[3] **viXra:1107.0046 [pdf]**
*submitted on 24 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 8 pages

I deduce that the interaction between EMPs and space "units" (hereinafter spacents) is
the origin of Energy and that mass is nothing more or less than "amount of kinetic
energy". This allows me to conclude that dark energy does not exist. I further deduce
that the EMP is the minimal photon in nature and that EMPs move through space in
the speed of light, not only when participating in photon constructions but also as
constituents of fermionic matter. Fermionic matter does not exhibit, however, motion
at the speed of light in the macroscopic scale of reality due to the spherical symmetry
arrangement of the EMPs from which it is constructed. In the microscopic realm,
however, fermionic matter is frenetically joggling at the speed of light. Accordingly,
all universal matter is of zero rest mass. What we actually measure as the Mass of
particles and bodies, is their light speed mass. Photons exhibit C in the macroscopic
world due to their open non spherical structure. I postulate that statistically speaking,
due to the relatively long idleness interval T2, elementary particle interactions are
taken against a standing still universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1107.0009 [pdf]**
*submitted on 5 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Meir Amiram

**Comments:** 10 pages

Based on Richard Feynman's argument in rejection of Fatio/Le-Sage's gravity, I
indicate that dark energy, or the "something" that pushes galaxies apart must do its
magic without killing inertia of the galactic matter rotational motion. I then turn to
investigate the Hubble expansion: independent studies from different areas of physics
reveal that the age of the universe is closely 13.7Gy. This substantially corresponds to
the inverse of the Hubble parameter H0. I suggest that our era is not unique: the age of
the universe at any given time ATB is equal to the inverse of the Hubble parameter at
the given time. I propose to substitute the conventional Hubble parameter H0 which
relates to expansion of distances, by a volumetric form of the same, vH0,
corresponding to the volumetric expansion of space. A formula is derived
accordingly, which connects between the volumetric Hubble parameter at any given
age of the universe, the volumetric Hubble parameter at any other given age, and the
time separation between these two ages. Logical study of the formula reveals that the
Hubble expansion is analogous to, and may actually result from, an addition of
constant amount of space "units" per a unit of time, into the universe. I postulate that
space itself possesses the peculiar property of interacting with matter in a selective
manner which on the one hand results with a drag thereby producing the universal
expansion, and on the other complies with Feynman's argument and does not result
with an inertia killing drag. In the initiation of the bang, the first constant amount
entered a zero volume gravity free universe, since gravity depends on the presence of
space, and was able to occur only after a time delay T2 (see Article 2) each EMP must
experience before it builds up its field and before it can respond to fields generated by
others. In the absence of gravity, no energy nor inflaton were required for initiating
the bang and for dragging the elementary particles apart merely by space units
entering in between. I further postulate that as a phenomenon of space, gravity is
distributed volumetrically. Consequently, for cosmological distances the propagation
of gravity becomes slower than the expansion of space, thus receding galaxies are
gravitationally unbounded. It follows that the Hubble expansion does not require any
sort of energy, since there is no gravitational attraction to defeat, nor inertia to
produce.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1107.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 3 Jul 2011*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 pages, submitted to Foundations of Physics

The main features of how to build a Born's Reciprocal Gravitational
theory in curved phase-spaces are developed. The scalar curvature of the
8D cotangent bundle (phase space) is explicitly evaluated and a generalized
gravitational action in 8D is constructed that yields the observed
value of the cosmological constant and the Brans-Dicke-Jordan Gravity
action in 4D as two special cases. It is found that the geometry of the
momentum space can be linked to the observed value of the cosmological
constant when the curvature in momentum space is very large, namely
the small size of P is of the order of (1/R_{Hubble}). More general 8D actions
can be developed that involve sums of 5 distinct types of torsion squared
terms and 3 distinct curvature scalars R,P, S. Finally we develop a Born's
reciprocal complex gravitational theory as a local gauge theory in 8D of
the deformed Quaplectic group that is given by the semi-direct product
of U(1, 3) with the deformed (noncommutative) Weyl-Heisenberg group
involving four noncommutative coordinates and momenta. The metric is
complex with symmetric real components and antisymmetric imaginary
ones. An action in 8D involving 2 curvature scalars and torsion squared
terms is presented.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory