[14] **viXra:1311.0204 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-30 07:54:04*

**Authors:** U.V.S.Seshavatharam, S.Lakshminarayana

**Comments:** 1 Page. Abstract with 18 published references

In our earlier published papers [1-18] we suggested that: 1) At any time Hubble length can be considered as the characteristic ‘electromagnetic’ and ‘gravitational’ interaction range. 2) There exist three cosmological variables in the presently believed atomic and nuclear physical constants and with reference to the increasing cosmic time, ‘rate of change’ in their magnitudes, the absolute cosmic rate of expansion can be understood. 3) Magnitudes of nuclear charge radius, inverse of the Fine structure ratio and the reduced Planck’s constant seem to increase with cosmic time whereas there will be no change in the magnitude of Planck’s constant. 4) Atomic gravitational constant seems to be squared Avogadro number times the ‘classical’ gravitational constant. 5) Fermion-boson mass ratio seems to be close to 2.26 but not unity and all the observed mesons seem to be SUSY bosons only. 6) There exist integral charge quark family particles and integral charge Higgs family particles. With these concepts it is possible to develop a consistent model of physics that connects the micro physics and macro physics in a trouble-free solid approach

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1311.0197 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 17:54:16*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 11 Pages. Published on Peer reviewed Journal: http://pubs.sciepub.com/ijp/1/6/4/ijp-1-6-4.pdf

The Standard Model of particle physics is a theory concerning electromagnetic, weak, and strong nuclear interactions, which mediate the dynamics of known subatomic particles. The current formulation was finalized based on the existence of quarks. Because of its success in explaining a wide variety of experimental results, the Standard Model is sometimes regarded as a "theory of almost everything". Mathematically, the standard model is a quantized Yang-Mills theory. Therefore, the Standard Model falls short of being a complete theory of fundamental fields. It neither explains force hierarchy nor predicts the structure of the universe. Fortunately, Unified Field Theory (UFT) explains fundamental forces and structures of sub-atomic particles and grand universe. One of the important applications of the Unified Field Theory is that the mass of each sub-atomic particle has a formula. These formulas are structural formulas which can calculate mass of the particles. The mass of a particle decides its structure and characteristics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1311.0194 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-29 02:24:21*

**Authors:** Patrick Tonin

**Comments:** 1 page

A formula for the Fine structure constant from the 3D Universe Theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1311.0191 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-28 14:11:46*

**Authors:** Zhiliang Cao, Henry Gu Cao

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published on peer reviewed Journal American Journal of Modern Physics. Vol. 2, No. 6, 2013, pp. 292-298. doi: 10.11648/j.ajmp.20130206.14

This paper proposes the Unified Field Theory (UFT) [1] that replaces both the Theory of Relativity and Theory of Aether. In this new theory, the universe exists in form of Torque Grids in which Space, Time and Energy are unified. The Unified Field Theory derives the Planck equation and Newton’s gravity equation. Finally, the paper unifies the four funda-mental fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1311.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-26 06:37:04*

**Authors:** Philip Gibbs

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Also available of viXra log

2013 has been a great year for viXra. We already have more than 2000 new papers taking the total to over 6000. Many of them are about physics but other areas are also well covered. The range is bigger and better than ever and could never be summarised, so as the year draws to its end here instead is a snapshot of my own view of fundamental physics in 2013. Many physicists are reluctant to speculate about the big picture and how they see it developing. I think it would be useful if they were more willing to stick their neck out, so this is my contribution. I don’t expect much agreement from anybody, but I hope that it will stimulate some interesting discussion and thoughts. If you don’t like it you can always write your own summaries of physics or any other area of science and submit to viXra.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1311.0174 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-28 04:22:18*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Nature is the inseparable mixing of the classical structures (the bare particles) and the quantum fields in which the quantum effects are turbulent i.e. there are rapid random changes in local densities of quantum field. The quantum time is going turbulently so the precise quantum methods should by free from such time. The internal structures of the classical bare particles/objects determine the possible interactions of them with quantum fields so we cannot neglect these structures. Such structures are neglected in the mainstream theories (there appear the sizeless points or flexible loops). In the string/M theory, a classical structure is defined but there is the fundamental wrong assumption that we can reduce all classical structures to the same closed string. Moreover, the fundamental closed strings have smaller size than it is assumed in the string/M theory and they are inflexible. To fit theoretical results to experimental data there appear approximations, mathematical tricks and free parameters. Such incoherent methods cannot lead to the lacking part of ultimate theory. Instead applying the incoherent methods we should seek interactions that lead directly to statistically stationary distributions of energy and/or matter i.e. we should directly look for eigenstates. To describe the inflation we should seek the metastable states (the regions of the expanding Cosmos with relatively slower changes in density) and stable states. Such methods are presented in this paper. The VEV and Planck values are calculated as well and we described the phenomena that stopped the inflation.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1311.0173 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-07-23 11:51:24*

**Authors:** Salahdin Daouairi

**Comments:** 31 Pages. Under peer-review / Copyright 2013, All right Reserved

Abstract: This discrete mathematical dynamical model for the theory of everything is based on a coded numerical equation that I unlocked. This numerical model puzzle which is the key to understanding the universe is beyond physics for interpreting physical laws of the universe. The equation will uncover the hidden secret of time and will also explain large important properties of the universe, it will describe the vortex ring model: a transformation of a hexagonal lattice related to a square lattice into a torus that represents the dynamical system of the particles and the space/time and will show how the system:
S= {Space/Time/Matter/Energy/Gravity/Electromagnetism} is homogeneous, connected and unified.
This mathematical model is an application and a special case of Langland Program that describes the dynamical system of a particular elliptic curve a “Modular knot”; it will define in quantum field theory the phenomena of quantum entanglement for a higher dimension. The system is based in a discrete quantum space with the concept of spinors and modular representation” Galois” through the theory of harmonic oscillator with the asymmetry properties to describe the system’s phase transformations. The system is determined through two important mechanisms of singularity which rely on fixed point and periodicity.
The universe is generated through a super-computer that codes, decodes and corrects error codes: By introducing the notion of spin related to Hadamard operator known for its application in error correcting codes and quantum entanglement, integrated with Lie Algebra, embedded with Clifford graded Z2-Algebra for a non-commutative algebra to explain how gauge symmetry works and to describe the quantum circuit for the bosonic and fermionic fields through fields ramifications. Some important properties in the algorithm of strings, simplex theory, knot theory, graph theory and computer algorithms were also introduced to use in this discrete model to describe the system. The equation will divulge the hidden code of the mystery puzzle in Pascal’s triangle which is the resource and the base of everything. The equation will answer all unknown physical, biological, philosophical and spiritual questions! As a result, it will unlock the true nature of the universe, correct most fundamental theories of physics and will finally disclose the hidden bridge between quantum physics and the general relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1311.0161 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-12-06 22:36:16*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

The first rescue was by Planck the man. Max Planck – who won the Nobel Prize for Physics in 1918, for the “discovery of energy quanta” - was editor of the journal "Annalen der Physik" when Albert Einstein submitted his Theory of Special Relativity. Einstein's paper contained no experimental data of his own, and no references from scientists (on p.191 of his book “Coming of Age in the Milky Way”- published by The Bodley Head, 1988 – Professor Timothy Ferris writes: “The emergence of the special theory of relativity was as unconventional as its author. The 1905 paper that first enunciated the theory resembles the work of a crank …”). The theory opposed accepted thinking and was highly speculative. It would probably be rejected today, and the world would never have known of it. But Max Planck was impressed and saw its beauty. The paper was quickly published without much revision.
The second rescue is by the Planck spacecraft - named after Max Planck and launched in 2009 to investigate the Cosmic Microwave Background (CMB). The craft is currently searching for B-mode polarization.^ Thus I believe it will, when it detects the B-mode, support Albert Einstein's claim that gravitation plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles (in “Do Gravitational Fields Play An Essential Part In The Structure Of The Elementary Particles Of Matter?”, a 1919 submission to the Prussian Academy of Sciences). This is because the B-mode signal, which is produced by gravitational waves, is largely contained within the E-mode signal, which results from CMB photons changing directions as they collide with and then scatter off electrons. Einstein’s paper was the next step after his theory of gravitation proposed in General Relativity - when forced to summarize the general theory of relativity in one sentence, Einstein said: time and space and gravitation have no separate existence from matter.*
^ An online article (“B-mode polarization spotted in cosmic microwave background” by Jon Cartwright - http://physicsworld.com/cws/article/news/2013/jul/25/b-mode-polarization-spotted-in-cosmic-microwave-background) reported on July 25, 2013 that the South Pole Telescope (SPT) has already made the first detection of B-mode polarization - “The CMB does not only contain variations in temperature, however. Its radiation was scattered towards us from the universe's earliest atoms in the same way that blue light is scattered towards us from the atoms in the sky. And in the same way that the blue light from the sky is polarized – a fact you can check by wearing polarized sunglasses – so too is the light from the CMB polarized. Variations in CMB polarization were first detected in 2002 by the DASI interferometer in Antarctica and helped cosmologists understand the dynamics of the early universe. These polarization variations were known as E-mode or gradient variations because they describe how the magnitude of polarization changes over the CMB. But there are even subtler variations known as B-mode variations, which describe the rotation or "curl" of CMB polarization. The majority of B-mode polarization is produced by galaxies acting as gravitational lenses, twisting the E-polarized light on its 14-billion-year journey from the other side of the observable universe. It is incredibly faint, producing temperature variations of about 0.4 μK and accounting for just one part in 10 million in the CMB temperature distribution. "B-mode polarization is very difficult to measure," says Duncan Hanson, a member of the SPT team who is based at McGill University in Canada.”
(Note referring to “Planck Comes to Einstein’s Rescue … Again” –
10^24 parts of the 10^25 strength of the gravitational waves is spent producing a particle [in this case, photon or electron i.e. the B-mode signal is largely contained within the E-mode signal]. The remainder is a long-wavelength, very weak gravitational wave that could be misinterpreted as entirely separate from the E-mode [more info about the numbers in “Why Is Gravity Weak?]. Assuming the B-mode polarization has been accurately measured – and it’s “very difficult to measure” – the 10^25-10^24 strength of gravitational waves is, since the space-time warps known as gravity waves are composed of binary digits that also compose electromagnetism’s bosons as well as matter’s fermions [see “Digital String Theory” below], represented as the one part in ten million of the CMB’s temperature variation.)
* Suppose Albert Einstein was correct when he said gravitation plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles. And suppose he was also correct when he said gravitation is the warping of space-time. Then it is logical that 1) gravitation would play a role not only in elementary particles and their masses but also in the constitution of the forces associated with those particles i.e. the nuclear strong force and the electroweak force (combination of electromagnetism and the weak nuclear force), and 2) the warping of space-time that produces gravity means space-time itself plays a role in the constitution of elementary particles, their masses, and in the forces. Therefore, if electromagnetism is related to gravitation (see “c^2 and the Atom”), time is unified with the gravitational and electromagnetic fields (overcoming the 50-year-old objection to Einstein's Unified Field Theory which was put forth by England's Professor Penrose).
Earlier in 2013, I tried to promote Einstein’s idea during a discussion at researchgate.net. There, scientists told me that Einstein’s paper will be regarded as erroneous and useless speculation, some kind of misunderstanding, nothing of interest, and not really useful as long as the Standard Model of interactions between particles and forces dominates scientific thinking. I’ll merely say that if I was placing a bet, my money would be on the Standard Model going extinct one day and Einstein then being given credit for a deeper understanding of the relation between mass and gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1311.0158 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-23 09:27:04*

**Authors:** Putenikhin P.V.

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

PACS 11.25. -w; 03.65.Ud; 11.90.+t; 12.90.+b
String theorists delete forcibly any mention of tachyons from the equations of string theory. It is believed that the tachyon in string theory - wrong decision, the strings can not move faster than light. However, quantum mechanics for describe the phenomenon of entanglement requires a essence (particle), which moves faster than the speed of light. A tachyon (and a graviton) arose in string theory consistently, against the wishes of the researchers, as a mathematical consequence. The tachyon suggested a possible description of the mechanism of quantum correlations. Theory of Everything cannot escape the description of nonlocality.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1311.0101 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2013-11-15 23:13:09*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 70 Pages. Submitted to Int. J. Mod. Phys. A

A Clifford $ Cl ( 5, C ) $ Unified Gauge Field Theory formulation of Conformal Gravity
and $ U (4 ) \times U ( 4 ) \times U(4) $ Yang-Mills in $ 4D$, is reviewed, along with its implications for the Pati-Salam group $ SU (4) \times SU(2)_L \times SU(2)_R$, and $Trinification$ GUT models of $3$ fermion generations based on the group $ SU (3)_C \times SU (3)_L \times SU(3)_R$. We proceed with a brief review of a unification program of
$4D$ Gravity and $SU(3) \times SU (2) \times U (1)$ Yang-Mills emerging from $8D$ pure Quaternionic Gravity. A realization of $E_8$ in terms of the $Cl(16) = Cl (8) \otimes Cl(8)$ generators follows, as a preamble to Tony Smith's $E_8$ and $ Cl(16) = Cl(8) \otimes Cl(8)$ unification model in $8D$. The study of Chiral Fermions and Instanton Backgrounds in $ {\bf CP}^2, {\bf CP}^3$ related to the problem of obtaining $3$ fermion generations is thoroughly studied. We continue with the evaluation of the coupling constants and particle masses based on the geometry of bounded complex homogeneous domains and geometric probability theory. An analysis of neutrino masses, Cabbibo-Kobayashi-Maskawa quark-mixing matrix parameters and neutrino-mixing matrix parameters follows. We finalize with some concluding remarks about other proposals for the unification of Gravity and the Standard Model, like string, $M, F$ theory and Noncommutative and Nonassociative Geometry.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1311.0050 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-23 15:00:40*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the lacking part of ultimate theory i.e. the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we answered the big questions that cannot be answered within the mainstream theories. What is the origin of the dark matter and dark energy? What is the cause of the exit of our Universe from the black-hole state? What is origin of the VEVs (the vacuum expectation values)? What is the difference between the mainstream electroweak interactions and electroweak interactions described within SST? Why renormalization does not act in the General Relativity? What is the origin of the “spontaneously” broken symmetries? Why equations can be symmetrical whereas their solutions are not? Why all energies are so low in comparison with the Planck energy? Why the string/M theory is useless? What is the origin of the physical constants and mathematical constants applied in physics? All these questions can be answered within the phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field (of the inflation field).

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1311.0042 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-05 15:44:19*

**Authors:** Vitaly Kuyukov

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

I present to you a simple explanation of the Hawking radiation on the basis of my new idea of quantization of the black hole surface. Event horizon of a black hole is a two-dimensional surface in the form of a sphere. On this sphere considered purely as a geometric object that has properties similar to the membrane. Membrane may fluctuate, there arise elastic waves.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1311.0014 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 10:23:47*

**Authors:** Michael A. Ivanov

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The well known expectations to unify general relativity with
quantum mechanics did not give some essential results up to now.
If quantum gravity has such a poor set of tiny effects as in
existing models, it may not be of great interest for physics. But
there is another approach to quantum gravity, in which it seems to
be a common ground of general relativity and quantum mechanics
rather than their consequence. Important features of the author's
model of low-energy quantum gravity, such as the quantum mechanism
of classical gravity, the quantum mechanism of redshift and the
specific relaxation of any photonic flux, are described here. In
the model, the Newton and Hubble constants may be computed, but
the latter is not connected with any expansion. The model fits
SN1a and GRB observations very well without dark energy. Some
possibilities to verify the model in ground-based experiments are
discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1311.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2013-11-02 09:04:59*

**Authors:** E.P.J. de Haas

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

In this paper we present an anachronistic pre-YM and pre-GR attempt to formulate an alternative mathematical physics language in order to treat the problem of the electron in twentieth century physics. We start the construction of our alternative to the Minkowski-Laue consensus by putting spin in the metric. This allows us to simplify Lorentz transformations as metric transformations with invariant coordinates. Using the developed formalism on the Pauli-Dirac level,we expand the quantum helicity operators into helicity rotators and then extend them from the usual 3-D expressions to 4-D variants. We connect the resulting 4-D Dirac-Weyl hyperbolic rotators to mathematical expressions that are very similar to their analogues in the pre General Relativity attempts towards a relativistic theory of gravity. This relative match motivates us to interpret the 4-D hyperbolic rotation angle as possibly gravitational in nature. At the end we apply the 4D hyperbolic rotator to the Dirac equation and investigate how it might change this equation and the related Lagrangian. We are curious to what extend the result enters the realm of quantum gravity and thus might be beyond pre-GR relativistic theories of gravity of Abraham, Nordstr{\"o}m, Mie and Einstein.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory