro-world, not for macro-world. Not anymore! Finally, I find a way to extend Bohr's atom model (which was inspired by the Solar system structure) to our Solar system structure. In this paper, I present that how I decoded the quantum mechanics for our Solar system by introduce a {N,n//6} QM structure model. In the newly established Solar QM {N,n} structure, Sun core has a size of {0,1}, Sun surface has a size of {0,2}, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are at {1,n=3..6}o orbits. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper belt are at {2,n=2..6}o orbits. Oort cloud is at {4,n=1..5}o orbits. There are four undiscovered planets/belts at orbits of {3,n=2..5}o. More interestingly, white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole are assigned to {-1,1}, {-3,2} and {-3,1} in the same model. From these results, I constructed a Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic table (similar as the chemical element’s periodic table). A Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic plot is also presented here which shows some more detailed (and visualized) information.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1330] viXra:1805.0078 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-02 17:53:23

Sunqm-3s1: Using 1st Order Spin-Perturbation to Solve Schrodinger Equation for NLL Effect and Pre-Sun Ball's Disk-Lyzation

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 26 Pages.

Schrodinger equation has been established and solved for the non-spin Solar QM {N,n} structure model in paper SunQM-3. In current paper, the 1st order spin-perturbation problem has been solved for the spinning Sun's {N,n} QM structure. The result shows that the spin-perturbation causes nLL orbit to have the lowest orbit energy (or highest probability density), and it is named as "nLL effect". This study suggests that the nLL effect is the driving force for the Sun's (and all other celestial bodies') flattening, disk-lyzation, ring formation. It is mass occupancy that determines whether the outer shell of a pre-Sun ball goes to flattening or disk-lyzation. The nL0 effect (which is the companion effect of nLL effect) is the driving force for the bipolar outflow and astronomic jet. Additionally, a central G-force caused spherical spin frame theory is established, and our Sun's reference-spin-frame model is expected to be ω(n-spin) = ω(1-spin) / n^x, with x≈3.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1329] viXra:1805.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-03 01:28:34

Developments of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 85 Pages.

A brief tour of the developments of the Extended Relativity Theory in Clifford Spaces ($C$-space) is presented. These include : (i) Novel physical consequences like generalized dispersion relations, energy-dependent speed of light propagation, extended Lorentz transformations, relative locality, generalized Weyl-Heisenberg algebra and uncertainty relations, tensionless branes, superluminality, generalized velocities. (ii) Generalized areal, volume, $\cdots$ metrics and gravitational field equations in $C$-space. (iii) A unified description of particles, strings and branes. (iv) Clifford gravity based cosmology and dark energy. (v) Moyal deformations of Clifford gauge theories of gravity. (vi) N-ary algebras. We conclude with a brief discussion on symplectic Clifford algebras and generalized geometries.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1328] viXra:1805.0040 [pdf] submitted on 2018-05-01 17:20:29

Sunqm-3s3: Using QM Calculation to Explain the Atmosphere Band Pattern on Jupiter (And Earth, Saturn, Sun)'s Surface

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 16 Pages.

Using p{N,n} QM model with QM induced mass peaking/depleting effect, plus the spin frame of ω(n-spin) ≈ ω(1-spin) / n^3, plus the multiplier n', I successfully explained the origin of Jupiter surface cloud bands as the |544> zonal bands embedded in the background |400> belt bands. We can even calculate out how deep the convection starts below the atmosphere surface. The Earth's atmospheric circulation is also caused by the same QM peaking/depleting effect of |211> state on top (not embedded) of |100> state, which generates a major upwelling band at equator and two minor upwelling bands at ±60° latitude, and two down welling bands at ≈ ±35° latitude. The same QM theory is applicable to all other planets' atmosphere, even for the Sun's surface atmosphere.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1327] viXra:1804.0491 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-30 22:29:38

Sunqm-3s2: Using {N,n} QM Model to Calculate Out the Snapshot Pictures of a Gradually Disk-Lyzing Pre-Sun Ball

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this paper, by using {N,n} QM structure model, combining with Schrodinger equation solution, and the first order spin-perturbation solution, and the multiplier n' theory, I calculated out the ring thickness vs. orbit-r curve for a gradually disk-lyzing pre-Sun ball. From it, I constructed a series of snapshot pictures of pre-Sun disks. I also developed a very useful new rule for {N,n} QM structure: all mass between r(n) and r(n+1) belong to orbit n.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1326] viXra:1804.0375 [pdf] submitted on 2018-04-26 07:11:44

Refutation of Heyting Logic© Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All Rights Reserved.

Authors: Colin James III
Comments: 1 Page. © Copyright 2018 by Colin James III All rights reserved. info@cec-services dot com

As claimed in quantum physics papers, objects in the lattice-vectors of Heyting algebra are not idempotent. Consequently, Heyting logic is not bivalent, and hence refuted.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1189] viXra:1808.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-19 03:22:19

R x C x H x O-valued Gravity as a Grand Unified Field Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We argue how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity (real-complex-quaterno-octonionic Gravity) naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity with an $ U(8)$ Yang-Mills theory. In particular, it allows for an extension of the Standard Model by including a $3$-family $SU(3)_F$ symmetry group, a $SU(2)_R$ and an extra $ U(1)$ symmetry. A unification of left-right $SU(3)_L \times SU(3)_R$, color $SU(3)_C$ and family $SU(3)_F$ symmetries in a maximal rank-$8$ subgroup of $E_8$ has been proposed by \cite{Molina} as a landmark for future explorations beyond the Standard Model. It is warranted to explore further if this latter model also admits a similar gravitational interpretation based on the above composition of normed division algebras. Furthermore, our construction leads also to a $bimetric$ theory of gravity which may have a role in dark energy. The crux of this approach is that we have $replaced$ the Kaluza-Klein prescription to generate gauge symmetries in lower dimensions from isometries of the internal manifold, by the $U (8)$ isometry transformations of the {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued metric. We finalize with a discussion on $U(16)$ Matrix Gravity (Geometry), String Theory and Division algebras.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1188] viXra:1808.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-15 16:33:06

Negative Mass Masquerading as Positive Mass; and What Happened to All the Antimatter?

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 7 Pages.

All masses measured in a laboratory using simple measurement methods must give outcomes as positive or zero masses. A method is given in principle to determine between negative and positive masses for matter and antimatter particle pairs. Negative mass masquerades as positive mass and simple measurements would always show negative mass to have apparent positive mass. This means that antimatter particles could have negative masses despite measurements showing them to have positive masses. If antimatter has negative mass masquerading as positive mass then antimatter cannot form lumps in the same way that matter does. Antimatter would then be the main component of dark energy, which would answer the question of what happened to all the antimatter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1187] viXra:1807.0370 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-03 22:34:28

FEYNMAN’S Advanced Waves Unify the Scalar Higgs Boson with the Supposedly Unrelated Non-Scalar Graviton

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 15 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v4

Recently added: "Main two clarifications to my submission" - There are two points which may need to be clarified - First, in relation to E=0 (second last paragraph in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY) Second, in relation to quantum spin/vector/tensor/scalar (last and third last paragraphs in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a by-product of the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1186] viXra:1807.0370 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 01:43:04

FEYNMAN’S Advanced Waves Unify the Scalar Higgs Boson with the Supposedly Unrelated Non-Scalar Graviton

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 10 Pages. CITE: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716

This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a “leftover” from the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1185] viXra:1807.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 06:28:08

Negative Energy Enthalpic em Gravity “WARP” Drive

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1184] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-26 22:20:47

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1183] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 23:41:38

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1182] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-11 23:15:58

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10^-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1181] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-09 20:30:59

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle is applied to Grandcosmology, for which the visible Universe horizon is invariant. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10^-4 precision double large number correlation: Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1180] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-03 05:25:31

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every differentiable symmetry of action, there exists a corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. If we consider charge as a conserved quantity, it means existence of symmetry, and we can consider one more axis. In this paper, we consider an extension to five dimensions by using results of the ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with an alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged five-dimensional metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge, and angular momentum exactly.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1179] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 21:31:38

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. If we consider the charge as a conserved quantity, there is one more symmetry, and we can consider one more axis. In this paper, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1178] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-06 11:36:52

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. However, it fails to give the mass for the well-known charged 4D black hole such as Kerr-Newman black hole. In this paper, to solve this problem, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1177] viXra:1807.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-23 05:57:29

A Covariant Formulation of the Ashtekar-Kodama Quantum Gravity and Its Solutions

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 91 Pages.

This article consists of two parts. In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints. In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity. We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn ( E-tensor, inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (A-tensor, gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) . For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon. At the horizon, the E-tensor couples to the A-tensor in the 24 Hamiltonian equations and the singularity is removed, there is instead a peak in the metric . In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for the A-tensor and the E-tensor we get a gravitational wave equation, which yields appropriate solutions only for quadrupole waves: as required by GR, the tetrad is exponentially damped , only the A-tensor carries the energy. The validity of the Einstein power formula for gravitational waves is shown for a binary black hole (binary gravitational rotator). From the horizon condition we derive the limit scale (Schwarzschild radius) of the gravitational quantum region: rgr=30μm , which emerges as the limit scale in the objective wave collapse theory of Gherardi-Rimini-Weber. We present the energy-momentum tensor, which is in agreement with the corresponding GR-expression for small wave amplitudes and is consistent with the Einstein power formula. In the quantum region r<= rgr , the Ashtekar-Kodama gravitation the theory becomes a gauge theory with the extended SU(2) (four generators) as gauge group and a corresponding covariant derivative. In the quantum region we derive the lagrangian, which is dimensionally renormalizable, the normalized one-graviton wave function, the graviton propagator, and demonstrate the calculation of cross-section from Feynman diagrams at the example of the graviton-electron scattering.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1176] viXra:1807.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-21 16:45:37

Musics and Science

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 57 Pages. Bull Acad Int Concorde n°2, Aug 2018, Français, Russian, English

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1175] viXra:1807.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-20 09:46:28

Musics and Science

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 56 Pages. in English and French

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1174] viXra:1807.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-19 12:48:36

Musique et Science

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 29 Pages. in French

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1173] viXra:1806.0397 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-03 01:19:08

Gravity Without Newton's Gravitational Constant and no Knowledge of Mass Size

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Schwarzschild radius can be extracted easily from any gravitationally-linked phenomena without having knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant or the mass size of the gravitational object. Further, the Schwarzschild radius can be used to predict any gravity phenomena accurately, again without knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant and also without knowledge of the size of the mass, although this may seem surprising at first. Hidden within the Schwarzschild radius are the mass of the gravitational object, the Planck mass (their relative mass), and the Planck length. We do not claim to have all the answers, but this seems to indicate that gravity is quantized, even at a cosmological scale, and this quantization is directly linked to the Planck units. This also supports our view that the Newton gravitational constant is a universal composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3\hbar, rather than relying on the Planck units as a function of G. This does not mean that Newton's gravitational constant is not a universal constant, but that it is instead a composite universal constant that depends on the Planck length, the speed of light, and the Planck constant. Further, G/c^2 can be seen as a Schwarzschild radius calibrated to one weight unit. So G is only needed when we want to use gravity to find the weight of an object, such as weighing the Earth. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper that shows how a long series of major gravity predictions and measurements can be completed without any knowledge of the mass size of the object, or Newton's gravitational constant. As a minimum we think it provides an interesting new angle for evaluating existing gravity theories, and it may even give us a small hint on how to combine quantum gravity with Newton and Einstein gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1172] viXra:1806.0397 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-29 06:12:51

Gravity Without Newton's Gravitational Constant and no Knowledge of Mass Size

Authors: Espen Gaarder Haug
Comments: 8 Pages.

In this paper we show that the Schwarzschild radius can be extracted easily from any gravitationally-linked phenomena without having knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant or the mass size of the gravitational object. Further, the Schwarzschild radius can be used to predict any gravity phenomena accurately, again without knowledge of the Newton gravitational constant and also without knowledge of the size of the mass, although this may seem surprising at first. Hidden within the Schwarzschild radius are the mass of the gravitational object, the Planck mass (their relative mass), and the Planck length. We do not claim to have all the answers, but this seems to indicate that gravity is quantized, even at a cosmological scale, and this quantization is directly linked to the Planck units. This also supports our view that the Newton gravitational constant is a universal composite constant of the form G=l_p^2*c^3\hbar, rather than relying on the Planck units as a function of G. This does not mean that Newton's gravitational constant is not a universal constant, but that it is instead a composite universal constant that depends on the Planck length, the speed of light, and the Planck constant. Further, G/c^2 can be seen as a Schwarzschild radius calibrated to one weight unit. So G is only needed when we want to use gravity to find the weight of an object, such as weighing the Earth. This is, to our knowledge, the first paper that shows how a long series of major gravity predictions and measurements can be completed without any knowledge of the mass size of the object, or Newton's gravitational constant. As a minimum we think it provides an interesting new angle for evaluating existing gravity theories, and it may even give us a small hint on how to combine quantum gravity with Newton and Einstein gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1171] viXra:1806.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-07 15:31:04

Quantum Gravity Unification Model with Fundamental Conservation

Authors: Arthur E Pletcher
Comments: 7 Pages.

A fundamental conservation and symmetry is proposed, as a unification between General Relativity (GR) and Quantum Theory (QT). Unification is then demonstrated across multiple applications. First, as applied to cosmological redshift z and energy density ρ. Then, a local system galaxy rotational curve is examined. Next, as applied to Quantum Mechanics’ ”time problem”: Absolute and relative notions of time are shown to be reconcilable, as well as renormalization values between scales. Finally, as applied to the Cosmological Constant: The discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in GR at critical density: ρcr = 3H^2/8πG=1.88(H^2)x10−29g/cm^3, and the much greater zero-point energy delta value as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT) with a Planck scale ultraviolet cutoff: ρhep = M4c^3/h^3 =2.44x1091g/cm^3 is resolved to null orders of magnitude.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1170] viXra:1806.0028 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-04 10:47:45

Quantum Chaotic Motion Atoms of Space

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

The quantum diffusion motion of space atoms has a similarity to Brownian motion. The measure of mobility of a quantum of space is proportional to the time of reference.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1169] viXra:1805.0378 [pdf] replaced on 2018-06-04 15:46:27

Using “Enhanced Quantization” to Bound the Cosmological Constant, and Computing Quantum Number N for Production of 100 Relic Mini Black Holes in a Spherical Region of Emergent Space-Time

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 19 Pages. Update for the purpose of being a physics source document for 2 articles in Marcel Grossman 15, and 2 articles in DICE 2018, plus a description of gravity to be cherry picked and used in experimental gravity, Marcel Grossman 15

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization”. In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion. While showing its relevance to early universe production of black holes, and the volume of space producing 100 black holes of say 10^2 times Planck Mass. Initially in radii of 10^3 Planck length, of space-time for say entropy of about 1000 initially speaking. Key words: Inflaton, action integral, Cosmological Constant, Penrose cyclic cosmology, black holes, massive gravitons, enhanced quantization
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1168] viXra:1805.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-16 08:54:46

On the Origins of Classical Physics from the Entropy of Quantum Fields

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 5 Pages.

We show that the classical laws of physics "missing" from quantum field theory (inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time) are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0) of quantum fields.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1167] viXra:1805.0298 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-15 07:49:19

Classical Physics Derived from the Space-Time Entropy of Quantum Fields

Authors: Alexandre Harvey-Tremblay
Comments: 5 Pages.

We show that the statistical physics treatment of an arbitrary space-time entropy exactly reproduces most of the classical physics missing from quantum field theory; inertia, general relativity, dark energy and the arrow of time. We show that these laws are recovered in the thermodynamic limit (as entropic laws) instead of in the usual classical limit (h → 0) of quantum fields.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1166] viXra:1805.0102 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-23 14:54:43

Sunqm-1: Quantum Mechanics of the Solar System in a {N,n//6} QM Structure

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 16 Pages.

Finally, I find a way to extend Bohr's atom model (which was inspired by the Solar system structure) to our Solar system structure. In this paper, I present that how I decoded the quantum mechanics for our Solar system by introduce a {N,n//6} QM structure model. In the newly established Solar QM {N,n} structure, Sun core has a size of {0,1}, Sun surface has a size of {0,2}, Mercury, Venus, Earth, and Mars are at {1,n=3..6}o orbits. Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, Neptune, and Kuiper belt are at {2,n=2..6}o orbits. Oort cloud is at {4,n=1..5}o orbits. There are four undiscovered planets/belts at orbits of {3,n=2..5}o. More interestingly, white dwarf, neutron star, and black hole are assigned to {-1,1}, {-3,2} and {-3,1} in the same model. From these results, I constructed a Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic table (similar as the chemical element’s periodic table). A Solar QM {N,n} structure periodic plot is also presented here which shows some more detailed (and visualized) information.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1165] viXra:1804.0491 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-08 13:14:41

Sunqm-3s2: Using {N,n} QM Model to Calculate Out the Snapshot Pictures of a Gradually Disk-Lyzing Pre-Sun Ball

Authors: Yi Cao
Comments: 10 Pages.

In this paper, by using {N,n} QM structure model, combining with Schrodinger equation solution, and the first order spin-perturbation solution, and the multiplier n' theory, I calculated out the ring thickness vs. orbit-r curve for a gradually disk-lyzing pre-Sun ball. From it, I constructed a series of snapshot pictures of pre-Sun disks. I also developed a very useful new rule for {N,n} QM structure: all mass between r(n) and r(n+1) belong to orbit n.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1164] viXra:1804.0478 [pdf] replaced on 2018-05-01 05:09:21

Supersymmetric Preons and the Standard Model

Authors: Risto Raitio
Comments: 10 Pages. Typo corrections. Journal ref. Nucl. Phys. B (2018), https://doi.org/10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2018.04.021

The experimental fact that standard model superpartners have not been observed compels one to consider an alternative implementation for supersymmetry. The basic supermultiplet proposed here consists of a photon and a charged spin 1/2 preon field, and their superpartners. These fields are shown to yield the standard model fermions, Higgs fields and gauge symmetries. Supersymmetry is defined for unbound preons only. Quantum group SLq(2) representations are introduced to classify topologically scalars, preons, quarks and leptons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory