**Previous months:**

2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)

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2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(3) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)

2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(8) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(5) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(9) - 1112(18)

2012 - 1201(7) - 1202(10) - 1203(11) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(2)

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2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(12) - 1403(12) - 1404(5) - 1405(12) - 1406(11) - 1407(17) - 1408(11) - 1409(18) - 1410(16) - 1411(19) - 1412(13)

2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(14) - 1503(15) - 1504(9) - 1505(14) - 1506(15) - 1507(19) - 1508(15) - 1509(20) - 1510(28) - 1511(22) - 1512(18)

2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(30) - 1603(21) - 1604(18) - 1605(22) - 1606(19) - 1607(21) - 1608(24) - 1609(16) - 1610(17) - 1611(25) - 1612(18)

2017 - 1701(26) - 1702(24) - 1703(16) - 1704(9) - 1705(13) - 1706(13) - 1707(14) - 1708(14) - 1709(16) - 1710(23) - 1711(15) - 1712(23)

2018 - 1801(19) - 1802(11) - 1803(20) - 1804(7)

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1325] **viXra:1804.0228 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-16 03:01:38*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 133 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Black Holes are Dark Matter. Information is lost in Black Holes.
“Black Holes are Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Information is lost in black holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes”
Adrian Ferent
How Matter is change in Dark Matter by Gravitons:
Ferent equation for photon – graviton interaction, photon absorption by a Black Hole:
E = h × f + a × f + a × ν
where a × ν is the negative energy of the graviton
ν is the frequency of the interaction graviton.
I calculated: the graviton’s energy emitted by black holes is higher than:
E = 4.14559 × 105 GeV
After n interactions the energy of the photon is:
where f is the initial frequency of the photon.
Because graviton’s frequency νk > fk the energy E of the photon is higher after each photon-graviton interaction, this means photon’s frequency is much higher and this is the process how Matter is change in Dark Matter inside a Black Hole.
“Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
“Information is lost in Black Holes”
Adrian Ferent
“Black holes are Dark Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Black holes are Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
This is another proof that my Gravitation theory is right.
Wrong things what you learned about Black Holes, because Gravitons are not present in Einstein’s wrong Gravitation theory!
That is why in my view Gerard 't Hooft, Leonard Susskind, Stephen Hawking, Jacob Bekenstein… are wrong regarding Black Holes:
Bekenstein and Hawking conjectured that the black hole entropy is directly proportional to the area of the event horizon divided by the Planck area.
From the entropy it is possible to use the usual thermodynamic relations to calculate the temperature of black holes.
The entropy measures how many such squares, whose side is a Planck length, are there on the surface of a black hole.
From here Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind suggested that the information is in fact preserved and is stored on the boundary of a system.
After the “The Black Hole War” Gerard 't Hooft, Stephen Hawking and Leonard Susskind agreed that the information is not lost inside a black hole; Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind discovered the holographic principle, the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is entirely contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon.
They considered a photon falling in a black hole, that will increase the black hole entropy and surface area; the black hole’s mass increases and the photon information is stored on the event horizon.
Alice and Bob thought experiments:
Alice jumps into a very large black hole, leaving Bob outside the event horizon. Physicists have assumed that Alice won’t notice anything unusual as she crosses the event horizon.
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong because Information is lost in black holes.
That is why:
“The holographic principle is wrong”
Adrian Ferent
“My Quantum Gravity theory explains that the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
That is why the informational content of all the objects that have fallen into the black hole is not contained in surface fluctuations of the event horizon.
What happens when we fall in a Black Hole?
“When we fall in a Black Hole, the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon”
Adrian Ferent
That is why:
Gerard 't Hooft and Leonard Susskind are wrong regarding Alice and Bob thought experiments, because the Gravitons will break the atoms of Alice and Bob, before they get to the event horizon.
You learned from your professors, from your books about the temperature of Black Holes!
“Because Black Holes are Dark Matter, Black Holes do not have temperature”
Adrian Ferent
“Black holes are Ferent Matter”
Adrian Ferent
“Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with the density greater than Planck density”
Adrian Ferent
I discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter, I discovered that the Information is lost in Black Holes, I discovered what is the Event Horizon, I explained that the holographic principle is wrong and I discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole.
51. I am the first who explained Gravitation
52. I am the first who discovered what happens when we fall in a Black Hole: the Gravitons will break our atoms before we get to the event horizon
53. I am the first who explained that the holographic principle is wrong
54. I am the first who discovered that Black holes are Dark Matter
55. I am the first who explained that Information is lost in black holes
56. I am the first who explained what is the event horizon: the Event Horizon is made of Gravitons
57. I am the first who explained that our universe will die; Gravitons will change Matter in Dark Matter, inside the Black Holes
58. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons change Matter in Dark Matter, inside a Black Hole
59. I am the first who discovered that Black Holes do not have temperature, because Black Holes are Dark Matter

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1324] **viXra:1804.0139 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-10 03:45:11*

**Authors:** Mahesh Khati

**Comments:** 38 Pages.

Quantum mechanics can be applied to big masses also. This will solve many problems of modern physics like dark matter. This is the big problem of physics for so many years. This solves problem of dual nature of quantum like interference by single photon. This theory will start new relativity other than Einstein relativity which balances relativity of small particles & big masses by similar consideration. It is just found that some galaxies do not contain dark matter & some have abundant dark matter. Means, dark matter is real & different than known matter. This theory gives require explanation to this problem.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1323] **viXra:1804.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-10 05:10:04*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 29 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content.
Mmass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons to be produced by the collision process, between mass less ring shaped Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or Emergent Gravity.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption.
Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..
The ring shaped Axion Higgs field particles are supposed to oscillate in tandem (as the boxer engine pistons) along each vacuum lattice with the local Planck length and transfer information of monopole photons through the whole universe as long no fermion or boson comes too close.
So if the new physics black hole nucleus is represented as a compact quantum knot then there is no graviton production supposed.
As a consequence the incoming Axion Higgs field pressure is the only origin of the Gravity pressure effect around each black hole nucleus and the result of the Casimir absorption effect of the vacuum by the black hole nucleus.
At the same time, gravitons are not leaving the black hole at all.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1322] **viXra:1804.0087 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-06 19:09:42*

**Authors:** Andrew Cox

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

If space is quantized on a compactified fourth spatial dimension as outlined in Kaluza-Klein theory -- with the extreme curvature of the fourth spatial dimension causing the 'effect' of gravity -- but we experience three-dimensional (inverse-square) gravity, then the fourth spatial dimension must operate as (4-3=) one stand-alone spatial dimension .
In one spatial dimension, quantum gravity is the same (effectively 100%) whether two objects are together or apart.
This quantum theory of relativity can then be projected to fully explain black hole mechanics, which solves dark matter, which predicts dark energy, which explains the big bang in a cyclic universe -- which completes the "theory of everything."

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1321] **viXra:1804.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-06 21:37:22*

**Authors:** D.h

**Comments:** 48 Pages.

If string theory unifies quantum mechanics and general relativity, the applicable objects of string theory should include microscopic particles and the macrocosm. The greater time span of the universe phenomenon, the more probability that phenomenon contains geometrical symbol that can show the string structure.
By certain geometrical change rules of the space in nature philosophical theory, the article arise the solution to observe the string. In the article it build the structure mold in 2-D expression by projected high dimensions (three and above dimension). Compare the mold there is an obvious structure of B-mold polarization transfer and rotation in Cosmos Microwave Background radiation. It proofed the existence reality of the string in space geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1320] **viXra:1804.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 20:58:24*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57014*10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.
We find that this Sphere Theory may be related to a Bremsstrahlung type of radiation and an Entangled Universe

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1319] **viXra:1804.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-04-03 02:30:37*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

I Abstract
This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). See images below for an example of a sphere made of spheres.
The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.
Charge appears to come from electron sized Charge.
Gravity appears to come from Proton sized mass

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1318] **viXra:1803.0743 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 10:12:39*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1317] **viXra:1803.0740 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-31 16:28:39*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

In 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newton gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and gets a gravitational constant of hc/m_p^2 . This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton’s gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed that his approach requires an assumption on the value of G, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton’s gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. Therefore, from this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass totally independent of Newton’s gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own, with no need for input from Newton. This also strongly points towards the idea that Newton’s gravitational constant should be seen as a composite constant. Based on this perspective, for the first time since it was theoretically introduced 119 years ago, the Planck units can be measured completely independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1316] **viXra:1803.0713 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-30 05:17:45*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1315] **viXra:1803.0692 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-28 05:51:24*

**Authors:** Xin Jiang

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Quantum entanglement in 2 dimensional world

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1314] **viXra:1803.0674 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-26 09:03:48*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

A team of researchers has now used the world's highest intensity neutron beamline facility, at J-PARC in central Japan, to push the limits of sensitivity for the study of gravitational force. [12] Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1313] **viXra:1803.0660 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-27 07:35:36*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

In this short paper we look at the Hawking temperature from a Newtonian perspective as well as a General Relativity perspective. If we are considering the Hawking temperature, and simply replace the gravitational field input in his 1974 formula with that of Newton, we will get a Hawking temperature of half of that of the well-known Hawking temperature formula. This is very similar to the case where Newton’s theory predicts half the light bending that GR does. Based on recent theoretical research on Newton’s gravitational constant, we also rewrite the Hawking temperature to give a somewhat different perspective without changing the output of the formula, that makes some of the Hawking formulas more intuitive.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1312] **viXra:1803.0642 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 17:48:58*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Here we will present a probabilistic quantum gravity theory derived from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Surprisingly, this theory is fully deterministic when operating with masses that are exactly divisible by the Planck mass. For masses or mass parts less than one Planck mass, we find that probabilistic effects play an important role. Most macroscopic masses will have both a deterministic gravity part and a probabilistic gravity part.
In 2014, McCulloch derived Newtonian gravity from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. McCulloch himself pointed out that his theory only seems to hold as long as one operates with whole Planck masses. For those who have studied his interesting theory, there may seem to be a mystery around how a theory rooted in Heisenberg’s principle, which was developed to understand quantum uncertainty, can give rise to a Newtonian gravity theory that works at the cosmic scale (which is basically deterministic). However, the deeper investigation introduced here shows that the McCulloch method is very likely correct and can be extended to hold for masses that are not divisible by the Planck mass, a feature that we describe in more detail here.
Our extended quantum gravity theory also points out, in general directions, how we can approach the set up of experiments to measure the gravitational constant more accurately.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1311] **viXra:1803.0623 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-24 14:09:13*

**Authors:** Thomas Neil Neubert

**Comments:** Pages.

The equivalence principle has been hypothesized as strong, weak , symmetric and so forth. Clear understanding of the equivalence principle is necessary to develop quantum gravity theory. This brief paper sheds light upon the conundrum of the equivalence principle and offers a Symmetry Breaking Equivalence Principle interpretation of the CERN AEGIS antihydrogen gravitational experiments.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1310] **viXra:1803.0502 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-22 11:24:21*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1309] **viXra:1803.0487 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-22 08:50:28*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP.

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained.
Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel
Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to a late-time exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a late-time de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1308] **viXra:1803.0387 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 10:57:03*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** Pages.

It is hypothesised that the fundamental dimensions of Time, Length, Mass, Charge and Temperature are linked. To support this hypothesis, the Quantum Bang Equation is proposed. The equation is correct to 6 digits (which is the maximum given the relative uncertainty on the gravitational constant G)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1307] **viXra:1803.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-21 03:12:43*

**Authors:** Terrence J. McMahon

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Note: This updates and extends 1701.0524, however both works contain sufficient differences to be separate articles. However, where there is conflict between the two papers, this research is to be preferred.

An ‘interaction constant’ with the irrational number phi is discovered, unifying Nature’s principal constants with gravity. This constant reveals an elegant symmetry permitting the universe to have change, while conserving principal parameter ratios. New relationships for principal constants are shown. Magnetic permeability and electric permittivity of free space, set by convention last century are found to have new values. This allows an exact value for the Planck constant, and a precise value for the elementary charge e to be obtained. Errors in current Planck units are discussed. A reevaluation of dimensional analysis introduces new dimensional units for G, ε, µ, gravity, the Coulomb constant and electric force. The fine-structure constant is found to have dimensions Hz. Pi and phi are found to have dimensions in some configurations. Energy variation causes most principal constants to run, while still adhering to this scale invariant, overall symmetry. Electromagnetic and gravitational forces also run, with gravity dominating at high energies as expected. Wavelength red-shifting occurs via dilation of space-time, attenuated by running of gravity and energy. Structural symmetry requires a new cosmic model where the universe has a constant form. Discussion of a toroidal cosmology introduces candidates for the Hubble and cosmological constants, and a mass-density parameter. These are found to have identical values to most recent Planck data. Standard Model anomalies become redundant. This study confirms and extends general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1306] **viXra:1803.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-17 07:05:12*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

There cannot be quantum gravity.

Although gravity and the other "forces" all work by the same means -- threads -- the situation and configurations are totally different.

Gravity: full length threads pulling atoms together...

~~~(●)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(●)~~~

Strong Force: protons ~~~●~~~ ~~~●~~~

with threads knotted together ~~~●●~~~

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1305] **viXra:1803.0174 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-12 08:20:46*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Two teams of researchers working independently of one another have come up with an experiment designed to prove that gravity and quantum mechanics can be reconciled. [11] Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1304] **viXra:1803.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-09 07:21:36*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1303] **viXra:1803.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-09 07:25:16*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The paper considers the philosophical component of the approach to the time as an emergent phenomenon absent at the fundamental level. The anthropic principle is shown as arising from the time emergence. Consciousness is shown as an epiphenomenon in such a model, although it is more fundamental than matter in this case. An answer to the question about the prime cause is suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1302] **viXra:1803.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-09 08:29:16*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 125 Pages. I discovered a new Gravitation theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale!

"The value of your brain is given by your discoveries"
Adrian Ferent
Couple of my discoveries:
1. I am the first who discovered a new quantum theory which breaks the wall of Planck
2. I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field
3. I am the first who explained what Black holes are: Black holes are Ferent matter
4. I am the first who discovered that the majority of dark matter is in the core of the supermassive black holes
5. I am the first who discovered another wall, the Ferent wall, beyond the Planck wall
6. I am the first who discovered Graviton energy: E = aν
7. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons are faster than light
8. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational waves are Gravitons
9. I am the first who explained that Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong
10. I am the first who explained in the last 100 years that Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity is wrong, because Einstein's equivalence principle is wrong
11. I am the first who explained that Gravitational field lines are gravitons
12. I am the first who replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle with Ferent Uncertainty Principle
13. I am the first who discovered that String theory, LQG… are wrong theories, because it is wrong to Unify Einstein's Gravitation theory with Quantum Mechanics when Einstein's Gravitation theory is wrong
14. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function, how you learned from your professors in the last 200 years
15. I am the first who discovered that Dark Energy is Gravitons
16. I am the first who explained Gravitational Radiation
17. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons with highest energy are emitted by Black holes
18. I am the first who explained the lack of extraterrestrial civilizations
19. I am the first who calculated the Gravitons frequency emitted by a planet, by Earth:
ν < 4.176×1056 Hz
20. I am the first who calculated the Gravitons energy emitted by a Black hole:
E > 4.14559 × 105 GeV
21. I am the first who discovered that there are not extraterrestrial civilizations in the center of our galaxy
22. I am the first who explained that the Earth attracts with greater force the Moon, than the Moon attracts the Earth
23. I am the first who explained how to understand Gravity in the frame of quantum mechanics
24. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons kill people
25. I am the first who explained the Gravitational redshift with Gravitons
26. I am the first who explained the Gravitational lensing with Gravitons
27. I am the first who discovered the equation for photon – graviton interaction:
E = h × f + a × f - a × ν
28. I am the first who explained that the momentum of the graviton is negative:
p = - m × v
29. I am the first who explained that Mass does not bend space
30. I am the first who explained that Mass does not bend time
31. I am the first who explained that Gravitational time dilation is caused by negative momentum, negative energy
32. I am the first who calculated the speed of the Gravitons:
va = 1.001762 ×1017 m/s
33. I am the first who discovered that it is not possible to have a Big Bounce from the Planck scale
34. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons kill aliens
35. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational field is Gravitons
36. I am the first who discovered that Gravitational force is mediated by gravitons faster than the speed of light, with negative momentum
37. I am the first in the last 100 years who explained that Einstein's Gravitation theory is wrong and Einstein's Gravitational waves do not exist
38. I am the first who explained the power density and the graviton flux
39. I am the first who discovered the force function for finite speed of the gravitons, the Ferent gravitational force function
40. I am the first who discovered that a black hole attracts with greater force a planet, than the planet attracts the black hole
41. I am the first who explained that Newton's third law is wrong
42. I am the first who discovered that the Gravitational waves have their energy contained in gravitons
43. I am the first who explained Gravitation with high speed gravitons v = 1.001762 × 1017 m/s, with Negative Momentum, Negative Relativistic Mass and Negative Energy
44. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons must be Faster than Light (FTL)
45. I am the first who discovered the Ferent length, much smaller than the Planck length
46. I am the first who discovered the Ferent frequency much higher than the Planck frequency
47. I am the first who discovered because Gravitational Radiation is the most penetrating radiation, cancer can start almost anywhere in the human body
48. I am the first who discovered the equation for an elementary particle which emits a graviton:
49. I am the first who discovered the Ferent wave equation of the graviton:
50. I am the first who discovered: Quantum Gravity Theory (QGT)
“Nobody in lectures say ‘I discovered these things’, that is why nobody understands what the contributions to the lecture by the speaker are!”
Adrian Ferent
“Your quotations are the CV of your wisdom”
Adrian Ferent
“I discovered a new Gravitation theory, a new Evolution theory and Transdisciplinarity equations!”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1301] **viXra:1803.0093 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-07 11:25:32*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

FUNCTION FOLLOWS FORM in Quantum FFF THEORY.
The FORM and MICROSTRUCTURE of elementary particles, is supposed to be the origin of FUNCTIONAL differences between Axion- Higgs- Graviton- Photon- and Fermion particles. As a consequence, a NEW splitting, accelerating and pairing MASSLESS BLACK HOLE, able to convert vacuum energy (ZPE) into real energy by entropy decrease, seems to be able to explain quick Galaxy- and Star formation, down to Sunspots, (Micro) Comets, Lightning bolts, Sprites and Elves, Sprite Fireballs and Skyrmion based Ball Lightning.
I assume that the largest Skyrmion Interference black holes are produced at star surfaces by Solar Flares and other electric discharge phenomena around Stellar Anchor Black Holes. Recently the NASA-SOHO satellite photos showed clear evidence of multiple hotspots created at the solar surface. I assume that the majority of the hotspots can be compared with Micro Comet- or fireball phenomena related to Sprite interference micro black hole phenomena..

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1300] **viXra:1803.0079 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-05 17:28:31*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Mike McCulloch has derived Newton's gravity from Heisenberg's uncertainty principle in a very interesting way that we think makes great sense. In our view, it also shows that gravity, even at the cosmic (macroscopic) scale, is related to the Planck scale. Inspired by McCulloch, in this paper we are using his approach to the derivation to take another step forward and show that the gravitational constant is not always the same, depending on whether we are dealing with light and matter, or matter against matter. Based on certain key concepts of the photon, combined with Heisenberg's uncertainty principle, we get a gravitational constant that is twice that of Newton's when we are working with gravity between matter and light, and we get the (normal) Newtonian gravitational constant when we are working with matter against matter. This leads to a very simple theory of quantum gravity that gives the correct prediction on bending of light, i.e. the same as the General Relativity theory does, which is a value twice that of Newton's prediction. One of the main reasons the theory of GR has surpassed Newton's theory of gravitation is because Newton's theory predicts a bending of light that is not consistent with experiments.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1299] **viXra:1803.0077 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-06 00:50:19*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

E=mc2, General Relativity and Quantum Mechanics are the major themes of this article. Throughout the article, a few equations show the missing steps in E=mc2. These steps could not be included in the original equation because that was developed before things like superconductivity and wave-particle duality were discovered. Of course, things would be different if Einstein knew how to access Quantum Gravity or the Unified Field Theory he spent his last 30 years working on. A complete unified theory that includes everything in space-time (time is emphasized here) has practical applications. It gives us some understanding of the laws that govern the universe* - including the unknown (when E=mc2 was published in 1905) laws of superconductivity and wave-particle duality. The article starts with John Bardeen's comment that "The idea of paired electrons, though not fully accurate, captures the sense of it." He's referring to the mechanism by which superconductivity works (he shared in the 1972 Nobel Prize for Physics for this). That topic goes beyond paired electrons with wave-particle duality (which includes electromagnetic waves but also the paired electrons). The subsection on superconductivity ends with explanation of planetary magnetism and accounting for the electric fields of the planets.
*Mathematical and non-mathematical expression of that understanding can both contribute to knowledge. The progress of science does not depend on writing in a certain fashion, but on presenting insights clearly and in an extremely thorough and careful way. We might allow ourselves to think knowledge can only advance through the jargon and maths this tiny bit of history we live in calls scholarly writing. But then we merely validate what German physicist Max Planck (1858-1947) said: “A new scientific truth does not triumph by convincing its opponents and making them see the light, but rather because its opponents eventually die, and a new generation grows up that is familiar with it.” ― Max Planck, "Scientific Autobiography and Other Papers"
From there, it goes on to quantum-macroscopic union and speaks of gravitational / electromagnetic waves sharing properties with water waves. This leads to new interpretation of the motions of photons and gravitons (this is a new interpretation of John Wheeler's geon or "gravitational electromagnetic entity", an electromagnetic or gravitational wave which is held together in a confined region by its own nature). Such new motion deletes the concepts of universal expansion, dark energy and dark matter. Then a paper published by Albert Einstein in 1919 is mentioned which is titled "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" (Prof. Wheeler's speculation that there's a relationship between geons and elementary particles supports this). Soon after the final formulation of general relativity, Einstein pointed out the need for a quantum modification of the theory. In later years, Einstein hoped a unified theory of electromagnetic and gravitational fields would explain the quantization of matter and energy. Both approaches appear valid. This article proposes that (1) the Wheeler–Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics (TIQM) modify electromagnetic and gravitational waves to produce quantum modification, and (2) that electromagnetic and gravitational fields would be unified in the sense that the waves composing each field would possess both "retarded" and "advanced" components. The forwards and backwards movement can cancel to produce a quantum entanglement, and thus quantization. The result of this modification might well be modification of understanding of the strong and weak nuclear forces, as well as of the Higgs field. And if the ideas of TIQM-advanced/retarded waves should lead to someone developing a viable, formal theory of quantum gravity; that theory could test the idea of a relationship between geons and elementary particles.
Headings have been added which outline the basics of (a) the Higgs-gravity relation (even though such an idea is supposed to be completely wrong) and (b) how, using quantum spin of the photon and graviton, both the Higgs boson and matter particles can be produced (the basic ideas behind production of the photons and gravitons themselves in a lab is explained, too). I've read that it is very hard to write down logically sound theories. My literal mind interprets this to mean mathematics is almost always essential. My mind also interprets it as a challenge – write down the science of spin interaction using plain English, with maths no more complex than 1 divided by a half.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1298] **viXra:1803.0051 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-03-04 10:27:13*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The accelerated motion of particles is considered. It is shown that the accelerated motion of particles can lead to the emission of other particles. An explanation of the nature of the electric charge is proposed. It is shown that the functions of elementary particles form, with the accuracy specified in the article, the complete basis of the expansion for the scalar field of the Metauniverse. Based on the consideration of the interaction of two particles, it is found why virtual particles appear and what properties they possess. It is shown why and how renormalization works in quantum field theory. It is shown that in the ESTM theory there are no ultraviolet and infrared divergences. A division into the main particles that form matter and particles-carriers of interactions added for the completeness of the basis is introduced.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1297] **viXra:1802.0440 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-28 12:25:33*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1296] **viXra:1802.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-21 22:20:41*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages. For possible inclusion into FFP 15, pending acceptance by Jesus Cancier, of Alicante, Spain, and the FFP 15 committee

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). This is a direct result of the fourth equation of our manuscript which unconventionally compares the action integral of General relativity with the second derived action integral, which then permits equation 5, which is a bound on the Cosmological constant. What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a redo of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to show how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle. All this is possible due to equation 4. And we compare all this with results of reference [1] in the conclusion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1295] **viXra:1802.0262 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-19 23:24:29*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. for possible submission to Marcel Grossman 15, as an entry

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). What we have done is to replace the Hamber Quantum gravity reference-based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” . In doing so, with Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The other approximation is to use the inflaton results and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to, if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian-regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton. We conclude with a re do of a multiverse version of the Penrose cyclic conformal cosmology to ascertain how this mass of a heavy graviton is consistent from cycle to cycle.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1294] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-14 07:35:29*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass, such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as that amount of bending that is predicted by the Newtonian theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force should be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field that renders that field always equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and the same as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super massive objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1293] **viXra:1802.0117 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-10 16:41:03*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. “Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion).. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation.. And, get an upper bound on the mass of a graviton.
“Essay written for the Gravity Research Foundation 2018 Awards for Essays on Gravitation.”, February 10, 2018

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1292] **viXra:1802.0100 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-09 01:51:43*

**Authors:** Arturo Tozzi, James F Peters

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The unexploited unification of general relativity and quantum physics is a painstaking issue that prevents physicists to properly understanding the whole of Nature. Here we propose a pure mathematical approach that introduces the problem in terms of group theory. Indeed, we build a cyclic groupoid (a nonemptyset with a binary operation defined on it) that encompasses both the theories as subsets, making it possible to join together two of their most dissimilar experimental results, i.e., the commutativity detectable in our macroscopic relativistic world and the non-commutativity detectable in the quantum, microscopic world. Further, we provide a feasible physical counterpart able to throw a bridge between relativity and quantum mechanics, namely, the gravitational force. The latter stands for an operator able to reduce the countless orthonormal bases required by quantum mechanics to just one, i.e., the relativistic basis of an observer located in a single cosmic area.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1291] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 13:36:16*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1290] **viXra:1802.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-06 19:34:58*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Quantum gravity, theory of everything

Resolution of the Cosmological Constant Λ must maintain the mathematics of wavefunction, as well as Einsteins field equations. However, a fundamental break from convention is justified, in order to cancel the mathematical discrepancy that exists between the vacuum energy density in General Relativity (GR) and the much greater zero-point energy value, as calculated in quantum field theory (QFT). This article does maintain conventional models. The paradigm shift is from the conventional idea of a constant R 4 spacetime at every scale (from microspace to macrospace). Instead, proposing that dimensions approaching quantum scales increase to a higher dimensional R 5 space, and that dimensions approaching the cosmic event horizon decrease to a lower dimensional R 3 space (R 4 spacetime is just one phase of this transitioning multispace). This is only suppositional, yet it explains so many mysteries of cosmology in the simplest and most parsimonious format (in fact in one single sentence). In wavefunction, superposition can be alternatively interpreted as a transition (or divergence) of R n , as observed from a R 4 spacetime onto a higher dimensional R 5 space at scales approaching QFT. Time, position, energy and momentum become plural, and a range of R 5 space is viewed as a single instant until " collapsed " (mapped) onto our familiar classic R 4 space. In GR, R 4 spacetime transitions (or converges) to a point at the cosmic event horizon, to a diminished R 3 space. This converging affect appears equivalent to acceleration, as units of time in velocity are decreasing with larger scales. Thus, Λ in GR is only illusional and therefore cancelled.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1289] **viXra:1802.0049 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-05 06:43:03*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 26 Pages. Submmited to European Journal of Physics C

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail. Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' surrounding galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1288] **viXra:1802.0033 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-02-04 06:33:10*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The author shows examples where his opinion about fundamentality is different as opinion of the majority of physicists. He claims that special relativity alone gives that time runs only in rest matter. He claims that absolutely empty spacetime without rest matter cannot exist; one reason is also because time runs only in rest matter. Existence of dimensionless masses of the elementary particles also tells us about coupling between rest matter and spacetime. Dimensionless masses of the elementary particles are obtained when the masses of the elementary particles are combined with the gravitational constant, Planck's constant and the speed of light. The author insists that the principle of equivalence remains also in quantum physics, and that gravitational uncertainty principle is simple. Consciousness is still more fundamental than the elementary particles, but consciousness does not exist outside of elementary particles. The author advocates quantum consciousness, free-will, and suggests how to verify this experimentally.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1287] **viXra:1801.0371 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-26 15:43:35*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.5

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1286] **viXra:1801.0291 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 19:40:52*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. Break through

Sphere Theory has shown that Planck Pressure(1) is the gravitational force between two Hubble Universes on Planck Area. This paper shows that the perceived change in acceleration of the universe, at about 5 billion light years, can be explained by the gravity between two universes. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is at 5.27 billion light years from the center of the universe. It is hypothesized here, that if the observed change in the rate of expansion of the universe occurs at exactly 5.27 billion light years from earth, that the earth is near the center of the universe, that there are multiple equal sized universes, and the boundary of the universe is the Hubble sphere at approximately 13.8 billion light years in radius.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1285] **viXra:1801.0290 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 20:25:11*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages. break through

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1284] **viXra:1801.0284 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-22 06:57:56*

**Authors:** Dezső Sarkadi

**Comments:** 8 Pages. In Hungarian

In today's physics, there is an increased interest in the supposed properties of a future Quantum Gravity in the fields of theoretical foundation and as well as experimental verification. The ultimate goal of this re-search is the creation of a definitive, universally accepted theory of Quantum Gravity. In the present work, the two hundred and fifty years of history Titius-Bode rule is investigated, under the assumption that this empirical fact is a key evidence of the quantized feature of the already long known classical gravity.
Keywords: Titius-Bode rule, Bohr-Sommerfeld quantization, de Broglie matter wave, Quantum Gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1283] **viXra:1801.0264 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-21 08:37:44*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The Dirac equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1282] **viXra:1801.0249 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-20 00:45:39*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Submitted to Canadian Journal of Physics

We revisit the solutions to the nonlinear Bohm-Poisson (BP) equation with relevant cosmological applications. In particular, we obtain an exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density and explain the origins of its repulsive gravitational nature. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime; how Bohm's quantum potential in four-dimensions could be re-interpreted as a gravitational potential in five-dimensions, and which explains why the presence of dark energy/dark matter in our 4D spacetime can only be inferred indirectly, but not be detected/observed directly. Solutions to the novel Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy (repulsive gravity). We proceed with a discussion on Asymptotic safety, matter creation from the vacuum, and Finsler relativistic extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation. Finally, we conclude with some comments about the Dirac-Eddington large numbers coincidences.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1281] **viXra:1801.0233 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-19 03:44:09*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

Bose, Marletto and their colleagues believe their proposals constitute an improvement on Feynman's idea. They are based on testing whether the mass could be entangled with a second identical mass via the gravitational field. [10] THREE WEEKS AGO, upon sifting through the aftermath of their protonsmashing experiments, physicists working at the Large Hadron Collider reported an unusual bump in their signal: the signature of two photons simultaneously hitting a detector. Physicists identify particles by reading these signatures, which result from the decay of larger, unstable particles that form during high-energy collisions. It's how they discovered the Higgs boson back in 2012. But this time, they had no idea where the photons came from. [9] In 2012, a proposed observation of the Higgs boson was reported at the Large Hadron Collider in CERN. The observation has puzzled the physics community, as the mass of the observed particle, 125 GeV, looks lighter than the expected energy scale, about 1 TeV. [8] 'In the new run, because of the highest-ever energies available at the LHC, we might finally create dark matter in the laboratory,' says Daniela. 'If dark matter is the lightest SUSY particle than we might discover many other SUSY particles, since SUSY predicts that every Standard Model particle has a SUSY counterpart.' [7] The problem is that there are several things the Standard Model is unable to explain, for example the dark matter that makes up a large part of the universe. Many particle physicists are therefore working on the development of new, more comprehensive models. [6] They might seem quite different, but both the Higgs boson and dark matter particles may have some similarities. The Higgs boson is thought to be the particle that gives matter its mass. And in the same vein, dark matter is thought to account for much of the 'missing mass' in galaxies in the universe. It may be that these mass-giving particles have more in common than was thought. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron's spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1280] **viXra:1801.0189 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-16 08:06:14*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Sphere Theory is a theory of Universe and Quantum world that everything is spheres made of spheres. Hubble size spheres, Planck Spheres and smaller spheres, multiverse spheres and perhaps larger spheres.
Professor Adam Riess, from John Hopkins University states “A mathematical discrepancy in the expansion rate of the Universe is now "pretty serious", and could point the way to a major discovery in physics.” His newly calculated value is 73.24.(1) Sphere Theory calculates the value to be 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc (2)
If we look at Evidence for Granulated Space, we that the size of the Hubble Sphere is 13.7659 billion light years(2) If we convert this to a constant Hubble Constant it converts to 71.03 (km/s)/Mpc. This compares to the following Hubble constants calculated from the Wikipedia summary table of 71.027. (km/s)/Mpc.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1279] **viXra:1801.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-15 06:32:05*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A gravitational momentum space wavefunction and its inverse spacetime Fourier transformation are constructed from the classical particle Lagrangian. From non-relativistic metric, the momentum space wavefunction gives the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with gravity temperature relation and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Schrodinger equation with a harmonic oscillator potential, leading to the Gauss’s law for gravity with mass density gravity relation. From the special relativity metric, which is shown to set the temperature at about 7.64×10^-12 K and density at about 3.58×10^9 kgm^-3, the momentum space wavefunction gives a relativistic momentum distribution and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Dirac equation with a spacetime potential. Finally, the many identical particles wavefunctions are also constructed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1278] **viXra:1801.0168 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-14 19:08:17*

**Authors:** Peter V. Raktoe

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Physicists like to use more than 3 dimensions but our universe only contains 3 dimensions, they don't seem to understand how it works. String theory requires 11 dimensions and that includes spacetime, but there can only be 3 dimensions in our universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1277] **viXra:1801.0109 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-10 02:13:45*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 100 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

Quantized Gravitational Field
“I quantized the gravitational field with gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors, from your books that the gravitational field g is a vector at each point of space and time, a vector pointing directly towards the particle.
In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function.
Gravitons do not exist in Einstein’s gravitation theory, because General relativity is not a quantum theory.
“In my Gravitation theory, the gravitational field is not a vector at each point of space and time, where there are not gravitons there is not gravitational field”
Adrian Ferent
“In my Gravitation theory the density of flux lines is replaced by graviton flux”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitation field lines are gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Each graviton in the gravitational field has a speed v and a negative momentum p = -mv”
Adrian Ferent
“The graviton flux is defined as the number of gravitons per second per unit area”
Adrian Ferent
“The power density is the graviton flux multiplied by the energy of a single graviton”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1276] **viXra:1801.0083 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-08 00:58:46*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1][2][3][4][5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description the model of consciousness proposed in paper 3 [3]. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, in explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s finding of consciousness being the logical emergence from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). More to this, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space according to the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space, in which a model of human consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the red-shift effect, carbon dating, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1275] **viXra:1801.0072 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 22:47:02*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Are you and I here because of evolution? Or are we here because there is a humanistic, rational, scientific and entirely natural explanation for what is called God? If there is, we must ask: how does an "entirely natural" process end up being called "supernatural" by some people? The answer seems to lie with the applications in thousands of years from now of quantum mechanics being unified with general relativity - and the seeming SUPERnaturalness of those apps to today's world (they apparently embrace all of space and time).
In years past, the denial of divine beings by science may have been logical. But times sometimes change radically. Such a paradigm shift seems to be upon us now, with the discovery of gravitational waves and the anticipation of quantum gravity. In changing times, scientists must always keep open minds. And if biological evolution explains less than we've come to believe, it is assumed that present theories concerning cosmic evolution might be in some - certainly not total - need of revision. This is explored in topics such as gravitation, infinity, quantum gravity, space-time travel, the universe's binary digits and topology, the reason the Higgs field is actually the gravitational - electromagnetic field, alleged universal expansion, and imaginary time.
Many references are from the scientific literature but I do not apologize for those that come from popular science sources. Authors cannot allow these to be inaccurate if they value their reputation at all. And such references are often excellent at communicating ideas.
I believe this article will obviously be seen by some as too speculative, and irrelevant to the early 21st century. The theoretical physicist John Wheeler once said some of the original papers on quantum mechanics were also considered extremely speculative. Look how far quantum mechanics has come in less than a century! So speculation is not a bad thing.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1274] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-06 09:39:07*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 1 Page.

The electrical constant and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' ln(196883).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1273] **viXra:1801.0057 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 09:29:14*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Equations of the general theory of relativity are derived within the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. A new interpretation of gravitation is given. The absence of quantum gravity is predicted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1272] **viXra:1801.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-05 05:27:07*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 21 Pages.

A spallation neutron source has been used by physicists in Japan to search for possible violations of the inverse square law of gravity. [12] Physicists have proposed a way to test quantum gravity that, in principle, could be performed by a laser-based, table-top experiment using currently available technology. [11] Now however, a new type of materials, the so-called Weyl semimetals, similar to 3-D graphene, allow us to put the symmetry destructing quantum anomaly to work in everyday phenomena, such as the creation of electric current. [10] Physicist Professor Chunnong Zhao and his recent PhD students Haixing Miao and Yiqiu Ma are members of an international team that has created a particularly exciting new design for gravitational wave detectors. [9] A proposal for a gravitational-wave detector made of two space-based atomic clocks has been unveiled by physicists in the US. [8] The gravitational waves were detected by both of the twin Laser Interferometer Gravitational-Wave Observatory (LIGO) detectors, located in Livingston, Louisiana, and Hanford, Washington, USA. [7] A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1271] **viXra:1801.0024 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 06:04:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Mathematics is the Heaven of physics but at the same time can often be a hell that leads astray. Here we present a list of the twelve most illogical ideas in particle physics and cosmology accepted by the scientific community. One of the items on the list is the Higgs mechanism. We show that in fact the Higgs mechanism does not explain the origin of the gravitating masses or gravitational fields. The Higgs mechanism is a mathematical hocus-pocus because it does not refer to physical phenomena. The superluminal quantum entanglement causes that in reality quantum physics is classical and statistical. Observers claim that the Uncertainty Principle is valid because detectors can not see the superluminal exchanges. What’s more, the detectors see a statistical picture of a large number of consecutive states that are often the same states. Speed of photons in “vacuum” is invariant/the-same only in relation to the systems with which the photons are entangled.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1270] **viXra:1801.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2018-01-02 23:37:31*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this variant, the geometry is related to the energy, which is equal to the average langrangian of three-dimensional gravity. The topology of a three-dimensional space generates the energy of a particle

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1269] **viXra:1712.0672 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-30 14:40:48*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3% of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size that is rotating on 3 axes where the Dark Energy is 68.2 percent of the universe and is simply the kinetic energy from the matter contained in the universe as the universe rotates on 3 axes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1268] **viXra:1712.0644 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-28 04:58:57*

**Authors:** Adrian Ferent

**Comments:** 92 Pages. © 2015 Adrian Ferent

“Gravitational field is Gravitons”
Adrian Ferent
“Gravitational field is a discrete function”
Adrian Ferent
Gravitational field is not continuous and differentiable function.
The momentum of the graviton is negative p = - m × v.
“Gravitons have negative energy E = a × f and the speed higher than the speed of light”
Adrian Ferent
You learned from your professors, from your books that a gravitational field is a model used to explain the influence of a mass into space.
You learned about couple gravitational fields, using PDEs (conditions of continuity and differentiability).
More complicated are the equations, more impressive is the theory for those who do not understand gravitations. Writing wrong and useless equations related to Einstein’s wrong gravitation theory was the job for the scientists in the last 100 years.
In classical mechanics the gravitational field is the negative gradient of the gravitational potential.
Einstein did not understand gravity and reinterpreted gravity not as a force pulling on objects but as a curvature of spacetime; Einstein's field equations.
Quantum theories of gravity like String theory, LQG… try to reconcile general relativity with the principles of quantum mechanics.
Because Einstein gravitation theory is wrong, quantum theories of gravity like String theory, LQG…are wrong theories.
Einstein did not receive the Nobel Prize for his theory, but they received in 2017 the Nobel Prize for detection of gravitational waves, predicted by Einstein’s theory.
LIGO announced the first-ever direct detection of gravitational waves.
“Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?”
Adrian Ferent
As a consequence of Einstein wrong gravitation theory, the physicists explained how they can travel trough a black hole, trough a wormhole.
“A black hole attracts with greater force a planet, than the planet attracts the black hole”
Adrian Ferent
This means:
“Newton's third law is wrong”
Adrian Ferent

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1267] **viXra:1712.0591 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-24 09:42:52*

**Authors:** U. V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Preprints2017,2017110119

By considering two virtual gravitational constants assumed to be associated with electromagnetic and strong interactions, in a theoretical and verifiable approach, we make an attempt to estimate the Newtonian gravitational constant from microscopic elementary physical constants. With respect to Fermi's weak coupling constant and root mean square radius of proton, estimated value of the Newtonian gravitational constant is 6.67454X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2 and our estimated value is 6.679856X10(-11) m3/kg/sec2.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1266] **viXra:1712.0569 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 17:30:34*

**Authors:** Ichiro Nakayama

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Light is quantum which indicates the duality of particles and waves. Therefore, it is not possible to make a model of light to explain two antithetical characters at the same time. But, I succeeded to draw a model of light having simultaneously both characteristics of particles and waves based on “energy body theory”. The reason why light makes interference fringes in Young double slit experiment became clear by this. Particularly, the reason why interference fringes are made, even when photons are emitted one by one, if many photons are emitted, were also made clear. More, this photon model gives the reason to the phenomena such as reflection, refraction and invariable velocity of light.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1265] **viXra:1712.0546 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-22 03:05:59*

**Authors:** Antonio Puccini

**Comments:** 41 Pages.

In its natural state the electron is represented by superimposed quantum states. This is the phase of linear unitary evolution, or U Phase, described by Schrodinger equation. Whereas, when we carry out a measurement (M), it took place a reduction of the state vectors(R Process): we have the wave function collapse (WFC) of the measured quantum object (QO). The M, thus, produces a big changes on the physical properties of the observed particle. How do these changes happen?
What is the secret mechanism which creates the WFC? We don’t know.
With this paper we try to introduce a new parameter, induced by the electro-magnetic radiation (EMR), which can help us discern the doubts about the R Process, and try to find a continuity in order to link the U Phase to the R Process, so contrasting at the moment.
The new parameter could be a gravity and quantum effect, when we try to make a M of a subatomic object. What is this effect represented by?
It is a gravitational effect, since it is a mass-effect, a mechanical action induced by quanta of EMR: therefore, it is also a quantum effect. The photon (P) is indispensable to carry out a M. No M can be carried out without using the EMR.
Calculus show that a P of the optic band hits an electron with a dynamic-mass, a radiation pressure, a pushing momentum equal to 1.32510-22[gcm/s]. Thus, we can infer it is a quantum gravitational effect to cause the WFC of the QO undergoing the M.
In short, it could be essentially the mechanical action represented by the gravitational mass effect of light’s quanta to induce the WFC and the Measurement’s Paradox and, likely, make a starting point to a Correct Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1264] **viXra:1712.0529 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-21 01:03:10*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 1 Page.

This relationship shows that the fluctuation in the volume of the geometry of space generates an energy fluctuation, that is, matter. Matter is created from the topology of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1263] **viXra:1712.0477 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-15 09:53:51*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, curvature and integral operators. The Yang-Mills field operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature operator gives the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian. In all quantization cases, the field form operators have mass eigenvalue. Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives the Lagrangian of massive particle Lagrangian with many different representations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1262] **viXra:1712.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-13 09:10:04*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages. would be entry into new FQXI contest

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion.
Key words, Ricci Scalar, inflaton physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1261] **viXra:1712.0431 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-14 00:52:04*

**Authors:** John Peel

**Comments:** 12 Pages. References to be supplied. the author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com

The author attempts to unify General Relativity with Quantum Mechanics. This involves the use of the Cartesian Axes as the building blocks of reality. A certain set is employed and this permeates the content of the article. The author can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1260] **viXra:1712.0395 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 15:45:55*

**Authors:** Ozan Varli

**Comments:** 4 Pages. A Highly Consistent Hypothesis Which Supports All The Observations

Description in the theory of general relativity of the gravity is completely just a misunderstanding. Because curvature of space is caused by gravity. Gravity is a field force that bends space, because it causes acceleration as shown by Newton. And a new theory of gravity which supports our observations is suggested named as neutral field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1259] **viXra:1712.0389 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-11 21:42:54*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The answer could very well be related to 42. Sphere theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.047987*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.588269 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1258] **viXra:1712.0383 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-10 13:41:40*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The concepts of mass, force and energy in the theory of generated space-time-matter are described.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1257] **viXra:1712.0349 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-07 07:49:41*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, Sunspots and Starspots in general are originated by former Comet nuclei crashed into the sun (or stars) which should be interpreted as new physics black holes.
Those black holes seem to be able repel Fermionic matter but absorb the Axion Higgs field vacuum, which is the origin of a constant nuclear black hole growing ins size, but not in mass effect.
Tabby’s star seems to be a star being preparing for super nova explosion by the over density of starspot black hole populations, just as is observed in super novas such as the Helix nebula, showing rings of point like hotspots interpreted as former starspots, expelled from the nucleus.
As a consequence, in Quantum FFF Theory ( Function Follows Form) all black holes should deviate strongly from the black holes as proposed by the physics community and could be named “electric dark matter black holes” with an external negative charge without graviton radiation or even real mass- and inertia effects.
The gravity effect observed around black holes is supposed to be originated by the dark energy pressure of the external massless “Oscillating Axion Higgs Rigid String Vacuum Lattice”
The Massless Axion-Higgs Vacuum Rigid String particle, is the transformer into all other particles (Bosons, Fermions) and even concentrated in Micro and Macro Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei.
Q-FFF Theory, is basically a classical theory based on transformable rigid string based building blocks of a raspberry shaped clockwork multiverse, however these building blocks are all instantly guided by long distance entanglement between CP symmetric copy universal bubbles.
As a consequence Quantum FFF Theory should be called a semi classical theory,
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs vacuum and black hole particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic cold big bang black hole nucleus as the creator of only one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1256] **viXra:1712.0201 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-06 21:21:19*

**Authors:** Jean Louis Van Belle MAEc BAEc BPhil

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This paper further explores the structural similarities between the elementary quantum-mechanical wavefunction and circularly polarized electromagnetic waves to further tune a possible physical interpretation of the wavefunction.
The interpretation that is offered analyzes the real and the imaginary part of the wavefunction as oscillations which each carry half of the total energy of the particle. These oscillations are perpendicular to each other, and the interplay between both may describe how energy propagates through space over time. The model is based on three fundamental premises:
1.The dimension of the matter-wave field vector is force per unit mass (N/kg), as opposed to the force per unit charge (N/C) dimension of the electric field vector. This dimension is an acceleration (m/s2), which is the dimension of the gravitational field.
2.This gravitational disturbance may cause a charged mass to move about some center, combining linear and circular motion. This interpretation may reconcile the wave-particle duality to some extent: fields interfere but if, at the same time, they do drive a pointlike particle, this may explain why, as Feynman puts it, “when you do find the electron some place, the entire charge is there.”
This hybrid hypothesis is supported by an elegant yet simple derivation of the Compton radius of an electron.
3.In light of the direction of the magnetic moment of an electron in an inhomogeneous magnetic field, the plane which circumscribes the circulatory motion of the electron should also comprise the direction of its linear motion. Hence, unlike an electromagnetic wave, the plane of the two-dimensional oscillation cannot be perpendicular to the direction of motion of our electron.
Finally, this paper addresses an issue which has hampered other physical interpretations of the wavefunction: amplitude transformations when going from one representation (or reference frame) to another.
Indeed, the author re-visits the original mathematical arguments here and shows that the proposed model, and the related physical interpretation of the wavefunction, are not incompatible with the key results and mainstream logic in this regard.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1255] **viXra:1712.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 11:17:24*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 36 Pages.

The Massless Axion-Higgs Vacuum Rigid String particle, is the transformer into all other particles and even concentrated in Micro and Macro Dark Matter Black Hole Nuclei.
Quantum FFF Theory is basically a classical theory based on transformable rigid string based building blocks of a raspberry shaped clockwork multiverse, however these building blocks are all instantly guided by long distance entanglement between CP symmetric copy universal bubbles.
As a consequence Quantum FFF Theory should be called a semi classical theory,
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs vacuum and black hole particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic cold big bang black hole nucleus as the creator of only one symmetrical raspberry shaped multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1254] **viXra:1712.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-04 14:28:19*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model put forth in this paper presupposes that spacetime is not a mathematical abstraction but has a basis in physical reality with matter and spacetime being convertible states of the same theoretical quantum particle. This postulated quantum particle is composed of D-branes and Type I strings and the nomenclature for this brane/string complex is the B-string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1253] **viXra:1712.0097 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-05 06:15:59*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The additional deceleration of massive bodies in the model of low-energy quantum gravity due to forehead and backhead collisions with gravitons is re-calculated in this note. It is shown that
this deceleration $w$ is equal to: $w=-H_{0}c \cdot
4v^{2}/c^{2}\cdot (1-v^{2}/c^{2})^{0.5},$ where $H_{0} $ is the Hubble constant, $c$ is the velocity of light, $v$ is the body's
velocity relative to the background.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1252] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 15:12:37*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages. First draft

Quantum gravity, which necessarily breaks the equivalence principle, is most easily discussed using the hypothesis of non local mass generation. Here we define all the essential elementary algebra needed to understand the new cosmology and its quantitative consequences. There is no dark matter and no dark energy. Mass is quantised much as spin is quantised, and gravity emerges from quantum information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1251] **viXra:1712.0075 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-03 16:13:54*

**Authors:** Evgeny A Novikov

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Evolution of our universe with continuous production of matter by the vacuum, is described. The analysis is based on the quantum modification of the general relativity (Qmoger), supported by the cosmic data without fitting. Various types of matter are selected by the vacuum in accordance with stability of the developing universe. All laws of nature are emergent and approximate, including the conservation of energy. The (3+1)-dimensional space-time and gravity were selected first. Than came quantum condensate of gravitons (dark matter). Photons and other ordinary matter were selected much later during formation of galaxies, when the background condensate becomes gravitationally unstable. The effect of radiation on the global dynamics is described in terms of conservation of the enthalpy density. Mass of neutrino (as the first massive fermionic particle) is estimated, in accord with experimental bound. The electric dipole moment of neutrino is also estimated. The oscillations of neutrinos are explained in terms of interaction with background condensate. The phenomena of subjective experiences are also explained in terms of interaction of the action potentials of neurons with the background dipolar condensate, which opens a new window into the dark sector of matter. The Qmoger theory goes beyond the Standard Model and the Quantum Field Theory, but can be combined with their achievements.
Key words: quantum modification of general relativity, emergence of the laws of nature, isenthalpic universe, oscillating neutrinos, subjective experiences and dark sector of matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1250] **viXra:1712.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-01 16:29:25*

**Authors:** Yazzed Al-Harbi

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Yang-Mills theory, one of the most important questions is to mathematically explain the mass gap, or nonzero mass, in quantum applications of the formulas. By deriving continuous lattice and perturbative formulations in this paper for QCD constitutions representing the mass gap, As a consequence The fourmulations obey general and special relativity, Newton's gravitational law and Klein-Gordon equation as the "Glue-balls".

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1249] **viXra:1712.0008 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-12-02 02:57:02*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A unified Mathematical framework which describes particles interactions both in classical field theory of gravity and quantum field theory is presented, by introducing a velocity gauge field. The velocity gauge field Lagrangian is developed and shown to be equivalent to the Dirac field and related to
the Electromagnetic field. The velocity fields interactions are shown to produce the Einstein-Hilbert action Lagrangian. Similar extension of the Mathematical framework to the Electromagnetic field produces the Quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills fields Lagrangians. Finally, a unified Lagrangian describing both velocity field and Electromagnetic field types is presented and alternative formulation suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1248] **viXra:1711.0457 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-29 05:53:45*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

In “Evidence for Granular Space-time”(1), Sphere Theory was proposed as a hypothesis by the author that the universe is a sphere made of spheres that again are made of smaller spheres. The levels of spheres, that were studied, are as follows; the Hubble sphere, which is of the order of 13.8 billion light years in radius; the Planck Sphere, which is the order of the Comptom wavelength of the neutron; and Kaluza sphere, which has Planck dimensions. The value N=6.57920*10^40 was determined to be the amount of Kaluza spheres on the outside of three Planck spheres. If we assign mass to be equivalent to a number of spheres we can show that Planck Mass is the number of Kaluza spheres in the volume of 3 Planck Spheres and The mass of the Neutron is layer of Kaluza spheres on the surface of 3 Planck Spheres. It was discussed in “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere” (2), that active part of the Planck Sphere and Hubble Sphere is due to imperfections in the packing of spheres with spheres, that turns out to be almost exactly equivalent to the outer surface of the sphere. Although these imperfections of packing are throughout the sphere, they are equivalent to outer packing surface of the sphere. It is these imperfections that are the only pieces of information in the sphere, the rest is perfectly packed and offer no information.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1247] **viXra:1711.0443 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2017-11-28 08:07:58*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 35 Pages.

Quantum FFF Theory is a semi classical theory because it describes reality by the real collision and transformation processes of real but different shaped symmetric sub quantum rigid stringy particles.
Those particles are supposed to be based on only one original transformable ring shaped massless virgin particle called the Axion/Higgs particle assumed to be the product of the symmetric cyclic big bang nucleus as the creation of a limited symmetrical multiverse equipped with an even number of material and anti material universal bubbles.
The Q-FFF theory is called Semi classical because in addition to the ring shaped transformable rigid string particles, all universal bubbles are assumed to be each others Charge Parity mirror symmetric universal bubbles which are assumed to be instant entangled down to each individual string particle created out of the Axion Higgs splitting cold Big Bang.
The sheer simplicity of such a system is perhaps the reason that I could not find comparable proposals for theories of everything.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1128] **viXra:1804.0138 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-13 05:33:42*

**Authors:** Leo Vuyk

**Comments:** 30 Pages.

According to Quantum FFF Theory, stable Black Holes are growing by "eating" the gravitating ( Casimir) pressure vacuum without the standard gravity related inertial effects, the result is that 1: Small BHs seem to concentrate around the central giant Galaxy BH . 2: Galaxy cluster mergers like Abell 520 overshoot and leaving behind their own Dark Matter content.
Mass is the potency of rigid strings, to produce and radiate Gravitons as a collision product, between mass less ring shaped oscillating Axion Higgs vacuum field particles and Fermions or Bosons also called Dipole Repeller gravity or dipole Emergent Gravity.
More extended loops or "arms" of each rigid string particle is supposed to create more Axion transformation into Gravitons or other electromagnetic monopole photons per time unit.
Secondly, gravitons are assumed to exert not an attraction force on fermions and bosons but only a reduced pressure force in opposition to the vacuum pressure of the Axion Higgs field..
So, Gravity can be described as the statistical difference between the collision pressure of “new” gravitons opposing the pressure of Axion Higgs field particles all around us.
Emergent gravity as proposed by E.Verlinde and Dipole Rrepeller gravity by Yehuda Hoffman, are in line with this assumption.
Non inertial black hole effects are the other side of the coin..

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1127] **viXra:1803.0743 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-07 15:14:58*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Two more equations linking Temperature to Length and linking Charge to Mass and time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1126] **viXra:1803.0740 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-02 02:20:07*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

n 2014, McCulloch showed, in a new and interesting way, how to derive a gravity theory from Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle that is equivalent to Newton gravity. McCulloch utilizes the Planck mass in his derivation and gets a gravitational constant of hc/m_p^2 . This is a composite constant, which is equivalent in value to Newton’s gravitational constant. However, McCulloch has pointed that his approach requires an assumption on the value of G, and that this involves some circular reasoning. This is in line with the view that the Planck mass is a derived constant from Newton’s gravitational constant, while big G is a universal fundamental constant. Here we will show that we can go straight from the McCulloch derivation to measuring the Planck mass without any knowledge of the gravitational constant. Therefore, from this perspective, there are no circular problems with his method. This means that we can measure the Planck mass totally independent of Newton’s gravitational constant, and shows that the McCulloch derivation is a theory of quantum gravity that stands on its own, with no need for input from Newton. This also strongly points towards the idea that Newton’s gravitational constant should be seen as a composite constant. Based on this perspective, for the first time since it was theoretically introduced 119 years ago, the Planck units can be measured completely independent of any knowledge of Newton’s gravitational constant. This could be an important step towards the development of a full theory of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1125] **viXra:1803.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-09 07:44:09*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1124] **viXra:1803.0502 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-24 16:00:26*

**Authors:** John R. Cipolla

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

This thought experiment is an attempt to unify Einstein's theory of general relativity, which governs gravitational fields around massive objects and quantum mechanics, or the wave nature of matter and energy. String theory postulates that electrons and quarks in atoms are one-dimensional oscillating line segments. The first elementary particle string models were called bosonic strings because only bosons or force carriers like photons; gluons and the Higgs particles were modeled. Later, superstring theory was developed that predicted a connection or "super-symmetry" between bosons and fermions where fermions are elementary particles like electrons, protons and quarks that compose all ordinary matter. This analysis assumes all massive objects can be modeled as heterotic or closed superstrings. Further, demonstrating the relationship between string theory and general relativity is simplified because general relativity approaches the Newtonian limit for small velocity. These results indicate string theory and general relativity are related.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1123] **viXra:1803.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-28 00:15:21*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 19 Pages. Submitted to the Int. J. Geom. Meth. Mod. Phys

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained. Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution
leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1122] **viXra:1803.0487 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-23 23:43:53*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

The $nonlinear$ Bohm-Poisson-Schroedinger equation is studied further. It has solutions leading to $repulsive$ gravitational behavior. An exact analytical expression for the observed vacuum energy density is obtained.
Further results are provided which include two possible extensions of the Bohm-Poisson equation to the full relativistic regime. Two specific solutions to the novel
Relativistic Bohm-Poisson equation (associated to a real scalar field) are provided encoding the repulsive nature of dark energy. One solution leads to an exact cancellation of the cosmological constant, but an expanding decelerating cosmos; while the other solution leads to an exponential accelerated cosmos consistent with a de Sitter phase, and whose extremely small cosmological constant is $ \Lambda = { 3 \over R_H^2}$, consistent with current observations. We conclude with some final remarks about Weyl's geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1121] **viXra:1803.0256 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-19 03:31:08*

**Authors:** Seamus McCelt

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

There cannot be a quantum gravity.

Although gravity and the other "forces" all work by the same means -- threads -- the situation and configurations are totally different.

**Gravitational Force:** full length threads pulling atoms together via simple thread tension...

`~~~(●)~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~(●)~~~ `

**Electro-magnetic Force:** Here are two electrons...

`~~~~~∗~~~~~ ~~~~~∗~~~~~ `

When electrons are close enough to attach or bond together: there are two full length threads -- one from each electron -- completely twisted together (but still full length).

`~~~~~∗≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~ `

The electrons are literally tied to one another, that is much stronger than a simple thread tension pull.

**Strong Force: **

A free proton would look like this ` ~~~~~●~~~~~`

(that's one free thread, 18 balled, one free thread)

A free neutron would look like this `●~~~~~`

(19 balled, and one free thread)

A free electron would look like this `~~~~~∗~~~~~ `

(one free thread, 18 free threads in a disc shape, one free thread)

When one proton thread `~~~~~●~~~~~`

and the neutron thread `●~~~~~ `

ball up (knot) together `●●~~~~~ `

that is the strong force.

Add an electron to that package `●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~`

and you also get the EM force (package aka deuterium)

neutron / knot / proton / twist / electron / thread

`●●≈≈≈≈≈∗~~~~~ `

The "knot" is just threads (like everything else) and it is balled-up between the neutron and the proton so you cannot see it. A balled-up knot is much stronger than a twist.

All forces have the same mechanism -- threads -- but they work by totally different means.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1120] **viXra:1802.0440 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-09 06:22:52*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1119] **viXra:1802.0440 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-18 07:18:53*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** Pages.

Recently, it has been reported an experiment where a very weak laser beam passes through a dense cloud of ultracold rubidium atoms. Under these circumstances, it was observed that the photons bound together in pairs or triplets, suggesting an unexpected attractive interaction between them. Here, it is shown that mentioned interaction can be related to the gravitational interaction.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1118] **viXra:1802.0440 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-09 17:02:42*

**Authors:** Fran De Aquino

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1117] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-27 08:26:59*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein’s theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron and proton beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton’s theory. This quantum gravity theory also seems to predict that for masses below the Planck mass, we are dealing with quantum probabilities and gravity force expectations. This may explain the difference between the strong and weak force – the difference is simply related to a probability factor at the Planck time scale.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive ob jects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1116] **viXra:1802.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-15 17:42:17*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

In this paper we propose a new and simple theory of quantum gravity, inspired by Newton, that gives the same prediction of light bending as Einstein's theory of general relativity. This new quantum gravity theory also predicts that non-light beams, that is to say beams of particles with rest-mass such as electron beams, will only have half the bending of light as GR. In other words, this theory is testable. Based on this theory, we will suggest that it is a property of light that makes it bend twice as much as the amount that is predicted by Newton's theory. This quantum gravity theory may also predict that the gravity force will be equal to the strong force when we are working at distances within the nucleus.
We are also suggesting a minor adjustment to the Newtonian gravitational acceleration field, which renders that field equal to the Planck acceleration at the Schwarzschild radius, and gives the same results as predicted by Newton when we are dealing with weak gravitational fields. This stands in contrast to GR, which predicts an infinitely strong gravitational field at the Schwarzschild radius. It also stands in contrast to standard Newtonian theory, which predicts a very weak gravitational acceleration field at the Schwarzschild radius for super-massive objects.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1115] **viXra:1802.0128 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-13 18:41:37*

**Authors:** Jody A. Geiger

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unifying quantum and classical physics has proved difficult as their postulates are conflicting. Using the notion of counts of the fundamental measures—length, mass, and time—a unifying description is resolved. A theoretical framework is presented by which a conversion between expressions from quantum and classical physics can be made. Notably, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle when quantized demonstrates the physical significance of fundamental measure. With this, a quantum model of gravitation and quantized dilation expressions for both special and general relativity are presented, each shown to be modified forms of the Pythagorean Theorem and applicable (i.e. defined for all values) to the entire measurement domain. The expressions provide a novel calculation for the gravitational constant and reveal new measurable characteristics regarding the perceived curvature of space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1114] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-12 00:40:53*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1113] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-10 10:18:13*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1112] **viXra:1802.0078 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-07 15:14:26*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

The Virasoro problem of string theory is solved.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1111] **viXra:1802.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-16 03:09:03*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 29 Pages. Many more references are added related to MOND and f(R) gravity.

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail.
Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space.
The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf
algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' in galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which may generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1110] **viXra:1802.0049 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-08 22:55:15*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

Born's Reciprocal Relativity Theory (BRRT) based on a maximal proper-force, maximal speed of light velocity, inertial and non-inertial observers is re-examined in full detail.
Relativity of locality and chronology are natural consequences of this theory, even in flat phase space. The advantage of BRRT is that Lorentz invariance is preserved and there is no need to introduce Hopf algebraic deformations of the Poincare algebra, de Sitter algebra, nor noncommutative spacetimes. After a detailed study of the notion of $generalized$ force, momentum and mass in phase space, we explain that what one may interpret as ``dark matter'' surrounding galaxies, for example, is just an effect of observing ordinary galactic matter in $different ~accelerating$ frames of reference than ours. Explicit calculations are provided that explain these novel relativistic effects due to the $accelerated$ expansion of the Universe, and which may generate the present-day density parameter value $ \Omega_{DM} \sim 0.25 $ of dark matter. The physical origins behind the numerical coincidences in Black-Hole Cosmology are also explored. We finalize with a rigorous study of the curved geometry of (co) tangent bundles (phase space) within the formalism of Finsler geometry, and provide a short discussion on Hamilton spaces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1109] **viXra:1801.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-30 12:29:01*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1108] **viXra:1801.0371 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-28 14:07:48*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

In this paper we uncover the true power of Newton's theory of gravity. Did you know that hidden inside Newton's gravity theory is the speed of gravity, namely c? Physicists who claim that Newton's gravitational force is instantaneous have not yet understood Newton's gravity theory to its full extent. Did you know that the Newton's theory of gravity, at a deeper level, is actually a theory of quantum gravity? Did you know that what is central for gravity is the Planck length and not the gravitational constant? To truly understand Newtonian gravity, we have to understand that Newton's gravitational constant is actually a composite constant. Once we understand this, we will truly begin to understand what Newton's theory of universal gravitation is all about.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1107] **viXra:1801.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-25 22:53:27*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 103 Pages.

This paper details a “time-relativity” theorem, the golden ratio algorithm effecting a unified theory of time and space, the calculations of which are entirely consistent with all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena, atomic to cosmological, where “time” is presented as the fundamental “quality” of reality through which space, defined as 0-scalar space, is given its characteristics. Six key preceding papers [1-6] are streamed in sections 1-6, following which section 7 presents all the key concepts of the new relativity of time and associated cosmological model into a “one theory” for time and space; flowcharts are forwarded highlighting the idea of time as this new algorithm linking all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena. From this, it is demonstrated that all key concepts of space-time have been addressed, with all relevant equations derived thereof, all central to the new algorithm for time. Finally, three key mechanisms of proof, well within scientific research capability of the near future, are proposed, detailing here how to emerge a gravitational field from electromagnetism in a laboratory setting.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1106] **viXra:1801.0368 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-03 02:56:29*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 104 Pages.

This paper details a “time-relativity” theorem, the golden ratio algorithm effecting a unified theory of time and space, the calculations of which are entirely consistent with all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena, atomic to cosmological, where “time” is presented as the fundamental “quality” of reality through which space, defined as 0-scalar space, is given its characteristics. Six key preceding papers [1-6] are streamed in sections 1-6, following which section 7 presents all the key concepts of the new relativity of time and associated cosmological model into a “one theory” for time and space; flowcharts are forwarded highlighting the idea of time as this new algorithm linking all known fundamental equations and associated observed phenomena. From this, it is demonstrated that all key concepts of space-time have been addressed, with all relevant equations derived thereof, all central to the new algorithm for time. Finally, three key mechanisms of proof, well within scientific research capability of the near future, are proposed, detailing here how to emerge a gravitational field from electromagnetism in a laboratory setting.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1105] **viXra:1801.0291 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-25 15:11:40*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Sphere Theory has shown that Planck Pressure(1) is the gravitational force between two Hubble Universes on Planck Area. This paper shows that the perceived change in acceleration of the universe, at about 5 billion light years, can be explained by the gravity between two universes. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is at 5.27 billion light years from the center of the universe. It is hypothesized here, that if the observed change in the rate of expansion of the universe occurs at exactly 5.27 billion light years from earth, that the earth is near the center of the universe, that there are multiple equal sized universes, and the boundary of the universe is the Hubble sphere at approximately 13.8 billion light years in radius. Since there will be 12 spheres surrounding the one sphere, there should actually be some spherical shape to the appearance of a rate of expansion with dimples and points. It should be pointed out that there should be other mechanisms that are much larger contributors to the appearance of a rate of expansion to the universe, but as more data is gathered the shape of the change in rate of expansion, from the external universes, should become evident.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1104] **viXra:1801.0290 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-31 04:04:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. The Golden Ratio

Sphere Theory is a theory that the universe is a sphere made of spheres, made of spheres, etc. (1) It was shown by Sphere Theory that Planck Pressure is a pressure of gravitational force between adjacent Hubble Sphere universes. (2) We can use a simple calculation to show why the Golden Ratio is prevalent in our universe. The Golden Ratio can be shown to be produced by the gravity between two, uniform, and symmetrical spheres. The acceleration of gravity, of our Hubble Sphere universe, increases as we get farther from the center of our Hubble Sphere universe linearly, the gravity from our adjacent Hubble Sphere universes decreases by the square of the distance from the center of that Hubble Sphere universe. The point at which these two accelerations, of gravity, become equal, is found to be related to the Golden Ratio.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1103] **viXra:1801.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-25 11:43:12*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Klein-Gordon equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter. The Dirac equation for a free particle is derived in the framework of the theory of emergent space-time-matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1102] **viXra:1801.0175 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-17 09:47:25*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A gravitational momentum space wavefunction and its inverse spacetime Fourier transformation are constructed from the classical particle Lagrangian. From non-relativistic metric, the momentum space wavefunction gives the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution with gravity temperature relation and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Schrodinger equation with a harmonic oscillator potential, leading to the Gauss’s law for gravity with mass density gravity relation. From the special relativity metric, which is shown to set the temperature at about 7.64×10^-12 K and density at about 3.58×10^9 kgm^-3, the momentum space wavefunction gives a relativistic momentum distribution and the spacetime wavefunction gives the Dirac equation with a spacetime potential. Finally, the many identical particles wavefunctions are also constructed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1101] **viXra:1801.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-20 17:57:17*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Consider how the meridians of gnomonic projected light waves onto vision receptors are similarly distorted. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1100] **viXra:1801.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 13:23:16*

**Authors:** Arthur E Pletcher

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The primary consideration of this unifying field theory is the partial mapping of topology, within observations, as feedback loops. Specifically, the effective degrees of freedom (d.o.f.) resulting from such recursive exchanges. This modeling of observation as partial mapping seems well justified, as it is ubiquitous throughout nature's exchanges and propagation of information. Considered the meridian distortions of gnomonic projection of light waves in vision. Thus, PVRL extrapolates this same principle of constraining parameters in recursive feedback loops into the entire scope from QFT, (at flashpoint), to GR. PVRL proposes a multispace of transitioning Rn vector fields (similar to Hilbert space), coexisting like wavelengths in a prism. Progressing from quantum states, which are higher dimensional, outward to lower dimensional Macrospace (Note that backward causation is possible in quantum mechanics, but not possible in the constrained parameters of classic mechanics or GR). Familiar classic R4 spacetime is just one phase of this multispace. The mechanism which delineates between each state is PVRL: An iterated process of conscious binary gnomonic mapping of higher dimensional topology onto biased eigenstates. (and subsequent propagation within the quantum field). At each iteration, symmetry becomes more broken, and geometric parameters become more constrained (Polarity, bonding, separation, alignment and propagation). The inevitable outcome of such recursive feedback loops is a power law distribution (exponential tail), with increased entropy and complexity The resolution of the Cosmological Constant Problem is an understanding that scales approaching QFT are viewed in higher dimensional divergence, and that scales approaching GR are viewed in lower dimensional convergence. A Transitioning Rn space, from R5 at microscales, outward to R3 at the cosmic event horizon, with R4 spactime as an intermediate phase.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1099] **viXra:1801.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-02-03 02:24:00*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1-5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description how consciousness emerges (as proposed in paper 3 [3]) from time-space. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, while explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s finding of consciousness being the emergence from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). Additionally, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space per the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space via which a model of “human” consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the wormholes, red-shift effect, carbon dating, gamma radiation, white holes, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy, will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed, proof not yet proposed by contemporary science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1098] **viXra:1801.0083 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-17 00:53:40*

**Authors:** Stephen H. Jarvis

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

In this development upon five leading papers [1-5], the idea of the “relativity of time” shall be fully addressed, providing the rationale to how the overall manifold of time-space would perform regarding entropy and enthalpy, including in this description how consciousness emerges (as proposed in paper 3 [3]) from time-space. First, the idea of “subject” and “object” shall be presented regarding the time-relativity description, while explaining the role of consciousness in this process (given paper 3’s finding of consciousness being the emergence from chaos, the aim here arriving at fundamental features of consciousness that would already be apparent to our known traits of consciousness). Additionally, more texture shall be provided to the explanation of the flow of time, detailing how time being relative in space per the golden ratio has two features, namely “cause” and “effect”. Through examining cause and effect regarding time, an “end-zone” region of time-space shall be examined, the mechanics there as gravity/mass breaks down, and the idea of stellar quantum-entanglement, giving rise to a seemingly endless “image” of the stars. Following this, the idea of consciousness will be brought in to this new overall plane of time-space via which a model of “human” consciousness will be forwarded. Through this discussion, ideas central to the wormholes, red-shift effect, carbon dating, gamma radiation, white holes, and the dimensions of the perceived galaxy, will be forwarded, supported with accepted experimental findings. Finally, three new mechanisms of proof shall be proposed, proof not yet proposed by contemporary science.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1097] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-26 03:13:33*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the Witten 'moonshine entropy' lnD, with D = 196883 = 59(59²-12²). The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the controversial tabulated one. The monstrous fifth number in the fractional development of pi is clearly involved. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D, implies the string central number 496, very close to the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses, which are connected by an holographic relation, confirming the Eddington tau-proton symmetry and the symmetrical Koide relation. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass, from its approximation 59²me, so directly tied to D, and compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1096] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-20 04:59:20*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the Witten 'moonshine entropy' lnD, with D = 196883 = 59(59²-12²). The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the controversial tabulated one. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D, implies the string central number 496, very close to the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses, which are connected by an holographic relation, confirming the Eddington tau-proton symmetry. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass, from its approximation 59²me, so directly tied to D, and compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1095] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 00:12:17*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. The involved pi-approximations implies a 0.3 ppb formula for a, and, using the first Mathieu group order, this confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but at 4 sigma from the tabulated one. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses. The Monster order correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, and confirming again the BIPM value for G. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, involving the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1094] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-15 01:48:42*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), and directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses. This mass correlates with canonical economic numbers, leading to a value for the tau mass compatible with the Koide relation in the 10 ppb range, and confirming the BIPM value for G, at 4s the tabulated value. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, entering the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1093] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-11 23:47:25*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson), and directly tied to the Monster order entropy via the tau and muon masses. The fifth power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, entering the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical Laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1092] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-09 23:54:16*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson). The fith power of the Monster order is directly connected to D and d via the number 24 of transverse dimensions, entering the economic number 3^(24²+1). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1091] **viXra:1801.0067 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-08 23:42:55*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The electrical constant a and its Eddington approximation 137 are both 10 ppb connected with the dimension d = 26 of bosonic string theory and the 'moonshine entropy' lnD. Direct connection between a, 137, d and D = 196883, reveals the string central number 496, about the 20th root of the Monster order, whose square corresponds to 125.6 GeV (BEH Boson). This confirms the arithmetical character of Physical laws.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1090] **viXra:1712.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-03 21:59:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 68.3 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size. That dark energy may be 66.37 % of the total energy/mass of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1089] **viXra:1712.0672 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-01 17:45:58*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages. Errors in calculation in first submission

Dark Energy seems to be mysterious. The Universe, it is said is made mainly of Baryonic Matter, Dark Matter, and Dark Energy. There are also the neutrinos and radiation. There is the critical density calculated from General Relativity, The ‘critical density’ is the average density of matter required for the Universe to just halt its expansion, but only after an infinite time. A Universe with the critical density is said to be flat.(1). Assuming that the standard model of cosmology is correct, the best current measurements indicate that dark energy contributes 66.37 % of the total energy in the present-day observable universe. The mass–energy of dark matter and ordinary (baryonic) matter contribute 26.8% and 4.9%, respectively, and other components such as neutrinos and photons contribute a very small amount. (2, 3, 4, 5).
This paper proposes and shows evidence for a spherical universe of finite size.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1088] **viXra:1712.0477 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 05:14:38*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The many velocity gauge fields interaction Lagrangian density is extended to a continuous spectrum Lagrangian then quantized and normalized. The Euler-Lagrange equation is transformed to the Yang-Mills field, integral and curvature form operators. The Yang-Mills field form operator quantization gives the equivalent Dirac equation, the integral form operator quantization gives perturbation series similar to the path integral formulation of Quantum mechanics and the curvature form operator is used to get the Einstein-Hilbert Lagrangian density; operators are quantized with mass eigenvalue. Finally, the normalization of the wave function gives a charged massive particle Lagrangian density with six representations.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1087] **viXra:1712.0447 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-08 08:29:27*

**Authors:** Mohamed Abdelwhab Husseiny

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Several attempts to develop a quantum theory of gravity based on Einstein's theory of general relativity have been made. This study shows that the quantization of general relativity is impossible if space is sloped. The slope of space creates a new kind of energy that causes objects, such as bodies, particles, and gravitational waves, to slide backward during their forward motion (similar to sliding during hill climbing). This energy causes gravitational waves, bodies, particles, and light to experience slight resistance while spreading or progressing forward in space and time. I find that if absolute space supposed by Newton is sloped space, many phenomena will be created such as time dilation, space & time reversal, emergence of space-time, constancy of speed of light and gravity reversal. The conclusions drawn in this study refer to the “gravity is non quantum if space has slope, where the reversed time between two moving particles is more than or equal to the time interval between these two particles, or the reversed space between two moving particles is more than or equal to the space interval between these two particles.” This work does not aims to prove existence or absence of gravity at the smallest scale; rather it aims to show that there is a new property related to space that if it exists, quantum theory of gravity becomes unnecessary, therefore testing of this property must be included in the interests of applied physicists in the next days.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1086] **viXra:1712.0443 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-15 09:31:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages. ADDED A SECTION WHICH ANSWERS THE FQXI CONTEST QUESTIONS

We are looking at comparison of two action integrals and we identify the Lagrangian multiplier as setting up a constraint equation (on cosmological expansion). In FFP 15, in the Author’s presentation, one of the two compared action integrals was from Hambler’ Quantum Gravity reference, while another was given as similar to the action principle of the Hilbert idea of General Relativistic derivation of the Einstein Field Equations. What we have done is to replace the Hambler Quantum gravity reference based action integral with a result straight from John Klauder’s “Enhanced Quantization” tome. In doing so, with also a nod to Thanu Padamabhan’s treatment of the inflaton, we then commence to initiate an explicit bound upon the cosmological constant. The further approximation is to use the inflaton results, and conflate them with John Klauder’s Action principle for a way to , if we have the idea of a potential well, generalized by Klauder, with a wall of space time in the Pre Planckian regime to ask what bounds the Cosmological constant prior to inflation. We argue this is the most important fundamental question in physics today, for reasons we elaborate upon in the conclusion. Section 6 details my actual answers to the essay’s ideas, in lieu of the creation of this answer to the cosmological constant due to enhanced quantization.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1085] **viXra:1712.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-04-04 08:02:44*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Corrected Gravitational Constant values.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57920 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1084] **viXra:1712.0389 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-12 04:53:04*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42.
The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57920 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1083] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-18 22:34:44*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis : a Cosmic Boson completing the Cartan-Bott series. This time is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the Monster group order. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington Statistical approach, considered as the third pillar of physics, rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The consideration of canonic economic numbers leads to the discovery that the Monster order is very close to the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. A direct connexion is found between the Monster group and the first Mathieu one, which confirms the Coherent Cosmology value G ≈ 6.67544 × 10^-11 kg^-1m^3s^-2, compatible with the BIPM measurement, but distinct from the tabulated value (4 sigma). The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster order and basic number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis in a matter-antimatter blinking Cosmos. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1082] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-16 03:36:35*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis, corresponding to a Cosmic Boson completing the Cartan-Bott series. This time is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the Monster group order. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington Statistical approach, considered as the third pillar of physics, rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers leads to the discovery that the Monster order is very close to the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster order and basic number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis in a matter-antimatter blinking Cosmos. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1081] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-14 00:16:32*

**Authors:** F. M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis, and which is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers leads to the Monster order to be the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster and number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis in a matter-antimatter blinking Cosmos. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1080] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-01-02 00:20:28*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 15 Pages.

Two mandatory triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 10^57 s, corresponding to a crucial lacking point in the Topological Axis, and which is, apart a factor √2, the Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the
Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10^122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers leads to the Monster order to be the seventh power of the pariah group J3 order and the 10th power of the mass ratio BEH scalar boson/electron, whose square root is very close to the third perfect number 496, central in string theory. The product of orders of the whole “happy family” is very close to a^a, connected with the monster and number theory, implying a ≈ 137.036 to be an optimal calculation basis. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1079] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-28 22:41:02*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 1057 s, which is, apart a factor √2, the
Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of a single electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological
Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers implies a connection between the Monster and the
pariah group J3., while the whole “happy family” shows overwhelming properties. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are
also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1078] **viXra:1712.0367 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 07:57:13*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez, Christian Bizouard, Dominique Weigel, Renée Veysseyre

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Two mandatory combinations from different triplets of universal constants gives about the same time 5.53 × 1057 s, which is, apart a√2 factor, the
Kotov quasar non-Doppler periodicity 9600.61(6) s multiplied by the order of the Monster group. Entire powers of the later are also identified in canonical ratios of Coherent Cosmology, where the above time appears as the Cosmic Period. The Eddington approach rejoins the Feynman cosmic sweeping of asingle electron, at last explaining non-parity and confirming the Topological
Axis, which rehabilitates tachyonic bosonic string theory. New space and time quanta explain at last the 10122 vacuum-energy discrepancy. The introduction of canonic economic numbers implies a connection between the Monster and the
pariah group J3., while the whole “happy family” shows overwhelming properties. Implications on Biology and the International System of Units are
also discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1077] **viXra:1712.0115 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-25 18:37:13*

**Authors:** Gary Heen

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

The model put forth in this paper presupposes that spacetime is not a mathematical abstraction but has a basis in physical reality with matter and spacetime being convertible states of the same theoretical quantum particle. This postulated quantum particle is composed of D-branes and Type I strings and the nomenclature for this brane/string complex is the B-string.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1076] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-03-07 15:31:15*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Publication being prevented

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to explain discrepancies in the value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, in the approximation of the R=ct semiclassical cosmology with Mach's principle. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism, and this new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. We introduce mass quantisation in the Brannen-Koide scheme in this context.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1075] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-30 12:34:59*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to explain discrepancies in the value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, in the approximation of the R=ct semiclassical cosmology with Mach's principle. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism, and this new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. We introduce mass quantisation in the Brannen-Koide scheme in this context.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1074] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-17 11:44:35*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to explain discrepancies in the value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, in the approximation of the R=ct semiclassical cosmology with Mach's principle. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism, and this new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. We introduce mass quantisation in the Brannen-Koide scheme in this context.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1073] **viXra:1712.0076 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-14 12:55:16*

**Authors:** M. D. Sheppeard

**Comments:** 23 Pages.

The elementary algebra underlying the non local neutrino hypothesis is used to compute the low z value of Hubble's constant in terms of other physical constants, using the R=ct semiclassical cosmology. It is assumed that quantum gravity breaks the equivalence principle, in conjunction with a quantum Higgs mechanism. This new view of the electroweak vacuum indicates an absence of dark matter and dark energy. Mass quantisation uses the Brannen-Koide scheme.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1072] **viXra:1712.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2017-12-06 05:53:38*

**Authors:** Jean Pierre Rukundo

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A unified Mathematical framework which describes particles interactions both in classical field theory of gravity and quantum field theory is presented, by introducing a velocity gauge field. The velocity gauge field Lagrangian is developed and shown to be equivalent to the Dirac field and related to the Electromagnetic field. The velocity fields interactions are shown to produce the Einstein-Hilbert action Lagrangian. Similar extension of the Mathematical framework to the Electromagnetic field produces the Quantum electrodynamics and Yang-Mills fields Lagrangians. Finally, a unified Lagrangian describing both velocity field and Electromagnetic field types is presented and alternative formulation suggested.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory