[10] **viXra:1307.0166 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-30 09:17:48*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Some important consequences of the model of low-energy quantum gravity by the author are described, which give a possibility to
re-interpret such cosmological observations as redshifts of remote objects and the dimming of Suprnovae 1a without any expansion of
the Universe and without dark energy, but as manifestations of quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1307.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-28 23:27:24*

**Authors:** A. Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. fixed 3 small typos , which are to adhere to the flow of logic of the paper

Padmanabhan [1] elucidated the concept of super radiance in black hole physics which would lead to loss mass of a black hole, and loss of angular momentum due to infall of material into a black hole. As Padmanabhan explained it, to avoid super radiance, and probable break down of black holes, from infall, one would need infall material frequency, divided by mass of particles undergoing infall in the black hole to be greater than the angular velocity of the black hole event horizon in question. We should keep in mind we bring this model up to improve the chance that Penrose’s conformal cyclic cosmology will allow for retention of enough information for preservation of Planck’s constant from cycle to cycle, as a counterpart to what we view as unacceptable reliance upon the LQG quantum bounce and its tetrad structure to preserve memory . In addition we are presuming that at the time of z=20 in red shift that there would be roughly about the same order of magnitude of entropy as number of operations in the electro weak era, and that the number of operations in the z=20 case is close to the entropy at redshift z=0

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1307.0086 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-17 19:25:18*

**Authors:** J.P. Baugher

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Essay submitted to http://www.fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1900

Imagine for a moment an endless diamond, completely solid and pristine. No flaws or gaps in the structure. Suppose at some point in the density of the material something strange occurs in that a deformation appears out of nowhere which splits into two waves. Should these two waves interact again with each other, the deformation disappears. However should they separate enough then one of the waves, which we shall call the baryon wave, is stable by itself. This wave has the strange property that it is a traveling decrease in density of the diamond. There is no "other" material, only the decrease in something we
shall have to think of as the vacuum (energy) density. The wave apparently has the ability to pass through or combine into structures with other baryon waves but has no ability to disappear back into a pristine diamond if
there is no second deformation wave present, which we do not cover in this essay. Suppose that a certain combination of these first waves were to become sentient. Would they be able to detect that they are a moving wave or
would their perceptions lead them to a misunderstanding of how these waves effect the very substance that they are traveling within and so not realize there exists another class of solutions for tensors (scalars, vectors and
so on)? Is there a way to determine that the actual density is a fairly good model for their universe? If so, what mathematics would be required in order to describe it much better than other models which the sentient waves have based on their physical perceptions? It is due to this question that we present our proposed answer of a modication of calculus. In order to fully describe the
baryon wave, the dimensions they create with their presence, the limited radius distortions they cause and even the substance itself we must re-evaluate our understanding of calculus in order to model them as the derivatives of finite Action area integrals. We propose that in order to understand how the universe stores information, we must have a foundational basis for these areas, and in order to understand how it processes information we must ensure that we have within the literature all classes of its derivatives (directional derivatives, divergence, etc.). We do not go into details in this essay, but our proposed
future path is to accomplish this via a modification of
Gunnar Nordstroem's gravitational theory, an early competing model to General Relativity worked on by Nordstroem, Einstein and Fokker (see [1] for a recent review). This model was discarded by Einstein and others since it did not predict gravitational lensing, a problem which our modication would seem to have the possibility of remedying (see final assertions). Therefore in this essay we introduce our different view point of calculus, named "Area" Calculus in order to distinguish the concept from the mainstream variety which we will refer to as "Single Function" Calculus.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1307.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-11-03 12:02:08*

**Authors:** Gene H Barbee

**Comments:** 22 Pages. contact genebarbee@msn.com

In general relativity, gravity is attributed to the geometry of space-time. Literature states that the gravitational constant (G) originates at the Planck scale. The Compton wavelength (Planck length) L=(\h*G/C^3)^.5 is 1.61e-35 meters and this is associated with the Planck energy 1.2e22 MeV. This energy is far greater than the energy of a proton and the space surrounding each proton is far greater than the Compton wavelength. It is generally accepted that the Compton wavelength is nature’s response to geometry and mass at the quantum scale. In this paper, the author discusses the hierarchy of interactions with a focus on gravity, propose a low energy scale source of the gravitational constant, and identify a more fundamental coupling constant with the value 1/exp(90). A unique cellular approach is used to model expansion. A cell is the space associated with a proton mass and has cosmological properties that allow it to represent the universe geometrically. Each cell has an initial radius of 7.22e-14 meters and, if it expands according to the concordance model with WMAP parameters, its current value is 0.54 meters. WMAP data allows one to estimate the numbers of protons in the universe. By using this approach, it is possible to compare the kinetic energy that expands cells with potential energy. Implications for the fraction of dark energy, baryons and cold dark matter are discussed. Several examples involving the use of the value 1/exp(90) are presented that demonstrate how cellular values predict large scale observations.
Key Words: gravitational constant, cellular approach, cosmology, WMAP.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1307.0065 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-07-17 08:01:21*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negativeelectric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1307.0058 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-11 20:34:49*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

"Eminent Princeton physicist Ed Witten famously conjectured that the true ground state of matter (in the sense of the lowest energy per particle) consists of a mixture of roughly equal numbers of up, down, and strange quarks, with enough electrons thrown in to ensure that this soup is electrically neutral." ("Is it possible for a Quark Star to exist?" by Victoria Kaspi - Astronomy magazine, June 2013) Scientists have never demonstrated this conjecture to be true, and don't have evidence that stars made of such matter ("quark stars") exist. This reminds me of something Stephen Hawking and Leonard Mlodinow wrote on p.49 of “The Grand Design” (Bantam Press, 2010) – “It is certainly possible that some alien beings with seventeen arms, infrared eyes and a habit of blowing clotted cream out their ears would make the same experimental observations that we do (regarding the existence of quarks), but describe them without quarks.” In a similar way, we non-aliens with two arms, eyes that respond to visible light and no clotted cream in our ears could conceive of a quark-electron mixture forming Quark Stars only to find that it actually describes a different mixture (of binary digits) forming black holes instead of quark stars.
E=mc^2 is referred to in the description of the conversion from gravitational energy to the "coherent, organized energy" that is matter; and also in the description of gravitational energy producing mass in black holes. We should remember that E=mc^2 appears to only be partly correct because the highest speed possible is Lightspeed. Physically speaking, it cannot be multiplied. Einstein himself proved this. The equation E=mc^2 can be considered a degenerate form of the mass-energy-momentum relation for vanishing momentum. Einstein was very well aware of this, and in later papers repetitively stressed that his mass-energy equation is strictly limited to observers co-moving with the object under study. The version of the equation applicable here may be E=m/c^2*c^2.
Referring to the paragraph which states “hidden variables called binary digits could ... allow time travel into the past by warping a 5D hyperspace” - With a single extra dimension of astronomical size, gravity is expected to cause the solar system to collapse (“The hierarchy problem and new dimensions at a millimetre” by N. Arkani-Hamed, S. Dimopoulos, G. Dvali - Physics Letters B - Volume 429, Issues 3–4, 18 June 1998, Pages 263–272, and “Gravity in large extra dimensions” by U.S. Department of Energy - http://www.eurekalert.org/features/doe/2001-10/dbnl-gil053102.php
However, collapse never occurs if gravity accounts for repulsion as well as attraction. It does this not only on astronomical scales but on the subatomic, too. It accounts for dark energy and familiar concepts of gravity, as well as repelling aspects of the electroweak force [such as placing two like magnetic poles together] and attracting electroweak aspects like the strong force. “Electroweak” and “strong” force can be united in that sentence because, as we’ll see, gravitation and space-time are united with both the weak and strong nuclear forces.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1307.0037 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-07 10:40:05*

**Authors:** J.P. Baugher

**Comments:** 1 Page.

How to Solve Dark Energy, the Cosmological Constant Problems and Unify General Relativity With Quantum Field Theory in 7 Steps

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1307.0026 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-05 06:48:25*

**Authors:** Michael Muteru

**Comments:** 1 Page.

In this paper I examine a possible mathematical conjecture that we have always missed or ignored.
The physical universe too also is deeply grounded in maths.Numbers are the purest of ideas to quote the
Pythagoreans. Prime numbers form the basis of the complex structure called maths, through these I
believe we can decode the entire Quantum information that the universe holds and in essence its true
nature and reality

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1307.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-03 06:22:57*

**Authors:** Shreyak Chakraborty

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published in the New Age Journal of Physics (ID-EJ151)

We propose a semi-classical approach to string theoretic techniques in N-dimensional
spacetimes. We name this 'The Spine Model'. This approach enables
us to flexibly model particle dynamics in any given spacetime. We conjecture that
fundamental strings (as described in standard string theories) are produced by more
fundamental objects called "fibers". We also formulate the dynamics of these
"fibers" using relativistic notations. We revisit and refine the overall structure and the
concepts discussed in [1.] and redefine the basic assumptions in the model. Finally
we calculate the total energy of a single fiber and show that under certain conditions,
these fibers can produce particles/strings and using a relativistic formulation also
show the Lorentz Transformations for the fiber equations in 4-manifolds.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1307.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-07-01 09:37:52*

**Authors:** James G. Gilson

**Comments:** 27 Pages.

There are two types of fundamental quantum gravitational mass amplitude states that are denoted by the subscripts D and P. The D amplitudes lead to Einstein's usual general relativity mass density functions. The P amplitudes lead to Einstein's additional pressure mass densities, 3P/c^{2}. Both of these densities appear in the stress energy momentum tensor of general relativity.
Here they appear as solutions to a non-linear Schrödinger equation and carry three quantising parameters (l_{D},m) and (l_{P},m), The l_{D},l_{P} values are subsets of the usual electronic quantum variable l which is here denoted by l' to avoid confusion. The m parameter is exactly the same as the electronic quantum theory m, there the z component of angular momentum. In this paper, these parametric relations are briefly displayed followed by an account of the connection to the spherical harmonic functions symmetry system that is necessarily involved. Taken together, the two types of mass density can be integrated over configuration space to give quantised general relativity galactic masses in the form of cosmological mass spectra as was shown in previous papers. Here this aspect has been extended to ensure that every galaxy component of the spectra has a quantised black hole core with a consequent quantised surface area. This is achieved by replacing the original free core radius parameter r_{ε} with the appropriate Schwarzschild radius associated with the core mass. Explanations are given for the choices of two further, originally free, parameters, t_{b}, θ_{0}. The main result from this paper is a quantum classification scheme for galaxies determined by the form of their dark matter spherical geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory