Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1201 Submissions

[7] viXra:1201.0127 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-30 23:59:08

Algebraic Braids, Sub-Manifold Braid Theory, and Generalized Feynman Diagrams

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 37 Pages.

The basic challenge of quantum TGD is to give a precise content to the notion of generalization Feynman diagram and the reduction to braids of some kind is very attractive possibility inspired by zero energy ontology. The point is that no n>2-vertices at the level of braid strands are needed if bosonic emergence holds true.

  1. For this purpose the notion of algebraic knot is introduced and the possibility that it could be applied to generalized Feynman diagrams is discussed. The algebraic structrures kei, quandle, rack, and biquandle and their algebraic modifications as such are not enough. The lines of Feynman graphs are replaced by braids and in vertices braid strands redistribute. This poses several challenges: the crossing associated with braiding and crossing occurring in non-planar Feynman diagrams should be integrated to a more general notion; braids are replaced with sub-manifold braids; braids of braids ....of braids are possible; the redistribution of braid strands in vertices should be algebraized. In the following I try to abstract the basic operations which should be algebraized in the case of generalized Feynman diagrams.
  2. One should be also able to concretely identify braids and 2-braids (string world sheets) as well as partonic 2-surfaces and I have discussed several identifications during last years. Legendrian braids turn out to be very natural candidates for braids and their duals for the partonic 2-surfaces. String world sheets in turn could correspond to the analogs of Lagrangian sub-manifolds or two minimal surfaces of space-time surface satisfying the weak form of electric-magnetic duality. The latter opion turns out to be more plausible. Finite measurement resolution would be realized as symplectic invariance with respect to the subgroup of the symplectic group leaving the end points of braid strands invariant. In accordance with the general vision TGD as almost topological QFT would mean symplectic QFT. The identification of braids, partonic 2-surfaces and string world sheets - if correct - would solve quantum TGD explicitly at string world sheet level in other words in finite measurement resolution.
  3. Also a brief summary of generalized Feynman rules in zero energy ontology is proposed. This requires the identification of vertices, propagators, and prescription for integrating over al 3-surfaces. It turns out that the basic building blocks of generalized Feynman diagrams are well-defined.
  4. The notion of generalized Feynman diagram leads to a beautiful duality between the descriptions of hadronic reactions in terms of hadrons and partons analogous to gauge-gravity duality and AdS/CFT duality but requiring no additional assumptions. The model of quark gluon plasma as s strongly interacting phase is proposed. Color magnetic flux tubes are responsible for the long range correlations making the plasma phase more like a very large hadron rather than a gas of partons. One also ends up with a simple estimate for the viscosity/entropy ratio using black-hole analogy.

Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1201.0125 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-31 00:05:33

Evolution of TGD

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 36 Pages.

A summary about how various ideas about TGD have developed is given. This is a response to a request of Mark McWilliams. I try to represent the development chronologically but I must confess that I have forgotten precise dates so that the chronology is not exact. Very probably I have also forgotten many important ideas and many side tracks which led nowhere. Unavoidably the emphasis is on the latest ideas and there is of course the risk that some of them are not here to stay. Even during writing process some ideas developed into more concrete form. A good example is the vision about what happens in quantum jump and what the unitarity of U-matrix really means, how M-matrices generalize to form Kac-Moody type algebra, and how the notion of quantum jump in zero energy ontology (ZEO) reproduces the basic aspects of quantum measurement theory. Also a slight generalization of quantum arithmetics suggested itself during the preparation of the article.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1201.0110 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-26 21:15:22

The Unifying Of The Forces Of Nature

Authors: Bertrand Wong
Comments: 9 Pages. The conclusion of this paper contains a number of new and important points.

This paper takes a look at the formulating of the unified field theory and the theory of everything. It shows how a unified field theory and theory of everything may be obtained.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1201.0101 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-25 13:35:11

Ulianov String Theory a New Representation for Fundamental Particles

Authors: Policarpo Yōshin Ulianov
Comments: 15 Pages.

This article introduces a new model for fundamental particles representation, named Ulianov String Theory (UST). In the UST model, the space is composed of eight dimensions, being four of them “rolled up” dimensions while the other four are ”ordinary” dimensions. Moreover, in the UST, time dimension is modeled as a complex variable and can also be “rolled up”. This new string model also defines point-like particles named Ulianov Holes (uholes), which, from the imaginary time collapse, is transformed into strings. These strings allow generation of a series of structures, which can be associated to configurations of the observed matter and energy in our universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1201.0093 [pdf] replaced on 2012-02-02 11:40:46

Accelerating Universe and the Increasing Bohr Radius

Authors: U.V. S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana
Comments: 11 Pages.

It seems that- Bohr radius of hydrogen atom, quanta of the angular momentum and the strong interaction range - are connected with the large scale structure of the massive universe. In the accelerating universe, as the space expands, in hydrogen atom, distance between proton and electron increases and is directly proportional to the mass of the universe (which is the product of critical density and the Hubble volume). `Rate of decrease in fine structure ratio' is a measure of cosmic rate of expansion. Considering the integral nature of number of protons (of any nucleus), integral nature of `hbar' can be understood.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1201.0068 [pdf] submitted on 2012-01-16 20:16:50

To Unify the String Theory and the Strong Gravity

Authors: U .V . S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana
Comments: 15 Pages. Please circulate this article.

Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit, F_C \cong \left(\frac{c^{4} }{G} \right)<\math>. It can be considered as the upper limit of the cosmic string tension. Weak force magnitude F_W<\math> can be considered as the characteristic nuclear weak string tension. In 3+1 dimensions if strong interaction is really 10^{39}<\math> times stronger than the strength of gravity, until the measurement of \left(F_C \;\&\; F_W\right)-<\math> it can be assumed that \frac{F_C}{F_W}\cong N^2<\math> where N<\math> is Avogadro like number.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1201.0017 [pdf] replaced on 2012-03-12 15:31:42

Virtual Event Horizons: is the Threshold Curvature that Corresponds to the Onset of the Uselessness of Mass-Energy for Work a Variable Measure?

Authors: S Halayka
Comments: 3 Pages. Added paragraph about energy scale and degrees of freedom.

The duality between entropy and curvature is discussed. The possibility of a gravity-mediated local UV cutoff is discussed.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory