[12] **viXra:1305.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-30 05:25:55*

**Authors:** Ervin Goldfain

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

As with almost all overly ambitious Grand Unified Theories or Theories of Everything, Schiller’s strand model) may be challenged by several upfront objections. Here we present a brief (yet incomplete) list of such objections.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1305.0169 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-05 04:11:22*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 15 Pages. Submitted to Int. J. Geom. Mod. Phys

An octonionic ternary gauge field theory is explicitly constructed based on a ternary-bracket defined earlier by Yamazaki. The ternary infinitesimal gauge transformations do obey the key $closure$ relations $ [ \delta_1, \delta_2] = \delta_3 $.
An invariant action for the octonionic-valued gauge fields is displayed
after solving the previous problems in formulating a non-associative octonionic ternary gauge field theory. These octonionc ternary gauge field theories constructed here deserve further investigation. In particular, to study their relation to Yang-Mills theories based on the $G_2$ group which is the automorphism group of the Octonions and their relevance to Noncommutative and Nonassociative Geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1305.0138 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-22 17:22:35*

**Authors:** Michael Peck

**Comments:** 65 pages. 36 figures. The following discoveries are being censored by Arxiv and several journals. Please spread the word.

Corrections to general relativity are derived from classical theory and applied to the standard model. The perspective offered is the conceptual inverse of Einstein’s theory, where particles exist as localized fields. These vacuum fields undergo affine transformations that are locally invariant with respect to the space-time metric. It is demonstrated that the proper vacuum solution to the Einstein-Maxwell field equations is the limit of the single particle vacuum field solution. The existence of event horizon within Einstein’s field equations is linked to the application of point-like sources in the local field theory. With vacuum field theory, it is observed that event horizon can no longer form without infinite classical energy. Gravitational waves are also discussed relative to the use of point-like sources in Einstein’s field equations and similar geometric field theories. Methods for determining the space-time metric of any object on a per particle basis are provided. The continuous model of the universe is further introduced, where the solutions to several grand cosmological problems are discussed. It is demonstrated that an asymptotically flat universe will appear linear with respect to local observers. The inferred accelerated expansion is an illusion due to local geodesics deflecting towards the center of an asymptotically flat, linear universe. With recent constraints on the abundance of faint blue galaxies and observed evolution, ∧CDM is found to be off in galactic number densities by 70%±15% and 104%±25% at 0.5z and 1.0z respectively. These galaxies are also observed to be similar to local disk and irregular populations, where ∧CDM underestimates their size by 200%-300% prior to 0.7z. This implies that an expanding model predicts the incorrect shape of the universe, which induces systematic lensing errors. After eliminating all viable explanations, an expanding universe is conclusively ruled out. The purposed model however agrees with all observations by applying only classical assumptions. The shape of the universe for example supports a central core, which is responsible for the cosmic background radiation. It is further argued that Einstein’s field equations are incompatible with such universe due to predictions of event horizon.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1305.0127 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-20 08:59:20*

**Authors:** Chidi Idika

**Comments:** 22 Pages. First part of a three-part paper

Quantum theory (QT) treats of “observables” yet the term “observer” remains hardly a rigorous notion. We argue that the uncertainty principle of QT can be understood in the Gödel sense that: any given observer constitutes own practical definition of “the unobservable” (if superposition) namely length scale, phase space, non-local action, fundamental frequency etc. Conversely, the observable is definable strictly only in inverse-observer terms as, that is, the “collapse” namely inverse-length, phase-points, locality, harmonics respectively. Granted this picture is not a-priori intuitive we show that it resolves key modern difficulties plus it has formal grounds. One pictures the observer thus in the manner of Gödel’s “consistency-is-undecidable” or Planck’s “the-constant-is-uncertainty” or indeed Einstein’s “speed-of-light-is-null-information” etc. definitive of which three cases, we assert, is Peano’s (and Noether’s?) notion of the constant as being for any gamut of variables/symmetry the meta-state (“conserved current”?). Given then that the observer is in any scheme of events the invariance (constant) it should be the case that it is the observer proper and not his observables which should constitute the violation of Bell’s inequality—if as the infinitesimal/imaginary axis or as the dimensionless/infinite-dimensional or the so-called conservation law etc. We posit: the observer is by definition the virtual exchange (field) of standard model or “space-time” of GR or just the “metric”—defined by the singular trait that it is the de facto universal constant i.e. the natural unit and hence natural limit of physical information. As a prediction we show herein an exact value to define man (perhaps our purest sample of observer) as also the natural unit for quantum gravity. Ultimately, that known hitherto as the potential (conservation law) becomes here same exactly as the “mind” or the “life” i.e. strictly put: “the-observer-as-the-unobservable” (superposition).The observer is for us per se the “entity”—in the sense of “phase-space” (normal mode; fundamental; wave speed) giving us an intuitive picture of observables that is same in fact as Huygens’ wave fronts/wavelets (or Everett’s many-worlds, or indeed Darwin’s evolution/speciation of “life”) same in short as any “spontaneous symmetry breaking”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1305.0095 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-15 20:47:32*

**Authors:** U.V.S. Seshavatharam, S. Lakshminarayana, B.V.S.T. Sai

**Comments:** 18 Pages. Published in International Journal of Physics, 2013, Vol. 1, No. 3, 49-64 Available online at http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/3/1 © Science and Education Publishing DOI:10.12691/ijp-1-3-1

By highlighting the major shortcomings of modern cosmology, in this paper, an attempt is made to verify the cosmic acceleration in a quantum mechanical approach. With reference to the valuable opinion of Edwin Hubble, redshift can be related to a new atomic phenomenon. If light is coming from the atomic matter of the galaxy, then the observed redshift can be interpreted as an index of the galactic atomic ‘light emission mechanism’. Clearly speaking, redshift may not be connected with ‘galaxy receding’. The authors propose the following: During cosmic evolution, an ‘aged’ hydrogen atom emits an energetic photon. As the age of the hydrogen atom increases, it emits photons with increased quanta of energy and thus past light quanta emitted from an old galaxy will have less energy and show a red shift with reference to our galaxy. During its journey light quanta will not lose energy and there will be no change in the light’s wavelength. If so current cosmological changes may be reflected in any existing atom. The possible assumptions are : 1) At any given cosmic time, Hubble length can be considered as the gravitational or electromagnetic interaction range. 2) Being a primordial evolving black hole and Hubble’s constant being the angular velocity, universe is always rotating with light speed. 3) In atomic and nuclear physics, atomic gravitational constant is squared Avogadro number times the Newton’s gravitational constant and is discrete as , where n =1,2,3.. 4) Key conceptual link that connects the gravitational force and non-gravitational forces is - the classical force limit, . Ratio of classical force limit and the imaginary electroweak force magnitude is . 5) Avogadro number is discrete and thus the imaginary electroweak force is discrete and can be expressed as and it seems to be more fundamental than the electromagnetic and strong nuclear forces. 6) Discrete imaginary electroweak force may be the responsible force for revolving electron’s discrete total energy in hydrogen atom. 7) Characteristic nuclear radius and Reduced Planck’s constant increases with cosmic time. 8) It can be suggested that, fermion and its corresponding boson mass ratio is not unity but a value close to This idea can be applied to quarks, leptons, proton and the charged Higgs fermion. One can see “super symmetry” in low energies as well as high energies.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1305.0074 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-12 23:56:59*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

The author asks if octonion quantum gravity is relevant near the Planck scale. Furthermore, the question is raised if gravitational waves would be generated during the initial phase, of the universe when an increase in degrees of freedom have in setting the initial phase, so that the result can be observed by a gravitational detector. The well appreciated quantum gravity problem that the notion of a quantum state, representing the structure of spacetime at some instant, and the notion of the evolution of the state, does not get traction, since there are no real “instants”, is avoided by having the initial octonion geometry embedded in a larger, non linear “pilot model” (semi classical) embedding structure. The Penrose suggestion of re cycled space time avoiding a ‘big crunch’ is picked as the embedding structure, so as to avoid the ‘instants’ of time issue. In addition the favored idea is to avoid the well known string theory trap known as the dimensionality problem of an equation of motion (consistency condition) which is the reason why string theory dimensionality is either (10 or 26) depending upon if super symmetry is imposed. Getting octonion gravity as embedded in a larger, Pilot theory embedding structure may restore Quantum Gravity to its rightful place in early cosmology without the lunacy of then afterwards ‘Schrodinger equation ‘ states of the universe, forevermore afterwards.. Setting the initial phase, in a GW detector due to appropriate measurement procedures may allow the opportunity to find experimental clues as to this embedding structure in which octonion gravity may emerge in the Planckian regime.of evolutionary cosmology.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1305.0070 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-17 23:18:48*

**Authors:** Andrew Walcott Beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Stress energy tensor (Visser) will not even satisfy the first law of thermodynamics according to the Tolman criteria. Note that if the Visser Massive Graviton Stress energy tensor scenario does not hold then the Lavenda objection to inflation holds

The following questions is asked, If one takes the covariant derivative of a Stress-energy representation of early universe massive gravitons, is the derivative of the Graviton stress tensor equal to zero ? If so, then in what range of astrophysics does this occur, and when does this formalism break down? Lavenda and Davies argued that the derivative of a generalized GR stress energy tensor being zero in itself is insufficient to show that the 1st law of thermodynamics alone holds. If the full Stress-Energy tensor expression for GR is written out, there is a stress energy tensor component involving GW alone which we highlight. The problem as to this test is if the derivative of the Stress energy tensor, for gravitons as written by Visser is brought up. This Visser stress energy tensor for massive gravitons will not even satisfy the 1st thermodynamic law. We bring this up as a counter point to an article written by Lavenda and Davies purporting to claim that the Tolman test for a first law of thermodynamics which they generalize to first and second law of thermodynamics for inflationary cosmology. We show a breakdown of a zero value for the derivative of the Stress energy tensor for early universe massive gravitons and this derivative of the massive Graviton Stress energy tensor (Visser) will not even satisfy the first law of thermodynamics according to the Tolman criteria. Note that if the Visser Massive Graviton Stress energy tensor scenario does not hold then the Lavenda and Davies objection to inflation is upheld.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1305.0043 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-08 00:41:09*

**Authors:** Franklin Hu

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In 1990, the physicist John Archibald Wheeler suggested that every particle, every field of force, even the space-time continuum itself can be described as being derived as part of an apparatus or machine which handles binary data. This means that the entire universe could be nothing more than an elaborate digital computer – God’s computer. This paper explores the idea that it is possible to break down all of the complex physical observations we see in the world to actions which are only binary in nature. This will be done by postulating a digital space which runs with minimal rules and reproduces the behavior of empty space and positrons and electrons. From there, the rest of the particles and fields of force are derived.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1305.0030 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-11 01:45:39*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Originally, I planned to call this article H(subscript u) = BEc(superscript e infinity), or 1 = 1(superscript infinity) (using the infinity symbol and no parentheses). But my computer won’t let me save that name – so I’ve changed the title to “Equation Describing the Universe”. This equation looks like the one physicists are hoping will be printed on T-shirts in the middle of this century as a description of the Universe. Normally, I’d leave development of this equation in the capable hands of Isaac Newton or Albert Einstein. They aren’t here right now … and it’ll be quite a while before they return. However, they instructed me to send you this message on their behalf.
H is for the Hamiltonian, representing the total energy of a quantum mechanical system. The subscript u stands for “universe” and Hu means the universe operates quantum mechanically (quantum effects operate macroscopically as well as microscopically, and this unification is symbolized by the first 1). BEc is for Bose-Einstein condensate, a finite form of matter that is the first known example of quantum effects becoming apparent on a macroscopic scale (represented by the second 1). Borrowing a couple of lines from the more complete explanation in the Content – “The infinite cosmos could possess this absence of distance in space and time, via the electronic mechanism of binary digits. To distinguish this definition from “the universe going on and on forever”, we can call it “electronic infinity or e infinity” (not E8). When the macroscopic quantum effects of the BEc are magnified by e infinity, those effects are instantly translated into all space-time operating quantum mechanically. In other words, you can multiply a BEc (the second 1) an infinite number of times – but no matter how many (or how few) times you do it, you’ll always end up with 1 (the macroscopic universe’s time and space operating quantum mechanically). Consequent to this operation is the inevitable quantum entanglement of everything (matter, energy, forces); making all space and all time a unification.
The second part of this article addresses the scientific reasons for believing that a whole universe can be created from nothing. (See p.180 of Stephen Hawking’s/Leonard Mlodinow’s book “The Grand Design”). It reinterprets these reasons in terms of hyperspace and entanglement, to conclude - more than two-thirds of any part of the universe requires no assembly at all. It seemingly appears from nothing, but actually uses the brain’s positive energy which interacts with the negative energy in 5th-dimensional hyperspace (negative energy requires no work at all, according to “The Grand Design”). The remaining third is entangled with the no-work two-thirds and similarly only needs personal interaction with hyperspace (since every atom in the universe contains hyperspace, interactions can be physical e.g. manufacturing and engineering). Thus, the whole universe appears to be created from nothing but is really produced from something.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1305.0019 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 04:50:41*

**Authors:** Andrew walcott beckwith

**Comments:** 4 Pages. may be submitted to the IOP conference proceedings for the icmsquare, and this document is being written up since the i cm square conference accepted this idea for a paper to go to the conference

We ask if there is always entanglement entropy in the universe. We find the resolution by work from Muller and Lousto, as to entanglement entropy . We present entanglement entropy in the early universe with a steadily shrinking scale factor, due to work from Muller and Lousto , and show that there are consequences due to initial entangled entropy for a time dependent horizon radius in cosmology, with for flat space conditions r(H)=conformal time. In the case of a curved, but not flat space version of entropy, we look at vacuum energy as proportional to the inverse of scale factor squared times the inverse of initial entropy, effectively when there is no initial time except with the hubble readius = initial conformal time in line with the conformal time being almost zero. The consequences for this initial entropy being entangled are elaborated in this manuscript. No matter how small the initial radial length gets, then for initial cosmological entropy if it is entanglement entropy, it will not go to zero.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1305.0018 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-05-03 06:35:37*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

P. H. Frampton (author of Gauge Field Theory), in 2012 published a paper(1) noting that in observed flat spacetime the Friedmann-Robertson-Walker (FRW) metric of general relativity reduces to a simple Newtonian form, where a very simple repulsion term can be added for dark energy. Frampton postulated ad hoc outward acceleration due to dark energy: a = 2GM/R^2. We compare the predictions from Frampton's theory to more recent (March 2013) Planck space telescope cosmological parameters, which revise the earlier WMAP derived parameters. We prove a corrected version of Frampton's law using quantum gravity, and we discuss the breakdown in the FRW metric of general relativity, which is due to a false mainstream assumption that gravity and dark energy are independent variables.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1305.0012 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-05-02 14:52:08*

**Authors:** Nigel B. Cook

**Comments:** 1 Page. Minor typing errors fixed.

We have non-speculative, concrete evidence that dark energy is the mechanism of gravity, analogous to the U(1) spin-1 electrodynamics field equation, so the lagrangian for repulsion of masses has a similar propagator for repulsion of similar charges in QED (Moller scattering). Therefore, in the presently-observable (low energy) limit of quantum gravity (very small coupling), Feynman’s well-tested rules for calculating the perturbative expansion of the path integral show that: (a) only the term for 2-vertex, tree-level interaction (Moller scattering) diagram in the perturbative expansion makes a significant contribution at low energy (the tiny gravity coupling suppresses the more complicated interactions in the expansion, since they have more vertices and hence pick up higher powers of the very small coupling), and (b) the cross-section (relative interaction probability, i.e. square of the sum of amplitudes), is proportional to the square of the coupling. So cross-sections from weak scattering of neutrinos can be multiplied by the square of the ratio of the known gravitational coupling to the known Fermi (weak interaction) constant (both expressed in units of GeV^-2), to find the effective cross-section for quantum gravity at low energy. This cross-section predicts the cosmological acceleration due to dark energy, a = (c^4)/(Gm), and automatically quantizes mass, revising the electroweak theory to include quantum gravity, with U(1) hypercharge now generating both dark energy and quantum gravity. This new paper uses a new diagram to improve understanding, and presents key facts in a single page to try to overcome inertia due to the lack of time most people have for "alternative ideas". More extensive and lengthy treatments can be found in other papers including: http://vixra.org/abs/1111.0111 and http://vixra.org/abs/1302.0004

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory