[12] **viXra:1405.0339 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 06:59:23*

**Authors:** John A. Gowan, A. T. Jaccaci

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Ours is an electromagnetic universe of free and bound forms of electromagnetic energy (matter and light - as we learn from annihilation reactions), and hence to the "Great Asymmetry" of stand-alone matter we may add the "Great Gauge" of the invariant electromagnetic constant "c", and the "Great Charge" of the invariant electric charge. In this regard, it should be noted that light itself (in the form of virtual photons) is the field vector or force carrier of electric charge. We therefore see light protecting its own symmetric energy state through electric charge and matter-antimatter annihilation reactions - especially including annihilations between virtual particle-antiparticle pairs.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1405.0338 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-28 06:25:51*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP

A Clifford-Gravity based model is exploited to build a generalized action (beyond the current ones used in the literature) and arrive at relevant numerical results which are consistent with the presently-observed de Sitter accelerating expansion of the universe driven by a very small vacuum energy density $ \rho_{obs} \sim 10^{ -120} (M_P)^4 $ ($ M_P $ is the Planck mass) and provide promising dark energy/matter candidates in terms of the $16$ scalars corresponding to the degrees of freedom associated with a $ Cl(3,1)$-algebra valued scalar field $ {\bf \Phi} $ in four dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1405.0331 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-27 18:52:58*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

We use the assumptions of knot physics to prove that a collection of interacting neutrinos and antineutrinos maximize their quantum probability when all neutrinos are of the same helicity and all antineutrinos are of the opposite helicity. Knot physics demonstrates that the geometry of gravity spontaneously breaks symmetry. We show here that the geometry of gravity couples the neutrino linear momentum to its quantum phase. Likewise, the quantum phase of an interacting neutrino couples to its spin angular momentum. Therefore, the symmetry breaking of gravity couples the linear momentum of an interacting neutrino to its spin angular momentum, producing consistent helicity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1405.0327 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-01 15:52:10*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Due to the superluminal quantum entanglement, emitted photons are entangled with their source or with a last-interaction object (it can be a detector). The superluminal quantum entanglement fixes the speed of photons ‘c’ in relation to source or a last-interaction object so it is not true that a photon has simultaneously the speed ‘c’ in relation to all frames of reference but it is true that all detectors (they are the last-interaction objects) always measure the speed ‘c’ - such is the correct interpretation of the Michelson-Morley experiment. Damping of protuberances of the dark matter and dark energy (so damping of radial speeds of protogalaxies carried by the protuberances as well) and the quantum entanglement cause that we can see galaxies with redshift higher than 1. Due to the protuberances of the dark matter and dark energy, there appeared the untypical radial speeds of groups of galaxies. Due to the dampened protuberances, we cannot define an exact value of the Hubble constant for observed redshift higher than about 0.6 (then, the Special-Relativity redshift is higher than 0.438). The initial period of evolution of galaxies cannot be seen. The quantum entanglement of photons with their sources causes that spatial distances can differ from time distances to galaxies - it is the duality of relativity. The duality of relativity shows that we can say about the observational, spatial and time Hubble constants because their origin is not the same. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that on the assumption that spacetime does not expand (according to SST, spacetime does not expand; there expand the dark matter and dark energy) the observational Hubble constant should be 70.52 whereas the real spatial and time Hubble constants are 45.24.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1405.0305 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-24 13:13:39*

**Authors:** Dmitriy Skripachov

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Grand unification can be considered as a virtual crossword ideas, hypotheses and theories. Compose and solve this crossword, we develop new ideas and hypotheses, which intersect with each other. The idea of space consisting of unit cells allows us to relate gravitation to the ability of unit cells to change volume, and electromagnetism to the ability of unit cells to internal movement. The ability of unit cells to form short-range order suggests that photons, leptons, mesons and baryons have structure of regular and semiregular polyhedra. Applied to dark matter, new model of elementary particles leads to the conclusion that elements of DM are non-relativistic nuclei consisting of neutrinos or antineutrinos. It is alleged that neutrinos are capable to form short-lived Cooper pairs most of which immediately decay appearing oscillation, and other fuse into nuclei of deutrinium, the lightest element of DM.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1405.0297 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-23 12:52:16*

**Authors:** Christian Corda, Seyed Hossein Hendi, Reza Katebi, Nathan O. Schmidt

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Black hole (BH) quantization may be the key to unlocking a unifying theory of quantum gravity (QG). Surmounting evidence in the field of BH research continues to support a horizon (surface) area with a discrete and uniformly spaced spectrum, but there is still no general agreement on the level spacing. In this specialized and important BH case study, our objective is to report and examine the pertinent groundbreaking work of the strictly thermal and non-strictly thermal spectrum level spacing of the BH horizon area quantization with included entropy calculations, which aims to tackle this gigantic problem. In particular, this work exemplifies a series of imperative corrections that eventually permits a BH's horizon area spectrum to be generalized from strictly thermal to non-strictly thermal with entropy results, thereby capturing multiple preceding developments by launching an effective unification between them. Moreover, the identified results are significant because quasi-normal modes (QNM) and "effective states" characterize the transitions between the established levels of the non-strictly thermal spectrum.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1405.0264 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-12-30 10:52:14*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

During the inflation, the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field partially transformed into the luminal Einstein spacetime composed of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs (the Einstein spacetime is the scene for the quantum effects). The quantum effects appeared at the end of the inflation because of the partial collapse of the Einstein spacetime. The succeeding phase transitions of the Higgs field and strictly determined radius of the inner Cosmos composed of universes with the same laws of physics and physical constants, lead to the origin of inertia. We showed that the excited states of the Einstein spacetime (the particles, bodies) never can change the properties of the ground state of the Higgs field and, in cosmic scale, cannot change properties of the ground state of the Einstein spacetime (the mean mass density and the mean luminal speed of the components are practically invariant). It causes that classical bodies “slide” without resistance in the two-component spacetime whereas the bare quantum particles disappear in one region of spacetime and appear in another one, and so on (the quantum waves “slide” without resistance as well). Such is the origin of the inertia.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1405.0235 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-13 15:26:26*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Knot physics describes the geometry of particles and fields. From the geometry of an electron we can construct a mathematical model relating its charge to its spin angular momentum. From experimental data, the spin angular momentum is ħ/2. Therefore the mathematical model provides a comparison of electron charge to Planck’s constant, which gives the fine structure constant. We find that using only electromagnetic momentum to derive the fine structure constant predicts a value for the inverse fine structure constant that is about two orders of magnitude too small. However, the equations of knot physics imply that the electromagnetic field cusp must be compensated by a geometric field cusp. The geometric cusp is the source of a geometric field. The geometric field has momentum that is significantly larger than the momentum from the electromagnetic field. The angular momentum of the two fields together predicts a fine structure constant of 1/136.85. Compared to the actual value of 1/137.04, the error is 0.13%. Including the effects of virtual particles may reduce the error further.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1405.0223 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 16:07:05*

**Authors:** Cliff Ellgen

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Spacetime is assumed to be a branched 4-dimensional manifold embedded in a 6-dimensional Minkowski space. The branches allow quantum interference, each individual branch is a history in the sum-over-histories. A n-manifold embedded in a n+2-space can be knotted. The metric on the spacetime manifold is inherited from the Minkowski space and only allows a particular variety of knots. We show how those knots correspond to the observed particles with corresponding properties. We derive a Lagrangian. The Lagrangian combined with the geometry of the manifold produces gravity, electromagnetism, weak force, and strong force.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1405.0211 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-12 02:40:33*

**Authors:** Elliott Prather

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is a compilation of three different publications relating to the theory of spatial relativity created to better present the overall concept to the community.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1405.0022 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2014-08-18 01:45:57*

**Authors:** Felix M. Lev

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

It is argued that the main reason of crisis in quantum theory is that nature, which is fundamentally discrete, is described by continuous mathematics. Moreover, no ultimate physical theory can be based on continuous mathematics because, as follows from G\"{o}del's incompleteness theorems, any mathematics involving the set of all natural numbers has its own foundational problems which cannot be resolved. In the first part of the paper inconsistencies in standard approach
to quantum theory are discussed and the theory is reformulated such that it can be naturally generalized to a formulation based on
discrete and finite mathematics. Then the cosmological acceleration and gravity can be treated simply as {\it kinematical} manifestations of de Sitter symmetry on quantum level ({\it i.e. for describing those phenomena the notions of dark energy, space-time background and gravitational interaction are not needed}).
In the second part of the paper motivation, ideas and main results of a quantum theory over a Galois field (GFQT) are described. In contrast to
standard quantum theory, GFQT is based on a solid mathematics and therefore can be treated as a candidate for ultimate quantum theory. The presentation is non-technical and should be
understandable by a wide audience of physicists and mathematicians.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1405.0004 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2014-05-01 12:52:24*

**Authors:** Florentino Muñiz Ania

**Comments:** 16 pages, 3 figures

English(traduction): Here mention that gravity is not a variety of Riemann space is following patterns
Similar to the special theory of relativity as to time warp refers . We show that the Euclidean continuum is a mathematical entelequia, and therefore has a curved surface and a single point of a plane tangent to said surface . The infinitesimal character disappears to make way for spacetime quanta, which depend on the distance to the center of the attractor mass and the magnitude of it.
Regarding the gemini speed. Perceive the distorted astronomical periods. Explaining and severity depends on the set of all
the stars that populate the universe.
It is argued that solar radiation is due to the expansion of the universe, also mentioning the peculiarities the Sun.
It explains that both local gravity, as the trajectory of a photon are few and obey forminvariantes space and time, based on all stars.
It is stated that the time dilation factor in the TRE is a consequence of the sets of star, both with inertia as electric potential.
And finally , the possibility of an even ours but added compound Universe
antimatter. Being the last over time because of the flux density of electric field.
The details of an experiment made ??with a time dilation charged sphere can be found in Appendix C.
Spanish (original): Aquí se hace mención a que la gravedad no es una variedad del espacio de Riemann, siguiendo unos patrones
similares a los de la teoría de la relatividad especial en cuanto a deformación del tiempo se refiere. Se demuestra que el continuo euclidiano es una entelequia matemática, y, por tanto, una superficie curva tiene un y un solo punto de un cierto plano, tangente a dicha superficie. El carácter infinitesimal desaparece para dejar paso a cuantos de espaciotiempo, que dependen de la distancia al centro de la masa atractora y de la magnitud de ésta.
En cuanto a la velocidad géminis. Percibimos los períodos astronómicos distorsionados. Explicando como la gravedad depende del conjunto de todas
las estrellas que pueblan el Universo.
Se argumenta que la radiación solar es debida a la expansión del Universo, mencionando además las peculiaridades del Sol.
Se explica que tanto la gravedad local, como la trayectoria de un fotón son forminvariantes y obedecen a cuantos de espacio y de tiempo, en función de todas las estrellas.
Se expone que el factor de dilatación temporal de la TRE es consecuencia de los conjuntos de estrellas, tanto con inercia como con potencial eléctrico.
Y, por último, se añade la posibilidad de que exista un Universo parejo al nuestro pero compuesto de antimateria. Siendo la causa última del transcurso del tiempo la densidad de flujo de Campo eléctrico.
En el Apéndice C se recogen los detalles de un experimento de dilatación temporal hecho con una esfera cargada.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory