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2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(30) - 1603(21) - 1604(18) - 1605(22) - 1606(19) - 1607(21) - 1608(24) - 1609(16) - 1610(17) - 1611(25) - 1612(18)

2017 - 1701(26) - 1702(24) - 1703(16) - 1704(10) - 1705(14)

Any replacements are listed further down

[1165] **viXra:1705.0381 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-26 05:47:14*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 62 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained why Newton’s third law is wrong!
In the last 300 years you learned from your professors that Newton’s third law is right.
“Newton and Einstein did not understand Gravitation, they calculated Gravitation”
Adrian Ferent
1. Why Newton’s third law is wrong?
For example the interaction between a black whole and a planet, or a star:
“The gravitational force exerted by the black hole on the planet is much higher than the gravitational force exerted by the planet on the black hole. Because the energy of the gravitons emitted by the black hole is much higher than the energy of the gravitons emitted by the planet”
Adrian Ferent
This means Newton’s third law is wrong:
F12 ≠ −F21
2. Why Newton’s third law is wrong?
Because the reaction is not simultaneously, because the gravitons which mediate the gravitational force, have a finite speed, not an infinite speed.
“The majority of Dark matter is the core of the supermassive black holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Einstein bent the space, Ferent unbent the space”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1164] **viXra:1705.0370 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 08:47:15*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2016, 7, 1210-1227

This paper posits that we are living in a computer simulation to simulate physical reality which has the same computer simulation process as virtual reality (computer-simulated reality). The computer simulation process involves the digital representation of data, the mathematical computation of the digitized data in geometric formation and transformation in space-time, and the selective retention of events in a narrative. Conventional physics cannot explain physical reality clearly, while computer-simulated physics can explain physical reality clearly by using the computer simulation process consisting of the digital representation component, the mathematical computation component, and the selective retention component. For the digital representation component, the three intrinsic data (properties) are rest mass-kinetic energy, electric charge, and spin which are represented by the digital space structure, the digital spin, and the digital electric charge, respectively. The digital representations of rest mass and kinetic energy are 1 as attachment space for the space of matter and 0 as detachment space for the zero-space of matter, respectively, to explain the Higgs field, the reverse Higgs field, quantum mechanics, special relativity, force fields, dark matter, and baryonic matter. The digital representations of the exclusive and the inclusive occupations of positions are ½ spin fermion and integer spin boson, respectively, to explain spatial translation by supersymmetry transformation and dark energy. The digital representations of the allowance and the disallowance of irreversible kinetic energy are integral electric charges and fractional electric charges, respectively, to explain the confinements of quarks and quasiparticles. For the mathematical computation component, the mathematical computation involves the reversible multiverse and oscillating M-theory as oscillating membrane-string-particle whose space-time dimension (D) number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D to explain cosmology. For the selective retention component, gravity, the strong force, electromagnetism, and the weak force are the retained events during the reversible four-stage evolution of our universe, and are unified by the common narrative of the evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1163] **viXra:1705.0368 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-25 08:58:46*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The unified theory of physics is based on both symmetry physics and yinyang physics to unify all physical laws and phenomena, all four fundamental forces, and all elementary particles. Conventional symmetry physics preserves the physical features of a system under transformation by a symmetry operator. In unconventional yinyang physics, yin and yang constitute a binary yinyang system of opposite physical properties by yin and yang operators. The three fundamental symmetry operators transform the three fundamental yinyang systems (inclusiveness-exclusiveness, rest-movement, and composite-individual) into the unified theory of physics. In the inclusiveness-exclusiveness system, a particle is transformed into boson with inclusive occupation of position by the integer spin operator, while a particle is transformed into fermion with exclusive occupation of position by the ½ spin operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is supersymmetry to result in M-theory and cosmology. In the rest-movement system, a moving massless particle (kinetic energy) is transformed into a resting massive particle (rest mass) by the attachment space (denoted as 1) operator to explain the Higgs field, while a resting massive particle is transformed into a moving massless particle by the detachment space (denoted as 0) operator to explain the reverse Higgs field. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of attachment space and detachment space to bring about the three space structures: binary partition space, (1)n(0)n, for wave-particle duality, binary miscible space, (1+0)n, for relativity, and binary lattice space, (1 0)n, for virtual particles in quantum field theory. In the composite-individual system, particles are transformed into fractional charge quark composite by the fractional electric charge operator, while particles are transformed into integral charge particle individuals by the integral electric charge operator. The fundamental symmetry operator is the symmetrical combination of quarks, leptons, and bosons to constitute the periodic table of elementary particles which calculates accurately the particle masses of all elementary particles.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1162] **viXra:1705.0321 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-21 19:45:25*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

First we review what was done by Klauber, in his quantum field theory calculation of the Vacuum energy density, and in doing so, use, instead of Planck Mass, which has 10^19 GeV, which leads to an answer 10 ^ 122 times too large, a cut off value of instead, a number, N, of gravitons , times graviton mass (assumed to be about 10^-43 GeV) to get a number, N, count of about 10^31 if the vacuum energy is to avoid an overshoot of 10^122, and instead have a vacuum energy 10^-47GeV^4. Afterwards, we use the results of Mueller and Lousto, to compare the number N, of 10^31, assumed to be entropy using Ng’ infinite quantum statistics , to the ratio of the square of (the Hubble (observational ) radius over a calculated grid size which we call a) . Here, a ~ a minimum time step we call delta t, times the speed of light. Now in doing so we use a root finder procedure to obtain were we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1161] **viXra:1705.0304 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-20 07:42:57*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Abstract:From Einstein,we knowed the relation between gravity and time.We know time and entropy have a relation from thermodynamics.So gravity must have a relation with entropy.In fact,some experments have proved it.So I write this paper to describe this relation between gravity and entropy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1160] **viXra:1705.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-20 08:16:29*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 1 Page. model revised May 2017

A model of a "Theory of Everything" as a tetrahedron of relationship is presented with short explanatory text.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1159] **viXra:1705.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-13 20:50:38*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Analyzing a potential violation of a Penrose singularity theorem, via root finders, and other means.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1158] **viXra:1705.0209 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-13 07:08:17*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Now, new research in the American Physical Society's journal Physical Review Letters brings aspects of the two together in an experiment that shows, for the first time, that gravity stretches and squeezes quantum objects through tidal forces. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1157] **viXra:1705.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-12 16:11:03*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

New simple and exact analytical solutions of Einstein equations of general relativity (GR) and of Qmoger (quantum modification of GR) equations are obtained. These solutions corresponds to processes with invariant density of enthalpy (energy plus pressure). Interpretation of this solutions in terms of cosmic radiation and production of massive particles, as well as comparison with cosmic data (without fitting), are presented. It is suggested, that isenthalpic processes can be relevant also to excessive radiation from Jupiter and Saturn. Similar processes potentially can be used as a new source of energy on Earth.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1156] **viXra:1705.0176 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-11 00:50:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Can we guess the initial conditions for the Theory of Everything (ToE)? We understand such initial conditions as a set of all parameters, initial symmetries, and initial equations. Initial symmetries and initial equations can point possible phase transitions which can lead to additional symmetries and additional equations called here the additional conditions. Such additional conditions result from initial conditions so they do not decrease consistency of theory. On the other hand, appearing anomalies in a theory that cannot be explained within initial and additional conditions, always lead to new/free parameters. Free parameters need ad hoc hypotheses (i.e. some corrections that do not result from initial and additional conditions) which always weaken the theories. Elimination of ad-hoc/free parameters by increasing number of initial conditions causes Occam’s razor to be a determinant of the consistency of theories describing the same phenomena. The Occam’s razor is defined as follows: “Among competing hypotheses, the one with the fewest assumptions should be selected” [1]. It means that consistency of a theory can be defined as the inverse of the number which is the sum of all parameters, initial symmetries and initial equations (the sum of elements of the three different groups of initial conditions). New symmetries and new equations, which in a natural way appear on higher levels of ToE (the Standard Model (SM) and General Relativity (GR) are the higher levels of ToE), if we know the lowest levels of ToE, do not decrease the consistency of the theory. Authors of theories add the ad hoc hypotheses to prevent them from being falsified. Such non-scientific method causes that theories become more and more complex so their consistency is lower and lower. In physics, naturalness means that the dimensionless ratios between parameters take values of order 1. Parameters varying by many orders of magnitude need so called fine-tuning symmetries. It suggests that fine-tuned theories should be more complex i.e. their consistency should be lower. But Nature shows that it is the vice versa. It leads to conclusion that fine-tuned theories are closer to ToE. Here we guessed the initial conditions for ToE, we explained why consistency of presented here ToE is highest and why it is the fine-tuned theory. The consistency factor of presented here ToE is 1/(7+5+4)=0.0625 and it is the highest possible value for ToE-like theories. Consistency factor of SM is much lower so it is the incomplete theory sometimes leading to incorrect results.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1155] **viXra:1705.0155 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-09 11:33:22*

**Authors:** S.M.Hosseini, M.I.Kendrick

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

Abstract
The law that states:
‘’Matter can be converted to Energy and vice versa’’
Needs also incorporate that:
‘’Anti-Matter can be converted to Anti-Energy and vice versa’’
With this assumption, the Universe can be modelled with precisely equal amount of Energy and Anti-Energy prior to the Big-Bang which can cause the formation of a single particle that would be the building block of the entire Universe from matter to forces of nature in different manifestation.
Hence could be calculated and identified as the quantum gravity.
This particle has the values of Planck [1] mass, time frequency and distance.
In this paper the calculation and the different manifestation of this particle has shown to be precisely in agreement with theory of the Hot Big-Bang and in accordance with the observations in particle physics, cosmology and the laws of nature.
The quantum gravity particle is the force behind the expansion of the universe [2], the unification of the forces of nature [3] and Wave, Particle and Luminiferous aether trinity of the light [4].
This particle is made of energy encapsulating precisely equal amount of anti-energy in the form of perfect sphere or the most symmetrical shape in the Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1154] **viXra:1705.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-06 14:40:55*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We study the geometry of a simplicial complexes from an algebraic point of view and devise general quantization rules; the rules emerging in spin foam theory are shown to comprise a particular subcase.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1153] **viXra:1705.0121 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-06 18:11:11*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This paper addresses the problem of the hierarchy on the basis of quantum gravity and topology

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1152] **viXra:1705.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-05-02 08:45:41*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 06 pages and 12 references

The Holographic Principle is applied in 3-D and 2-D universes described by volume and surface of a sphere having a radius in the scale of the cosmological constant. Making the equality between the degrees of freedom furnished by the holographic description of them, we find the radius of the observable universe. While doing this, weak interaction coupling and quantum gravity play their role.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1151] **viXra:1704.0402 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-30 07:04:12*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjo

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The gravity that the photon group of the sun's light carries changes orbit of the space probe.
According to the particle pulsation principle model,
The photon of the wave process acts the electromagnetic power,
The photon of the negative particle process forces gravity.
The probe is being pulled by the gravity of the photon group of the solar Light which illuminates the space probe pioneer and is changing orbit.
This is considered to be a verification experiment for the unification of nuclear, gravity and electromagnetic forces led by the principle of particle pulsation.
"Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer"
"Fundamental particle pulsation (dark energy pulsation model) solves the mystery"
In quantum electromagnetic power, electromagnetic energy is understood as the exchange effect of photons.
According to the pulsating hypothesis, photons transmit electromagnetic power, and the spatial distortion (empty late space) by the photon of the negative stroke is gravity quantum, conveying gravity.
It is thought that the solar light (photon group) which reaches the space probe pioneer is operating gravity in the direction of the sun.
It can be understood that the gravity of the sun is zurase 12,800 kilometers from the scheduled orbit during one year.
The light of the Sun (Photon Group) is pulling in the direction of the sun by operating the gravity of the sun on the space probe.
Excerpts below.
A mystery of thirteen that still cannot be solved by science... by Nick Harvard.
・・・・・・・・・・・
"Anomalous events of the space probe pioneer"
The pioneer of the space probe advances the trajectory which does not fit the calculation. Pioneer 10, No. 11, is seen as being pulled in the direction of the sun. Both are shifted by 12,800 kilometers each year from the planned orbit. The two probes will sail for 150 million kilometers a year. The force that is causing the displacement of the orbit is only about one-hundredth of the size of the Earth's gravitation. Even so, it came to suggest the possibility that there was a mistake in the law of the universal gravitation, and there might be an error in the application to the orbit calculation. After that, we have explored and verified all the causes, but we have not yet been able to solve them even after 30 years. It is similar to the situation where the coming point movement problem of mercury was not solved by general relativity until the solution to which the object with a huge mass like the sun bends the surrounding space was presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1150] **viXra:1704.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-26 10:13:48*

**Authors:** James Bonnar

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The de Broglie wavelength of an object is inversely proportional to the object’s mass and relative velocity multiplied by Planck’s constant. A composite object, such as an atom composed of a proton and electron, possesses a total mass and therefore a composite de Broglie wavelength. Mass is simply additive, although the relation for combining de Broglie wavelengths has
never been stated. In this paper, we derive the relation for combining the de Broglie wavelengths of an object’s component parts into the composite de Broglie wavelength of the object as a whole.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1149] **viXra:1704.0213 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-16 16:11:58*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

This paper proposes a cyclic toy model of the universe predesigned for life, based on preonic quantized 1-branes (strings), quantized 2-branes (supermembranes/2D surfaces) and the holographic principle. This toy model is based on a few simple hypothesis/assumptions, including the existence of a universal brane quanta (conceived as a basic quantum clock) for any n-brane and a unified primordial field (UPF) defined as equivalent to a very strong 2D gravitational field acting on hypothetical quark/leptonic/bosonic 2-branes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1148] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-13 06:05:50*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principal of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetrybreaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1147] **viXra:1704.0167 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-12 13:32:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Researchers in the US say they've created a fluid with negative mass in the lab... which is exactly as mind-bending as it sounds. What it means is that, unlike pretty much every other known physical object, when you push this fluid, it accelerates backwards instead of moving forwards. Such an oddity could tell scientists about some of the strange behaviour that happens within black holes and neutron stars. [5] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1146] **viXra:1704.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 11:30:41*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With recent detection of gravitational waves, the possibility exists that orientation-dependent detector responses might permit distinguishing between general relativity and gauge theory gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1145] **viXra:1704.0099 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-08 06:55:23*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 40 Pages.

A radical deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter is proposed. In this theory
it is assumed that spacetime and matter are the emergent properties of a more fundamental entity. It is
shown what properties such a fundamental entity should possess. An approach is proposed to find
emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties in such an entity. It is shown how the nondeterministic
laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields appear in the deterministic model of a more
fundamental entity. The proposed theory of emergent spacetime and matter (further ESTM theory), as
shown in this article, is compatible with special and general theories of relativity, as well as with
quantum mechanics and cosmology. Quantum mechanics was reformulated into backgroundindependent
one. The derivation of Schrödinger equation for quantum mechanics is given. It is shown
how the Heisenberg uncertainty principle appears from the determinism of a more fundamental entity.
Changes in the locality principle are proposed. Equivalence of inertial and gravitational mass is
substantiated. The corrections to equations of the general theory of relativity, as well as the change in
the conceptual model of gravitation, are proposed. The ESTM theory predicts the absence of a quantum
of gravity. The ESTM theory unites all the fundamental forces, including gravity. All fundamental forces
are derived from one field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1144] **viXra:1704.0094 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-07 20:18:06*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper, we show one theoretical possibility for cosmic rotation. We would like to appeal that: 1) A globally rotating universe is consistent with general relativity and quantum gravity. 2) As currently believed dark energy is having no observational evidence, it is better to search for cosmic rotational effects. In this context, one can see the main stream journal articles on cosmic axis of rotation and observational effects of cosmic rotation. Based on Mach's principle and quantum gravity, we imagine our universe as the best quantum gravity sphere and assume that, at any stage of cosmic evolution: 1) Planck scale Hubble parameter plays a crucial role. 2) Space-time curvature follows, ${GM_t}\cong{R_tc^2}$ where $M_t$ and $R_t$ represent the ordinary cosmic mass and radius respectively. 3) Cosmic thermal wavelength is inversely proportional to the ordinary matter density. 4) Magnitude of angular velocity is equal to the magnitude of Hubble parameter. Based on these assumptions, at $H_0\cong 70 \textrm{\,km/sec/Mpc\,},$ estimated current matter density is 0.04341$\left(\frac{3H_0^2}{8 \pi G}\right)$ and corresponding radius is 29 Gpc. Current cosmic rotational kinetic energy density is 0.667$\left(\frac{3H_0^2c^2}{8 \pi G}\right)$. We would like to emphasize that: 1) Currently believed mysterious dark energy can be identified with current cosmic rotational kinetic energy. 2) Currently believed `inflation' concept can be relinquished. With advanced science, engineering and technology and by considering the most recent observations on `cosmic axis of evil' and `axial alignment' of distance astronomical bodies, a unified model of quantum cosmology can be developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1143] **viXra:1704.0055 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-05 06:00:03*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem is a serious problem in particle physics and cosmology so a solution to this problem should lead to new physics. The value of cosmological constant is about 120 orders of magnitude too low than it should be. Here we showed that today the vacuum energy is about 119 orders of magnitude lower than it should be (in the Planck units or as a dimensionless quantity) because the superluminal pure inertial energy (it means that the gravitational energy is equal to zero) is frozen inside the stable-neutrinos/gravitational-charges and is about 119 orders of magnitude higher than the indirectly observed gravitational energy. We showed here that geometric mean of the Planck mass of neutrinos and the very low particle mass of neutrinos leads to the CMB/cosmological mass of neutrinos observed in experiments. The vice versa should be correct as well so the Planck mass and the sum of the experimental CMB/cosmological masses of different neutrinos lead to the very low particle mass of neutrinos so it leads to new physics as well. The Planck mass of neutrinos, which is associated with maximum rotation of their spin, solves the hierarchy problem as well. Quasars (a torus with a central condensate), which are the objects with high gravitational-mass density, can be the big cousins of the gravitational charge but of the weak and electromagnetic charges also. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), such a structure is characteristic for bare fermions – such a structure radically simplifies theories in particle physics and cosmology. The similarity of different scales leads to new physics also. There are two stable vacua (Higgs field and Einstein spacetime) so the physical constants are invariant. Pure energies, i.e. without inertial mass or inertial and gravitational masses, are not in existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1142] **viXra:1704.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-05 03:32:26*

**Authors:** Bernard Riley

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

In an analysis motivated by the AdS/CFT correspondence, the radii of nearby stars, including the sun, are shown to be correlated with values of mass equal to those of stable atomic nuclei.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1141] **viXra:1704.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-04-04 06:13:18*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

A previous preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons is complemented to provide a model of black holes. Gravity theory with torsion is applied to preons producing an axial-vector field coupled to preons. The mass of the axial-vector particle is estimated to be near the GUT scale. The boson can materialize above this scale and gain further mass to become the center of a black hole at Planck energy while massless preons form the horizon. A particle-black hole duality is defined.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1140] **viXra:1703.0307 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-31 22:36:15*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Understanding quantum gravity motivates string and loop theorists. Both employ geometric wavefunction models. Gravity enters strings by taking the one fundamental length permitted by quantum field theory to be not the high energy cutoff, rather the Planck length. This comes at a price - string theory cannot be renormalized, and the solutions landscape is effectively infinite. Loop theory seeks only to quantize gravity, with hope that insights gained might inform particle physics. It does so via interactions of two dimensional loops in three-dimensional space. While both approaches offer possibilities not available to Standard Model theorists, it is not unreasonable to suggest that geometric wavefunctions comprised of fundamental geometric objects of three-dimensional space are required for successful models, written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1139] **viXra:1703.0289 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-30 11:24:52*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

An additional effect of time fluctuations in a small volume of space is considered.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1138] **viXra:1703.0276 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-29 04:45:53*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 2 Pages. A simpler version of another paper "A new framework for viewing reality"

There has been a crisis in theory regarding General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics. Here I propose a solution by saying there is a flexible structure to the universe and it is essentially the structure of the vacuum energy.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1137] **viXra:1703.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-25 14:49:33*

**Authors:** Shushi T.

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this letter we describe a new concept of "pseudo-forces" that is obtained from a non-local geometrodynamic model. We argue that while the gravity force is described by the curvature of spacetime, the other three forces are, in fact, pseudo-forces that evolve from such geometrodynamic model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1136] **viXra:1703.0205 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 06:21:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Precession of Mercury's orbit resembles orbits of Sedna and companions. Orbits of Sedna etc may not be caused by Planet 9 but their orbits may be viewed as "precession" that is quantum instead of classical. To explain, we start with an explanation for quantum spin which is not simple rotation but is of a gravitational nature. This unites the quantum and classical by manifesting on an astronomical scale, with gravitational waves forming Earth's orbit. The quantum-gravity approach could also indicate Mercury's ellipse is not only classically representing a number of stages in the orbit of an isolated planet, but is also representing the quantum view of "astro-entanglement" and the unified gravitational field. The similar orbits of Sedna and its companions may likewise be an indication of astro-entanglement, leaving Planet 9 just as mythical as the planet Vulcan which was once thought to orbit closer to the Sun than Mercury. Or as nonexistent as the planet that was supposed to orbit between Mars and Jupiter, before it was destroyed to form the asteroid belt.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1135] **viXra:1703.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-21 07:53:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

It was found in other papers by Michael John Sarnowski that there appears to be a relationship between a process similar to Bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov radiation and the mass ratios of the Proton, Electron, Muon, and Tau to the Neutron. This correlation also is used to make predictions for these ratios and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure Constant and the von Klitzing constant. Relating this to a possible granular crystalline cuboctahedron structure of space-time. The predictions for these ratios and constants will be listed in section 2.0. A summary of the calculations will be shown in section 3.0. Section 4.0 will detail the consistency of the empirical equations that give the equations credence. Section 5.0 will explain the parts of the equations for the mass ratios of the particles. This paper is the combination of various other papers by Michael John Sarnowski, which are listed in the reference section.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1134] **viXra:1703.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-20 00:22:51*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We begin by examining a general expression of entropy, and its links to a minimum radius of the universe. We derive an expression for the production of at least 1 unit of entropy, which translates to a value of Planck length in radii to 1000 times Planck radii, for the quantum bubble of space-time which dependent upon, of all things, the initial Hubble expansion rate value. If the Hubble parameter has the value of 10^ 10 GeV, we see a minimum radial length of the Universe of about 1 billion times Planck length. If the Hubble parameter is of 10^19 GeV, the minimum radial length of the universe would be about one Planck length, which is surprising, to put it mildly. The higher the initial temperate is, up to a point, the more likely the initial entropy is closer to the Causal barrier mentioned in an earlier publication by the author
Keywords. Causal barrier, Inflaton, Minimum entropy (non-zero), initial radii (of universe)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1133] **viXra:1703.0182 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-19 07:23:47*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the thermokinematics of space-time is formulated. The statistical nature of time is revealed on the basis of the finite volume of the time molecule.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1132] **viXra:1703.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-18 04:21:14*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The change is objective,but the time is subject.Time is only a feel,like the color is only a feel which is subjective,but the light is objective.Somebody think that I say the time is not exist is that there is no change,the universe is static and the time we thought before is another dimension of space,that's not right.I think time is only a feel of change and the change is exist.(in fact the change is not exist,too.But not because the time is "static"like some people thought )
What's length?How can we know A and B are not in the same point?That's very easy.To a observer,If a thing moving from A to B need some time ,the observer will think that A and B are not in the same point.But the time is only our feel,so the space also is our feel which is come from our illusion.The space also is our feel and memory of change.So who create the space and time?Not god,but ourselves,if there is no observer,there is no time or space.
The exist of space-time is based on our observe and feel of change,but from "gravitational theory of time" we know that all the change is come from our illusion because all the difference is come from our illusion(not because time is our illusion),there is no difference if there is no observe.So we can say that all the universe is created by ourselves ,not god. All of those conclusions are come from a think that "Only the physical quantity which we have (and will) observed by experments have the really physical significance".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1131] **viXra:1703.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-17 01:45:31*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Update of my FQXI 2017 paper, expanded with many new details and questions added

We start where we use an inflaton value due to the use of a scale factor.Also, we use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, we come up with a polynomial expression for a minimum time step, we can call which leads to a development of the arrow of time. We show an interrelationship between the formation of the Arrow of time, and Causal structure, assuming the setting of H = 0 in the Friedman equation This, in turn, leads to entropy production at the start of causal structure in the onset of inflation. This then leads to three and a quarter pages of 7 open questions we think have to be answered, subsequently.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1130] **viXra:1703.0091 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-09 15:30:57*

**Authors:** M.Christolubova, T.Christolubov

**Comments:** 7 Pages. 77

To construct quantum gravity we formulate quantum electrodynamics in equivalent form with possibility to generalize, we calculate the сosmological constant assuming that the quantum state is a function of time and radius of universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1129] **viXra:1703.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 19:27:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

We use a root finder procedure to obtain t were we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor min~ a a t if we furthermore use 2min ~ tt initial ga as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor tt g in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, conclude with very restricted limit values for t of the order of less than Planck time, leads to an enormous value for the initial Cosmological constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1128] **viXra:1703.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 09:47:13*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** Pages.

I apply the axioms of
thermodynamics for geometric
concepts of volume and time.
The relativity of simultaneity is
the Fourier law of thermal
conductivity. Time is a geometric
analogue of temperature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1127] **viXra:1703.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-07 05:26:01*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Time and entropy
LeiGuanji
Time is the thing that we need to measure the change.A clock's second hand run a round,we say that the frame of reference which the clock in is go though a second.Each round the second hand run has used up a same energy.So the increase amount of entropy is in direct proportion to the amount of the go of time:ΔS∝Δt. Time is the thing we fancied.Things changed from a state in our memory to a new state,that make we have the feel that the time is going.Suppose there is some atoms which the half life is 1 second.We measure the amount of the atoms each second,and we need to bear the amount in mind,we find the change of amount,so we think the time is going.We need to use up a same energy each second to bear the amount of atoms,so the entropy of our body is in direct proportion to the time we think was gone:ΔS∝Δt.So the psychological arrow of time,is determinded by thermodynamic arrow of time. Time is not exist,there is only the change of thing,no time.We only can make a standard change to set the amound of the time has gone(like the second hand has run a round or the 9192631770 cycles of the transition ofcaesium atomic clock).Another change from begin to end,the standard change has done twice,we say that this change use two standard time.If the standard change's amount of entropy increase is S0,so ΔS∝Δt. To compare the speed of the time going is only can use the amount of standard change,too.The second hand of blue cat and Yang Liwei who are in the earth run 10 rounds(10 standard changes),the second hand of LaLa and Buji who are in the Tongxin spaceship (the youth spaceship) which the speed is 0.6c run 8 rounds(8 standard changes).So the blue cat and Yang Liwei can think that LaLa and Buji's speed of time is slower than them,that's the same condition to LaLa and Buji. So there is no time,time is only a fantasy in our mind."ΔS∝Δt" is because we imagine the change of entropy ΔS=S0 as Δt.Entropy increases with time because we meause time in the direction in which entropy increase.And from Gravitational Theory of entropy(my paper"Gravitational Theory of Time") we can know, all change (difference) is our fantasy,so time is our fantasy in our mind,too. ΔS∝Δt,my two papers "Some Views Of Time Trials for Fundamental Constants"(Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light) and "Gravitational Theory of Time"(I have submitted this paper to Gravity Research Foundation) both base on this conclusion. Who has created the color?Maybe some people will say god,but really?What's red?What's blue?You can say they are the color of blood and sky.But,if you are an achromatopsia or a blind,what would you say?So there is no color,there is only light with different wavelength. Time is like that,there is no time , there is only change of things.Both color and time are created by ourselves,not god.Both color and time are our fantasies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1126] **viXra:1703.0045 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-06 03:34:59*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

Until now, Physic considers that vacuum as space but according to author vacuum is different than space. Space has properties like mass, gravity, time etc. It is also relative. Space of atom is different than space of galaxy. This may be reason for getting effect of dark matter because space also carries gravitational effect. In this paper author also proved that special theory of relativity is mathematically wrong.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1125] **viXra:1703.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-03-01 05:00:48*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is partially a review paper. Here we have focused on creation and large-scale evolution of the Universe which are described mathematically in the cited papers. We recalled it because then the quantization of masses of galaxy associations is more understandable. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of quantization of the total masses (dark matter plus baryonic matter) of the superclusters, clusters and groups of galaxies. Here we can find a statistical picture that leads to peaks in the mass function. SST shows that contrary to the nearby superclusters, the smaller parts in the distant superclusters (i.e. the clusters and groups) should be and are less isolated so the mainstream cosmology needs a revision because there was the evolution from the heavier structures to lighter structures, not from lighter to heavier. Masses of the galaxy superclusters should not change with time but with time in superclusters should appear clearly separated clusters and groups of galaxies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1124] **viXra:1702.0295 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-23 20:25:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Our view point is to assume that the cosmological constant is indeed invariant. And also done where we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor g(t,t) in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, we come up with a polynomial expression for a minimum time step, we can call which leads to a development of the arrow of time, and the preservation of information, of essential type, in cosmological early universe dynamics. In doing so we delineate where Causal structure as outlined by Dowker is relevant to Space-time, which is integral to where we examine a nonsingular beginning of space-time, albeit with a very small initial radii, of the order or smaller than Planck’s length in radii. We show an inter relationship between the formation of the Arrow of time, and Causal structure, assuming developments which are from the setting of H = 0 in the Friedman equation as a starting point and systematically allows delineation of where we can meaningfully discuss creation of Causal structure

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1123] **viXra:1702.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-23 10:59:06*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Our view point is to assume that the cosmological constant is indeed invariant. And also done where we use an inflaton value due to use of a scale factor if we furthermore use g(tt) as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. In doing so, we come up with a polynomial expression for a minimum time step, we can call delta t which would be likely smaller than the Planck time interval/ We then discuss how the development of leads to a development of the arrow of time, and the preservation of information, of essential type, in cosmological early universe dynamics. In doing so, the goal of an ‘arrow of time’ is intrinsically linked to the utility of causal structure. Our goal of identification of causal structure, which we bring up is essential to the arrow of time, and the use of the Friedman equation, which in itself gives little information, is motivation for how we form the
arrow of time, and assumed causal structure. Without this sort of additional information, the Friedman equation and the use of the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle are actually mathematical structures with no real content, in themselves. And the existence of Causal structure only commences right after the regime of Space-time for which H > 0,. Not in when H = 0. The aims of this study is to configure extremely general Friedman equations into a specific inquiry as to how to form a minimum time step, and its relations to how the arrow of time (linked to initial generation of entropy) arises through

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1122] **viXra:1702.0263 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-20 15:56:25*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper we show that it is possible to find and measure the Planck length with no knowledge of big G, at least hypothetically. All that is needed to find the Planck length is 1) an observation of light deflection, 2) the mass of the object causing the deflection, 3) the radius from the center of the mass to the point at which we observe the deflection, 4) the Planck constant, and 5) the speed of light. This approach strengthens our view that Newton's big $G$ is a universal composite constant consisting of the Planck length, the Planck constant, and the speed of light. In other words, we can derive big G directly from what we consider more fundamental constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1121] **viXra:1702.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-16 03:16:43*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The reviews of McLaughlin (2003) and of Brodie and Strader (2006) show that the globular cluster mass function in present-day galaxy halos is approximately log-normal with a peak log M = 5.3, where M is expressed in solar masses. On the other hand, our investigation of distribution of disc masses of dwarf spiral galaxies (we used the 36 objects selected by Karukes et al. (6 January 2017)) leads to 3 peaks for log M = 8.017, 7.415 and 6.813. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of such quantization of masses of discs and globular clusters within one coherent model. The peaks follow from the initial large-scale structure of the Universe described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1120] **viXra:1702.0165 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 09:21:47*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

B. Kiziltan et al. (9 February 2017) showed that pulsars in 47 Tuc imply a central black hole (BH) with a mass of about 2,200 solar masses (the upper limit is 3,700 solar masses whereas the lower limit is 1,400). Predictive power correlates with number of observed pulsars. The inference flattens with decreasing number of randomly selected pulsars. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we suggest that the BH consists of 16 neutron black holes (NBH) entangled with 16 pulsars. With time, the set of 16 pulsars changes its constituents. SST shows that then mass of the central BH should be 2,536 solar masses. To such mass lead as well the observational data for 16 randomly selected pulsars. More precise observational data should show whether predicted within SST the exact mass of the central BH is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1119] **viXra:1702.0152 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-14 03:10:49*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

By the early 1970’s estimates of the Hubble constant from Sandage and Tammann were hovering around 55. On the other hand, VandenBerg and deVaucouleurs obtained values near 100. Even at the beginning of the current millennium still was evident such bimodality. Then cosmologists corrected the diameters and magnitudes of galaxies to reconcile two or more groups receiving different values of Hubble constant. Such a “method” of averaging the results leads to a value of about 70. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the two different values for the local Universe follow from two different ways of emission of photons which causes that the same redshift leads to two different light travel times - it concerns supernova and its host galaxy. We obtain respectively 45.17 (the upper limit is 46.44) and values two times higher i.e. 90.34 (the upper limit is 92.88) - the mean value is 67.75 (the upper limit is 69.66), which are consistent with the recent observational data. Emphasize that the bimodality does not result from assumed uncertainties - just bimodality is characteristic for the near Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1118] **viXra:1702.0137 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-12 02:49:18*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 5 Pages. Its a pleasure to post this on Vixra.

The basic building blocks of the universe have been debated for millennia. Recently advances have been made in string theory and variant schools of thought. Here I propose the notion that, at extremely small scales, information has a structure, and the information that determines a system is equivalent to it's momentum.
This is achieved through an analogous mechanism to the Cartesian axes. These axes are aware of their position. This has many implications and I believe the mathematics regarding this will flourish.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1117] **viXra:1702.0125 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-10 02:53:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here we described the mechanism of creation of the dark-matter (DM) structure in massive spiral galaxies by the initial quasars. Such mechanism moves the angular momentum of quasars to the outer regions of massive galaxies. We calculated that range of the DM structure in the Milky Way should be about 51.5 kpc. We calculated also the range of the DM structure for dwarf galaxies with initial baryonic mass equal to giga-solar-masses on the assumption that now in their centre is the lightest gravitational BH - we obtained 1.9 kpc. We as well answered following question: How can we detect loops of dark matter in the Earth experiments? Just we should mimic the mechanism in quasars - we should use strong magnetic field to create relativistic vortex of baryonic plasma. We explained also why the DM structures cannot interact electromagnetically.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1116] **viXra:1702.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 18:00:36*

**Authors:** Edwin Eugene Klingman

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Essay submitted to Gravity Research Foundation 2016 essay contest: 24 March 2016

A theory’s equations are designed to model physical behavior that reflects the nature of physical reality. Einstein's nonlinear gravity equation is 'linearized' in the 'weak field limit' by ignoring nonlinear terms. This can be misinterpreted as affecting the nature of the field. Linearization is a mathematical artifice making equations easier to solve, having zero effect on the physical nature of the field itself. Thus it is false to say that the weak gravitational field is not self-interacting. Nor is the weak gravitational field based on mass; the field equation is based on mass density. These aspects of gravity are investigated by replacing curved space-time with mass density in flat space. A novel quantum gravity relation is derived and related to quantum mechanics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1115] **viXra:1702.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 19:34:45*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S.Lakshiminarayana

**Comments:** 3 Pages. A very short communication

Based on Mach's principle and quantum gravity, we imagine our universe as a best quantum gravitational sphere and assume that, at any stage of cosmic evolution: 1) Planck scale Hubble parameter plays a crucial role. 2) Space-time curvature follows, ${GM_t}\cong{R_tc^2}$ where $M_t$ and $R_t$ represent the ordinary cosmic mass and radius respectively. 3) Both, cosmic radius and expansion velocity, are proportional to the ratio of dark matter density and ordinary matter density. 4) Cosmic temperature is proportional to the ratio of ordinary matter density and critical density. With further research, a unified model of `quantum cosmology' with evolving dark energy or evolving vacuum energy can be developed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1114] **viXra:1702.0114 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-09 01:32:04*

**Authors:** LeiGuanji

**Comments:** 1 Page.

Some explanations about the "Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light" and the "Gravitational Theory of Time"
1、The existence of time is because our fancy.Time is not exist,we found a change in our universe,so we think there is time.What's the change?All change in our universe is the change of entropy.(All the change, the cause and the effect,the logic is the change of entropy.)Stephen W. Hawking said that:"this means that our subjective sense of the direction of time,the psychological arrow of time,is determined by the thermodynamic arrow of time."Time is only our felling of the increase of entropy.So we can get the relation between time and entropy:ΔT∝ΔS.As we all know,this relation is the base of my two theory that I have write in my two paper:"Gravitational theory of entropy(time)" and "Some Views of Fine-Structure Constant and the Speed of Light".But from "Gravitational theory of entropy" we can know that all of our universe is not exist.Entropy and our universe and all of the difference in our universe is only our obverse and our felling which all come our fancy.Because our fancy,w
e found the difference between past and future.So we have an illusion that the time is exist.
So that make another conclusion:we can't measure time period which is shorter than our cycle.2、"gravitational theory of entropy" think that all change in the universe is because the change of the entropy.So two forces dominate all changes in the universe:the force to reduce the entropy and the force to increase the entropy.
It's very interesting that Chinese has put forward this view in the ancient times.
yin and yang , the two opposing principles in nature, the former feminine and negative, the latter masculine and positive.Yin is the force to reduce the entropy and yang is the force to increase the entropy.
The time more early,the entropy more less.So in the begining of the universe,the enprogy is very little,so it was in a very smooth,ordered and symmetrical state.If more early,the defference from the observer and the thing which we are observing will disappear.The observer and the thing which the observer are observing will be the same thing.So the existence of the universe becase our observing.This is the explain of the begining of the universe in the gravitational theory of entropy:because our fancy,we fancied the difference from ourselve and the thing which we are observing(the difference from "I" and "the thing which is not I").And the difference cause more difference:the increase of the entropy and the decrease of the entropy.And then yin and yang.Then we can see that the yin become the gravity and the yang become the light,and then,they become more things.
This is a additional paper for my paper "Gravitational theory of entropy".I have submit this paper to the Gravity Research Foundation.
Thanks to "Naughty blue cat 3000 question space adventure"

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1113] **viXra:1702.0107 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-08 10:09:01*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time. This leads to a causal discontinuity between Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time due to the sign of the inflaton changing from minus to positive, for reasons brought up in this manuscript. i.e. looking at Eq. (9) , Eq. (10) and Eq. (11) of this document, with explanations as to what is going on physically.
Keywords: Emergent time , metric tensor perturbations, HUP , negative energy density

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1112] **viXra:1702.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-07 10:15:33*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1111] **viXra:1702.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 02:52:26*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Critique is welcome from physicists

Observer remains in quantum mechanics an undefined notion. I argue that to eliminate the measurement problem, for instance, the observer must not be considered also an observable. Instead, it must be deemed by own definition as the self referencing state rather the qualitatively “un-definable”; in the exact same sense that the self referencing state is in Gödel’s 2nd incompleteness theorem own “un-decidable” qualitatively. This has the crucial import that the observer is in fact the “uncertainty” proper—same seen otherwise as the entanglement (norm; wave function) of observables. It is modeled here as the zero refractive index n0 = vg/vp. Meaning, observables are non-zero refractive indices. I show here that absolute neutrino mass (sterile neutrino) is in fact the “mass gap” n0 signifying man as the observer vp.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1110] **viXra:1702.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-06 03:29:13*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Critique welcome from physicists

Grant that neutrino absolute mass is the “mass gap”—modeled as the zero refractive index n0 = (vg/vp); wherein, man as observer signifies the phase velocity vp and the CMB is group velocity vg. I argue now that as the material self-referential state n0 is then the material “wave function of the universe” (the Heisenberg cut). I show here that this will be in the material sense that n0 is the substantive mass-energy constant in place of conventional carbon-12 or c2. Meaning now, it is the bona fide “Hoyle resonance state”; something otherwise termed the natural unit.
I propose strictly thus that a material self i.e., a “wave function” n0 defines a space-time and vice versa. Specifically, it is that whose interference pattern or beats (“oscillations”; “curvatures”) constitutes the valid observables—the observable “space” and “time”. Overall, this permits us to adopt quite literally the Everett many-worlds or the “multiverse” picture. Basically here it is the complex form wherein the observer is the imaginary unit and the observables constitute the real axis.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1109] **viXra:1702.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-05 10:50:12*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

I search group structure for a preon model of quarks and leptons. Knot theory algebra SLq(2) [4] is shown to be applicable to the model. Results on teleparallel gravity [10] are reviewed with interesting results. A tentative glimpse on quantum gravity is indicated.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1108] **viXra:1702.0066 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 09:44:48*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely with a small ttg , affected by a small nonsingular region of space-time. The resulting density will be of the form 24 int~ ( ) visc H a t with the first term, on the right viscosity, of space-time, the 2nd on the right the square of an initial expansion rate, and due to the nonsingular nature of initial space time the fourth power of a scale factor, with 55 ~ ~10 init aa . We apply these density alteration tools to a criterion of self-replication of the universe, as written up by Mukhanov, as to how classical and quantum inflaton variations lead to understanding if the initial inflaton field of the Universe will be ‘growing’, or shrinking with .. The first contribution to the initial alteration of the inflaton is classical, equivalent to minus the inverse of the inflation field, and the second quantum mechanically based alteration of the inflaton is a ‘mass’ term times an initial inflaton field. If this change in inflaton is positive, it means that domains of space time are increasing, and this is dependent upon the effective mass term we calculate in this manuscript., Finally after we do this we state how this relates to a formulation of the initial change in the Cosmological ‘constant’ as given by ~ initial total space time mass M as well as heavy gravity issues.
Keywords: Emergent time, heavy gravity, metric tensor perturbations, HUP

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1107] **viXra:1702.0061 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-04 05:59:13*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 59 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I explained Gravitational lensing and Gravitational redshift.
“Because the momentum of each graviton pk is negative, the final momentum of a photon p is smaller than the initial momentum pi and the photon will move towards the source of gravitons for example a galaxy.”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the energy of the gravitons Ek is negative, the energy of the photon E after n interactions with gravitons it is smaller than the initial energy of the photon Ei.”
Adrian Ferent
Einstein theory of gravity is wrong because fails to explain Gravitational lensing and Gravitational redshift during Gravitational lensing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1106] **viXra:1702.0047 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-03 09:24:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we listed the basic structures in the Universe at different scales. They are as follows: multi-loop-like structures, condensate-like structures, atom-like structures, and binary systems. We have highlighted the structures that should be discovered or accepted in the future. Black hole with a central singularity and 3-quark model of baryons do not fit into the generalized scheme presented here. There is place for the quarks as the loops.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1105] **viXra:1702.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 10:53:46*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Does string theory with the finite nature hypothesis imply MOND and no supersymmetry?
Consider 3 conjectures: (1) Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology, and the empirical validity of Milgrom’s MOdified Newtonian Dynamics (MOND) requires a modification of Einstein’s field equations. (2) The Koide formula suggests that there might be a modification of Einstein’s field equations. (3) Lestone’s heuristic string theory suggests that there might be a modification of Einstein’s field equations. Are (2) and (3) sure bets? No. Is (1) a sure bet? I say yes. I suggest that there might be 3 possible modifications of Einstein’s field equations. Consider Einstein’s field equations: R(mu,nu) + (-1/2) * g(mu,nu) * R = - κ * T(mu,nu) - Λ * g(mu,nu) — what might be wrong? Consider the possible correction R(mu,nu) + (-1/2 + dark-matter-compensation-constant) * g(mu,nu) * R * (1 - (R(min) / R)^2)^(1/2) = - κ * (T(mu,nu) / equivalence-principle-failure-factor) - Λ * g(mu,nu), where equivalence-principle-failure-factor = (1 - (T(mu,nu)/T(max))^2)^(1/2) — if dark-matter-compensation-constant = 0, R(min) = 0, and T(max) = +∞ then Einstein’s field equations are recovered. This brief communication offers 3 criticisms involving physical assumptions used by Einstein when he formulated his field equations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1104] **viXra:1702.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-02 06:51:11*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Extract from the 3D Universe Theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1103] **viXra:1702.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-01 16:20:13*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely . If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints initial temperature, particle count and entropy as would be affected by a small nonsingular region of space-time. The resulting density will
be of the form with the first term, on the right viscosity, of space-time, the 2nd on the right the square of an initial expansion rate, and due to the non singular nature of initial space time the fourth power of a scale factor, with This leads to an initial graviton production due to a minimum magnetic field, as established in our analysis. Which we relate to the inflaton as it initially would be configured and evaluated; with , and with the change in the initial cosmological constant
Keywords: Emergent time, heavy gravity, metric tensor perturbations, HUP

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1102] **viXra:1702.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-02-01 14:56:39*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here I present my comment to an article entitled “Do Dark Matter And Dark Energy Affect Ordinary Atoms?” by Chad Orzel posted on the website of Forbes. Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we justify that dark energy can be neglected while in the theories of atoms the dark matter plays a significant role and its omission causes that there appear infinities, free parameters, mathematical indeterminate forms - sometimes such messy theories, even though there are free parameters included, lead to results inconsistent with the experimental data, for example, it concerns the magnetic moment of muon calculated within QED.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1101] **viXra:1701.0687 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 08:57:17*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Does string theory with the infinite nature hypothesis imply supersymmetry while string theory with the finite nature hypothesis implies Wolframian pseudo-symmetry? I conjecture the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is the Koide formula merely a coincidence with little or no significance for physics? Does reality consist of a string landscape with many different string vacua? Consider two approximations: (muon mass)/(electron mass) = 206.7683 and
exp(pi * squareroot(72/25)) – (mass muon)/(mass electron) = –.0288 — so what? Is spacetime 4-dimensional? Is spacetime 26-dimensional? Measurements of spacetime using clocks and surveying instruments demonstrate that spacetime is 4-dimensional. I say that, from one point of view, spacetime is 26-dimensional. 26 dimensions = 1 dimension of matter time + 1 dimension of antimatter time + 24 dimensions of (±, ±, ± )-space. What is (±, ±, ±)-space? For the measurement of space, employ 6 particle beams consisting of 3 electron beams and 3 positron beams. For each dimension of space, employ all 3-tuples of beams selected from the 6 beams. By definition, (±, ±, ±)-space consists of 3 dimensions of ordinary space, each of which is measured in 8 different ways by using all of the possible 3-tuples of the 6 beams. The 24 dimensions of (±, ±, ±)-space reduce to the 3 dimensions of ordinary space because quantum field theory is empirically valid — however, (±, ±, ±)-space might be useful for representational redundancy (because of the role that the Leech lattice plays in the foundations of physics.) This brief communication offers speculations concerning Wolframian pseudo-symmetry and the Koide formula.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1100] **viXra:1701.0676 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-31 02:35:29*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The well-proven principles of special and general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics.
The solution is mainly found in a physical theory where it was not expected: Special relativity does neither discuss gravity nor quantum phenomena. However, it is the relative spacetime concept of special relativity which is considered to be incompatible with the absolute concepts of quantum mechanics for space and time.
The new approach is based on the discovery that the postulates of special relativity impose not only the relative concept of spacetime, but also absolute concepts for time and for space which are underlying relative spacetime. These absolute concepts reveal to be compatible with the absolute space and time concepts of quantum mechanics, and they are indicating the way how to apply the gravity concept of the Schwarzschild metric within quantum mechanics: Quantum gravity happens on particle level, not by quantization of spacetime.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1099] **viXra:1701.0672 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-30 10:48:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the Halton Arp “quantized” inherent redshift results from shifted luminosity of quasars with some redshifts, not from higher abundances of quasars with such redshifts. The two functions describing dependence of the cosmological and inherent light travel time (LTT) on redshift are continuous but for the inherent LTT there are some increases in luminosity for 15 different redshifts: 0.061, 0.30, 0.60, 0.96, 1.41, 1.96, 2.63, 3.46, 4.48, 5.73, and so on - we obtained perfect consistency with observational facts. It leads to an illusion that the quasars with shifted luminosity are more numerous. SST shows that the quasars are the very distant objects because due to the inherent LTT, even quasars with very low redshift are already in LTT equal to 6.8 Gyr. Here we described the mechanism leading to the shifted luminosities. The cosmological and inherent LTTs result from different mechanisms of emission of photons by cosmic objects because of annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs into two photons. The inherent LTT is produced by accretion discs whereas the cosmological LTT concerns the supernovae. Contrary to SST, within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we cannot explain the origin of the shifted luminosity of quasars with strictly defined redshifts so the GR cosmology is only an approximate description of the expanding Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1098] **viXra:1701.0660 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-29 04:30:35*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. submitted to General Relativity and Gravitation

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric metric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. These solutions require the introduction of non-trivial
areal-radial functions and are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. This construction allows to borrow the results over the past two decades pertaining the study of the Renormalization Group (RG) improvement of Einstein's equations which was based on the possibility that Quantum Einstein Gravity might be non-perturbatively renormalizable and asymptotically safe due to the presence of interacting (non-Gaussian) ultraviolet fixed points. The particular areal-radial function that eliminates the interior of a black hole, and furnishes a truly static metric solution everywhere, is used to establish the desired energy-scale relation $ k = k (r) $ which is obtained from the $k$ (energy) dependent modifications to the running Newtonian coupling $G (k) $, cosmological constant $\Lambda (k) $ and spacetime metric $g_{ij, (k) } (x)$. (Anti) de Sitter-Schwarzschild metrics are explored as examples and we find signatures of ultraviolet/infrared entanglement involving the observed cosmological constant. We conclude with a discussion of the role that Asymptotic Safety might have in the geometry of phase spaces (cotangent bundles of spacetime); i.e. namely, in establishing a quantum spacetime geometry/classical phase geometry correspondence $g_{ij, (k) } (x) \leftrightarrow g_{ij} (x, E) $.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1097] **viXra:1701.0656 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-29 02:30:56*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Fate has me doing the reverse of what "viXra Info" says (http://vixra.org/info). It states, "Acceptance onto viXra is just a first step which needs to be followed up by submitting to a journal …" I first sent this article to a couple of journals, got rejected, then – to secure my place as the first submitter of these ideas (as far as I know) - I adapted it for "The founders of viXra (who) believe that the universal right of free speech applies to all works of science and all researchers should be allowed to place their ideas in public view for scrutiny."
For decades, I've had an unshakeable belief in physics' Unification of everything in space and time. This caused me to decide that topological materials on Earth, and topological fields surrounding some astronomical bodies, must co-exist with a universal topology. This leads to a non-expanding universe. Edwin Hubble, the astronomer credited with discovery of cosmic expansion, always believed "expanding models are a forced interpretation of the observational results." A topological cosmology allows us to, in his words, "find ourselves in the presence of one of the principles of nature that is still unknown to us today". (see "Effects of Red Shifts on the Distribution of Nebulae" by E. Hubble, Ap. J., 84, 517, 1936).
The subjects of unification and topology should be of interest to nonspecialists because a) the trend of modern physics is towards finding a unified theory (new physics) that explains everything – matter from the subatomic to the cosmic scale, all forces, quantum mechanics, relativity, and b) the subject of topology won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2016. Also included is a subsection proposing the existence of zero compactified dimensions with 8 macroscopic dimensions (5 of space, 3 of time), and solution of the dark energy and dark matter problems by reference to gravitation and the Complex Number Plane made physical.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1096] **viXra:1701.0644 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-28 05:05:24*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 55 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

I discovered a new Gravitation theory after I realized that Einstein Gravitation theory is a wrong theory!
“Mass does not bend space”
Adrian Ferent
“The gravitons emitted by a black hole do not follow the curvature created by the black hole, because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Einstein field equations are wrong.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Mass does not bend space.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Gravitational waves are NOT ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves with the speed of light.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because Einstein equivalence principle is wrong.
Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong because is limited to the speed of light.
Because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong, these pictures are wrong!
All physicists did not understand Gravitation; they followed Einstein Gravitation theory in the last 100 years.
Physicists discovered wrong theories like String theory, LQG…they tried to unify the forces of nature with Einstein Gravitation theory, a wrong theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1095] **viXra:1701.0639 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-27 13:45:38*

**Authors:** Gerhard Jan Smit, Jelle Ebel van der Schoot

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this article a particle will be presented through which all forces are explained in a satisfactory way. It concerns the so-called dimensional basic (db). After much reflection, Gerhard Jan Smit and Jelle Ebel van der Schoot are of the opinion that with this theory, the foundation of the observed particles and forces has been found.
The accompanying formula is:
In the formula Kr = curvature, x,y,z are coordinates in space/time.
Implications:
- The observed cosmic redshift is a gravitational redshift;
- the cosmic background is formed through the mutual interactions of the 1-db-particles;
- neutron consists -notwithstanding the current insights- of a foursome of quarks (2 quarks up, 2 quarks down);
- complex particles -rationalized from the basis- can be mathematically determined and simulated;
- the entanglement of particles is caused by curvatures, changes that one of the “partner-particles” experiences will instantaneously be transmitted to the other “partner-particle”;
- electromagnetic fields around energized wires are being caused by aspirating 1-db particles. By winding of an energized wire in a coil the electromagnetic fields are being cumulated, this resulting in the fields as observed around an energized coil.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1094] **viXra:1701.0622 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-26 11:03:48*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Is F-theory somehow related to the fact that 5^9 divides the order of the monster group? Is Milgrom underestimated by most astrophysicists? Does the Koide formula suggest that string vibrations are confined to 3 copies of the Leech lattice? Is Lestone’s heuristic string theory somehow related to the fact that 7^6 divides the order of the monster group? I say that my 3 most important ideas are: (1) Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. (2) The Koide formula is essential for understanding the foundations of physics. (3) Lestone’s heuristic string theory is essential for understanding the foundations of physics. Do most physicists agree with me concerning the preceding 3 ideas? No, but the passage of time should settle the status of each of the 3 ideas. For the sake of argument, let us assume that Milgrom’s MOND is empirically valid and that conventional physics cannot explain MOND. I have speculated that MOND is explained by the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect and by string theory with the finite nature hypothesis. It seems to me that my previous attempts at explaining a multiverse model for MOND are somewhat unsatisfactory. In this communication I speculate on how the geometry of strings and branes might be a smoothing of a Wolframian model involving the monster group and the 6 pariah groups. I also attempt to clarify my speculation on how the Fernández-Rañada-Milgrom effect might explain the flyby anomaly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1093] **viXra:1701.0619 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-25 17:22:50*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived formula that converts the SST spatial distance to the SST light travel time that for redshift up to 0.6415 is about 14 - 17% longer than the General Relativity (GR) light travel time. It causes that the Type Ia supernovae are fainter than they should be - it leads to an illusion of acceleration of the expansion of the Universe about 6 - 7 Gyr ago. SST shows that in reality, to describe correctly the expansion of the Universe, we must take into account the initial conditions for the expansion, the mechanisms of creation of photons and the quantum entanglement of photons in pairs of them. We showed that there is a stepwise change in the light travel time for redshift about 0.64 - it suggests that there is not a smooth transition from the near Universe to distant Universe - it is inconsistent with GR. The GR formula correctly describes galaxies in the same spatial distance moving with different recessional velocities i.e. concerns the distant Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1092] **viXra:1701.0599 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-24 05:41:22*

**Authors:** Furkan Semih Dündar, Barış Tamer Tonguç

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Supercedes arXiv:1511.09197

A model universe is analyzed where there is only electrical force between protons and electrons in the context of quantum shape kinematics. A similar model where there is only gravitational attraction between masses was investigated by Barbour, Koslowski and Mercati before. Our results is an expansion of the ideas there. It is found that for $N\geq 3$ particles, with at least one of them oppositely charged, absolute space emerges if the spin degrees of freedoms are neglected as it is the case for a classical observer.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1091] **viXra:1701.0580 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-23 11:48:53*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Cosmologists trying to understand how to unite the two pillars of modern science – quantum physics and gravity – have found a new way to make robust predictions about the effect of quantum fluctuations on primordial density waves, ripples in the fabric of space and time. [12] Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1090] **viXra:1701.0566 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-22 00:43:19*

**Authors:** Tufail Abbas

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Keywords: Space, Time, Energy, Charge, Perception of Vision, Dimensions, Rest Velocity, Cubic Lattice.

This paper proposes an introductory conceptual framework for developing explanation about the Universe based upon stationery cubic lattice structure arranged as infinite matrix of infinitesimal cubes. The space and time moves through this lattice resulting into all mass, charge and energy that we see. It is envisioned that through developing of this model based upon base lattice structure it would be possible to express all physical properties (i.e. space, time, energy, charge, momentum, temperature, velocity, force etc.) , in terms of the geometric parameters (i.e. length, surface area, volume, angle, orientation, cycles) of the base structure. Physical reality being a function of perception, the paper discusses our general understanding of perception (of vision in particular), to make interpretations regarding the nature of observable reality and understanding about dimensions, based upon reasoning. Based upon these interpretation, concept of “velocity at rest”is introduced, which is envisioned to provide an explanation about rest mass and gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1089] **viXra:1701.0560 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-21 14:57:21*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters, Colin James III

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

The possible presence of further dimensions hidden in our three-dimensional-plus time world might help to elucidate countless physical and biological systems’ behaviors, from quantum entanglement to brain function. Nevertheless, suggestions concerning multidimensional arrangement of physical and biological systems do not deserve the role of scientific claims, unless the suggested additional dimensions can be verified via empirically testable hypotheses and through experimental apparatus. Here we suggest that the widespread nonlinear dynamics and chaotic behavior of physical and biological collective systems might mirror further dimensions hidden in our world. Indeed, bringing together disparate knowledge from seemingly unrelated fields (brane cosmology, fluid dynamics, algebraic topology, computational topology, dynamic systems theory, logic and statistical mechanics), we show how, in logistic maps derived from nonlinear dynamical equations, the typical bifurcation diagrams might arise from linear flow paths, that intersect large-sized hidden dimensions at the canonical phase parameter’s values between three and four. Therefore, chaotic dynamics suggests the existence of a further hidden dimension in our Universe. We also provide a thermodynamic framework which suggests that the cosmic entropy is encompassed in a multidimensional manifold.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1088] **viXra:1701.0545 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-19 12:19:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 11 Pages. submitted to JHEPGC for review

We examine the role of particle nucleation in the initial universe, and argue that there is a small effect due to particle nucleation in terms of lowering initial temperature, in tandem with energy density and scale factor contributions. If such scaling exists as a major order effect, then quenching of temperature proportional to a vacuum nucleation at or before the electro weak era is heavily influenced by a number, n, which is either a quantum number (quantum cosmology) or a ‘particle count before the electro weak era. If the supposition is for a particle count, say of gravitons from a prior universe to today's universe, initially, we can compare via a thermodynamic argument compared as to a modified Heisenberg uncertainty principle as to what this says about particle count information, we have a richer cosmological picture to contend with. We close with a speculation as to how a quantum teleportation picture for Pre- Planckian space-time physics may influence our physics discussion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1087] **viXra:1701.0524 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-17 04:12:19*

**Authors:** Terrence J. McMahon

**Comments:** 32 Pages.

Unification of the physical constants is announced, where gravity, quantum theory, and general relativity are linked via new physics. Unification involves a new, combined ‘gravito-electromagnetic’ constant, linked via Pi and Phi (the golden mean). All constants, most of which are found to run at high energies, are related via this expression. Energy, mass, and the gravitational constant are explained in those terms. The photon constant runs inversely to the gravitational constant, while both are united via a running fine-structure constant. Mass is not conserved, running with energy. Energy however is conserved. Space is a superconductor, where photons have mass. The Hubble constant is redefined, providing an alternative cause for red-shifting of photon wavelengths. A brief discussion of these findings offers an explanation via a new cosmological model that does not require inflation, singularities, dark energy, exotic dark matter, or supersymmetry. Anomalies in the Standard Model are explained. Suitable candidates are described for the cosmological constant, and mass density parameter. The Universe is found to be closed. Planck units run, and the Planck constant is calculated from theory, differing by 0.2%, as is the von Klitzing constant. Magnetic permeability, electric permittivity, and wave impedance are calculated from theory here, differing from accepted values (defined by convention) by just 0.2%. The fine structure, gravitational, and Hubble constants are defined, with accuracy for the latter two improved to 10 significant figures. These data described are all in excellent agreement with the Planck survey (2015) results. New, related constants are discussed. A novel explanation is introduced to explain the mass ratio between an electron and a proton. Predictions are made for future values of the principal running constants. These discoveries have substantial consequences for the Standard Model.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1086] **viXra:1701.0513 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-16 06:25:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 14 Pages. Submitted to the IJGMMP.

Starting with the study of the geometry on the cotangent bundle (phase space), it is shown that the maximal proper force condition, in the case of a uniformly accelerated observer of mass $m$ along the $x$ axis, leads to a minimum value of $x$ lying $inside$ the Rindler wedge and given by the black hole horizon radius $ 2Gm$. Whereas in the uniform circular motion case, we find that the maximal proper force condition implies that the radius of the circle cannot exceed the value of the horizon radius $2Gm$. A correspondence is found between the black hole horizon radius and a singularity in the curvature of momentum space. The fact that the geometry (metric) in phase spaces is observer dependent (on the momentum of the massive particle/observer) indicates further that the matter stress energy tensor and vacuum energy in the underlying spacetime may admit an interpretation in terms of the curvature in momentum spaces. Consequently, phase space geometry seems to be the proper arena for a space-time-matter unification.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1085] **viXra:1701.0498 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 09:24:28*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to its source or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). It causes that the spatial distances to galaxies differ from the time distances (the light travel time) - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity leads to the running Hubble constant. According to SST, for the nearest Universe, the time Hubble constant is 70.52. SST gives for mean time Hubble constant 64.01 - it should be the mean observed Hubble constant when we apply the General Relativity (GR) to the whole observed Universe. If we neglect some part of distant Universe then the GR/observed time Hubble constant should be defined by following interval <64.01, 70.52>. But emphasize that the real mean spatial Hubble constant calculated within SST is 45.24. It leads to the age of Universe 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but time distance to most distant observed Universe cannot be longer than 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. SST shows that evolution of galaxies accelerated about 13.1 Gyr ago - it leads to an illusion that cosmic objects are not older than 13.1 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1084] **viXra:1701.0494 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-15 00:36:12*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith, Stepan Moshkaliuk

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Last version of a paper cleared by referees in the Ukranian Journal of Physics. Subsequently accepted for Publication, after 1 year of vetting

We examine conditions for which energy flows in the early universe are modeled as a quantum Hamilton-Jacobi set of equations. Subsequently, we manage to use the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle for metric tensors based upon are Geometrodynamics treatment of our problem

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1083] **viXra:1701.0480 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-13 09:35:22*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Magnetic field for relic graviton production linked to strength, initially, of inflaton

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1082] **viXra:1701.0465 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-11 12:53:58*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures. Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,max) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,max) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data. We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium. We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1081] **viXra:1701.0335 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 16:44:39*

**Authors:** Jérémy Kerneis

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

We use three postulates P1, P2a/b and P3 :
Combining P1 and P2a with "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" correspond to the original quan-
tum theory of Hydrogen, which produces the correct relativistic energy levels for atoms (Sommerfeld's and Dirac's theories of matter produces the same energy levels, and Schrodinger's theory produces the approximation of those energy levels). P3 can be found in Schrodinger's famous paper introducing his equation, P3 being his first assumption (a second assumption, suppressed here, is required to deduce his equation). P3 implies that the wavefunction solution of both Schrodinger's and Klein-Gordon's equations in the non interacting case while, in the interacting case, it immediatly implies "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" : P1, P2a,
and P3 then produce the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms, and we check that the required degeneracy is justied by pure deduction, without any other assumption (Schrodinger's theory only justies one half of the degeneracy).
We observe that the introduction of an interaction in P1 is equivalent to a
modication of the metric inside the wavefunction in P3, such that the equation of motion of a system can be
deduced with two dierent methods, with or without the metric. Replacing the electromagnetic potential P2a by the suggested gravitationnal potential P2b, the equation of motion (deduced in two ways) is equivalent to the equation of motion of General Relativity in the low field approximation (with accuracy 10-6 at the surface of the Sun). We have no coordinate singularity inside the metric. Other motions can be obtained by modifying P2b, the theory is adaptable.
First of all, we discuss classical Kepler problems (Newtonian motion of the Earth around the Sun), explain the link between Kelpler law of periods (1619) and Plank's law (1900) and observe the links between all historical models of atoms (Bohr, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Schrodinger, Dirac, Fock). This being done, we introduce P1, P2a/b, and P3 to then describe electromagnetism
and gravitation in the same formalism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1080] **viXra:1701.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-08 22:27:43*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We are looking at what if the initial cosmological constant is due to if we furthermore use as the variation of the time component of the metric tensor in Pre-Planckian Space-time up to the Planckian space-time initial values. This assumes as an initial inflaton value, as well as employing NonLinear Electrodynamics to the scale factor in ,the upshot is an expression for as an initial inflaton value / squared which supports Corda’s assumptions in the ‘Gravity’s breath Electronic Journal of theoretical physics article. We close with an idea to be worked in further detail as to density matrices and how it may relate to gravitons traversing from a Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time regime. An idea we will write up in far greater detail in a future publication

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1079] **viXra:1701.0322 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-07 10:21:42*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 51 Pages. © 2016 Adrian Ferent

“Dark Energy is Gravitational Waves”
Adrian Ferent
“The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v ”
Adrian Ferent
“Because the momentum is negative, the relativistic mass -m of the graviton is negative!”
Adrian Ferent
The causes of Planck universe to expand faster:
-The Ferent universe with supermassive black holes is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe.
-The negative pressure created by gravitons inside the Planck universe, is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe.
-Not the Dark energy is speeding up the expansion of Planck universe, because Dark energy does not exist.
“Dark Energy is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
The title is ‘Dark Energy is Gravitational Waves, Dark Energy is Gravitons’ because my Gravitation theory is completely different than Einstein’s Gravitation theory where
Gravitational waves are ripples in the curvature of spacetime that propagate as waves with the speed of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1078] **viXra:1701.0292 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-05 10:03:01*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Physicists have performed a test designed to investigate the effects of the expansion of the universe—hoping to answer questions such as "does the expansion of the universe affect laboratory experiments?", "might this expansion change the lengths of solid objects and the time measured by atomic clocks differently, in violation of Einstein's equivalence principle?", and "does spacetime have a foam-like structure that slightly changes the speed of photons over time?", an idea that could shed light on the connection between general relativity and quantum gravity. [11] Einstein's equivalence principle states that an object in gravitational free fall is physically equivalent to an object that is accelerating with the same amount of force in the absence of gravity. This principle lies at the heart of general relativity and has been experimentally tested many times. Now in a new paper, scientists have experimentally demonstrated a conceptually new way to test the equivalence principle that could detect the effects of a relatively new concept called spin-gravity coupling. [10] A recent peer-reviewed paper by physicist James Franson from the University of Maryland in the US has initiated a stir among physics community. Issued in the New Journal of Physics, the paper points to evidence proposing that the speed of light as defined by the theory of general relativity, is slower than originally thought. [9] Gravitational time dilation causes decoherence of composite quantum systems. Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1077] **viXra:1701.0219 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 11:55:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that there were the 133.27 e-folds of the smooth SST inflation. On the other hand, SST leads to conclusion that the inflation of the Cosmos, which is about 4 orders of magnitude bigger than the present-day Universe, was separated in time from the expansion of the Universe. The CMB was produced when there dominated the electromagnetic and weak interactions - it leads to the SST CMB spectral index of 0.96666 which is consistent with the index that results from the Planck-satellite 2015 data (0.968 +- 0.006). But the SST CMB spectral index is 3 orders of magnitude more accurate so future more accurate observational data should show whether the SST cosmology is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1076] **viXra:1701.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-01-03 06:26:26*

**Authors:** Angel Garcés Doz

**Comments:** 117 Pages.

1) Using the partition function for a system in thermodynamic equilibrium; and replacing the energy-Beta factor (Beta = 1/[Boltzmann constant x temperature]) by the imaginary parts of the nontrivial zeros Riemann's zeta function; It is obtained, a function that equals the value of elementary electric charge and the square root of the product of the Planck mass, the electron mass, and the constant of universal gravitation.
2) Using this same partition function (thermodynamic equilibrium) the Planck constant (Planck mass squared, multiplied by the constant of universal gravitation) is calculated with complete accuracy; As a direct function of the square of the quantized constant elementary electric charge.
These two fundamental equations imply the existence of a repulsive acceleration of the quantum vacuum. As a direct consequence of this repulsive acceleration of the quantum vacuum; The repulsive energy of the quantum vacuum is directly derived from the general relativity equation for critical density.
As a consequence of this repulsive acceleration, we establish provisional equations that allow us to calculate with enough approximation the speed of rotation within the galaxies; As well as the diameter of galaxies and clusters of galaxies.
To obtain this results, completely accurate; several initial hypotheses are established. These hypotheses could say, that become physical-mathematical theorems, when they are demonstrated by empirical data. Among others, it is calculated accurately baryon density as well as the mass density.
Hypothesis-axioms are demonstrated by their practical application for the empirical calculation of baryon density, antimatter-matter asymmetry factor, Higgs vacuum value, Higgs boson mass (mh1), and mass prediction of Quark stop, about 745-750 GeV. This boson would not have been discovered because its decay would be hidden by the almost equal masses of the particles involved in the decay. We think that this type of hidden decay is a general feature of supersymmetry.
The physico-mathematical concept of quantum entropy (entropy of information) acquires a fundamental relevance in the axiomatization of the theories of unification.
Another fundamental consequence is that time would be an emergent dimension in the part of the universe called real (finite limit velocities). In the part of the virtual universe and not observable; The time would be canceled, would acquire the value t = 0.This property would explain the instantaneity of the change of correlated observables of interlaced particles; And the instantaneous collapse of the wave function, once it is disturbed (measured, observed with energy transmission to the observed or measured system).
To get a zero time, special relativity must be extended to hyperbolic geometries (virtual quantum wormholes). This natural generalization implies the existence of infinite speeds, on the strict condition of zero energy and zero time (canceled). This has a direct relationship with soft photons and soft gravitons with zero energy, from the radiation of a black hole; And that they would solve the problem of the loss of information of the black holes.
The main equation of unification of electromagnetism and gravitation; It seems necessarily imply the existence of wormholes, as geometrical manifestation of hyperboloid of one sheet, and two sheets. In the concluding chapter we discuss this point; and others highly relevants.
The relativistic invariance of elementary quantized electric charge is automatically derived.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1075] **viXra:1612.0396 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 13:16:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that due to the needed very high resolution of a computer simulating the initial big bang and next the evolution of our Cosmos, we and our Cosmos cannot be a computer simulation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1074] **viXra:1612.0391 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 10:09:32*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the big bang (the superluminal inflation) was separated in time from the “soft” big bang of the Universe. During the inflation (it lasted about 67 powers of ten times shorter than a second) there was no time for the three Standard-Model interactions i.e. electromagnetism, weak interactions, and the nuclear strong interactions - such interactions need much longer time. During the inflation baryons were not created. There were created only the neutrino-antineutrino pairs that are the components of the Einstein spacetime (ES). It was because the interactions of the entanglons the neutrinos consist of were due to the inflation field i.e. due to the non-gravitating tachyons moving with speed about 97 powers of ten m/s. It means that the time of interactions of the ES components in distance equal to the Planck length is about 132 powers of ten times shorter than a second. SST shows that first baryons were created at the end of the inflation because of the collapse of the external layer of the ES - there was created more baryons than antibaryons because initially the inflation field had the left-handed helicity. Due to the return shock wave, there were created additional baryons in the centre of the Cosmos.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1073] **viXra:1612.0386 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-28 21:28:31*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

I consider the standard model, together with a preon version of it, to search for unifying principles between quantum particles and general relativity. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions alone. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Conformal symmetry is seen to improve quantization in loop quantum gravity. The Einstein-Cartan theory with torsion is analyzed suggesting structure in spacetime below the Cartan scale. A toy model for black hole constituents is proposed. Higgs metastability hints at cyclic conformal cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1072] **viXra:1612.0382 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-29 01:37:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), visible mass (or baryonic mass) of most massive disc galaxies is about 0.85 multiplied by both 12 powers of ten and the solar mass. Calculated within SST the mean baryonic mass of discs of dwarf galaxies produced by such massive galaxies is 5.2 multiplied by both 7 powers of ten and the solar mass. The calculated within SST mean orbital speed of stars in such dwarf galaxies, which results from the interactions of stars with the dark-matter (DM) structures, is about 37 km/s. SST shows that the total number of dwarf galaxies in the early Universe should be about 2.2 multiplied by 12 powers of ten and should decrease with time because of their mergers and due to their absorption by the nearby massive galaxies (massive galaxies have mass higher than about 11 powers of ten multiplied by the solar mass and there should be a massive black hole in their centre). In the early Universe there should be about 1000 times more the dwarf galaxies than the massive galaxies. Contrary to the mainstream cosmology, SST shows that number of massive galaxies in the observed Universe should not depend on time i.e. it is an invariant. SST shows that we should not observe a smooth field of first stars or smooth field of first dwarf galaxies free from the massive galaxies. Moreover, reionization is an illusory phenomenon which follows from the “transition” of galaxies from the unseen period of evolution to the observed period - it took place in the time distance about 13.8 Gyr. All theoretical results obtained in this paper are consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1071] **viXra:1612.0363 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-27 17:44:54*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

There is a high tension finest-filament-thread particle field in space .

Everything is connected by the particle field and it moves along with largest mass in proximity (something like what gravitational fields would be doing).

A good 2-D model would be something like a spiders web (individual thread lengths are approximately one Ångström).

Now imagine an infinite 3-D spiders web. If a vibration was set off in it, it would travel forever and the speed the vibrations travel (through the net) is the speed of light (that's actually what light is, a vibration traveling through a finest filament thread particle field)

The speed vibrations travel through the particle field is the speed of light "c"

The particle field threads have a certain amount of tension, length and mass. That makes 'c' the speed it is. If the tension, length or mass changed so would 'c'

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1070] **viXra:1612.0355 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-26 21:38:18*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 24812.8074479 ohms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1069] **viXra:1612.0333 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-24 15:02:25*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

We look at two action integrals for the early universe. One action integral as specified by Ambjorn, et.al, 2010 is part of a quantum gravity as a sum over space-time results and another is by Padmanabhan, in 2005 gives an action integral in terms of the Cosmological Constant prominently in, as a way to obtain the Einstein Equations in general relativity. The procedure in our derivation is to say that both first integrals in the Pre-Planckian space-time are giving the same ‘information’ and from there to utilize an equivalence between these two first integrals as to interpret what the Lagrangian multiplier in the Abjorn et.al. first integral is saying. In addition we interpret the Ricci scalar, in the Padmabhan first integral in terms of a treatment given by Majumbdar, 2015, which has the value of being rendered in terms of scalar factors a(t). In doing so, we utilize the physical interpretation of a Lagrangian multiplier, as given by Karrabulet which is in terms of minimum conditions needed for affecting the physics (of cosmological expansion of the universe) from first principles
Key words, Ricci tensor, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1068] **viXra:1612.0326 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 19:46:30*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron. The value predicted is calculated from calculations for the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron(1) and the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron(2). The predicted value for the mass ratio of the proton to the electron is 1836.15267393 compared to the Codata value of 1836.15267389(17)
These values predicted are a continuation of Michael John Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory of Everything.
He has worked to develop a model for the structure of the universe. This model is developed empirically from the fundamental constants and the laws of force of physics. It is a model that tries to be the start of a Theory of Everything that proposes a granular space-time that is almost discrete and almost continuous. Gravity and Charge are united under one structure. Elementary charge is determine to be a function of the fundamental constants and the ratios of the proton mass to the neutron mass and the electron to the neutron mass. This paper takes the theories of Michael John Sarnowski and proposes a mass ratio of the proton to the electron and proposes a value that is more accurate than the current values. This prediction, will eventually be able to be tested, possibly by 2030 as the mass ratios are known more accurately and the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure constant is known more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1067] **viXra:1612.0324 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-23 14:04:46*

**Authors:** Elkin Igor Vladimirovich

**Comments:** 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

With the help of general relativity and the principle of least action, we get the formula of interaction of two charged particles. The formula includes the speed of light. The gravitational field of two bodies changes the metric, it describes the general relativity. According to Einstein, the speed of light in a small local area in a gravitational field - there is a function of distance. Therefore, according to the formula interaction force on the repulsion of the particles (like charge) is less than the force approached exactly the same particles (charged differently). The bodies are made up of such particles and therefore always attract. From this is derived the inertia of a body.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1066] **viXra:1612.0318 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-21 22:06:41*

**Authors:** Julian Williams

**Comments:** 50 Pages. Feedback is most welcome for both papers as they overlap and follow one another

We continue the theme from the first paper of building all the fundamental Standard Model particles from infinite superpositions. The borrowed energy for cosmic wavelength gravitons requires the universe to expand and spacetime to warp around mass concentrations. We used a simplified approach initially which agreed with an infinitesimally modified General Relativity. In this paper we address those simplifications and find a mass/radius squared term (in Planck units) in the metric, which appears to clash with General Relativity but only near black holes. This may relate with the possibility of echoes in the Gravitational Waves at merger recently speculated. We also address the Kerr metric (which is also slightly modified) and briefly look at Gravitational Waves in this paper.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1065] **viXra:1612.0302 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-20 03:53:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When charged particles travel faster than light, they emit Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the nucleons. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1064] **viXra:1612.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-11 17:00:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that physical vibrations/rotations/translations cannot be separated from a physical volume i.e. from at least an inertial mass or from the Principle-of-Equivalence (PoE) matter. It should concern the photons and gluons as well. On the other hand, it is argued that a mass of photon causes that its speed is lower than the speed of light in “vacuum” c and depends on its frequency, causes that the Coulomb law is modified, that gauge invariance and charge conservation are not valid, and so on. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the listed above arguments against a massive photon are unfounded. The PoE mass of the present-day photons calculated within SST is about 27 orders of magnitude lower than the rest mass of electron and is invariant (the c is the natural speed of the massive photons in spacetime and is invariant as well) so this result is below the upper limit for photon mass that results from experimental data. We show also that relativistic mass is a real physical quantity, not an artefact/unreal-thing. SST shows that the inner momentum associated with spin and the spin itself, not the rest mass, are the invariants for all frames of reference assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime (SST shows that contrary to the gravitational fields associated with the non-gravitating Higgs field, the Einstein spacetime associated with the PoE matter is indeed flat and dominates over the Higgs field). It leads to conclusion that the energy-momentum relation is still valid but it fails when we consider the structural changes in the bare fermions dependent on their speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1063] **viXra:1612.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-08 02:14:53*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

What determines the mass of particles like the muon and tauon? No, reasonable, mainstream model, has been predictive the mass of particles. Michael John Sarnowski’s empirical equations for the proton and electron use an equation that shows that a resonant frequency created by a resonance between bremsstrahlung and Cherenkov like radiation and the ratio of orbital energy ratios.(1) In those two papers the masses of the electron and proton are due one of the solutions the resonances. In addition a small fraction of the proton mass is due to relativistic effects of most of the electron, a small fraction of the electron is due to relativistic effects of the second solution to the mass equation of the proton. In “Evidence for Granular Granulated Spacetime it is shown that charge is directly dependent on the mass ratio of the electron to neutron and the proton to the neutron(2). These empirical equations are accurate to the CODATA values for the mass ratios of the electron to the neutron and the proton to the neutron. Also this equations are also predictive for the value for elementary charge. The following paper shows that the mass ratios of the muon to the neutron and the tauon to the neutron can be calculated from both solutions to resonant equation of a Cherenkov like radiation and Bremsstrahlung type radiation. These mass ratios are also accurate to the CODATA values for these two particles and are likely predictive of more accurate measurements of these particles in the future.
What is unique for the muon-neutron and tauon-neutron is that the mass ratios of the use the same resonance and use one of the solutions for the resonance of the proton to the neutron mass ratio. The consistent use of resonances, consistent use of mass ratios to the neutron, and consistent interdependence of the mass ratios of particles indicates that the developing model is consistent and hints at underlying structure to space-time.
When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of both the muon and tauon to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(4), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1062] **viXra:1612.0068 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 17:31:41*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1061] **viXra:1612.0056 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-05 08:49:11*

**Authors:** René Friedrich

**Comments:** 7 pages - An updated version of this paper may be found at viXra:1701.0676

The well-proven principles of general relativity are permitting the derivation of the answer to the eighty-year-old question how general relativity may harmonize with quantum mechanics.
The key to the solution is a retrieval of the twofold nature of time, that is an absolute time concept on the one hand which is underlying the relative, observer-dependent concept of spacetime on the other hand.
The attempts to quantize spacetime revealed to imply big difficulties. We will show that the reason for these problems is the structure of space and time, and that quantum gravity must happen on particle level.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1060] **viXra:1612.0027 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-02 09:56:16*

**Authors:** Grisha Filippov

**Comments:** Pages.

The non-relativistic regime of quantum gravity, as shown in this paper, can be found in the assumption of the existence of Fundamental length L. See Page 14 IN THIS PAPER.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1059] **viXra:1612.0003 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 06:48:44*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

I assume that the readers of this article have read the Wikipedia article entitled “Aether theories”: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Aether¬_theories. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we derived the speed of light in “vacuum” c and speed of quantum entanglement from the beginning (ab initio). The derivation shows that the mainstream interpretation of the invariant c is incomplete and that the Michelson-Morley experiment cannot be considered to be the first strong evidence against the aether theory. We still cannot calculate the half-integral spin of proton within the 3-valence-quarks model - it is the “proton spin crisis”. Experiments suggest that the total proton spin carried by quarks can be consistent with almost zero. Is the quark model of proton partially incorrect? Here we show the origin of the spin asymmetry in deep inelastic muon-proton scattering that leads to the proton spin crisis. SST shows that inside baryons there are produced the quark-antiquark pairs but there are not single valence quarks because contrary to the electric charges of proton and electron, the electric charges of quarks are highly unstable. SST shows that spin of proton is carried by orbital angular momentums of the carriers of gluons. The third main absurd idea is that pure/massless energy (for example vibrations) can propagate without some aether composed of physical/non-zero-volume particles. In reality, elementary energies are carried by the components of the Planck scale and by the components of the two scales below it.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1058] **viXra:1612.0001 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-12-01 03:46:44*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[978] **viXra:1705.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-22 20:56:40*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, August T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 1 Page. revision of some text in diagram

A semiotic model of a "Theory of Everything" in the general form of a tetrahedron is presented, with a short explanatory text.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[977] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-05-03 09:25:54*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages. 5th ed (engl); requested equations format and font revised, nil change to theory.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement, finally explaining the idea of “inflation theory” as a feature of the Golden ratio equation for time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[976] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-30 10:45:41*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement, finally explaining the idea of “inflation theory” as a feature of the Golden ratio equation for time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[975] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 04:50:07*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 18 Pages. This third edition includes light cone, electron shell, and quantum entanglement modelling, completing what was initially intended to be two separate papers.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress, ultimately as the development of electron shell modelling precisely to the Rydberg formula and associated ideas of quantum entanglement.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[974] **viXra:1704.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-15 08:38:12*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A new approach to understanding the fundamental particles and associated forces via a new a-priori definition for space and time is forwarded, and is then linked to contemporary equations for Gravity and Electromagnetism; space as an infinitesimal universal “0”-scalar manifold, and “time” as the “feature” that divides and “qualifies” each 0-scalar spatial reference is discussed. Further, the idea of gravity as an emergent quality of electromagnetism (which here is given the spectra of “time” itself) is examined by assuming 3-dimensional space as the “fine-structure 0-scalar manifold” while considering "time" as the “symmetry-breaking” principle of entropy “effecting” space. Consequently, the fundamental idea of an "equation" from one event in time to the next is rendered unreliable owing to the nature of the movement of time and its effect on space (as a process of “symmetry-breaking”), which then opens to a new mathematical method of applying the concept of time as the “Golden Ratio” equation to spatial transformations. By this process a link between gravity and electromagnetism is established, together with an explanation for the genesis of the four field forces via explaining atomic particle congress.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[973] **viXra:1704.0100 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-28 15:19:51*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

With recent detection of gravitational waves, the possibility exists that orientation-dependent detector responses might permit distinguishing between general relativity and gauge theory gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[972] **viXra:1704.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-07 06:07:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem is a serious problem in particle physics and cosmology so a solution to this problem should lead to new physics. The value of cosmological constant is about 120 orders of magnitude too low than it should be. Here we showed that today the vacuum energy is about 119 orders of magnitude lower than it should be (in the Planck units or as a dimensionless quantity) because the superluminal pure inertial energy (it means that the gravitational energy is equal to zero) is frozen inside the stable-neutrinos/gravitational-charges and is about 119 orders of magnitude higher than the indirectly observed gravitational energy. We showed here that geometric mean of the Planck mass of neutrinos and the very low particle mass of neutrinos leads to the CMB/cosmological mass of neutrinos observed in experiments. The vice versa should be correct as well so the Planck mass and the sum of the experimental CMB/cosmological masses of different neutrinos lead to the very low particle mass of neutrinos so it leads to new physics as well. The Planck mass of neutrinos, which is associated with maximum rotation of their spin, solves the hierarchy problem as well. Quasars (a torus with a central condensate), which are the objects with high gravitational-mass density, can be the big cousins of the gravitational charge but of the weak and electromagnetic charges also. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), such a structure is characteristic for bare fermions – such a structure radically simplifies theories in particle physics and cosmology. The similarity of different scales leads to new physics also. There are two stable vacua (Higgs field and Einstein spacetime) so the physical constants are invariant. Pure energies, i.e. without inertial mass or inertial and gravitational masses, are not in existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[971] **viXra:1704.0055 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-06 06:32:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The cosmological constant problem is a serious problem in particle physics and cosmology so a solution to this problem should lead to new physics. The value of cosmological constant is about 120 orders of magnitude too low than it should be. Here we showed that today the vacuum energy is about 119 orders of magnitude lower than it should be (in the Planck units or as a dimensionless quantity) because the superluminal pure inertial energy (it means that the gravitational energy is equal to zero) is frozen inside the stable-neutrinos/gravitational-charges and is about 119 orders of magnitude higher than the indirectly observed gravitational energy. We showed here that geometric mean of the Planck mass of neutrinos and the very low particle mass of neutrinos leads to the CMB/cosmological mass of neutrinos observed in experiments. The vice versa should be correct as well so the Planck mass and the sum of the experimental CMB/cosmological masses of different neutrinos lead to the very low particle mass of neutrinos so it leads to new physics as well. The Planck mass of neutrinos, which is associated with maximum rotation of their spin, solves the hierarchy problem as well. Quasars (a torus with a central condensate), which are the objects with high gravitational-mass density, can be the big cousins of the gravitational charge but of the weak and electromagnetic charges also. In the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), such a structure is characteristic for bare fermions – such a structure radically simplifies theories in particle physics and cosmology. The similarity of different scales leads to new physics also. There are two stable vacua (Higgs field and Einstein spacetime) so the physical constants are invariant. Pure energies, i.e. without inertial mass or inertial and gravitational masses, are not in existence.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[970] **viXra:1703.0307 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-02 17:34:33*

**Authors:** Peter Cameron, Michaele Suisse

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Understanding quantum gravity motivates string and loop theorists. Both employ geometric wavefunction models. Gravity enters strings by taking the one fundamental length permitted by quantum field theory to be not the high energy cutoff, rather the Planck length. This comes at a price - string theory cannot be renormalized, and the solutions landscape is effectively infinite. Loop theory seeks only to quantize gravity, with hope that insights gained might inform particle physics. It does so via interactions of two dimensional loops in three-dimensional space. While both approaches offer possibilities not available to Standard Model theorists, it is not unreasonable to suggest that geometric wavefunctions comprised of fundamental geometric objects of three-dimensional space are required for successful models, written in the language of geometric Clifford algebra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[969] **viXra:1703.0182 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-01 10:27:31*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper, the thermokinematics of space-time is formulated. The statistical nature of time is revealed on the basis of the finite volume of the time molecule.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[968] **viXra:1702.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-13 18:45:16*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we show how it is possible to measure the Planck length from a series of different measurements. One of these measurements is totally independent of big G, but requires particle accelerators far more powerful than the ones that we have today. However, a Cavendish-style experiment can be performed to find the Planck length with no knowledge of the value of big G. Not only that, the Cavendish style set-up gives half the relative measurement error in the Planck length compared to the measurement error in big G.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[967] **viXra:1702.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-23 05:43:52*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In this paper we show how it is possible to measure the Planck length from a series of different measurements. One of these measurements is totally independent of big G, but requires particle accelerators far more powerful than the ones that we have today. However, a Cavendish-style experiment can be performed to find the Planck length with no knowledge of the value of big G. Not only that, the Cavendish style set-up gives only half the relative measurement error in the Planck length compared to the measurement error in big G.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[966] **viXra:1702.0263 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-21 04:10:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this paper we show that it is possible to find and measure the Planck length with no knowledge of big G, at least hypothetically. All that is needed to find the Planck length is 1) an observation of the orbital velocity, or the gravitational red-shift or the light deflection, 2) the mass of the object causing the deflection (that in some cases can be found without knowledge of G), 3) the radius , 4) the Planck constant, and 5) the speed of light. This approach strengthens our view that Newton’s big G is a universal composite constant consisting of the Planck length, the Planck constant, and the speed of light. In other words, we can derive big G directly from what we consider more fundamental constants.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[965] **viXra:1702.0107 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-08 17:50:50*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Added 2 equations as to explain how the square of the time derivative of the inflaton is >> Susy potential, explicitly

This paper is to address using what a fluctuation of a metric tensor leads to, in pre Planckian physics, namely. If so then, we pick the conditions for an equality, with a small , to come up with restraints which are in line with modifications of the Friedman equation in a quantum bounce, with removal of the Penrose theorem initial singularity. In line with super negative pressure being applied, so as to understand what we can present as far as H = 0 ( quantum bounce) in terms of density of the Universe. And also considering what to expect when . I.e. we have a negative energy density in Pre Planckian space-time. This leads to a causal discontinuity between Pre Planckian to Planckian space-time due to the sign of the inflaton changing from minus to positive, for reasons brought up in this manuscript. i.e. looking at Eq. (9) , Eq. (10) and Eq. (11) of this document, with explanations as to what is going on physically.
Keywords: Emergent time , metric tensor perturbations, HUP , negative energy density

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[964] **viXra:1702.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-28 03:34:23*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published in: Open Access Library Journal, 4: e3432. https://doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103432

I study the properties of a preon model for the substructure of the the standard model quarks and leptons. The goal is to establish both local and global group representations for the particles of the model. Knot theory algebra SLq(2) is shown to be applicable to the model. Teleparallel gravity is discussed with an interesting result to hadronic physics. A tentative glimpse on quantum gravity is indicated.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[963] **viXra:1702.0047 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-04 05:40:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we listed the basic structures in the Universe at different scales. They are as follows: multi-loop-like structures, condensate-like structures, atom-like structures, and binary systems. We have highlighted the structures that should be discovered or accepted in the future. Black hole with a central singularity and 3-quark model of baryons do not fit into the generalized scheme presented here. There is place for the quarks as the loops.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[962] **viXra:1702.0020 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-26 04:11:24*

**Authors:** Daniel Cordero Grau

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In this paper I lay down the Theory of Quantum Gravity and give out applications to Quantum Cosmology, Quantum High Energy Physics, Quantum Chromodynamics, Quantum Electrodynamics, Quantum Nucleodynamics, Quantum Nuclear Chemistry and Quantum Gravitodynamics

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[961] **viXra:1702.0014 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 01:20:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here I present my comment to an article entitled “Do Dark Matter And Dark Energy Affect Ordinary Atoms?” by Chad Orzel posted on the website of Forbes. Applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we justify that dark energy can be neglected while in the theories of atoms the dark matter plays a significant role and its omission causes that there appear infinities, free parameters, mathematical indeterminate forms - sometimes such messy theories, even though there are free parameters included, lead to results inconsistent with the experimental data, for example, it concerns the magnetic moment of muon calculated within QED.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[960] **viXra:1701.0687 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-31 13:31:27*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Does string theory with the infinite nature hypothesis imply supersymmetry while string theory with the finite nature hypothesis implies Wolframian pseudo-symmetry? I conjecture the Milgrom Denial Hypothesis: The main problem with string theory is that string theorists fail to realize that Milgrom is the Kepler of contemporary cosmology. Is the Koide formula merely a coincidence with little or no significance for physics? Does reality consist of a string landscape with many different string vacua? Consider two approximations: (muon mass)/(electron mass) = 206.7683 and
exp(pi * squareroot(72/25)) – (mass muon)/(mass electron) = –.0288 — so what? Is spacetime 4-dimensional? Is spacetime 26-dimensional? Measurements of spacetime using clocks and surveying instruments demonstrate that spacetime is 4-dimensional. I say that, from one point of view, spacetime is 26-dimensional. 26 dimensions = 1 dimension of matter time + 1 dimension of antimatter time + 24 dimensions of (±, ±, ± )-space. What is (±, ±, ±)-space? For the measurement of space, employ 6 particle beams consisting of 3 electron beams and 3 positron beams. For each dimension of space, employ all 3-tuples of beams selected from the 6 beams. By definition, (±, ±, ±)-space consists of 3 dimensions of ordinary space, each of which is measured in 8 different ways by using all of the possible 3-tuples of the 6 beams. The 24 dimensions of (±, ±, ±)-space reduce to the 3 dimensions of ordinary space because quantum field theory is empirically valid — however, (±, ±, ±)-space might be useful for representational redundancy (because of the role that the Leech lattice plays in the foundations of physics.) This brief communication offers speculations concerning Wolframian pseudo-symmetry and the Koide formula.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[959] **viXra:1701.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-01 03:20:34*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the Halton Arp “quantized” inherent redshift results from shifted luminosity of quasars with some redshifts, not from higher abundances of quasars with such redshifts. The two functions describing dependence of the cosmological and inherent light travel time (LTT) on redshift are continuous but for the inherent LTT there are some increases in luminosity for 15 different redshifts: 0.061, 0.30, 0.60, 0.96, 1.41, 1.96, 2.63, 3.46, 4.48, 5.73, and so on - we obtained perfect consistency with observational facts. It leads to an illusion that the quasars with shifted luminosity are more numerous. SST shows that the quasars are the very distant objects because due to the inherent LTT, even quasars with very low redshift are already in LTT equal to 6.8 Gyr. Here we described the mechanism leading to the shifted luminosities. The cosmological and inherent LTTs result from different mechanisms of emission of photons by cosmic objects because of annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs into two photons. The inherent LTT is produced by accretion discs whereas the cosmological LTT concerns the supernovae. Contrary to SST, within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we cannot explain the origin of the shifted luminosity of quasars with strictly defined redshifts so the GR cosmology is only an approximate description of the expanding Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[958] **viXra:1701.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-31 10:32:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the Halton Arp “quantized” inherent redshift results from shifted luminosity of quasars with some redshifts, not from higher abundances of quasars with such redshifts. The two functions describing dependence of the cosmological and inherent light travel time (LTT) on redshift are continuous but for the inherent LTT there are some increases in luminosity for 15 different redshifts: 0.061, 0.30, 0.60, 0.96, 1.41, 1.96, 2.63, 3.46, 4.48, 5.73, and so on - we obtained perfect consistency with observational facts. It leads to an illusion that the quasars with shifted luminosity are more numerous. SST shows that the quasars are the very distant objects because due to the inherent LTT, even quasars with very low redshift are already in LTT equal to 6.8 Gyr. Here we described the mechanism leading to the shifted luminosities. The cosmological and inherent LTTs result from different mechanisms of emission of photons by cosmic objects because of annihilation of particle-antiparticle pairs into two photons. The inherent LTT is produced by accretion discs whereas the cosmological LTT concerns the supernovae. Contrary to SST, within the General Theory of Relativity (GR) we cannot explain the origin of the shifted luminosity of quasars with strictly defined redshifts so the GR cosmology is only an approximate description of the expanding Universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[957] **viXra:1701.0660 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-04-24 01:32:44*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric metric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. These solutions require the introduction of non-trivial
areal-radial functions and are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. This construction allows to borrow the results over the past two decades pertaining the study of the Renormalization Group (RG) improvement of Einstein's equations which was based on the possibility that Quantum Einstein Gravity might be non-perturbatively renormalizable and asymptotically safe due to the presence of interacting (non-Gaussian) ultraviolet fixed points. The particular areal-radial function that eliminates the interior of a black hole, and furnishes a truly static metric solution everywhere, is used to establish the desired energy-scale relation $ k = k (r) $ which is obtained from the $k$ (energy) dependent modifications to the running Newtonian coupling $G (k) $, cosmological constant $\Lambda (k) $ and spacetime metric $g_{ij, (k) } (x)$. (Anti) de Sitter-Schwarzschild metrics are also explored as examples. We conclude with a discussion of the role that Asymptotic Safety might have in the geometry of phase spaces (cotangent bundles of spacetime); i.e. namely, in establishing a quantum spacetime geometry/classical phase geometry correspondence $g_{ij, (k) } (x) \leftrightarrow g_{ij} (x, E) $.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[956] **viXra:1701.0660 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-03-05 01:22:50*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. submitted to General Relativity and Gravitation

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric metric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. These solutions require the introduction of non-trivial
areal-radial functions and are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. This construction allows to borrow the results over the past two decades pertaining the study of the Renormalization Group (RG) improvement of Einstein's equations which was based on the possibility that Quantum Einstein Gravity might be non-perturbatively renormalizable and asymptotically safe due to the presence of interacting (non-Gaussian) ultraviolet fixed points. The particular areal-radial function that eliminates the interior of a black hole, and furnishes a truly static metric solution everywhere, is used to establish the desired energy-scale relation $ k = k (r) $ which is obtained from the $k$ (energy) dependent modifications to the running Newtonian coupling $G (k) $, cosmological constant $\Lambda (k) $ and spacetime metric $g_{ij, (k) } (x)$. (Anti) de Sitter-Schwarzschild metrics are also explored as examples. We conclude with a discussion of the role that Asymptotic Safety might have in the geometry of phase spaces (cotangent bundles of spacetime); i.e. namely, in establishing a quantum spacetime geometry/classical phase geometry correspondence $g_{ij, (k) } (x) \leftrightarrow g_{ij} (x, E) $.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[955] **viXra:1701.0660 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 04:00:25*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. submitted to General Relativity and Gravitation

We revisit the construction of diffeomorphic but $not$ isometric metric solutions to the Schwarzschild metric. These solutions require the introduction of non-trivial
areal-radial functions and are characterized by the key property that the radial horizon's location is $displaced$ continuously towards the singularity ($ r = 0 $). In the limiting case scenario the location of the singularity and horizon $merges$ and any infalling observer hits a null singularity at the very moment he/she crosses the horizon. This fact may have important consequences for the resolution of the fire wall problem and the complementarity controversy in black holes. This construction allows to borrow the results over the past two decades pertaining the study of the Renormalization Group (RG) improvement of Einstein's equations which was based on the possibility that Quantum Einstein Gravity might be non-perturbatively renormalizable and asymptotically safe due to the presence of interacting (non-Gaussian) ultraviolet fixed points. The particular areal-radial function that eliminates the interior of a black hole, and furnishes a truly static metric solution everywhere, is used to establish the desired energy-scale relation $ k = k (r) $ which is obtained from the $k$ (energy) dependent modifications to the running Newtonian coupling $G (k) $, cosmological constant $\Lambda (k) $ and spacetime metric
$g_{ij, (k) } (x)$. (Anti) de Sitter-Schwarzschild metrics are explored as examples and we find signatures of ultraviolet/infrared entanglement involving the observed cosmological
constant. We conclude with a discussion of the role that Asymptotic Safety might have in the geometry of phase spaces (cotangent bundles of spacetime); i.e. namely, in establishing a quantum spacetime geometry/classical phase geometry correspondence $g_{ij, (k) } (x) \leftrightarrow g_{ij} (x, E) $.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[954] **viXra:1701.0656 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-31 05:57:33*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Fate has me doing the reverse of what "viXra Info" says (http://vixra.org/info). It states, "Acceptance onto viXra is just a first step which needs to be followed up by submitting to a journal …" I first sent this article to a couple of journals, got rejected, then – to secure my place as the first submitter of these ideas (as far as I know) - I adapted it for "The founders of viXra (who) believe that the universal right of free speech applies to all works of science and all researchers should be allowed to place their ideas in public view for scrutiny."
For decades, I've had an unshakeable belief in physics' Unification of everything in space and time. This caused me to decide that topological materials on Earth, and topological fields surrounding some astronomical bodies, must co-exist with a universal topology. This leads to a non-expanding universe. Edwin Hubble, the astronomer credited with discovery of cosmic expansion, always believed "expanding models are a forced interpretation of the observational results." A topological cosmology allows us to, in his words, "find ourselves in the presence of one of the principles of nature that is still unknown to us today". (see "Effects of Red Shifts on the Distribution of Nebulae" by E. Hubble, Ap. J., 84, 517, 1936). The subjects of unification and topology should be of interest to nonspecialists because a) the trend of modern physics is towards finding a unified theory (new physics) that explains everything – matter from the subatomic to the cosmic scale, all forces, quantum mechanics, relativity, and b) the subject of topology won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 2016.
Also included is a subsection proposing the existence of zero compactified dimensions with 8 macroscopic dimensions (5 of space, 3 of time), and solution of the dark energy and dark matter problems by reference to gravitation and the Complex Number Plane made physical. Finally, this updated version includes a few lines responding to "From Planck Data to Planck Era: Observational Tests of Holographic Cosmology" by Niayesh Afshordi, Claudio Corianò, Luigi Delle Rose, Elizabeth Gould, and Kostas Skenderis: Phys. Rev. Lett. 118, 041301 (2017) - Published 27 January 2017 (http://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.118.041301)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[953] **viXra:1701.0599 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-09 17:17:05*

**Authors:** Furkan Semih Dündar, Barış Tamer Tonguç

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

A model universe is analyzed with N protons and electrons where there are electromagnetic and spin interactions in the Hamiltonian is investigated in the context of quantum shape kinematics. We have found that quantum shape space exists for N≥4 particles and has 2N−7 functional degrees of freedom in the case of spin-1/2 particles. The emergence of space is associated with non-vanishing expectation value ⟨L^2⟩. We have shown that for odd N space always emerges, and for large even N space almost always emerges because ⟨L^2⟩≠0 for almost all states. In the limit N→∞ the density of states that yields ⟨L^2⟩=0 vanishes. Therefore we conclude that the space is almost always emergent in quantum shape kinematics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[952] **viXra:1701.0599 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-02 08:04:13*

**Authors:** Furkan Semih Dündar, Barış Tamer Tonguç

**Comments:** 2.5 Pages.

A model universe is analyzed with N protons and electrons where there are electromagnetic and spin interactions in the Hamiltonian is investigated in the context of quantum shape kinematics. A similar classical model where there is only gravitational attraction between masses was investigated by Barbour, Koslowski and Mercati before [2]. We have found that quantum shape space exists for N≥4 particles has 2N−7 functional degrees of freedom in the case of spin-1/2 particles. Emergence of space is associated with non-vanishing expectation value ⟨L^{2}⟩. Finally we have shown that space emerges for almost all states that satisfy the constraint equations, because the states that satisfy ⟨L^{2}⟩ constitute a measure-zero set.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[951] **viXra:1701.0498 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-19 10:50:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the quantum entanglement fixes the speed of light in “vacuum” c in relation to its source or a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). It causes that the spatial distances to galaxies differ from the time distances (the light travel time) - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity leads to the running time Hubble constant that creates an illusion of acceleration of expansion of the Universe. According to SST, for the nearest Universe, the time Hubble constant is 70.52. SST gives for mean time Hubble constant 64.01 - it should be the mean observed Hubble constant when we apply the General Relativity (GR) to the whole observed Universe. If we neglect some part of distant Universe then the GR/observed time Hubble constant should be defined by following interval <64.01, 70.52>. But emphasize that the real mean spatial Hubble constant calculated within SST is 45.24. It leads to the age of Universe 21.614 +- 0.096 Gyr but time distance to most distant observed Universe cannot be longer than 13.866 +- 0.096 Gyr. SST shows that evolution of galaxies accelerated about 13.1 Gyr ago - it leads to an illusion that cosmic objects are not older than 13.1 Gyr.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[950] **viXra:1701.0465 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-14 01:44:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures due to the stepwise decays of the earliest photons (such decays of photons mimic an acceleration of expansion of the Universe). Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,start) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,start) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data. It leads to conclusion that the General Theory of Relativity (GR) correctly describes the regions of reionization. We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium. We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly? We showed here also that there was an acceleration of evolution of clusters of galaxies (not an acceleration of expansion of spacetime!) about 13.8 down to 13 Gyr and 6.5 down to 5 Gyr ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[949] **viXra:1701.0465 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-13 04:32:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we answered following question: What is the origin of the cosmic reionization? Presented here scenario differs radically from that described within the mainstream cosmology. Most important are masses of massive galaxies/quasars and the decays of large cosmic structures due to the stepwise decays of the earliest photons (such decays of photons mimic an acceleration of expansion of the Universe). Highest rate of reionization of hydrogen should be for redshift z(H,max) = 11.18 whereas complete reionization should occur at z(H,end) = 7.10. For reionization of helium we obtain respectively z(He,max) = 3.63 and z(He,end) = 2.70. Theoretical results are consistent with observational data. It leads to conclusion that the General Theory of Relativity (GR) correctly describes the regions of reionization. We showed that number and energy of created photons were sufficient to ionize the intergalactic medium. We answered as well the second very important question: Why there appeared the supermassive black holes so quickly? We showed here also that there was an acceleration of evolution of clusters of galaxies (not an acceleration of expansion of spacetime!) about 13.8 down to 13 Gyr and 6.5 down to 5 Gyr ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[948] **viXra:1701.0335 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-26 17:39:30*

**Authors:** Jérémy Kerneis

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

We use three postulates P1, P2a/b and P3 :
Combining P1 and P2a with "Sommerfeld's quantum rules"; correspond to the original quan-
tum theory of Hydrogen, which produces the correct relativistic energy levels for atoms (Sommerfeld's and Dirac's theories of matter produces the same energy levels, and Schrodinger's theory produces the approximation of those energy levels). P3 can be found in Schrodinger's famous paper introducing his equation, P3 being his first assumption (a second assumption, suppressed here, is required to deduce his equation). P3 implies that the wavefunction solution of both Schrodinger's and Klein-Gordon's equations in the non interacting case while, in the interacting case, it immediatly implies "Sommerfeld's quantum rules" : P1, P2a,
and P3 then produce the correct relativistic energy levels of atoms, and we check that the required degeneracy is justied by pure deduction, without any other assumption (Schrodinger's theory only justies one half of the degeneracy).
We observe that the introduction of an interaction in P1 is equivalent to a
modication of the metric inside the wavefunction in P3, such that the equation of motion of a system can be
deduced with two dierent methods, with or without the metric. Replacing the electromagnetic potential P2a by the suggested gravitationnal potential P2b, the equation of motion (deduced in two ways) is equivalent to the equation of motion of General Relativity in the low field approximation (with accuracy 10-6 at the surface of the Sun). We have no coordinate singularity inside the metric. Other motions can be obtained by modifying P2b, the theory is adaptable.
First of all, we discuss classical Kepler problems (Newtonian motion of the Earth around the Sun), explain the link between Kelpler law of periods (1619) and Plank's law (1900) and observe the links between all historical models of atoms (Bohr, Sommerfeld, Pauli, Schrodinger, Dirac, Fock). This being done, we introduce P1, P2a/b, and P3 to then describe electromagnetism
and gravitation in the same formalism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[947] **viXra:1612.0386 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-20 08:30:42*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 22 Pages. Published version: OALibJ, 4: e3342. http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1103342

I consider the standard model, together with a preon version of it, to search for unifying principles between quantum particles and general relativity. Argument is given for unified field theory being based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions alone. Conformal symmetry is introduced in the action of gravity with the Weyl tensor. Electromagnetism is geometrized to conform with gravity. Conformal symmetry is seen to improve quantization in loop quantum gravity. The Einstein-Cartan theory with torsion is analyzed suggesting structure in spacetime below the Cartan scale. A toy model for black hole constituents is proposed. Higgs metastability hints at cyclic conformal cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[946] **viXra:1612.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-09 11:23:59*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 25812.8074479 ohms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[945] **viXra:1612.0355 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-27 21:47:55*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The following paper is a prediction for a more precise value for the von Klitzing constant. The von Klitzing constant is simply the Planck constant divided by the elementary charge squared. This value, according to CODATA to a very high accuracy. This value in CODATA is 25812.8074555(59) . This paper uses the equations developed in “Evidence for Granulated, Granular Topological Spacetime”(1), “Prediction for the Sommerfeld Fine-Structure”(2), “Prediction for the Mass Ratio of the Proton to the Electron”(3), and ” An Electro Magnetic Resonance in 9 Dimensions that gives Mass Ratio of Electron to Neutron”(4) to predict a value for the von Klitzing constant. The value predicted in this paper is 25812.8074479 ohms, which is within 1.3 sigma of the CODATA value listed above. It is predicted, that as these measurements become more precise that the CODATA value will converge around 25812.8074479 ohms.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[944] **viXra:1612.0318 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-02-12 18:22:10*

**Authors:** Julian williams

**Comments:** 50 Pages. Feedback is welcome for both Part I & Part II of these papers as they overlap

Continuing Part 1 covering the building of fundamental Standard Model particles from infinite superpositions. The borrowed energy for cosmic wavelength gravitons requires the universe to expand and spacetime to warp around mass concentrations. We used a simplified approach initially which agreed with an infinitesimally modified General Relativity. In this paper we address those simplifications and find a mass/radius squared term (in Planck units) in the metric, which appears to raise some tension with General Relativity but only very close to the horizon of black holes. This may relate with the possibility of echoes in the Gravitational Waves at merger recently speculated. We also address the Kerr metric (which is also slightly modified) and briefly look at Gravitational Waves in this paper

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[943] **viXra:1612.0302 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 18:47:07*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When charged particles travel faster than light, they emit Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from to angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the nucleons. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for a proton. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[942] **viXra:1612.0224 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-18 09:13:19*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

It is obvious that physical vibrations/rotations/translations cannot be separated from a physical volume i.e. from at least an inertial mass or from the Principle-of-Equivalence (PoE) matter. It should concern the photons and gluons as well. On the other hand, it is argued that a mass of photon causes that its speed is lower than the speed of light in “vacuum” c and depends on its frequency, causes that the Coulomb law is modified, that gauge invariance and charge conservation are not valid, and so on. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that the listed above arguments against a massive photon are unfounded. The PoE mass of the present-day photons calculated within SST is about 27 orders of magnitude lower than the rest mass of electron and is invariant (the c is the natural speed of the massive photons in spacetime and is invariant as well) so this result is below the upper limit for photon mass that results from experimental data. We show also that relativistic mass is a real physical quantity, not an artefact/unreal-thing. SST shows that the inner momentum associated with spin and the spin itself, not the rest mass, are the invariants for all frames of reference assuming the special relativity case of flat spacetime (SST shows that contrary to the gravitational fields associated with the non-gravitating Higgs field, the Einstein spacetime associated with the PoE matter is indeed flat and dominates over the Higgs field). It leads to conclusion that the energy-momentum relation is still valid but it fails when we consider the structural changes in the bare fermions dependent on their speed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[941] **viXra:1612.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-01-24 23:18:33*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages. corrected typos in equations

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles.
It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration.
In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron.
This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[940] **viXra:1612.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-23 17:41:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

When a charged particle travels faster than light, it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits a braking radiation called Bremsstrahlung. Inside an electron are the many configurations of the constituent particles. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the electron or other particles. It is proposed that the ratios of the masses of particles to the mass of the neutron is related to ratio of the Bremsstrahlung to the Bremsstrahlung where velocity is parallel to acceleration. In the case of the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the electron to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from 0 to pi/2 angles, assuming an ideal case of a non-dispersive medium (where phase and group velocity are the same(14), and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation within the constituent particles that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles, which is further proposed to be a function of an orbital type structure of the inner electron. This resonance is potentially demonstrated for an electron. This is a continuation of Sarnowski’s Sphere Theory for the construction of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[939] **viXra:1612.0001 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-12-03 01:36:05*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 13 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

After a very brief introduction to generalized gravity in Clifford spaces ($C$-spaces), generalized metric solutions to the $C$-space gravitational field equations are found, and inspired from the (Anti) de Sitter metric solutions to Einstein's field equations with a cosmological constant in ordinary spacetimes. $C$-space analogs of static spherically symmetric metrics solutions are constructed. Concluding remarks are devoted to a thorough discussion about Areal metrics, Kawaguchi-Finsler Geometry, Strings, and plausible novel physical implications of $C$-space Relativity theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory