Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Previous months:
2007 - 0702(1) - 0703(2) - 0706(1) - 0707(2)
2008 - 0807(2) - 0808(3) - 0810(9)
2009 - 0903(1) - 0907(6) - 0908(25) - 0909(8) - 0910(13) - 0911(21) - 0912(12)
2010 - 1001(3) - 1002(1) - 1003(6) - 1004(3) - 1005(4) - 1006(5) - 1007(4) - 1008(3) - 1009(6) - 1010(6) - 1011(9) - 1012(6)
2011 - 1101(5) - 1102(3) - 1103(8) - 1104(5) - 1105(7) - 1106(5) - 1107(3) - 1108(8) - 1109(7) - 1110(6) - 1111(9) - 1112(18)
2012 - 1201(7) - 1202(10) - 1203(11) - 1204(6) - 1205(11) - 1206(8) - 1207(11) - 1208(14) - 1209(6) - 1210(11) - 1211(8) - 1212(2)
2013 - 1301(15) - 1302(18) - 1303(15) - 1304(16) - 1305(12) - 1306(6) - 1307(10) - 1308(13) - 1309(12) - 1310(5) - 1311(14) - 1312(11)
2014 - 1401(15) - 1402(12) - 1403(12) - 1404(5) - 1405(12) - 1406(11) - 1407(17) - 1408(11) - 1409(18) - 1410(16) - 1411(19) - 1412(13)
2015 - 1501(19) - 1502(14) - 1503(15) - 1504(9) - 1505(13) - 1506(15) - 1507(19) - 1508(15) - 1509(20) - 1510(28) - 1511(22) - 1512(18)
2016 - 1601(12) - 1602(30) - 1603(21) - 1604(18) - 1605(22) - 1606(19) - 1607(21) - 1608(24) - 1609(16) - 1610(17) - 1611(25) - 1612(18)
2017 - 1701(25) - 1702(24) - 1703(16) - 1704(9) - 1705(13) - 1706(13) - 1707(13) - 1708(14) - 1709(16) - 1710(23) - 1711(15) - 1712(23)
2018 - 1801(18) - 1802(11) - 1803(22) - 1804(12) - 1805(22) - 1806(12) - 1807(17) - 1808(11) - 1809(12) - 1810(14) - 1811(10)

Recent submissions

Any replacements are listed farther down

[1422] viXra:1811.0232 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 07:27:56

The Quantised Angular Momenta of Astronomical Bodies

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 13 pages

The spin angular momentum of the sun precisely equals the quantum h-bar multiplied by 2 raised to the power 250. Between them the next five nearest G or K-type stars take the exponents 247, 248, 249, 250 and 251, the binary star Alpha Centauri AB taking exponents (249 and 251) either side of 250 and Epsilon Eridani taking the exponent 250. The red dwarfs Proxima Centauri and Barnard’s Star both take the exponent 240. The spin angular momentum quantisation scheme also applies to the planets of the solar system. Again, exponents that are multiples of 5 are preferred. Jupiter and Saturn behave as a binary planet, with exponents centred on 240. Uranus and Neptune behave as a binary planet, with exponents centred on 233. Earth and Mars take the exponents 225 and 220, respectively. The geometric mean orbital angular momentum of the eight planets equals the spin angular momentum of the sun. With spin parameters of intermediate value, the supermassive black holes located in the Milky Way and M31 galaxies take the exponents 295 and 305, respectively.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1421] viXra:1811.0223 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 13:55:10

Einstein Did not Explain the Photoelectric Effect. there Are not Black Holes at Planck Wall

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 252 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“In the photoelectric effect the photons interact with the electrons at Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In photon-photon collisions, the photons interact at Planck length” Adrian Ferent “The photons see the Electron’s size as Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of light from Special theory of relativity, means l = Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity riding alongside a light beam you will see the Planck length” Adrian Ferent “There are not Black Holes at Planck wall” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed Faster Than Light from Special theory of relativity, means l < Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of the gravitons v = 1.001762 × 10^(17) m/s from Special theory of relativity, means l = Ferent length” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity riding alongside a graviton you will see the Ferent length” Adrian Ferent “Because Gravitons travel Faster Than Light, they do not see Matter, they see only Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons moving Faster Than Light, they see Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Dark Matter is wrong” Adrian Ferent The photoelectric effect is the emission of electrically charged particles like electrons or other free carriers when it absorbs electromagnetic radiation. The photoelectric effect was first observed in 1887 by Heinrich Hertz. Einstein was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1921 for ‘his discovery of the law of the photoelectric effect’. Einstein riding alongside a light beam. Einstein was still puzzled by his attempts to imagine riding alongside a light beam, all his life and did not find an answer for it. Einstein later wrote, “I should observe such a beam of light as an electromagnetic field at rest.” That is why Einstein and your professors were not able to explain the photoelectric effect. “The photons see the Electron’s size as Planck length” Adrian Ferent Planck length: lP = 1.6 × 10^(-35) m Einstein and your professors did not understand: “In the photoelectric effect the photons interact with the electrons at Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In photon-photon collisions, the photons interact at Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of light from Special theory of relativity, means l = Planck length” Adrian Ferent Einstein and your professors did not understand that photons interact with the electrons at Planck length, because they did not understand Special theory of relativity and Quantum mechanics. “In Ferent Quantum Gravity riding alongside a light beam you will see the Planck length” Adrian Ferent That is why: “There are not Black Holes at Planck wall” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent Length contraction: Length contraction is the phenomenon of a decrease in length of an object as measured by an observer which is traveling at any non-zero velocity relative to the object and it is usually only noticeable at a substantial fraction of the speed of light. What means l = 0 from Special theory of relativity in Ferent Quantum Gravity? “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 from Special theory of relativity, means l ≤ Planck length” Adrian Ferent This means: “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of light from Special theory of relativity, means l = Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed Faster Than Light from Special theory of relativity, means l < Planck length” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of the gravitons v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s from Special theory of relativity, means l = Ferent length” Adrian Ferent That is why Special theory of relativity is wrong. Ferent length: lF = 1.296 × 10^(-69) m “In Ferent Quantum Gravity riding alongside a graviton you will see the Ferent length” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Because Gravitons travel Faster Than Light, they do not see Matter, they see only Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Gravitons moving Faster Than Light, they see Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Dark Matter is wrong” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books, from journals, from the greatest scientists… about Dark Matter: The majority of Dark Matter is non-baryonic in nature. Candidates for non-baryonic Dark Matter are hypothetical particles such as axions, sterile neutrinos… This means Dark Matter is limited to Planck length, but I explained there are not Black Holes at Planck wall because there are Photons. Stolen (quotations against Plagiarism) from Ferent Quantum Gravity in 2016–2017 the idea of dense Dark Matter or Dark Matter being Black Holes, Primordial Black Holes. The idea of dense Dark Matter or Dark Matter being Black Holes, Primordial Black Holes following results of gravitational wave detection. LIGO and gravitational wave detection is a fraud. You learned at universities, from books, from journals…about Black Holes, Primordial Black Holes at Planck wall, but Black Holes, Primordial Black Holes at Planck wall do not exist. Dense Dark Matter is Ferent Matter. Ferent Matter was created at Ferent wall, beyond the Planck wall. That is why: “Black Holes are Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent But you see on TV, YouTube wrong things about Wormholes, how scientists like Michio Kaku, Kip Thorne… can travel trough a Black Hole! “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity is the right Gravitation theory and all quantum gravity theories like String theory, LQG… are wrong theories because Einstein’s Gravitation theory is wrong and limited to the speed of light. 142. I am the first who discovered that in the photoelectric effect the photons interact with the electrons at Planck length 143. I am the first who discovered that in photon-photon collisions, the photons interact at Planck length 144. I am the first who discovered that the photons see the Electron’s size as Planck length 145. I am the first who discovered that there are not Black Holes at Planck wall 146. I am the first who explained that what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Black Holes is wrong 147. I am the first who explained that in Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed Faster Than Light from Special theory of relativity, means l < Planck length 148. I am the first who explained that in Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of the gravitons v = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s from Special theory of relativity, means l = Ferent length 149. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity riding alongside a Graviton you will see the Ferent length 150. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons travel Faster Than Light, they do not see Matter, they see only Dark Matter 151. I am the first who discovered that Gravitons moving Faster Than Light, they see Black Holes 152. I am the first who explained what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Dark Matter is wrong
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1420] viXra:1811.0201 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-14 00:46:56

Holographic Interval of Space-Time

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

The emergence of space-time from a common Hilbert space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1419] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 22:16:25

Atiyah Constant Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis

Authors: F.M.Sanchez
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple fine tuning relation using the Atiyah Constant, the Eddington number 137 and the Fermi coupling constant defines the latter in its 5 × 10-7 indetermination, compatible with the 2 × 10-8 muon mass indetermination in another Cosmic Oscillation fine tuning relation. This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1418] viXra:1811.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-09 04:17:34

On the Fundamental Role of the Massless Form of Matter in Particle Physics

Authors: AP Klimets
Comments: 30 Pages.

In the article, with the help of various models, the thesis about the fundamental nature of the field form of matter as the basis of elementary particles is considered. In the first chapter a model of special relativity is constructed, on the basis of which the priority of the massless form of matter is revealed. In the second chapter a field model of inert and heavy mass is constructed and the mechanism of inertness and gravity of weighty bodies is revealed. In the third chapter, the example of geons shows the fundamental nature of a massless form of matter on the Planck scale. The three-dimensionality of the observable space is substantiated. In the fourth chapter, we consider a variant of solving the problem of singularities in general relativity using the example of multidimensional spaces. The last chapter examines the author's approach to quantum gravity. The conclusions do not contradict the main thesis of the article on the fundamental nature of the massless form of matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1417] viXra:1811.0105 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 06:32:41

Matter does not have Gravitation. Moving Faster Than Light you will see Black Holes

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 240 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Matter does not have Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Moving Faster Than Light you will see Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “Because Gravitons travel Faster Than Light, they do not see Matter, only Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Because Gravitons do not see Matter, this means Matter does not have Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Gravitation is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter does not emit light, Matter does not emit Gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is the right Gravitation theory” Adrian Ferent “Riding on a beam of light you will see Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of light from Special theory of relativity, means l < Planck length” Adrian Ferent “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Special theory of relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent “At Ferent wall was created Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Special theory of relativity: Special theory of relativity is "special" in that it only applies in the special case where the curvature of spacetime due to gravity is negligible. In order to include gravity, Einstein and Hilbert formulated general relativity in 1915. If you move fast enough through space, the observations that you make about space and time differ to some extent from the observations of other people, who are moving at different speeds. The speed of light is the same for all observers, regardless of their motion relative to the light source. Length contraction: Length contraction is the phenomenon of a decrease in length of an object as measured by an observer which is traveling at any non-zero velocity relative to the object and it is usually only noticeable at a substantial fraction of the speed of light. Time dilatation The rate of a single moving clock indicating its proper time t0 is lower with respect to two synchronized resting clock indicating time t. This means the duration of the clock cycle of a moving clock increased, it is measured to be running slow. This means ‘Riding on a beam of light’ time would stop, and distance would be zero. “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Special theory of relativity is wrong” Adrian Ferent In Ferent Quantum Gravity beyond the Planck wall is another wall, the Ferent wall. At Ferent wall were created Ferent matter and gravitons. “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with the density greater than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “At Ferent wall was created Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Today we know that the space is not an infinitely divisible continuum, it is not smooth but granular, with the Planck length and Ferent length. At Ferent wall was created Dark Matter and at Planck wall was created Matter. What means l = 0 at the speed of light from Special theory of relativity in Ferent Quantum Gravity? “In Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of light from Special theory of relativity, means l < Planck length” Adrian Ferent This means: “Riding on a beam of light you will see Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moving Faster Than Light you will see Black Holes” Adrian Ferent “Because Gravitons travel Faster Than Light, they do not see Matter, only Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Because Gravitons do not see Matter, this means Matter does not have Gravitation” Adrian Ferent The conclusion: “Matter does not have Gravitation” Adrian Ferent You learned the wrong thing, that anything that has mass also has Gravity. This means: “What you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Gravitation is wrong” Adrian Ferent All quantum gravity theories like String theory, LQG… are wrong theories because Einstein’s Gravitation theory is wrong and are limited to speed of light. “Dark Matter doesn’t emit light, Matter does not emit Gravitons” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that: “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is the right Gravitation theory” Adrian Ferent The apple did fall on Newton's head not because the apple has Mass and Gravitation, but because the Dark Matter inside the apple has Gravitation! 129. I am the first who discovered that Matter does not have Gravitation 130. I am the first who discovered that at Ferent wall was created Dark Matter 131. I am the first who discovered that in Ferent Quantum Gravity l = 0 at the speed of light from Special theory of relativity, means l < Planck length 132. I am the first who discovered that riding on a beam of light you will see Dark Matter 133. I am the first who discovered that moving Faster Than Light you will see Black Holes 134. I am the first who discovered because Gravitons travel Faster Than Light, they do not see Matter, only Dark Matter 135. I am the first who discovered because Gravitons do not see Matter, this means Matter does not have Gravitation 136. I am the first who explained that what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Special theory of relativity is wrong 137. I am the first who explained what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists… about Gravitation is wrong 138. I am the first who discovered that Dark Matter doesn’t emit light, Matter does not emit Gravitons 139. I am the first who explained that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is the right Gravitation theory 140. I am the first who explained that the apple did fall on Newton's head not because the apple has Mass and Gravitation, but because the Dark Matter inside the apple has Gravitation
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1416] viXra:1811.0091 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-07 03:15:29

C x H x O-valued Gravity, [SU(4)]$^4$ Unification, Hermitian Matrix Geometry and Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 15 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We review briefly how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity (real-complex-quaterno-octonionic Gravity) naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity with a Yang-Mills theory containing the Standard Model group $SU(3) \times SU(2) \times U(1)$. In particular, the $ C \otimes H \otimes O$ algebra is explored deeper. It is found that it can furnish the gauge group {\bf [SU(4)]}$^4$ revealing the possibility of extending the Standard Model by introducing additional gauge bosons, heavy quarks and leptons, and a $fourth$ family of fermions with profound physical implications. An analysis of $ C \otimes H \otimes O$-valued gravity reveals that it bears a connection to Nonsymmetric Kaluza-Klein theories and complex Hermitian Matrix Geometry. The key behind these connections is in finding the relation between $ C \otimes H \otimes O$-valued metrics in $two$ $complex$ dimensions with metrics in $higher$ dimensional $real$ manifolds ($ D = 32 $ real dimensions in particular). It is desirable to extend these results to hypercomplex, quaternionic manifolds and Exceptional Jordan Matrix Models.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1415] viXra:1811.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-06 04:52:52

Mystery Particle Spotted at 28 Gev! Discovery Would Require Physics so Weird that Nobody Has Even Thought of It.

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

In Sphere Theory, the universe is a sphere made of spheres. Most of these spheres are packed in a cuboctahedron structure, but there are inclusion and dislocation defects. As part of the theory the high mass particles come from combinations of the layers of the cuboctahedron structures. Especially the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure. The new 28 GeV particle conforms to this model. It is shown, in this model to come from the 3rd layer of the cuboctahedron with 92 spheres. Also included in this paper are the other high mass particles, all of which conform to a cuboctahedron structure layers for their mass. Due to the propagation of light, gravity, charge, magnetism etc., and their quantized values, it has been hypothesized that, the universe should be filled with some type of almost homogeneous structure. It was shown in “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck Spinning Spheres and Kaluza Spinning Spheres”( 1) that charge and gravity could be modeled by a sphere with a Compton wavelength radius of the neutron. If the neutron Compton wavelength is important to the propagation of charge and gravity then it is proposed that it also must be connected to some structure of the volume in which these forces are transmitted. “Underlying Cuboctahedron Packing of Planck Spinning Spheres Structure of the Hubble Universe” establishes a strong correlation, on multiple levels, between the larger mass quarks and bosons, and a cuboctahedron –Vector Equilibrium structure using the mass of the neutron and the combining of the layers of a cuboctahedron packing of spheres. The layers of a cuboctahedron follow a consistent progression for the quantity of spheres that can be packed in a layer. The masses of the w boson, z boson, bottom quark, top quark and the Higgs can be directly correlated to the first few layers of a cuboctahedron structure, and in a mirror manner described in this paper.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1414] viXra:1811.0011 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-01 20:12:00

Eternal Infinity

Authors: Savior F. Eason, Gifted Physics enthusiast
Comments: 21 Pages. All claims in this document have been scientifically proven under controlled experiments through my own research using DIY-SOTA tech, as explained in the document. Mechanical Methods of research, such as nuclear acceleration, are authorized by the NSA.

In my paper, I discuss a possibility posing a solution to one of the largest problems in theoretical physics, presenting a possible explanation of what space-time actually is, as well as positing an explanation for dark matter, Hyperspace, An infinite multiverse, and a galilean-possibility of the nature of space, time, consciousness, energy, explaining matter, information, and positing an eternal universe with no beginning or end, in a vibrational multiverse rather than an inflationary or bubble one, and additionally presenting a trippy new reality for how we perceive the universe physically and philosophically; A new theory of everything, as presented by a physics-enthusiastic child in sinking spring.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1413] viXra:1811.0002 [pdf] submitted on 2018-11-02 05:48:57

Big Bang Energy out of Nothing, or a Compressed Rigid String Nucleus

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 16 Pages.

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory is a Rigid String Theory which states, that all attraction forces are subjected to a dual repulsion process between the dark energy of the oscillating Axion Higgs string vacuum lattice and less repulsion force of graviton strings or monopole photon strings ( electric- magnetic) radiated by fermionic matter. Black hole nuclei are assumed to be rigid stringy quantum knots highly compressed by the external attack of the oscillating vacuum particles, which mostly are added to the outside of the growing nucleus depending on the pressure difference between the vacuum and the internal black hole quantum knot. As a consequence most black holes are growing by consuming vacuum strings and also by merging with other black holes of different sizes. Black hole with equal sizes do not merge, but are supposed to pair up to a certain distance after which they recede from each other to become a Herbig Haro system with star formation in the middle . The giant central black holes often present inside galaxies are also supposed to merge with other black holes to grow in size. As the ultimate consequence, however, the universe will contract into a Big Crunch, (BC) by the growing black holes which constantly consume the vacuum lattice around us. However the vacuum pressure at the BC nucleus will decrease in time and become in balance with the growing internal rigid string pressure between the rigid strings inside the BC nucleus, which is the moment of the start of the big bang into chunks of smaller black hole nuclei evaporating also gradually into a surrounding oscillating vacuum lattice. As a consequence we seem to live inside one of the super symmetric “material” bubble universe created by the explosion of a black hole.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1412] viXra:1810.0501 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-30 20:11:45

Where is the Antimatter

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 10 Pages.

The standard model predicts there should be equal parts of matter and antimatter. This paper proposes a simple mathematical solution to this problem. It basically proposes that the universe is built from the ground up, and antimatter is just a temporary state created by tearing the universe up a little and then reconstructing. It. In “The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything is an Entangled 42”, (1) we found that the smallest realm in the universe was spheres packed in a cuboctahedron of 3 layers. In the first realm of the cuboctahedron there was a perfect 42 spheres on the outside of 3 layer cuboctahedron. When one looks at the equation of breaking up a layer, there are positive and negative real solutions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1411] viXra:1810.0492 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-29 11:01:25

Fine-Structure Constant at High Energy and Cooper Pairs

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Higgs boson can not shrink spacetime to zero because its components are indestructible. The created electron-positron pairs inside the uncharged scalar in centre of baryons force contraction of the distances between spacetime components. At energy equal to mass of the W boson, we obtain that the fine-structure constant is about 1/128. We show also that particles emitted by fermions increase their effective ranges. We calculated that maximum distance between electrons in Cooper pairs should be 1161 nm.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1410] viXra:1810.0455 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-27 16:43:31

Virtual Particles in the Vacuum as the Source of Gravity

Authors: Eran Sinbar
Comments: 4 Pages.

Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle in energy and time, comes in the form of virtual particle pairs in empty space. These virtual pairs of matter and anti-matter in empty space pop in and out of existence. Their short existence can be measured directly through the Casimir effect [1]. These virtual particles constitute the Hawking radiation. They carry the latent black hole information from the surface of the event horizon into the void of space during the evaporation process of the black hole[2],[3].In this article I suggest a model in which these virtual particles in the vacuum are the source for gravity, curvature of space and time dilation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1409] viXra:1810.0440 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 18:21:26

Our Lumpy Universe

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 11 Pages.

In “The Ultimate Answer to Life, the Universe, and Everything is an Entangled 42”, (1) we found that the smallest realm in the universe was spheres packed in a cuboctahedron of 3 layers. In the first realm of the cuboctahedron there was a perfect 42 spheres on the outside of 3 layer cuboctahedron. In each subsequent layer the packing of spheres formed a larger sphere. But, the final layer of spheres the average number was not a whole integer. I suspect that in actuality each sphere does have integer number of spheres, but adjacent spheres have a slightly number of spheres. This slightly different number gives us a slightly different constant of nature, ever so small and different, but enough to contribute to a lumpy universe. In “The Holographic Principle and How can the Particles and Universe be Modeled as a Hollow Sphere”(2). We found that the amount of discontinuities, or imperfections, when packing spheres around a group of spheres in equal to 4pir^2+4pir. This is basically the outside of the sphere contains the amount of information a universe can carry. The discontinuities or imperfections formed when packing spheres around a sphere, however small a percentage this may be contributes to the lumpy universe. Our Realm of the universe would have a difference in particle size of about one in over ten to the 40th power. In addition What is the Ultimate Answer to Life the Universe and Everything? According to the “Hitchhiker’s Guide to the Galaxy” an advanced race of beings invented a supercomputer called Deep Thought, which after 7.5 million years came up with the answer of 42. The real answer, to this question, could very well be related to 42. Sphere Theory is a theory where the universe is made of spheres, which are made of spheres etc. It is also a theory where perfection and imperfection are in competition, where perfect packing is cuboctahedron packing and imperfect packing is spheres packed around spheres. This imperfect packing always results in the imperfect amount of packing is nearly equal to the outer layer of spheres, which is likely related to the holographic principle. This paper shows that this spherical structure of nature is followed until the structure becomes a cuboctahedron with an outer layer of 42 spheres. The Hubble Sphere was found to have a surface area 1.0471*10^80 Planck spheres. The Planck Spheres were found to have a surface area of 6.57920 *10^40 Kaluza spheres. This paper works to help explain where these quantities come from.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1408] viXra:1810.0427 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-25 12:02:12

Galaxy Rotation Curve of Triangulum Galaxy (M33) by Using New Quantum Gravity Theory

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase
Comments: 6 Pages.

Galaxy rotation curve of triangulum galaxy has been explained by new quantum gravity theory. This theory correctly predicted the rotational velocities at different distances from the centre of galaxy. This is a non relativistic theory. This theory is based on baryonic matter only.This theory completely rejects dark matter hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1407] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-26 01:36:40

Wow! Signal Decoded as Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 11 Pages.

Here I present a structured extension of the content from the three previous articles in which I described how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions, or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed elements, especially the SST manifolds, are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1406] viXra:1810.0253 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-16 23:11:19

Spacetime is the Maximum Complex Hilbert Space.

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 4 Pages.

This paper explains the emergence of a space-time interval using a modified holographic principle.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1405] viXra:1810.0214 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-13 16:43:03

Weak Force and Weak Charge in Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 8 Pages.

The standard model predicts a weak charge of SM prediction, Q p w(SM) = 0.0710 ± 0.0007. This value, SM prediction, Q p w(SM) = 0.0710 ± 0.0007, is the ratio of the weak charge to elementary charge. This paper shows that granular spacetime equations show a ratio of weak charge to elementary charge of .071776±.000001 We also show that the ratio of weak charge and elementary charge are simply the square root of the mass of the neutron to the mass of two times the z boson.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1404] viXra:1810.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-11 07:01:28

Gravitational Wave Data Transfer

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 21 Pages.

RUDN mathematicians analyzed the properties of gravitational waves in a generalized affine-metrical space (an algebraic construction operating on the notions of a vector and a point) similarly to the properties of electromagnetic waves in Minkowski space-time. [19] A group of scientists from the Niels Bohr Institute (NBI) at the University of Copenhagen will soon start developing a new line of technical equipment in order to dramatically improve gravitational wave detectors. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1403] viXra:1810.0140 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-09 20:02:35

W and Z Boson Weak Force and Weak Charge in Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

This paper shows the magnitude of the weak force and weak charge with calculations and makes predictions of the weak charge. It also postulates that the weak force may be a result of w boson pairs and z boson pairs. Tommaso Dorigo discusses W boson pairs [2]. The equations to derive a value of weak charge to elementary charge in this paper seem to imply that weak charge, of .076447, may be the result of W boson pairs or perhaps .071776 of a Z boson pairs. This paper uses the cuboctahedron structure shown in “Proton Electron Universe and Their Directions of Force”[1]. We also show that the ratio of weak charge and elementary charge are simply the square root of the mass of the neutron to the mass of two times the w boson or perhaps two times the z boson or a combination of these two numbers.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1402] viXra:1810.0107 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-07 15:10:20

General Relativity, Non-Abelian Gauge Theories, and Quantum Gravity

Authors: F. Winterberg
Comments: 11 Pages.

We adopt here an attempt first pioneered by Dehnen to reformulate Einstein’s general theory of relativity as a kind of non-Abelian gauge theory, as is quantum chromodynamics. This approach permits the formulation of Einstein’s gravitational field equation by the same Lagrangian of the Einstein-Hilbert action, albeit with two event horizons: an “outer” one in ordinary space for Einstein’s theory with a cut-off at the Planck energy (~〖10〗^19 GeV), and an “inner” one in three-dimensional color space for quantum chromodynamics with a cut-of at ~〖10〗^2 GeV. This conclusion is reached by the analogy between general relativity and quantum chromodynamics at one hand, and Newtonian point particle classical mechanics and Helmholtz line vortex dynamics at the other hand.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1401] viXra:1810.0062 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-06 04:24:58

Supermassive Black Holes Have Very Small Mass. Dark Matter Mass, Energy and Gravitation

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 215 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass” Adrian Ferent “Mass–energy equivalence for Dark Matter: E = md × vp^2 “ Adrian Ferent “Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: md = m × c^2 / vp^2 ” Adrian Ferent “I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent “Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains that Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass, because the Gravitons inside the Supermassive Black Holes have high energy” Adrian Ferent “Dark Photons are faster than light, have higher frequencies than photons” Adrian Ferent “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the mass of supermassive Black Hole from the center of our galaxy is not 8.2 × 10^36 kg, it is 7.3 × 10^19 kg” Adrian Ferent “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter with the mass much smaller than the Sun’s mass, but with much higher energy than Sun’s energy” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “The electrons contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than electrons mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN” Adrian Ferent “Physics is much more complicated than you learned, with Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent We know that all forms of energy contribute to the gravitational field generated by an object, because all forms of energy interact gravitationally. For massless particles with zero rest mass, their relativistic mass is their relativistic energy divided by c^2. 85% of the matter in the universe is Dark Matter. “Everything what you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong” Adrian Ferent Mass–energy equivalence for matter: E = m × c^2 I am the first who calculated the Dark Matter energy: “Mass–energy equivalence for Dark Matter: E = md × vp^2 “ Adrian Ferent Where md is the Dark Matter mass and vp is the Dark Photons speed. “The speed of Dark Photons is vp = 1.001762 × 10^17 m/s” Adrian Ferent Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains: “The Gravitons and the Dark Photons are faster than light” Adrian Ferent “Black Holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…that Supermassive Black Holes have very big mass! “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass” Adrian Ferent I am the first who calculated the Dark Matter mass: How I calculated that Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: This means: “Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: md = m × c^2 / vp^2” Adrian Ferent This is impossible in Einstein Gravitation theory, because Einstein Gravitation theory is wrong. “Ferent Quantum Gravity theory explains that Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass, because the Gravitons inside the Supermassive Black Holes have high energy” Adrian Ferent “Dark Photons are faster than light, have higher frequencies than photons” Adrian Ferent You learned that Milky Way galaxy has a supermassive Black Hole, 4.1 million solar masses, 8.2 × 10^36 kg, at its center, 26000 light-years from the Solar System. “In Ferent Quantum Gravity theory the mass of supermassive Black Hole from the center of our galaxy is not 8.2 × 10^36 kg, it is 7.3 × 10^19 kg” Adrian Ferent The mass of supermassive Black Hole from the center of our galaxy is 7.3 × 10^19 kg, much smaller than the Moon mass. “I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole” Adrian Ferent How I explained before: “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles are created around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Unification between Matter and Dark Matter: Adrian Ferent “Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass” Adrian Ferent This means: “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter with the mass much smaller than the Sun’s mass, but with much higher energy than Sun’s energy” Adrian Ferent This is a very important discovery in Particle Physics: “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent That is why: “The electrons contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than electrons mass, but with much higher energy” Adrian Ferent “Because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN” Adrian Ferent That is why: “Without Ferent Matter, there is no Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Physics is much more complicated than you learned, with Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right and Einstein Gravitation theory, String theory, LQG… are wrong theories. 108. I am the first who discovered that Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass 109. I am the first who discovered the Mass–energy equivalence for Dark Matter: E = md × vp^2 110. I am the first who calculated that Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass: md = m × c^2 / vp^2 111. I am the first who calculated the mass and the energy of a Black Hole 112. I am the first who explained that everything you learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…about Dark Matter and Black Holes is wrong 113. I am the first who calculated that Supermassive Black Holes have very small mass, because the Gravitons inside the Supermassive Black Holes have high energy 114. I am the first who discovered that Dark Photons are faster than light, have higher frequencies than photons 115. I am the first who calculated that the mass of supermassive Black Hole from the center of our galaxy is not 8.2 × 10^36 kg, it is 7.3 × 10^19 kg 116. I am the first who discovered that Sun’s core is Ferent Matter with the mass much smaller than the Sun’s mass, but with much higher energy than Sun’s energy 117. I am the first who discovered that the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, but with much higher energy 118. I am the first who explained that the electrons contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than electrons mass, but with much higher energy 119. I am the first who explained because the elementary particles contain Dark Matter with the mass much smaller than particles mass, Dark Matter is not detected at CERN 120. I am the first who explained that Physics is much more complicated than you learned, with Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1400] viXra:1810.0016 [pdf] submitted on 2018-10-02 22:49:04

《Universal and Unified Physics》

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 120 Pages.

For the first time in mankind, Theory of Unified and Universal Physics is philosophically and mathematically revealed the workings of Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. The nature of dark energies unfolds its Event Operations systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric dynamics systematically at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

  • Complex Manifold in a duality of contravariance and covariance
  • Constitution of Transform Generators and Transport Torques
  • Formulations of World Equations and Universal Fields
  • Fluxions of quantum scalar and vector potential Entanglements
  • Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Graviton Fields
  • Symmetric Fields of Gravitation, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, and Blackhold 
  • Law of Field Evolutions - Double Loops of Triple Entanglements 
  • Asymmetric Dynamics of Ontology and Cosmology

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from Newtonian to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Duality.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary,《Universal and Unified Physics》completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics, and beyond.    


Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1399] viXra:1809.0596 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-30 12:50:26

Emergent Spacetime and Matter, Unified Field Theory

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 25 Pages.

An axiomatic deterministic theory of physics based on a single scalar field was proposed. In the theory model at the fundamental level there is no time and dynamics. It is shown how space-time with matter and fields emerge in this model. It is shown that the anthropic principle emerges as a consequence of the theory. The causality principle is derived as a consequence of the main principles of the theory. All three Newton's equations are obtained as consequences of the theory and in the nonrelativistic approximation. Mass, energy and other concepts of mechanics were obtained. The Schrödinger equation is derived. An explanation of the nature of particle spin is proposed. It is shown that the maximum speed of interactions must be finite and be the same in all inertial frames of reference. It is shown that the light speed and the maximum speed of interactions are exactly equal. A special theory of relativity with all its equations is obtained. The Klein-Gordon-Fock equations and, with some assumptions, the Dirac equations are obtained. Particles interaction is considered. There were given explanations of what virtual particles and quanta of field interactions are, and how renormalization works in quantum field theory. Seemingly fundamental interactions, such as strong, weak and electromagnetic are shown. Maxwell's equations are obtained, with some assumptions. It is shown that the standard model does not contradict the proposed theory. The nature of gravitation is considered. A strong equivalence principle is proved, all assumptions on which the general theory of relativity is based are proved. Based on this, it can be argued that the equations of the general relativity theory satisfy the theory of emergent space-time-matter. It is shown that gravity can not have quanta. Thus, this theory asserts that no theory of quantum gravity can exist. An explanation of the origin of the universe is proposed. An explanation is offered for the nature of dark energy and dark matter. Physical foundations of mathematics are considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1398] viXra:1809.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-28 14:46:48

Without Ferent Matter, there is no Gravitation

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 202 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Without Ferent Matter, there is no Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “Dark Matter interacts only gravitationally with matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “Because inside the black holes, Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, nobody was able to explain Gravitation” Adrian Ferent “The most difficult topic in Science is Gravitation, because Newton, Einstein… tried to explain it without success!” Adrian Ferent “Sun’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles are created around Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Unification between Matter and Dark Matter: Adrian Ferent “Stars and planets contain Dark Matter in proportion to their mass” Adrian Ferent “Matter was created from Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is in the core of stars and planets” Adrian Ferent “Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent A bigger star contains more Ferent Matter! Ferent Matter is high density Dark Matter: Ferent density ≥ Ferent matter density > Planck density Planck density at Planck wall. Ferent density at Ferent wall. “Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent At Ferent wall due to the extraordinarily small scale of the universe at that time, Gravitation was the only physical interaction. At Ferent wall were created Ferent matter and gravitons. Only a small percentage of Ferent matter becomes matter at Planck wall. This means high density Dark Matter is Ferent Matter, interacts only gravitationally with matter. I explained that: “Dark Matter interacts only gravitationally with matter” Adrian Ferent “Only the Gravitons emitted by Ferent Matter have the energy and the momentum to attract planets, stars, galaxies” Adrian Ferent “Black Holes are Ferent matter” Adrian Ferent Graviton momentum > Photon momentum The graviton energy emitted by black holes: E = a×ν E > 4.14559 × 10^5 GeV “Inside the black holes, Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force” Adrian Ferent “Because inside the black holes, Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, nobody was able to explain Gravitation” Adrian Ferent You learned that Gravitation is the weakest of the four fundamental forces. “I am the first who Quantized the Gravitational Field!” Adrian Ferent “I quantized the Gravitational Field with gravitons” Adrian Ferent “Einstein’s gravitational waves do not exist, how they can detect them?” Adrian Ferent You learned from your professors, from your books, from the greatest scientists…that Earth's gravity comes from all its mass. Matter looks like foam or bubbles in contrast with Ferent matter, that is why: “Without Ferent Matter, there is no Gravitation” Adrian Ferent 103. I am the first who discovered that without Ferent Matter (high density Dark Matter), there is no Gravitation 104. I am the first who explained that the most difficult topic in Science is Gravitation, because Newton, Einstein… tried to explain it without success 105. I am the first who explained that because inside the black holes, Gravitational force is much stronger than the Strong nuclear force, nobody was able to explain Gravitation 106. I am the first who explained that Ferent Matter is Dark Matter with density higher than Planck density 107. I am the first who explained that Dark Matter interacts only gravitationally with matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1397] viXra:1809.0498 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-25 04:58:22

Bohm's Potential, Classical/Quantum Duality and Repulsive Gravity

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages. submitted to Physics Letters B

We propose the notion of a classical/quantum $duality$ in the gravitational case (it can be extended to other interactions). By this one means $exchanging$ Bohm's quantum potential for the classical potential $ V_Q \leftrightarrow V $ in the stationary quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation (QHJE) so that $ V_Q + V = - V_0$ ($V_0$ is the ground state energy). Despite that the corresponding Schr\"{o}dinger equations, and their solutions differ, their associated quantum Hamilton-Jacobi equation, and $ground$ state energy remains the $same$. This is how the classical/quantum duality is implemented. In this scenario Bohm's quantum potential (which coincides with the attractive Newtonian potential) is now correlated to a classical $repulsive$ gravitational potential (plus a constant ). These results suggest that there might be a $quantum$ origin to the classical $repulsive$ gravitational behavior (of the accelerated expansion) of the universe which is based on this notion of classical/quantum $duality$.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1396] viXra:1809.0335 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-16 23:17:01

Gravito-Electromagnetism Derived Mathematically from Newton’s Law Electromagnetism/gravito-Electromagnetism Duality

Authors: Hui Peng
Comments: 10 Pages. Mathematically derive Maxwell-type gravity-electromagnetism which can be easily quantized

In this article, we utilize the mathematic approach, which has been utilized to re-derive Maxwell equation mathematically from the Gauss/Coulomb’s law, to demonstrate that, by applying Newton’s law, the magnetic-type gravitational field exists mathematically. Namely, since a stationary gravitational charge satisfies Newton’s law, its motion generates inevitably an axial gravito-magnetic field and an axial gravito-electric field; call Gravito-electromagnetism. This mathematical derivation proves the famous sentence, “The world is built mathematically”. The so derived Electromagnetism and Gravito-electromagnetism disclose mathematically an intrinsic duality between electromagnetic force and gravitational force, which are the only two long-range forces in the Nature. The Electromagnetism/Gravito-electromagnetism duality can serves as the base for the advanced dualities between the two and for the unification of the two.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1395] viXra:1809.0329 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-17 04:26:49

The Quantum/Classical Connection

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 11 pages

By way of the Quantum/Classical Connection, the radii of nearby G and K-type Main Sequence stars map onto the atomic masses of Period 4 transition metals while the masses of the stars map onto the atomic radii of the same elements.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1394] viXra:1809.0306 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-14 07:26:48

Gravitational Waves Extra Dimensions

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 18 Pages.

While last year's discovery of gravitational waves from colliding neutron stars was earth-shaking, it won't add extra dimensions to our understanding of the universe—not literal ones, at least. [18] A global team of scientists, including two University of Mississippi physicists, has found that the same instruments used in the historic discovery of gravitational waves caused by colliding black holes could help unlock the secrets of dark matter, a mysterious and as-yet-unobserved component of the universe. [17] The lack of so-called " dark photons " in electron-positron collision data rules out scenarios in which these hypothetical particles explain the muon's magnetic moment. [16] By reproducing the complexity of the cosmos through unprecedented simulations, a new study highlights the importance of the possible behaviour of very high-energy photons. In their journey through intergalactic magnetic fields, such photons could be transformed into axions and thus avoid being absorbed. [15] Scientists have detected a mysterious X-ray signal that could be caused by dark matter streaming out of our Sun's core. Hidden photons are predicted in some extensions of the Standard Model of particle physics, and unlike WIMPs they would interact electromagnetically with normal matter. In particle physics and astrophysics, weakly interacting massive particles, or WIMPs, are among the leading hypothetical particle physics candidates for dark matter. The gravitational force attracting the matter, causing concentration of the matter in a small space and leaving much space with low matter concentration: dark matter and energy. There is an asymmetry between the mass of the electric charges, for example proton and electron, can understood by the asymmetrical Planck Distribution Law. This temperature dependent energy distribution is asymmetric around the maximum intensity, where the annihilation of matter and antimatter is a high probability event. The asymmetric sides are creating different frequencies of electromagnetic radiations being in the same intensity level and compensating each other. One of these compensating ratios is the electron – proton mass ratio. The lower energy side has no compensating intensity level, it is the dark energy and the corresponding matter is the dark matter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1393] viXra:1809.0277 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-13 23:06:26

Constraining the Standard Model in Motivic Quantum Gravity

Authors: M. D. Sheppeard
Comments: 9 Pages. For the proceedings of Group32, Prague, July 2018

A physical approach to a category of motives must account for the emergent nature of spacetime, where real and complex numbers play a secondary role to discrete operations in quantum computation. In quantum logic, the cardinality of a set is initially replaced by a dimension of a linear space, making contact with the increasing dimensions in an operad. The operad of associahedra governs tree level scattering, and is closely related to the permutohedra and cube tiles, where cube vertices can encode components of a spinor in higher dimensional octonionic approaches. A study of rest mass generation begins with the cosmological infrared scale, set by the neutrino masses, and its related see-saw mechanism. We employ the anyonic ribbon spectrum for Standard Model states, and consider its relation to magic star algebras, giving a context for the Koide rest mass phenomenology of charged leptons and quarks.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1392] viXra:1809.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-11 04:21:39

Apparent Violation of the Second Law, Around Black Hole Nuclei and Other Quantum Knots.

Authors: Leo Vuyk
Comments: 13 Pages.

Quantum FFF ( Function Follows Form) theory is a Rigid String Theory which states, that there are no singular string based repulsion forces or attraction forces. Attraction forces should be the result of the dual effect of two opposing photon pulses on a stringy Fermion. As a consequence, only the result of two opposing photons impinging on Fermions has to count as a quantum force and the so called “Feynman diagrams” should be adapted. In Q-FFF Theory, the vacuum is seeded with fast oscillating massless Axion/Higgs particles, oscillating along a complex chiral tetrahedral vacuum lattice, which has the ability to transfer Photon and Graviton information in wavelength bunches of oscillations, through the vacuum lattice with the local (mass related) speed of light and the origin of the so called Dark Energy observed e.g. in the Casimir effect. At the same time, only the sum of the different kinds of vacuum impulses with the local vacuum oscillation spectrum coming from all directions on Fermions are responsible for all energetic phenomena in the universe. So, we may call this force a fifth force as it opposes and interacts or compensates all Photon/Gluon pressure effects on fermions in the universe. The gravity around Black Holes is assumed to be based only on the zero point oscillation spectrum from outside the black hole without the opposing repulsive gravitons coming out of the black hole. Black holes don’t emit gravitons, consequently they are massless and harbor a nucleus of massless Axion/Higgs based Quantum vacuum knots only able to absorb the incoming oscillating vacuum particles and polarize the surrounding vacuum structure. The polarization of the local vacuum is also origin of the black hole repulsion horizon of all propeller shaped Fermions at a certain distance from the nucleus and even the creation of fermions and baryons ( plasma) out of the local vacuum. Reason to accept that the vacuum energy around dark matter black holes ( fifth force) combined with the propeller shape of fermions, is the origin of apparent violation of the second law, (entropy decrease) observed on earth and in space. Examples are: plasma tails of Ball lightning and (micro) Comets and Proplyds.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1391] viXra:1809.0184 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-09 18:59:30

How an Artificial Kerr-Newman Black Hole Can Release Gravitational Waves

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 38 Pages. will be received by Christian Corda who will reccomend what to do with this paper

We initiate a model of an artificially induced Kerr-Newman black Holes, with specific angular momentum J, and then from there model was to what would happen as to an effective charge, Q, creating an E and B field, commensurate with the release of GWs. The idea is that using a frame of reference trick, plus E + i B = - function of the derivative of a complex valued scalar field, as given by Appell, in 1887, and reviewed by Whittaker and Watson, 1927 of their “A Course of Modern Analysis” tome that a first principle identification of a B field, commensurate with increase of thermal temperature, T, so as to have artificially induced GW production. This is compared in part with the Park 1955 paper of a spinning rod, producing GW, with the proviso that both the spinning rod paper, and this artificial Kerr-Newman Black hole will employ the idea of lasers in implementation of their respective GW radiation. The idea is in part partly similar to an idea the author discussed with Dr. Robert Baker, in 2016 with the difference that a B field would be generated and linked to effects linked with induced spin to the Kerr - Newman Black hole. We close with some observations about the “black holes have no hair” theorem, and our problem. Citing some recent suppositions that this “theorem” may not be completely true and how that may relate to our experimental situation. We close with observations from Haijicek, 2008 as which may be pertinent to Quantization of Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1390] viXra:1809.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-06 10:30:14

Anti-Information and Ghost Fields

Authors: John Peel
Comments: 25 Pages. I can be contacted at jpeel01@hotmail.com

Here the author attempts to give a unified picture of the multiverse and our universe in particular. The concept of AntiInformation is introduced and the existence of ghost fields, which are logical constructs is proposed. This unifies general relativity with quantum mechanics. This is a good read for physicists with an undergrad education. The paper is on Vixra while awaiting publication in a journal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1389] viXra:1809.0098 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 05:51:04

The Elementary Particles Contain Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 195 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “The photons contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “I unified Electromagnetism and Gravity with Ferent equation for the energy of a photon E = h × f + a × f ” Adrian Ferent Where: h – is the Planck constant a – is the Ferent constant In this equation the Dark Matter term is a × f , this means the photons contain Dark Matter. “The photons contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Because of mass-energy equivalence, the rest energy of a particle it is E = mc2, and because the photons contains Dark Matter this imply that all the particles contain Dark Matter. Because all the elementary particles have Gravitational Field, this means all of them have a Dark Matter component in their equations, this means all the elementary particles contain Dark Matter. “The elementary particles contain Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Black holes are Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Physicists today plagiarize my Gravitation theory, all of theom say: ‘Black holes are Dark matter’, stolen from my Gravitation theory. The Physicists do not know what is Dark Matter, but they know that ‘Black holes are Dark matter’; it is amazing how far can go the plagiarism today! This equation unify Matter with Dark Matter! 101. I am the first who discovered that all the elementary particles contain Dark Matter 102. I am the first who unified Matter with Dark Matter
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1388] viXra:1809.0084 [pdf] submitted on 2018-09-04 19:04:25

Elementary Particles, Dark Matter, Dark Energy, Cosmology, and Galaxy Evolution

Authors: Thomas J. Buckholtz
Comments: 26 Pages.

We suggest united models and specific predictions regarding elementary particles, dark matter, dark energy, aspects of the cosmology timeline, and aspects of galaxy evolution. Results include specific predictions for new elementary particles and specific descriptions of dark matter and dark energy. Some modeling matches known elementary particles and extrapolates to predict other elementary particles, including bases for dark matter. Some models complement traditional quantum field theory. Some modeling features Hamiltonian mathematics and originally de-emphasizes motion. We incorporate results from traditional motion-centric and action-based Lagrangian math into our Hamiltonian-centric framework. Our modeling framework features mathematics for isotropic quantum harmonic oscillators.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1387] viXra:1808.0671 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-30 08:42:10

Measure the Gravitational Constant

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 22 Pages.

A team of researchers affiliated with several institutions in China and one in Russia has devised two new ways to measure the gravitational constant. [9] The historic first detection of gravitational waves from colliding black holes far outside our galaxy opened a new window to understanding the universe. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1386] viXra:1808.0600 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-28 00:02:53

Emergent Spacetime and Matter, Unified Field Theory (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 27 Pages.

An axiomatic deterministic theory of physics based on a single scalar field is proposed. In the theory model at the fundamental level there is no time and there is no dynamics. It is shown how in this model space and time arises with matter and fields. It is shown that the anthropic principle arises as a consequence of the theory. The principle of causality is derived as a consequence of the main provisions of the theory. All three Newton's equations are obtained, as consequences of the theory and in the nonrelativistic approximation. Mass, energy and other concepts of mechanics were obtained. The Schrödinger equation is derived. An explanation of the nature of particle spin is proposed. It is shown that the maximum speed of interactions must be finite and be the same in all inertial frames of reference. It is shown that the speed of light and the maximum speed of interactions are exactly equal. A special theory of relativity with all its equations is obtained. The Klein-Gordon-Fock equations and, with some assumptions, the Dirac equations are obtained. The interaction of particles is considered. It is explained what virtual particles are, what are quant of field interactions, how renormalization works in quantum field theory. It is shown that such seemingly fundamental interactions, such as strong, weak and electromagnetic. Maxwell's equations are obtained, with some assumptions. It is shown that the standard model does not contradict the proposed theory. The nature of gravitation is considered. A strong equivalence principle is proved, all assumptions on which the general theory of relativity is based are proved. On the basis of this, it can be argued that the equations of the general theory of relativity satisfy the theory of generated space-time-matter. It is shown that gravity can not have quants. Thus, this theory asserts that no theory of quantum gravity can exist. An explanation of the origin of the universe is proposed. An explanation is offered for the nature of dark energy and dark matter. The physical foundations of mathematics are considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1385] viXra:1808.0565 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 01:49:44

The Accelerated Expansion of the Universe is Explained by Quantum Field Theory.

Authors: Elkin Igor
Comments: 5 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Formulas describing interactions, in fact, use the limiting speed of information transfer, and not the speed of light. This speed depends, both on the speed of light itself and on the expansion of the universe by Hubble. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1384] viXra:1808.0564 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-27 01:52:08

Ускоренное расширение Вселенной объясняет квантовая теория поля.

Authors: Elkin Igore Vladimirovich
Comments: 7 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Формулы, описывающие взаимодействия, на самом деле используют предельную скорость передачи информации, а не скорость света. Эта скорость зависит, как от самой скорости света, так и от расширения Вселенной по Хабблу. Это приводит к тому, что предельная скорость передачи информации меняется в зависимости от расстояния и в зависимости от рассматриваемого локального участка. Это дает различное взаимодействие при отталкивании частиц друг от друга и при их притяжении. Что приводит к появлению не нулевого остаточного взаимодействия. А это приводит к объяснению ускоренного расширения.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1383] viXra:1808.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-19 11:05:44

Quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.

Authors: Elkin Igor
Comments: 4 Pages. ieelkin@yandex.ru

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1382] viXra:1808.0247 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-17 08:30:24

Equivalence Principle in the Quantum World

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 24 Pages.

In a state unique to quantum physics, energy and mass can exist in a 'quantum superposition' – as if they consisted of two different values 'at the same time'. [11] Scientists at the University of British Columbia have proposed a radical new theory to explain the exponentially increasing size of the universe. [10] Researchers playing with a cloud of ultracold atoms uncovered behavior that bears a striking resemblance to the universe in microcosm. [9] Gravitational waves may be produced in the heart of the galaxy, says a new study led by Ph.D. student Joseph Fernandez at Liverpool John Moores University. [8] Using data from the first-ever gravitational waves detected last year, along with a theoretical analysis, physicists have shown that gravitational waves may oscillate between two different forms called "g" and "f"-type gravitational waves. [7] Astronomy experiments could soon test an idea developed by Albert Einstein almost exactly a century ago, scientists say. [6] It's estimated that 27% of all the matter in the universe is invisible, while everything from PB&J sandwiches to quasars accounts for just 4.9%. But a new theory of gravity proposed by theoretical physicist Erik Verlinde of the University of Amsterdam found out a way to dispense with the pesky stuff. [5] The proposal by the trio though phrased in a way as to suggest it's a solution to the arrow of time problem, is not likely to be addressed as such by the physics community— it's more likely to be considered as yet another theory that works mathematically, yet still can't answer the basic question of what is time. [4] The Weak Interaction transforms an electric charge in the diffraction pattern from one side to the other side, causing an electric dipole momentum change, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The Neutrino Oscillation of the Weak Interaction shows that it is a General electric dipole change and it is possible to any other temperature dependent entropy and information changing diffraction pattern of atoms, molecules and even complicated biological living structures.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1381] viXra:1808.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-15 07:17:14

Quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.quantum Field Theory Explains the Accelerated Expansion of the Universe.

Authors: Elkin Igor Vladimirovich
Comments: 6 Pages. ielkin@yandex.ru

Expansion of the universe by Hubble, allows you to calculate the expansion at a minimum distance. This leads to the fact that the limiting speed of information transfer varies depending on the distance and depending on the local site in question. This gives a different interaction when the particles are repelled from each other and when they are attracted. This leads to the appearance of a nonzero residual interaction. And this leads to an explanation of the accelerated expansion.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1380] viXra:1808.0189 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-14 08:40:38

R x C x H x O-valued Gravity as a Grand Unified Field Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 16 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We argue how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity with an $ U(8)$ Yang-Mills theory. In particular, it allows for an extension of the Standard Model by including a $3$-family $SU(3)_F$ symmetry group and an extra $ U(1)$ symmetry. A unification of left-right $SU(3)_L \times SU(3)_R$, color $SU(3)_C$ and family $SU(3)_F$ symmetries in a maximal rank-$8$ subgroup of $E_8$ has been proposed by \cite{Molina} as a landmark for future explorations beyond the Standard Model. It is warranted to explore further if this latter model also admits a similar gravitational interpretation based on the above composition of normed division algebras. Furthermore, our construction leads also to a $bimetric$ theory of gravity which may have a role in dark energy. The crux of this approach is that we have $replaced$ the Kaluza-Klein prescription to generate gauge symmetries in lower dimensions from isometries of the internal manifold, by $U (8)$ isometry transformations of the {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued metric.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1379] viXra:1808.0147 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-11 05:43:21

The Origin of the Gravitational Force, Inertia and Kinematics of Comic Bodies

Authors: Wei Fan
Comments: 12 Pages.

In physics, the mysterious origin of the gravitational force, inertia and the source of the kinetic energy of stars have long been unsolved problems. In the recent research,I have tried to jump out of the constraint of Newton’s laws and classical mechanics and tried to figure out sources of those universal laws with Potential Theory, and eventually solved problems above.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1378] viXra:1808.0135 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-10 14:58:42

Negative Mass Masquerading as Positive Mass; and What Happened to All the Antimatter?

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 4 Pages.

All masses measured in a laboratory using simple measurement methods must give outcomes as positive or zero masses. A method is given in principle to determine between negative and positive masses for matter and antimatter particle pairs. Negative mass masquerades as positive mass and simple measurements would always show negative mass to have apparent positive mass. This means that antimatter particles could have negative masses despite measurements showing them to have positive masses. If antimatter has negative mass masquerading as positive mass then antimatter cannot form lumps in the same way that matter does. Antimatter would then be the main component of dark energy, which would answer the question of what happened to all the antimatter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1377] viXra:1808.0063 [pdf] submitted on 2018-08-05 09:22:19

Earth’s Core is High Density Dark Matter

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 185 Pages. © 2014 Adrian Ferent

“Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Earth’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent This means: “High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent “I explained the Gravitational force between Earth and Moon, mediated by Gravitons” Adrian Ferent Moon mass: 7.3 × 10^22 kg Distance from the center of the Earth to the center of the Moon is 384,400,000 m Gravitational force between Moon and Earth: 1.9 × 10^20 N The gravitational potential energy between Moon and Earth: 7.6 × 10^28 J What is the energy of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon? I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz I consider the Moon made of electrons. The Moon is made of 8 × 10^52 electrons Each electron emits a Graviton. The energy of each Graviton: 9.5 × 10^(-25) J Graviton energy: a×f This means the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by the Moon: 5.9 × 10^51 Hz I calculated before that the frequency of the Gravitons emitted by Earth, Moon must be smaller than: ν < 4.176×10^56 Hz This is another proof that Ferent Quantum Gravity theory is right! Now I have to calculate the gravitational potential energy between 2 electrons, one on Moon and one on Earth; this is the energy of one graviton: Eg = 5.49 × 10^(-77) J Because Eg << 9.5 × 10^(-25) J, matter does not have influence on the Gravitational force between Moon and Earth. That is why: “Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter” Adrian Ferent Because only high density Dark Matter, emits Gravitons with the energy equal or higher to 9.5 × 10^(-25) J. “Ferent matter is Dark matter with density higher than Planck density” Adrian Ferent This means: “Earth’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent “Moon’s core is Ferent Matter” Adrian Ferent Matter looks like foam or bubbles in contrast with Ferent matter that is why: “The Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent The Earth’s Dark Matter density is much smaller than Black Holes’ Dark Matter density, because: “The energy of the Gravitons inside a black hole, is much higher than the energy of the gluons” Adrian Ferent “The Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent “The Moon is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter” Adrian Ferent This means: “High density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe” Adrian Ferent 90. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is high density Dark Matter 91. I am the first who discovered that Moon’s core is high density Dark Matter 92. I am the first who discovered that Earth’s core is Ferent Matter 93. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 94. I am the first who discovered that the Moon is high density Dark Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 95. I am the first who discovered that the Earth is Ferent Matter, surrounded by bubbles of Matter 96. I am the first who discovered that high density Dark Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe 97. I am the first who discovered that Ferent Matter is responsible for the Gravitational interactions in the Universe
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1376] viXra:1807.0519 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-31 18:49:19

Proton Electron Universe and Their Directions of Force

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 15 Pages.

Lately we found that the proton is most associated with gravitation and the electron with charge. In this paper we find that gravitation is from a force in just one direction, associated with the mass of the proton and the electron, and charge is from a force in a combination of the x, y, and z perpendicular directions. This paper shows that the force of charge and gravity can be modeled from a sphere, indicating granulated granular spacetime. Planck Spinning Spheres, (Planck) packed in a cuboctahedron structure, where many spheres are combined to produce the fabric of space. The Planck would be made of smaller Spheres called Kaluza Spinning Spheres (Kaluza). The calculations, herein, imply spacetime to be discrete. Virtual Angular Momentum is transferred to the Continuous Discrete Spacetime that is activated by the appropriate environment. This discrete Virtual Angular Momentum is modeled by equations developed herein. The modeling equations between charge and gravity use the same spherical model. This model: proposes a new definition of the fine structure constant in section IV; proposes a proton charge radius in section V; gives meaning to some Planck dimensions in section VI; predictions can be made about approximate values for the age of the universe and or the size of the Hubble Sphere Universe (Hubble) in section VII; Proposes ideas that may be used to help prove the idea of “Discrete Calculations of Charge and Gravity with Planck and Kaluza and a cuboctahedron, vector equilibrium, sub-structure of the universe and relate to wrapped up dimensions in section VIII; The equations will explore the mystery of the constants of nature as did John D. Barrow.(5) Due to these predictions, that may be validated and/or refined in the future, this model may deserve further investigation. These calculations bring back the Dirac’s large number hypothesis (15) and relationships similar to the Koide formula. (16) Below are summarized the simplified equations modeling the Planck for charge and gravity constructed in section II and III.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1375] viXra:1807.0518 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-30 12:19:09

Generalised Quantum-Electrodynamics: A Theory of Quantum Gravity.

Authors: Sp Cottle
Comments: 9 Pages.

In this model the force of gravity is mediated by the electron, the W+ and the W- particle. The electron, from its bound state around a nucleus, tunnels into other atoms and exerts a force of attraction over the proton(s) in the nucleus of those atoms. This attractive force amounts to the exchange of a W+ boson to, or from, the nucleus. To make this consistent with quantum mechanics, the electron in its bound state must tunnel roughly once every Planck time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1374] viXra:1807.0450 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-27 03:34:49

Explanation of Double-Slit Experiment

Authors: Michael Tzoumpas
Comments: 8 Pages.

According to the theory of dynamic space, the inductive-inertial phenomenon and its forces has been developed. These forces act on the electric units of the dynamic space, forming the grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field). The nature of the magnetic forces is explained, that are Coulomb's electric forces between these grouping units, created by the accelerated electron. So, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical signicance of magnetic quantities and the so called strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic dipole moment are interpreted. Additionally, due to in-phase motion of grouping units, a parallel common course of their electrons and a superposition picture of their motion waves are caused as in the double-slit experiment is displayed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1373] viXra:1807.0370 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-23 03:24:42

The Higgs Boson and the Supposedly Unrelated Graviton

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 6 Pages. CITATION - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v1

ALBERT EINSTEIN’S DREAM OF UNITING ELECTROMAGNETISM AND GRAVITATION, PLUS EXISTENCE OF GRAVITON, CONFIRMED BY DISCOVERY OF HIGGS BOSON AND WOLFGANG PAULI’S APPROACH TO QUANTUM SPIN
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1372] viXra:1807.0364 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 16:06:06

A Theory for How Gravity Causes Electromagnetic Fields

Authors: Steven M. Scully
Comments: Pages. 6

Electromagnetic fields are considered to be the result of the fundamental force of electromagnetism. Using classical mechanics, a description for how gravity could theoretically cause electromagnetic fields is presented. Due to the capability of particles to physically travel through systems which they orbit, the existence of gravitational orbital patterns in the shape of a Figure-8 is proposed. As a result, it is proposed that gravity produces electromagnetic fields by the flow of particles in a Figure-8 orbital. Thereby, according to the theory, gravity is demonstrably the cause of electromagnetism.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1371] viXra:1807.0363 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 16:37:07

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy

Authors: Steven M. Scully
Comments: 30 Pages.

The Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy states that the universe consists only of infinitely divisible mass, infinite volume, and gravity. This is realized due to a model which explains the cosmic microwave background, the redshift in the light spectrum of all distant galaxies as well as supercluster observations using gravitational redshift and gravitational lensing alone. Evidence is shown that gravity is the only fundamental law of the universe, and that electromagnetism, weak interaction, and strong interaction are the results of gravity, and therefore the Universal Principle of Natural Philosophy can be realized.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1370] viXra:1807.0362 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-21 18:39:57

Fundamental Particle Pulsation Principle-Theoretical Physics Hypothesis

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 16 Pages.

Relativism and quantum mechanics are a basis of present-day physics. This hypothesis returns quantum mechanics to real physics from physics of a probability and I tried fusion of relativism and quantum mechanics. By quantum mechanics a fundamental particle is a particle and is a wave at the same time and probabilistic interpretation of quantum mechanics was born. This hypothesis denies the same time. That isn't simultaneous. A fundamental particle is repeating a change in a particle and a wave at superspeed. I am thinking this is the variable from which hid.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1369] viXra:1807.0341 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-19 14:33:49

Adapting Newton's Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 4 Pages.

Newton's theory of gravitation states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe, but that is not correct. Newton's theory of gravitation also states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses, and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them. That is mathematically seen correct, but gravity is not the reason why most celestial objects stay in their orbit.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1368] viXra:1807.0323 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-20 12:30:51

A Niels Bohr Approach to a Pre-Quantum Theory of Quantum Gravity

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 12 Pages.

As a first step towards a theory of quantum gravity, a Niels Bohr pre-quantum mechanics theory of quantum gravity is proposed. It predicts the existence of gravitons with an energy of 3.47×〖10〗^11 GeV, close to the rarely observed particles coming from a region of the Ursa Major constellation, with the largest energy of 3.2×〖10〗^11 GeV, well above the Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) limit, suggesting that these particles are high-energy gravitons. It was noted that the proposed provisionary theory can explain Heisenberg’s uncertainty relation as a result of a mathematical theorem by Bruns, where the nonlinearity of the equations of motion, such as Newton’s and Einstein’s equations, leads to divergent dense manifold for infinitely closed initial conditions as their solutions. In addition, the theory can also explain the gravitational origin of the quantum potential in the Madelung-transformed Schrödinger equation. It explains the ratio of dark energy to dark matter, approximately 3:1, as the Madelung constant of a gravitationally interacting fluid made up of positive and negative mass pole-dipole particles filling the vacuum of space.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1367] viXra:1807.0264 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-14 06:37:28

Negative Mass as a Cause of Dark Matter and Dark Energy

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 10 Pages.

Simulations using Visual Basic code are carried out on motions, along a one dimensional line, of a population of 100 positive and negative masses under their own gravitational forces. The negative masses were seen to repel one another along the line and uniformly occupy the line. The positive masses were initially located as two static clumps and they remained as two clumps without greatly expanding the sizes of the clumps. The clumps separated further apart, in time, accelerating away from each other. Some of the negative masses clustered near the two positive mass clumps, in a similar way to how dark matter clusters near galaxies. The negative masses act to constrain a positive mass clump by surrounding it and repelling the masses back towards the centre of the clump. So negative mass operates by repulsion to obtain a similar effect that dark matter is supposed to obtain by attraction. Replenishment of negative masses as they fill the space along the line is unnecessary as the results show continuous acceleration.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1366] viXra:1807.0215 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-11 21:33:34

Negative Energy Enthalpic em Gravity “WARP” Drive (Em Resonant Cavity Thruster)

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1365] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-08 10:50:52

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle is applied to Grandcosmology, for which the horizon radius of the visible Universe is invariant. The Fundamental Eddington Theory is rehabilitated, while Primordial Bang model and anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1364] viXra:1807.0163 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-09 01:24:51

Mathematical Nature of Reality, Plus Gravitation-Electromagnetism Unification, Derived from Revised Gravitational Tidal Forces and Mass-from-Gravity Concept

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 33 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6678350.v2

This article had its beginning with Einstein's 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" Together with General Relativity's statement that gravity is not a pull but is a push caused by the curvature of space-time, a hypothesis for Earth's ocean tides was developed that does not solely depend on the Sun and Moon as Kepler and Newton believed. It also borrows from Galileo. The breakup of planets and asteroids by white dwarfs, neutron stars or black holes is popularly ascribed by today's science to tidal forces (gravitation emanating from the stellar body and having a greater effect on the near side of a planet/asteroid than the farthest side). Remembering Einstein's 1919 paper, it was apparent that my revised idea of tidal forces improves on current accounts because it views matter and mass as unified with space-time whose curvature is gravitation. Unification is a necessity for modern science's developing view of one united and entangled universe – expressed in the Unified Field Theory, the Theory of Everything, String theory and Loop Quantum Gravity. The writing of this article was also assisted by visualizing the gravitational fields forming space-time being themselves formed by a multitude of weak and presently undetectable gravitational waves. The final part of this article concludes that the section BITS AND TOPOLOGY will lead to the conclusions in ETERNAL LIFE, WORLD PEACE AND PHYSICS' UNIFICATION. The final part also compares cosmology to biological enzymes and biology's substrate of reacting "chemicals" - using virtual particles, hidden variables, gravitation, electromagnetism, electronics’ binary digits, plus topology’s Mobius strip and figure-8 Klein bottle. The product is mass - enzyme, substrate and product are all considered mathematical in nature. Also, gravitation and electromagnetism are united using logic and topology – showing there’s no need in this article for things like mathematical formalism, field equations or tensor calculus. Keywords - Gravitational Tidal Forces, Mass-from-Gravity, Breakup of Celestial Bodies, Earth's Ocean Tides, Universe's Big Bang, Cosmic Inflation, Eternal Life, World Peace, Matter, Mass, Mathematical Reality, Gravitational-Electromagnetic Unification, Large-scale Extra Dimensions, Evolution, Virtual Reality, Augmented Reality, Special Relativity
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1363] viXra:1807.0034 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 14:28:12

A Covariant Formulation of the Ashtekar-Kodama Quantum Gravity and Its Solutions

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 88 Pages.

Abstract This article consists of two parts. In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints. In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity. In chapter B1-4 we present the equations and their solutions. We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn (inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) . For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon. In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for Amn and Emn we get a gravitational wave equations , which yields appropriate solutions only for angular momentum lx>=2 (quadrupole wave) the tetrad is locally damped with exp(-4 sqrt(r/3)), only the wave tensor Amn carries the energy. In chapter B5 and 6 numerical solutions for special cases of the time-independent and of time-dependent equations are discussed. In chapter B7 the energy tensor of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity is introduced. In chapter B8 we present the quantum field version of the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity and demonstrate the calculation of cross-sections. Finally, in chapter B9 we give as an outlook an overview of the QFT including the Ashtekar-Kodama gravity. All derivations and calculations were carried out in Mathematica-programs, so the results can be considered with high probability as error-free, the programs are cited in the literature index. In the chapters B1-4, which deal with the solutions, every subchapter consists of a flow-diagram, which gives the overview and a text part, which describes the corresponding program in detail and can be skipped at first reading.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1362] viXra:1807.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2018-07-01 21:29:24

Fibonacci Oscillators and (P, q)-Deformed Lorentz Transformations

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 12 Pages.

The two-parameter quantum calculus used in the construction of Fibonacci oscillators is briefly reviewed before presenting the $ (p, q)$-deformed Lorentz transformations which leave invariant the Minkowski spacetime interval $ t^2 - x^2 - y^2 - z^2$. Such transformations require the introduction of three different types of exponential functions leading to the $(p, q)$-analogs of hyperbolic and trigonometric functions. The composition law of two successive Lorentz boosts (rotations) is $no$ longer additive $ \xi_3 \not= \xi_1 + \xi_2$ ( $ \theta_3 \not= \theta_1 + \theta_2$). We finalize with a discussion on quantum groups, noncommutative spacetimes, $\kappa$-deformed Poincare algebra and quasi-crystals.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

Replacements of recent Submissions

[1209] viXra:1811.0146 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-15 00:18:01

Atiyah Constant Excludes the Multiverse Hypothesis

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 1 Page.

A simple fine tuning relation using the Atiyah Constant, the Eddington number 137 and the Fermi coupling constant defines the latter in its 5 × 10-7 indetermination, compatible with the 2 × 10-8 muon mass indetermination in another Cosmic Oscillation fine tuning relation. A symmetrical extension showing superstring 6D and 9D spaces gives a G value compatible with the Quinn measurement (2.5 × 10-5), and the Coherent Cosmology value (10-7). This confirms Atiyah's claims about Eddington rehabilitation and the exclusion of the Multiverse hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1208] viXra:1810.0427 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-07 22:47:42

Galaxy Rotation Curve of Triangulum Galaxy (M-33) By Using New Quantum Gravity Theory

Authors: Ravindra Sidramappa Mundase
Comments: 7 Pages.

A detailed study of roatation curve of triangulum galaxy(M33) has been done using new quantum gravity theory.The new quantum gravity theory is based on baryonic matter only. This new theory is not based on the dark matter. Hence the existence of dark matter is rejected. The new theory is different from Newton’s gravitational theory or any other gravitational theory postulated at present. The new theory is non-relativistic theory in which space and time are constant and not related to each other. This theory is a quantum gravity theory in which gravity is made up of small quantas.It is observed that the theoretical rotational velocities curve form a cusp at the radius of 20 kly. This is a dominant and most important aspect of new quantum gravitational theory. The halo cusp problem cannot be solved by dark matter hypothesis. Inability to solve halo cusp problem is main drawback of dark matter hypothesis. This new quantum gravitational theory solves the halo cusp problem of rotation curve of galaxy.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1207] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-11 06:44:57

Wow! Signal Decoded as Foundations of Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 14 Pages.

Here I show how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed here elements are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1206] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-10 12:40:45

Wow! Signal Decoded as Foundations of Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 13 Pages.

Here I show how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed here elements are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1205] viXra:1810.0422 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-04 10:00:50

Wow! Signal Decoded as Foundations of Theory of Everything

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 11 Pages.

Here I show how to read the Wow! signal. There are three different motivated ways to divide the signal. The most important is the division which within the same rule leads to the degrees of freedom of the stable and meta-stable manifolds described in the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The SST manifolds appear at different levels of Nature. Wow! signal leads also to the angles in the neutrino-mixing matrix, to the fine-structure constant, to the asymptote for the coupling constant for the pure strong-weak interactions or to discoverer of the Planck constant, and so on. All listed here elements are the foundations of Theory of Everything.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1204] viXra:1810.0140 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-10 08:36:39

W and Z Boson Weak Force and Weak Charge in Granular Spacetime

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 7 Pages. Corrected Typos

This paper shows the magnitude of the weak force and weak charge with calculations and makes predictions of the weak charge. It also postulates that the weak force may be a result of w boson pairs and z boson pairs. Tommaso Dorigo discusses W boson pairs [2]. The equations to derive a value of weak charge to elementary charge in this paper seem to imply that weak charge, of .076447, may be the result of W boson pairs or perhaps .071776 of a Z boson pairs. This paper uses the cuboctahedron structure shown in “Proton Electron Universe and Their Directions of Force”[1]. We also show that the ratio of weak charge and elementary charge are simply the square root of the mass of the neutron to the mass of two times the w boson or perhaps two times the z boson or a combination of these two numbers.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1203] viXra:1810.0036 [pdf] replaced on 2018-10-15 15:38:21

On a Possible Cause of Negative Sign of Gravitational Interaction Between Matter and Antimatter

Authors: Zbigniew Modrzejewski
Comments: 14 Pages. This is an open access scientific research paper distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution CC-BY (4.0 International) license.

Based on the mass-energy equivalence from special theory of relativity, we conjecture simple and clear framework for the purpose of conceptualizing atomic mass generation mechanism for a single hydrogen atom. We then apply it to see if it would offer conclusive clarification of the issue of the sign of gravitational interaction between the Earth and antihydrogen atoms at CERN. Our testable prediction is that the interaction will be conclusively repulsive, i.e. of equal and opposite magnitude as compared to the attractive one. We are confident that, if experimentally verified, our conjecture has sufficient potential to result in a theoretical basis of the first experimentally testable quantum gravity hypothesis.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1202] viXra:1810.0016 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-12 21:42:32

《Universal and Unified Physics》

Authors: Wei Xu
Comments: 132 Pages.

For the first time in mankind, Theory of Unified and Universal Physics is philosophically and mathematically revealed the workings of Universal Topology and Laws of Conservations. The nature of dark energies unfolds its Event Operations systematically on the origin of physical states. These principles convey and unfold the laws of topological framework, universal equations, symmetric continuity, and asymmetric dynamics systematically at the remarks of the following groundbreakings:

  • Complex Manifold in a duality of contravariance and covariance
  • Constitution of Transform Generators and Transport Torques
  • Formulations of World Equations and Universal Fields
  • Fluxions of quantum scalar and vector potential Entanglements
  • Laws of Conservation of Photon and of Graviton Fields
  • Symmetric Fields of Gravitation, Electromagnetism, Thermodynamics, and Blackhold 
  • Law of Field Evolutions - Double Loops of Triple Entanglements 
  • Asymmetric Dynamics of Ontology and Cosmology

The application of an evolutionary process to contemporary theoretical physics therefore demonstrates a holistic picture of the principal equations, empirical assumptions, and essential artifacts. It prompts the entire discipline of physics, from Newtonian to spacetime relativity to quantum mechanics, to look back to the future: Virtumanity - Dialectical Nature of Virtual and Physical Duality.

Intuitively following the system of yinyang philosophy, this holistic theory is concisely accessible and replicable by readers with a basic background in mathematical derivation and theoretical physics. As a summary,《Universal and Unified Physics》completes and unifies all of the principal equations, important assumptions, and essential laws, discovered and described by the classical and modern physics, and beyond.    


Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1201] viXra:1808.0600 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-30 12:43:03

Emergent Spacetime and Matter, Unified Field Theory (In Russian)

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: 27 Pages.

An axiomatic deterministic theory of physics based on a single scalar field was proposed. In the theory model at the fundamental level there is no time and dynamics. It is shown how space-time with matter and fields emerge in this model. It is shown that the anthropic principle emerges as a consequence of the theory. The causality principle is derived as a consequence of the main principles of the theory. All three Newton's equations are obtained as consequences of the theory and in the nonrelativistic approximation. Mass, energy and other concepts of mechanics were obtained. The Schrödinger equation is derived. An explanation of the nature of particle spin is proposed. It is shown that the maximum speed of interactions must be finite and be the same in all inertial frames of reference. It is shown that the light speed and the maximum speed of interactions are exactly equal. A special theory of relativity with all its equations is obtained. The Klein-Gordon-Fock equations and, with some assumptions, the Dirac equations are obtained. Particles interaction is considered. There were given explanations of what virtual particles and quanta of field interactions are, and how renormalization works in quantum field theory. Seemingly fundamental interactions, such as strong, weak and electromagnetic are shown. Maxwell's equations are obtained, with some assumptions. It is shown that the standard model does not contradict the proposed theory. The nature of gravitation is considered. A strong equivalence principle is proved, all assumptions on which the general theory of relativity is based are proved. Based on this, it can be argued that the equations of the general relativity theory satisfy the theory of emergent space-time-matter. It is shown that gravity can not have quanta. Thus, this theory asserts that no theory of quantum gravity can exist. An explanation of the origin of the universe is proposed. An explanation is offered for the nature of dark energy and dark matter. Physical foundations of mathematics are considered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1200] viXra:1808.0189 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-19 03:22:19

R x C x H x O-valued Gravity as a Grand Unified Field Theory

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 18 Pages. Submitted to Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras

We argue how {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued Gravity (real-complex-quaterno-octonionic Gravity) naturally can describe a grand unified field theory of Einstein's gravity with an $ U(8)$ Yang-Mills theory. In particular, it allows for an extension of the Standard Model by including a $3$-family $SU(3)_F$ symmetry group, a $SU(2)_R$ and an extra $ U(1)$ symmetry. A unification of left-right $SU(3)_L \times SU(3)_R$, color $SU(3)_C$ and family $SU(3)_F$ symmetries in a maximal rank-$8$ subgroup of $E_8$ has been proposed by \cite{Molina} as a landmark for future explorations beyond the Standard Model. It is warranted to explore further if this latter model also admits a similar gravitational interpretation based on the above composition of normed division algebras. Furthermore, our construction leads also to a $bimetric$ theory of gravity which may have a role in dark energy. The crux of this approach is that we have $replaced$ the Kaluza-Klein prescription to generate gauge symmetries in lower dimensions from isometries of the internal manifold, by the $U (8)$ isometry transformations of the {\bf R} $\otimes$ {\bf C} $\otimes$ {\bf H} $\otimes$ {\bf O}-valued metric. We finalize with a discussion on $U(16)$ Matrix Gravity (Geometry), String Theory and Division algebras.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1199] viXra:1808.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-15 16:33:06

Negative Mass Masquerading as Positive Mass; and What Happened to All the Antimatter?

Authors: Austin J. Fearnley
Comments: 7 Pages.

All masses measured in a laboratory using simple measurement methods must give outcomes as positive or zero masses. A method is given in principle to determine between negative and positive masses for matter and antimatter particle pairs. Negative mass masquerades as positive mass and simple measurements would always show negative mass to have apparent positive mass. This means that antimatter particles could have negative masses despite measurements showing them to have positive masses. If antimatter has negative mass masquerading as positive mass then antimatter cannot form lumps in the same way that matter does. Antimatter would then be the main component of dark energy, which would answer the question of what happened to all the antimatter.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1198] viXra:1807.0370 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-03 22:34:28

FEYNMAN’S Advanced Waves Unify the Scalar Higgs Boson with the Supposedly Unrelated Non-Scalar Graviton

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 15 Pages. CITE - https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716.v4

Recently added: "Main two clarifications to my submission" - There are two points which may need to be clarified - First, in relation to E=0 (second last paragraph in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY) Second, in relation to quantum spin/vector/tensor/scalar (last and third last paragraphs in SECTION 2 – QUANTUM SPIN, ADVANCED WAVES, AND SPECIAL RELATIVITY This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a by-product of the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1197] viXra:1807.0370 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-27 01:43:04

FEYNMAN’S Advanced Waves Unify the Scalar Higgs Boson with the Supposedly Unrelated Non-Scalar Graviton

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 10 Pages. CITE: https://doi.org/10.6084/m9.figshare.6849716

This article suggests existence of the graviton was actually confirmed by discovery of the supposedly unrelated Higgs boson on 4 July 2012. First suspected to exist in the 1960s, more studies are still needed to verify with higher precision that the discovered particle has all of the properties predicted. The need for further studies is in line with this article’s proposal that the Higgs boson and field are not what they’re assumed to be ie the Higgs field is believed to give mass to some particles (quarks and charged leptons plus the weak nuclear force’s W and Z bosons) while the Higgs boson is said to be the field’s quantum excitation. The proposal here is that photon-graviton interactions, and thus the electromagnetic-gravitational fields - more precisely, m = (D subscript 1+0), (S sub M, K sub 8), (n x 10 exponent 12.γ sub s/G sub s) - are responsible for ALL mass, and the Higgs boson (whether it exists in one or several forms) is a “leftover” from the advanced waves formed from photons and gravitons (see the Wheeler-Feynman absorber theory and the Transactional Interpretation of Quantum Mechanics). Being left-over from gravitational waves, the Higgs boson is obviously related to the graviton – and if this article is correct, discovery of the former particle makes existence of the latter absolutely essential (confirms its existence). As well: in my thoughts, Wolfgang Pauli’s 1924 approach to quantum spin - and Albert Einstein’s 1919 paper "Do gravitational fields play an essential role in the structure of elementary particles?" - both played important parts in uniting quantum mechanics and gravity into the phenomenon of matter. On the way to this union, Einstein’s dream of uniting electromagnetism with gravitation seems to have supersymmetrically fallen into place.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1196] viXra:1807.0341 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-24 20:08:36

Newton's Theory of Gravitation

Authors: Peter V. Raktoe
Comments: 3 Pages.

Newton's theory of gravitation states that every mass attracts every other mass in the universe, but that gravitational attraction of a mass only has a certain reach. Newton's theory of gravitation also states that the gravitational force between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, that is mathematically seen correct but that gravitational force only has a certain reach.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1195] viXra:1807.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2018-11-06 05:06:29

Negative Energy (Enthalpic) Gravity

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: 20 Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is proposed with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1194] viXra:1807.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 06:28:08

Negative Energy (Enthalpic) Gravity

Authors: Stephen H. Jarvis
Comments: Pages.

In taking up from the preliminary papers [1][2][3][4][5][6] regarding the golden ratio algorithm for time, more specifically paper 5 [5] regarding entropy and enthalpy, and paper 6 [6] regarding the golden ratio basis for the idea of relativity as time, the current understanding of “negative” energy is presented and revised, namely Dirac’s postulate for the Dirac sea, the feature of negative energy being the rise in kinetic energy in gravitational relative motion between objects under the influence of each other, speeding up. This issue is newly addressed with the application of the golden ratio and associated relativity of the motions of mass under the influence of gravity. To achieve this, the ideas of entropy and enthalpy as presented in paper 5 of this series of papers are brought to attention; the idea of -1/φ is introduced as the “negative” energy counterpart as gravity compared to the standard electromagnetic φ of the calculated passage of time in an entropic context. An experiment for gravity emerging from electrodynamics is forwarded with this theoretical addition regarding gravity as negative energy, detailed in the context of an enthalpic mechanism, thus shedding new and important light on current “RF Resonant Cavity Thruster (EM-drive)” research.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1193] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-26 22:20:47

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1192] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-25 23:41:38

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1191] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-11 23:15:58

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle 2D-1D-3D is applied to the Grandcosmology invariant horizon. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10^-6 precision double large number correlation: the Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1190] viXra:1807.0171 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-09 20:30:59

Holography and Cosmology

Authors: F. M. Sanchez, M. Grosmann
Comments: 2 Pages.

A Fundamental Holographic Principle is applied to Grandcosmology, for which the visible Universe horizon is invariant. Taking account of the Eddington's Fundamental Theory, this leads to an aesthetic justification of the Universes vastness, with a 10^-4 precision double large number correlation: Primordial Bang model and associated anthropic principles are refuted. The sweeping of a single electron-positron couple in a tachyonic bath explains at last the 10^122 discrepancy between quantum world and the visible Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1189] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-09-03 05:25:31

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every differentiable symmetry of action, there exists a corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. If we consider charge as a conserved quantity, it means existence of symmetry, and we can consider one more axis. In this paper, we consider an extension to five dimensions by using results of the ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with an alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged five-dimensional metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge, and angular momentum exactly.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1188] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-24 21:31:38

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. If we consider the charge as a conserved quantity, there is one more symmetry, and we can consider one more axis. In this paper, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1187] viXra:1807.0087 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-06 11:36:52

Classical Unified Field Theory of Gravitation and Electromagnetism

Authors: Jaekwang Lee
Comments: 13 Pages.

According to Noether's theorem, for every continuous symmetry of the action, there exists corresponding conserved quantity. If we assume the stationary condition as a role of symmetry, there is a conserved quantity. By using the definition of the Komar mass, one can calculate the mass in a curved spacetime. However, it fails to give the mass for the well-known charged 4D black hole such as Kerr-Newman black hole. In this paper, to solve this problem, we consider an extension to 5-dimensions by using results of ADM formalism. In terms of (4+1) decomposition, with alternative surface integral, we find the rotating and charged 5D metric solution and check whether it gives the mass, charge and angular momentum exactly
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1186] viXra:1807.0034 [pdf] replaced on 2018-07-23 05:57:29

A Covariant Formulation of the Ashtekar-Kodama Quantum Gravity and Its Solutions

Authors: Jan Helm
Comments: 91 Pages.

This article consists of two parts. In the first part A we present in a concise form the present approaches to the quantum gravity, with the ADM formulation of GR, the Ashtekar and the Kodama ansatz at the center, and we also derive the 3-dimensional Ashtekar-Kodama constraints. In the second part B , we introduce a 4-dimensional covariant version of the 3-dimensional (spatial) Hamiltionian, Gaussian and diffeomorphism constraints of the Kodama state with positive cosmological constant L in the Ashtekar formulation of quantum gravity. We get 32 partial differential equations for the 16 variables Emn ( E-tensor, inverse densitized tetrad of the metric gmn) and 16 variables Amn (A-tensor, gravitational wave tensor). We impose the boundary condition: for r->inf g(Emn)->gmn i.e. in the classical limit of large r the Kodama state generates the given asymptotic spacetime (normally Schwarzschild-spacetime) . For L->0 in the static (time independent) the tetrad decouples from the wave tensor and the 24 Hamiltonian equations yield for Amn the constant background solution. The diffeomorphism becomes identically zero, and the tetrad can satisfy the Schwarzschild spacetime and the Gaussian equations for all {r,θ}, i.e. it the Einstein equations are valid everywhere outside the horizon. At the horizon, the E-tensor couples to the A-tensor in the 24 Hamiltonian equations and the singularity is removed, there is instead a peak in the metric . In the time-dependent case with a L- scaled wave ansatz for the A-tensor and the E-tensor we get a gravitational wave equation, which yields appropriate solutions only for quadrupole waves: as required by GR, the tetrad is exponentially damped , only the A-tensor carries the energy. The validity of the Einstein power formula for gravitational waves is shown for a binary black hole (binary gravitational rotator). From the horizon condition we derive the limit scale (Schwarzschild radius) of the gravitational quantum region: rgr=30μm , which emerges as the limit scale in the objective wave collapse theory of Gherardi-Rimini-Weber. We present the energy-momentum tensor, which is in agreement with the corresponding GR-expression for small wave amplitudes and is consistent with the Einstein power formula. In the quantum region r<= rgr , the Ashtekar-Kodama gravitation the theory becomes a gauge theory with the extended SU(2) (four generators) as gauge group and a corresponding covariant derivative. In the quantum region we derive the lagrangian, which is dimensionally renormalizable, the normalized one-graviton wave function, the graviton propagator, and demonstrate the calculation of cross-section from Feynman diagrams at the example of the graviton-electron scattering.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1185] viXra:1807.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-21 16:45:37

Musics and Science

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 57 Pages. Bull Acad Int Concorde n°2, Aug 2018, Français, Russian, English

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1184] viXra:1807.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-20 09:46:28

Musics and Science

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 56 Pages. in English and French

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1183] viXra:1807.0029 [pdf] replaced on 2018-08-19 12:48:36

Musique et Science

Authors: F. M. Sanchez
Comments: 29 Pages. in French

The mysterious physical parameters are connected with the Planck thermal law mathematical constants, the musical ratios and economic numbers, where the Monster order and Eddington's constant 137 play a central role. The electric constant a ≈ 137.036 appears as a central calculation basis in a Deterministic Periodic (10^58 s) Computing Cosmos. This connects the four force couplings with canonic mathematical constants. The Monster Group is associated to the Grandcosmos, ruled by base 3, while the Baby-Monster is associated with the observable Universe ruled by base 2. This refutes the Primordial Big Bang or Bounce model and associated anthropic dreams, so discarding the unnecessary Multiverse hypothesis. Eddington's and string theories are rehabilitated and the Kotov absolute clock is confirmed. The 26 sporadic groups are implied, connecting the four force parameters with the special super-string number 496, whose square is compatible with the Higgs/Electron mass ratio, so confirming the Particle standard model. This means that Physics is musical arithmetics, so that Intelligent Life is universal.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory