Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1309 Submissions

[12] viXra:1309.0195 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-21 12:16:47

General Relativity in Quantum Physics and Chaos Theory

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 9 Pages.

We can apply the Kasner metric that is an exact solution to Einstein’s equations of General Relativity to the fields composed of the superluminal non-gravitating objects i.e. to the Higgs field composed of tachyons and to the field composed of entanglons (they are the zero-helicity vector objects and they are responsible for the quantum entanglement) that during the inflation created the Einstein spacetime composed of the gravitating neutrino-antineutrino pairs. All quantities defining the ground state of the Einstein spacetime are invariant. The invariance causes that the ground state behaves as non-gravitating empty volume so to the virtual objects composed of entangled neutrino-antineutrino pairs that appear in the ground state of the Einstein spacetime, we can apply the Kasner metric as well. The zeros in the first semi-symmetric Kasner solution (0, 0, 1) we interpret as the virtual fermion-antifermion pairs whereas the 1 as virtual charge. The second semi-symmetric Kasner solution (2/3, 2/3, -1/3) we interpret as virtual torus/charge that changes its size. The new interpretation of the Einstein formula E = mcc leads to conclusion that Nature using the virtual objects, i.e. the entangled Einstein-spacetime components, “copies” the virtual objects in bigger scales so there appear the virtual and real cores of baryons, electrons and new cosmology. In such phase transitions appear the spinors applied in the Quantum Physics. The Kasner solutions define many properties of the spinors. We can partially unify the gravity and quantum physics via the Kasner solutions. The basic mathematical method applied in Quantum Physics, i.e. the action of some orthogonal groups on column vector that leads to the spin representations, is some generalization of action of matrix of rotation of a circle around the z-axis on circle on xy plane defined parametrically and written as a column – such action leads to the parametric equations for torus. The symmetrical decays of virtual multi-loops lead to the Chaos Theory.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1309.0142 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-19 14:45:55

Black Hole Firewalls and Quantum Gravity

Authors: Friedwardt Winterberg
Comments: 10 Pages. This paper was rejected by arXiv within 19 minutes

A correct theory of quantum gravity cannot ignore the zero point vacuum energy because it has to be cut off at the Planck energy, leading to a preferred reference system in which this energy is at rest, with a violation of Lorentz invariance at high energies. In approaching and crossing the event horizon at the velocity of light in the preferred reference system, an elliptic differential equation holding matter in a stable equilibrium goes over a transluminal Euler-Tricomi equation into a hyperbolic differential equation where there is no such equilibrium, with all matter disintegrating into gamma rays without the loss of information and violation of unitarity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1309.0139 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-18 23:10:24

Tamara Science

Authors: Rodney Bartlett
Comments: 22 Pages. The article that inspired me to write “Tamara Science” is "Is the Universe Leaking Energy?" by Tamara M. Davis, a Ph.D. at the University of Queensland’s School of Mathematics and Physics (in Brisbane, Australia).

These are the thoughts that popped into my head while reading a certain article. The paragraphs are copied and pasted – sometimes with important or merely minor alterations – from my writings since 2009 (paperbacks I’ve written, my contributions at ResearchGate, articles I’ve written for vixra.org or saved on my computer). The article that inspired me to write “Tamara Science” is "Is the Universe Leaking Energy?" by Tamara M. Davis, a Ph.D. at the University of Queensland’s School of Mathematics and Physics (in Brisbane, Australia). Topics addressed in this article (in concentrated, nontechnical form) are – Is the Universe Leaking Energy?; Unifying Gravity With the Other Forces (Includes Photon & Graviton Mass); Digital String Theory; Poincare + Cosmic Strings, Wormholes and Hologram; Steady State Universe, Big Bang Subuniverses and DNA’s Double Helix; Newtonian / Einsteinian Space-Time Warping; Cosmic Rays, Ultra-High-Energy Cosmic Rays & Today’s Speed of Light; Electronic Infinity; Interstellar and Intergalactic Travel; c^2 and the Atomic Nucleus (continuing 1st paragraph’s shorthand); Dark Energy and Fractal Geometry; 5th-dimensional Hyperspace and Time Travel to Past and Future; Dark Matter; Neil Armstrong in Perpetual Motion; Law of Conservation, Origin of Life, and Humanity-God Partnership; Star Trek replicator & transporter, Earth as Paradise + Money Free Zone That Colonizes Cosmos, Geocentric Cosmos (not physically); Band-Gap Implants in the Brain; Cosmic Expansion, Accelerating Expansion, and Deleted Expansion; Variable Speed of Light; Springy Rubber Balloon of G and EM; Billions of Years in the Past, Trillions of Millennia in the Future.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1309.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-21 05:15:34

The Ultimate Picture of Particle Physics and Cosmology

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 17 Pages.

The string/M theory, cosmology, General Theory of Relativity and Quantum Physics are the approximate descriptions of Nature so there appear many incorrect assumptions and wrong interpretations. Here we pointed the limitations for the basic method applied in the Quantum Physics associated with the action of orthogonal groups on column vector representing a spinor. Such action leads to the spin representations. Spinor can represent the half-integral spin of a quantum loop in a pair that returns to original position after 720 degree rotation. It is characteristic for the zero-helicity vector particles. This property, the theory of spinors itself, the classification of the Clifford algebras and the double-covers/spin-groups that are the Lie groups, suggest that succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field can be in existence and it is the foundations of the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory. In the last theory there as well appear the scalar condensates and the imaginary part of Nature that appear in the classification of the Clifford algebras. The succeeding phase transitions radically simplify the basic mainstream theories via elimination of the approximations and free parameters. The classification of the Clifford algebras and the succeeding phase transitions prove that Nature on its lowest level is superluminal, classical and non-relativistic. Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory, theory of spinors, Clifford algebras and Lie algebra, we can show how the only inertial-masses/volumes lead to the Principle of Equivalence. It is the Higgs mechanism. On the other hand, the Principle of Equivalence and the confinement forced by the Mexican-hat mechanism lead to the scalar condensates composed of the Einstein-spacetime components. Unification of the 7 different interactions is possible only via the theory of succeeding phase transitions of the non-gravitating Higgs field and via the atom-like structure of baryons.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1309.0108 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-17 08:04:01

Why There Are Three Spatial Dimensions

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 4 Pages. jag8@cornell.edu

Fundamentally, the dimensionality of spacetime is a matter of energy conservation: three dimensions are sufficient to establish an entropic domain in which the basic thermodynamic requirements necessary to conserve the energy of free forms of electromagnetic energy (light, EM radiation, etc.) are present; likewise, four dimensions are necessary to meet the conservation requirements of bound forms of electromagnetic energy (mass/matter).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1309.0092 [pdf] replaced on 2014-08-10 08:06:39

The Destruction of Information

Authors: John A. Gowan
Comments: 7 Pages.

Is information destroyed in a black hole? This question is debated in Leonard Susskind's recent book: "The Black Hole War" (Little, Brown, and Co., 2008). From the overview of the "Tetrahedron Model" and Noether's principle of the conservation of symmetry, it appears that information should be destroyed in a black hole. There are several reasons to think so (contrary to the conclusions of Susskind's book). First, on the premise that the universe begins as light, devolves to matter, and finally evolves and resolves to light again, conserving the original perfect symmetry of free electromagnetic energy, information must be destroyed in any physical process which returns matter (and the information which matter contains) to light (because information is an asymmetric state of energy). Such final symmetry-restoring (conserving) reactions and processes include: 1) (actual) matter-antimatter annihilations due to the electromagnetic force; 2) (hypothetical) proton decay due to the strong and weak nuclear forces; 3) (theoretical) "evaporation" of black holes due to "Hawking radiation" (gravitational force); 4) (possible) "Big Crunch" gravitational collapse of the cosmos. (See: "Symmetry Principles of the Unified Field Theory".)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1309.0056 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 06:21:19

Still About Non-Planar Twistor Diagrams

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 6 Pages.

A question about how non-planar Feynman diagrams could be represented in twistor Grassmannian approach inspired a re-reading of the recent article by recent article by Nima Arkani-Hamed et al. This inspired the conjecture that non-planar twistor diagrams correspond to non-planar Feynman diagrams and a concrete proposal for realizing the earlier proposal that the contribution of non-planar diagrams could be calculated by transforming them to planar ones by using the procedure applied in knot theories to eliminate crossings by reducing the knot diagram with crossing to a combination of two diagrams for which the crossing is replaced with reconnection.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1309.0055 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 06:26:21

What Are the Counterparts of Einstein's Equations in TGD?

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 29 Pages.

The original motivation of this work was related to Platonic solids. The playing with Einstein's equations and the attempts to interpret them physically forced the return to an old interpretational problem of TGD. TGD allows enormous vacuum degeneracy for Kähler action but the vacuum extremals are not gravitational vacua. Could this mean that TGD forces to modify Einstein's equations? Could space-time surfaces carrying energy and momentum in GRT framework be vacua in TGD context? Of course, also in GRT context cosmological constant means just this and an experimental fact, is that cosmological constant is non-vanishing albeit extremely small.

Trying to understand what is involved led to the realization that the hypothesis that preferred extremals correspond to the solutions of Einstein-Maxwell equations with cosmological constant is too restricted in the case of vacuum extremals and also in the case of standard cosmologies imbedded as vacuum extremals. What one must achieve is the vanishing of the divergence of energy momentum tensor of Kähler action expressing the local conservation of energy momentum currents. The most general analog of Einstein's equations and Equivalence Principle would be just this condition giving in GRT framework rise to the Einstein-Maxwell equations with cosmological constant. The vanishing or light-likeness of Kähler current guarantees the vanishing of the divergence for the known extremals.

One can however wonder whether it could be possible to find some general ansätze allowing to satisfy this condition. This kind of ansätze can be indeed found and can be written as kG+∑ ΛiPi=T, where Λi are cosmological "constants" and Pi are mutually orthogonal projectors such that each projector contribution has a vanishing divergence. One can interpret the projector contribution in terms of topologically condensed matter, whose energy momentum tensor the projectors code in the representation kG=-∑ΛiPi+T. Therefore Einstein's equations with cosmological constant are generalized. This generalization is not possible in General Relativity, where Einstein's equations follow from a variational principle. This kind of ansätze can be indeed found and involve the analogs of cosmological constant, which are however not genuine constants anymore. Therefore Einstein's equations with cosmological constant are generalized. This generalization is not possible in General Relativity, where Einstein's equations follow from a variational principle.

The suggested quaternionic preferred extremals and preferred extremals involving Hamilton-Jacobi structure could be identified as different families characterized by the little group of particles involved and assignable to time-like/light-like local direction. One should prove that this ansatz works also for all vacuum extremals. This progress - if it really is progress - provides a more refined view about how TGD Universe differs from the Universe according to General Relativity and leads also to a model for how the cosmic honeycomb structure with basic unit cells having size scale 108 ly could be modelled in TGD framework.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1309.0047 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-09 06:42:01

Some Fresh Ideas About Twistorialization of TGD

Authors: Matti Pitkänen
Comments: 27 Pages.

The article by Tim Adamo titled "Twistor actions for gauge theory and gravity" considers the formulation of N=4 SUSY gauge theory directly in twistor space instead of Minkowski space. The author is able to deduce MHV formalism, tree level amplitudes, and planar loop amplitudes from action in twistor space. Also local operators and null polygonal Wilson loops can be expressed twistorially. This approach is applied also to general relativity: one of the challenges is to deduce MHV amplitudes for Einstein gravity. The reading of the article inspired a fresh look on twistors and a possible answer to several questions (I have written two chapters about twistors and TGD giving a view about development of ideas).

Both M4 and CP2 are highly unique in that they allow twistor structure and in TGD one can overcome the fundamental "googly" problem of the standard twistor program preventing twistorialization in general space-time metric by lifting twistorialization to the level of the imbedding space containg M4 as a Cartesian factor. Also CP2 allows twistor space identifiable as flag manifold SU(3)/U(1)× U(1) as the self-duality of Weyl tensor indeed suggests. This provides an additional "must" in favor of sub-manifold gravity in M4× CP2. Both octonionic interpretation of M8 and triality possible in dimension 8 play a crucial role in the proposed twistorialization of H=M4× CP2. It also turns out that M4× CP2 allows a natural twistorialization respecting Cartesian product: this is far from obvious since it means that one considers space-like geodesics of H with light-like M4 projection as basic objects. p-Adic mass calculations however require tachyonic ground states and in generalized Feynman diagrams fermions propagate as massless particles in M4 sense. Furthermore, light-like H-geodesics lead to non-compact candidates for the twistor space of H. Hence the twistor space would be 12-dimensional manifold CP3× SU(3)/U(1)× U(1).

Generalisation of 2-D conformal invariance extending to infinite-D variant of Yangian symmetry; light-like 3-surfaces as basic objects of TGD Universe and as generalised light-like geodesics; light-likeness condition for momentum generalized to the infinite-dimensional context via super-conformal algebras. These are the facts inspiring the question whether also the "world of classical worlds" (WCW) could allow twistorialization. It turns out that center of mass degrees of freedom (imbedding space) allow natural twistorialization: twistor space for M4× CP2 serves as moduli space for choice of quantization axes in Super Virasoro conditions. Contrary to the original optimistic expectations it turns out that although the analog of incidence relations holds true for Kac-Moody algebra, twistorialization in vibrational degrees of freedom does not look like a good idea since incidence relations force an effective reduction of vibrational degrees of freedom to four. The Grassmannian formalism for scattering amplitudes generalizes practically as such for generalized Feynman diagrams. The Grassmannian formalism for scattering amplitudes generalizes for generalized Feynman diagrams: the basic modification is due to the presence of CP2 twistorialization required by color invariance and the fact that 4-fermion vertex -rather than 3-boson vertex- and its super counterparts define now the fundamental vertices.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1309.0043 [pdf] submitted on 2013-09-08 22:21:39

Unified Fields Theory - Beyond Relativity and Standard Model

Authors: Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao
Comments: 5 Pages.

The paper “Beyond Einstein’s Relativity” [1] on contradictory Relativity postulates brings us back to the starting point a century back. Instead of dealing with the aether theory, this paper proposes a new Unified Field Theory that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The ideal Torque Grids have same size and String movement cycle is the same as the Grid size in all directions. When Torque Grids have different sizes, the Torque Grids have size distortions. When Torque String movement speeds are different between two opposite directions, the Torque Grids have charge distortion. Both size and charge distortion can be measured by energy. The charge distortion can be measured by electronic charge in addition to the energy. The Gravity interactions and Strong interactions are related to Torque Grids’ size distortions. The electron-magnetic interactions and weak interactions are related to charge distortions. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation and explains why the electron is stable. The electron has single Torque Grid distortion on its shell and is in resonance with its wavelength. Therefore, electron is stable and electronic field is formed. Strong force and weak force are result of two additional main resonance wave forms on the shell of the electron. Finally, the paper unified the four fundamental fields.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1309.0004 [pdf] replaced on 2018-02-23 12:10:05

GGU-model Ultralogic-logic-systems Applied to Developmental Paradigms

Authors: Robert A. Herrmann
Comments: 14 Pages.

The General Grand Unification (GGU) Model solves a problem personally presented to this author, in 1979, by John A. Wheeler. It answers the question "Is physics legislated by cosmogony?" It is a cosmogony that yields a "Theory of Everything" for any descriptive cosmology. Further, it satisfies certain basic requirements. It shows that "the basic structure is something deeper than geometry and particles (a 'pregeometry')." It answers "the greatest question on the books of Physics. How did our universe come into being? And of what is it made? That is, "of what is the substance out of which the universe made?" "But, is it really imaginable that the deeper structure of physics should govern how the universe is made? Is it not more reasonable to believe the converse, that the requirement that the universe should come into being should govern the structure of physics?" Thus, how the universe comes into being should be distinct from the physical laws the processes satisfy. It also must satisfy the "observer-participator" principle. That is, we not only observe but we change the behavior of the universe through our physical activities. The GGU-model satisfies all of the requirements and, besides its secular interpretation, has two rather philosophic interpretations as well. It is shown how a predicted ultra-logic-system is directly related to the generation of a developmental and hyper-developmental paradigm, which, via GGU-model processes, represent a universe's physical and physical-like events. Such mathematical modeling includes the process of refining the general language used to interpret the symbols.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1309.0003 [pdf] replaced on 2013-09-07 19:38:06

Linkage of Classical (3 Dimensional) and QM Geometry( 2 Dimensional) Via Hopf Mapping and Its Implications for Relic GW Power Production

Authors: A. Beckwith
Comments: 7 Pages. necessary re statement of how holography is included in this document due to its connection with the space-time perhaps pertinent to the Hoph mapping

Hopf mapping from 2 dimensions (QM) to 3 dimensions (CM) are examined in terms of a formalism started by Feynman which has linkage to the (CM) equations of motion have linkage to the Serret - Frenet form (for Differential equations). We argue that in doing so we may then link QM representations of qubits to a solved version of the rotating rod problem. Furthermore since a ‘generic’ solid body rotation equivalent to the rotating rod problem has linkage to GW generation, as given by Lightman et. al. it is a way to tie qubits (Quantum information) to GW generation. We then make observations as to what the results mean in terms of QM initial states and the power of GW production from early universe conditions
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory