Quantum Gravity and String Theory

0911 Submissions

[21] viXra:0911.0066 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-08 13:44:42

Principles of a Unified Field Theory: A Tetrahedral Model

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 18 Pages.

The simple story of the Cosmos is the devolution of light to matter followed by the evolution of matter back to light - as required by Noether's Theorem (the conservation of light's symmetry), and as regulated by the four conservation laws of the "Tetrahedron Model". But the information content of energy considerably complicates this simple ontogeny - the Universe apparently seeks self-awareness, self-knowledge, and self-experience (perhaps as the goal of, or justification for, all the effort involved in manifestation). The negative entropy of gravity and Natural Selection drives the evolutionary mechanism of biological matter, with DNA providing replication and the genetic system providing information conservation through heritable genes. Because of its genetic system, life has become a biological conservation domain of molecular information, with humanity advancing this principle evolutionary axis of the Cosmos (Chardin's view) through abstract thought, symbolic writing, science and technology. Our planet is in her reproductive phase, with humanity as her dispersal agents, seeking new territory in the Galaxy. The natural tendency to evolve complex information systems of planetary size (and beyond) can be seen as the simple outgrowth of matter's search for antimatter (locally employing human intelligence in the quest), and a reprise of the original unity, symmetry, and connectivity of the primordial light Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] viXra:0911.0057 [pdf] submitted on 23 Nov 2009

Timeless Quantum Universe in Dynamic Equilibrium

Authors: Amrit S. Sorli
Comments: 3 pages

Original solution of gravity motion is curved 4 dimensional cosmic space. Massive objects move into direction of higher curvature of space. Quantum gravity introduces idea that cosmic space is made out of grains of Planck size. If space has granular structure one can consider space also has its density. More mass in given volume of quantum space less space is dense. Less space is dense more space is curved. Massive objects move always into direction of lover density in higher curvature of quantum space. Gravitational motion of massive objects is result of change of density of quantum space. Change of nsity of quantum space is a physical basis for change of its curvature. In black holes density of mass is extremely high and density of space is extremely low. In a centre of black holes mass is transforming in to quanta of space. In outer space density of mass is extremely low, density of space is extremely high. In outer space quanta of space are transforming onto elementary particles i.e. cosmic rays.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] viXra:0911.0054 [pdf] replaced on 2 Feb 2010

Is Entropy Related to the Synchronization of the Input/output Power of a System of Oscillators?

Authors: S. Halayka
Comments: 11 Pages. Added Appendix section (and idea for possible experiment?). Added references related to "quantum graphity"

The objective of this paper is to identify a way to relate entropy with the synchronization of the input/output power of a system of oscillators. This view is ultimately reconciled through an examination of the geometric differences that exist between 2D shell and 3D lattice oscillator arrangements.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] viXra:0911.0049 [pdf] submitted on 17 Nov 2009

Yang-Mills Interactions and Gravity in Terms of Clifford Algebra

Authors: Wei Lu
Comments: 20 pages, to be published in Advances in Applied Clifford Algebras.

A model of Yang-Mills interactions and gravity in terms of the Clifford algebra Cl0,6 is presented. The gravity and Yang-Mills actions are formulated as different order terms in a generalized action. The feebleness of gravity as well as the smallness of the cosmological constant and theta terms are discussed at the classical level. The invariance groups, including the de Sitter and the Pati-Salam SU(4) subgroups, consist of gauge transformations from either side of an algebraic spinor. Upon symmetry breaking via the Higgs fields, the remaining symmetries are the Lorentz SO(1,3), color SU(3), electromagnetic U(1)EM, and an additional U(1). The first generation leptons and quarks are identified with even and odd parts of spinor idempotent projections. There are still several shortcomings with the current model. Further research is needed to fully recover the standard model results.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:0911.0048 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-13 18:00:44

The Solar Archetype

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 Pages.

The primordial role of gravitation is to supply sufficient negative energy to balance the positive energy of the "Creation Event", so the Cosmos may be born from a condition of zero net energy. Matter and antimatter are also present in equal amounts, so the Universe is likewise born from a condition of zero net charge. All latter-day gravitational conservation roles are derived from and reflect gravity's primordial energy-conserving role. Gravity has two primary conservation roles in today's universe: 1) entropy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths), and 2) symmetry conservation (at high gravitational field strengths). Entropy conservation is accomplished by the gravitational annihilation of space, exposing a metrically equivalent temporal residue. The annihilation of space converts the expansive spatial entropy drive of free energy (the intrinsic motion of light), to the expansive historical entropy drive of bound energy (the intrinsic motion of time). The implicit temporal drive of spatial expansion (recognized as the time component of "spacetime") is converted to, (and conserved as), the explicit temporal drive of history - via gravity. Symmetry conservation is accomplished by the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Sunlight indicates the completion of a symmetry conservation cycle: light -> matter -> light, which begins with the conversion of light to matter (free to bound electromagnetic energy) during the "Big Bang", and ends with the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy in stars, black holes, and possibly, the "Big Crunch".
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:0911.0046 [pdf] submitted on 16 Nov 2009

A Conjectured Multiverse String Cosmology in 26 Dimensions

Authors: Richard Ruquist
Comments: 6 pages, Retired physicist, Grafton, Massachusetts, USA

Vafa's (11+1) F theory is extended by means of Bars' 2T holographic theory to yield a 14d Multiverse theory that permeates the brane of a 12d Universe in which both the Universe and the Multiverse have (3+1) spacetimes. Given the 2d toroidal compactification of F theory, we conjecture that the Multiverse has a 4d Cartesian compactification that is filled with 3D+T spacetime via the standard 6d elliptic Calabi-Yau compactification, as in both M and F theory. The result is exemplified using supermassive black hole cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:0911.0044 [pdf] submitted on 16 Nov 2009

Quantized Space-Time and Internal Structure of Elementary Particles: a New Model

Authors: Hamid Reza Karimi
Comments: 23 pages.

In this paper we present a model in which the time and length are considered quantized. We try to explain the internal structure of the elementary particles in a new way. In this model a super-dimension is defined to separate the beginning and the end of each time and length quanta from another time and length quanta. The beginning and the end of the dimension of the elementary particles are located in this super-dimension. This model can describe the basic concepts of inertial mass and internal energy of the Elementary particles in a better way. By applying this model, some basic calculations mentioned below, can be done in a new way: 1- The charge of elementary particles such as electrons and protons can be calculated theoretically. This quantity has been measured experimentally up to now. 2- By using the equation of the particle charge obtained in this model, the energy of the different layers of atoms such as hydrogen and helium is calculated. This approach is simpler than using Schrödinger equation. 3- Calculation of maximum speed of particles such as electrons and positrons in the accelerators is given.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:0911.0042 [pdf] submitted on 16 Nov 2009

Event-Symmetric Space-Time

Authors: Philip Gibbs
Comments: 222 pages, e-book published by Weburbia Press 1998

How much can physics explain? "Event-Symmetric Space-Time" presents a startlingly integrated world view from the forefront of physics. So often we read about the new quantum paradigm which has replaced the old mechanistic philosophy of physics, but seldom do we find "what the paradigm is" spelt out so succinctly. "The universe is made of stories, not of atoms." (Muriel Rukeyser) This is the storyteller's point of view. Through a literal interpretation of those words we transcend causality and determinism to see the quantum multiverse as a whole. Throughout this book, the author returns to the principle of event symmetry - in particle physics, in cosmology, in superstring theory, in epistemology. Coupled to the storyteller's paradigm this new idea of philosophy and physics dares to free us from the constraints of our intuition, to reveal natures truths. We are in the midst of a revolution in our understanding of physics and the universe. This new interpretation of superstring theory is slowly helping to bring physicists' long search for the holy grail of knowledge to fruition. At the debut of the twentieth century Einstein revealed how the laws of nature are independent of any co-ordinate system. According to general relativity, no matter how a reference frame of space-time is turned, pulled and stretched, the laws of physics remain the same because gravity keeps track of the changes. Einstein's only restriction was that he did not allow space-time to tear. You cannot cut out two pieces of space-time and swap them over expecting the forces of nature to compensate, or can you? Research attempting to form a theory of quantum gravity suggests that space-time can tear and reconnect in ways which change its topology. This book suggests that Einstein's symmetry must be extended to allow space-time to be atomised into space-time events which can be pulled apart and recombined in any permutation. The unified forces of nature must permit this "event symmetry" just as gravity already permits the more restricted co-ordinate transformations.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:0911.0040 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-28 16:32:39

Introduction to Gravitation

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 17 Pages. adding postscript

Following on from its primary role of providing negative energy during the "Big Bang", gravity plays two further major conservation roles in the evolving universe: 1) energy conservation (at all gravitational field strengths) for bound forms of energy, via the creation of time, history, and matter's temporal entropy drive; 2) symmetry conservation (at stellar and higher gravitational field strengths) via the conversion of bound to free energy (mass to light) in stars, supernovas, quasars, and related astrophysical processes, and ultimately and completely, via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. These secondary conservation roles, manifesting as the gravitational conversion of space to time and bound to free energy, are natural consequences of the mode of action of gravity's primary role, which is the creation of negative energy and entropy via the contraction, heating, and destruction of space (creating time), in contradistinction to the creation, expansion, and cooling of space by the positive energy and entropy of light.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:0911.0039 [pdf] submitted on 14 Nov 2009

Cosmological Implications of the Tetron Model of Elementary Particles

Authors: Bodo Lampe
Comments: 30 Pages.

Based on a possible solution to the tetron spin problem, a modification of the standard Big Bang scenario is suggested, where the advent of a spacetime manifold is connected to the appearance of tetronic bound states. The metric tensor is constructed from tetron constituents and the reason for cosmic inflation is elucidated. Furthermore, there are natural dark matter candidates in the tetron model. The ratio of ordinary to dark matter in the universe is calculated to be 1:5.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:0911.0038 [pdf] replaced on 17 Nov 2009

Towards A Moyal Quantization Program of the Membrane

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 15 Pages. This article has been submitted to the J. Phys. A : Math.

A Moyal deformation quantization approach to a spherical membrane (moving in flat target backgrounds) in the light cone gauge is presented. The physical picture behind this construction relies in viewing the two spatial membrane coordinates σ1, σ2 as the two phase space variables q, p, and the temporal membrane coordinate τ as time. Solutions to the Moyal-deformed equations of motion are explicitly constructed in terms of elliptic functions. A knowledge of the Moyal-deformed light-cone membrane's Hamiltonian density H(q, p, τ ) allows to construct a timedependent Wigner function ρ(q, p, τ ) as solutions of the Moyal-Liouville equation, and from which one can obtain the expectation values of the operator < H > = Trace (ρH) that define the quantum average values of the energy density configurations of the membrane at any instant of time. It is shown how a time-dependent quartic oscillator with q4, p4, q2p2 terms plays a fundamental role in the quantum treatment of membranes and displays an important p ↔ q duality symmetry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:0911.0035 [pdf] replaced on 14 Nov 2009

Human Development and Life Stages General Systems Models

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 3 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

Fractal or General Systems models have been extended into the area of human life span development, by myself, deliberately, and earlier by my father, and others, following their own agendas (not intentional GS models). A short discussion with both models is presented below.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:0911.0033 [pdf] replaced on 25 Sep 2010

The Tetrahedron Model in the Context of a Complete Conservation Cycle

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 pages.

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state, repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification. The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:0911.0024 [pdf] submitted on 9 Nov 2009

On a Four Dimensional Unified Field Theory of the Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Weak and the Strong Force.

Authors: Golden Gadzirayi Nyambuya
Comments: 27 pages, first published in the October 2007 Issue of the Aperion Journal. Further work on these ideas is underway.

The Gravitational, Electromagnetic, Weak & the Strong force are here brought together under a single roof via an extension of Reimann geometry to a new geometry (coined Reimann-Hilbert Space); that unlike Reimann geometry, preserves both the length and the angle of a vector under parallel transport. The affine connection of this new geometry - the Reimann-Hilbert Space, is a tensor and this leads us to a geodesic law that truly upholds the Principle of Relativity. The geodesic law emerging from the General Theory of Relativity (GTR) is well known to be in contempt of the Principle of Relativity which is a principle upon which the GTR is founded. The geodesic law for particles in the GTR must be formulated in special (or privileged) coordinate systems i.e. gaussian coordinate systems whereas the Principle of Relativity clearly forbids the existence of special (or privileged) coordinate systems in manner redolent of the way the Special Theory of Relativity forbids the existence of an absolute (or privileged) frame of reference. In the low energy regime and low spacetime curvature the unified field equations derived herein are seen to reduce to the well known Maxwell-Procca equation, the none-abelian nuclear force field equations, the Lorentz equation of motion for charged particles and the Dirac Equation. Further, to the already existing four known forces, the theory predicts the existence of yet another force. We have coined this the super-force and this force obeys SU(4, 4) gauge invariance. Furthermore, unlike in the GTR, gravitation is here represented by a single scaler potential, and electromagnetic field and the nuclear forces are described by the electromagnetic vector potential (Aμ) which describes the metric tensor i.e. gμν = AμAν. From this (gμν = AμAν), it is seen that gravity waves may not exist in the sense envisaged by the GTR.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:0911.0020 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-28 12:24:05

Currents of Entropy and Symmetry

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 7 Pages.

Abstract: Currents of Magnetism and Gravity As magnetism is the invisible, projective, electrically active ("electro-motive") force of the loadstone, so gravity is the invisible, projective, dimensionally active ("inertio-motive") force of the ordinary rock. In the case of magnetism, we trace the force back to the moving (and aligned) electrical charges of electrons in the loadstone; in the case of gravity, we trace the force back to the moving (and one-way) temporal charges of matter in the rock. A moving electric charge creates a magnetic field; a moving temporal charge creates a gravitational field. In both cases the field is produced at right angles to the current. Both relations are reciprocal: moving magnetic and spatial (gravitational) fields create electric and temporal currents. Magnetism and time are both "local gauge symmetry currents", the variable magnetic current protecting the invariance of electric charge in relative motion, the variable temporal current protecting the invariance of causality and velocity c ("Lorentz Invariance"). Finally, time and gravity induce each other endlessly, as do the electric and magnetic components of an electromagnetic field. This is the analogy between electromagnetism and gravitation which so intrigued Einstein. (See: "The Conversion of Space to Time".)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:0911.0010 [pdf] replaced on 2016-08-19 17:24:58

Gravity, Entropy, and Thermodynamics

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 13 Pages. revising abstract

Abstract The intrinsic motions of light, time, and gravity are primordial forms ("drives") of entropy, causing: 1) the creation, expansion, and cooling of space; 2) the creation, expansion, and aging of history; 3) the conversion of either entropic domain into the other - space to time or the reverse (and both occur in our Sun). The charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem), including the conserved "location" charge of gravity, which encodes (in negentropic terms) the lost positive/spatial entropy drive of the free energy (light) which was converted into the bound energy of matter. Alternatively stated: the gravitational "location" charge (Gm) of bound energy is a symmetry debt recording the lost distributional symmetry of the free energy (light) which created the matter, including spacetime location and total amount. Gravity is matter's memory it once was light. Gravity pays the entropy-"interest" on matter's symmetry debt by creating time from space - giving charge conservation an extended, causal significance in the historic dimension. Light's spatial entropy drive and expansion funds matter's historical entropy drive and expansion, via the gravitational conversion of space to time: cosmic spatial expansion decelerates in consequence. Gravity pays the energy-"principal" of matter's symmetry debt by the conversion of bound to free energy - via the nucleosynthetic pathway in stars and supernovas, via the conversion of gravitational potential energy to radiation in quasars, and via Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. The cosmic gravitational energy field is reduced as mass is converted to light; cosmic spatial expansion accelerates in consequence."Dark Energy" is therefore simply the ongoing reduction of the cosmic gravitational field as matter reverts to the light which created it. In the mathematical terms of Evariste Galois' "Group Theory", the "Tetrahedron Model" is a description of the symmetry group of light, including its destruction by asymmetric weak force decays (producing our matter-only Cosmos), and its on-going restoration in obedience to Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation (as in the conversion of bound to free energy in stars and other astrophysical processes).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:0911.0009 [pdf] replaced on 2014-05-25 13:43:45

Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part 2

Authors: John A Gowan
Comments: 27 Pages. paper is in 3 parts due to length

"Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice versa. In matter, light's (broken) symmetries are conserved by charge and spin; in spacetime, light's symmetries are protected by inertial/entropic forces, and conserved (when broken) by gravitational forces. All forms of energy originate as light; matter carries charges which are the symmetry/entropy debts of the light which created it (both concepts are required to fully integrate gravity - which has a double conservation role - with the other forces). Charges produce forces which act to return the material system to its original symmetric state (light), repaying matter's symmetry/entropy debts. Repayment is exampled by any spontaneous interaction producing net free energy, including: chemical reactions and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions; radioactivity, particle and proton decay; the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, the gravitational conversion of bound to free energy (as in supernovas and quasars), and Hawking's "quantum radiance" of black holes. Identifying the broken symmetries of light associated with each of the 4 charges and forces of physics is the first step toward a conceptual unification.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:0911.0008 [pdf] replaced on 2016-12-25 23:11:21

Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory: Part I

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 28 Pages. Revision of abstract

The "Big Bang" origin of the cosmos is the conversion of pure, symmetric electromagnetic energy (light) into asymmetric "information" (our "matter only" universe). "Noether's Theorem" states that in a multicomponent field such as the electromagnetic field (or the metric field of spacetime), symmetries are associated with conservation laws and vice-versa. Hence the symmetry of light (and spacetime) must be conserved. Noether's Theorem provides the key to Einstein's dream of a "Unified Field Theory" through the seminal concept that the symmetry of light, no less than its energy, must be conserved.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:0911.0005 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-08 20:30:39

The "Tetrahedron Model" vs the "Standard Model": A Comparison

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 21 Pages.

Generally speaking, the "Tetrahedron Model" addresses symmetry-breaking and symmetry conservation in the macro-physical "rebound" phase of cosmic evolution (the current era of symmetry restoration, in which we live), while the "establishment's" "Standard Model" addresses symmetry-breaking and symmetry conservation in the microphysical "cascade" phase of cosmic devolution, the period of the "Big Bang" which brings the material Cosmos into being. Noether's Theorem of symmetry conservation provides the theoretical basis for unifying the "Standard Model" and the "Tetrahedron Model", indicating a broad pathway of conservation law leading toward Einstein's dream: the Unified Field Theory of physics. (See: "Table of the Higgs Cascade".) The Charges of matter are the symmetry debts of light (Noether's Theorem). All forces spontaneously work together to return the asymmetric material system of bound electromagnetic energy to its original state, free electromagnetic energy, or perfectly symmetric light.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:0911.0004 [pdf] replaced on 12 Aug 2010

Nature's Fractal Pathway

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 28 pages, This paper has also been published as a Google "Knol".

A General Systems model of the Universe is presented, based on a fractal paradigm. A 4x3 "metric" or fractal algorithm is proposed as the organizing principle of the Microphysical, Biophysical, Astrophysical, and Metaphysical realms. The algorithm is expressed through the conservation laws and forces of physics, symmetry-breaking and the creation of matter during the "Big Bang", the dimensions of spacetime, the quantum rules of atomic order, the families of elementary particles, the structure of baryons, alpha particles, carbon atoms, carbon's molecular and crystal bonds, DNA, the genetic code, the nucleosynthetic pathway of stars, gravitation, etc. The human mind has discovered this order both intuitively and rationally, where it finds expression in the 4x3 (and 4x4) patterns of mythological, occult, religious, philosophical, and scientific "world systems" and cosmologies. A model of the unified field theory is presented as an example of how the fractal algorithm may be used in system modeling. In its most general form, the 4-part algorithm consists of an input of energy, followed by two complementary conservation modes, concluding with a restorative force which either returns the system to its actual original state, or elevates it to a "harmonic complexion" or resonant analog of the original state. Introduction
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:0911.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2014-06-27 17:30:50

The Conversion of Space to Time

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 6 Pages. new abstract, delete "introduction" section, other changes

Abstract Time and gravity induce each other in an endless entropic cycle. The gravitational collapse of space produces a metrically equivalent temporal residue; the entropic march of this time residue into history (at right angles to all three spatial dimensions) pulls space along with it. But space cannot travel down the one-way and one-dimensional time line, self-annihilating at the point-like entrance to history, leaving behind a metrically equivalent temporal residue - which continues the endless entropic cycle. Gravity vanishes only when its associated mass vanishes, as in particle decays, matter-antimatter annihilations, or the conversion of bound to free energy in stars and other astrophysical processes. A gravitational field is the spatial consequence of the intrinsic motion of time.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory