[19] **viXra:1501.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-28 07:48:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

Entanglement Makes Quantum Particles Measurably Heavier, Says Quantum Theorist. The discovery is a long sought-after link between the theories of quantum mechanics and general relativity. [8]
Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1501.0217 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 17:01:32*

**Authors:** Valeriy V. Dvoeglazov

**Comments:** 9 Pages. To be published in the "Proceedings of Science", http://pos.sissa.it/

Recently, several discussions on the possible observability of 4-vector fields have been published
in literature. Furthermore, several authors recently claimed existence of the helicity=0 fundamental
field. We re-examine the theory of antisymmetric tensor fields and 4-vector potentials.
We study the massless limits. In fact, theoretical motivation for this venture is the old papers
of Ogievetskiı and Polubarinov, Hayashi, and Kalb and Ramond. They proposed the concept of
the notoph, whose helicity properties are complementary to those of the photon. We analyze the
quantum field theory with taking into account mass dimensions of the notoph and the photon. We
also proceed to derive equations for the symmetric tensor of the second rank on the basis of the
Bargmann-Wigner formalism. They are consistent with the general relativity. Particular attention
has been paid to the correct definitions of the energy-momentum tensor and other Nöther currents.
We estimate possible interactions, fermion-notoph, graviton-notoph, photon-notoph.
PACS number: 03.65.Pm , 04.50.-h , 11.30.Cp

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1501.0214 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-23 21:01:10*

**Authors:** Kyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

This article applies the work of Hawking and Bekenstein to get basic provisions on the conclusion of the entanglement entropy of the gravitational field and is given a completely different interpretation of the curvature geometry through quantum entanglement between matter and space-time. The entanglement entropy of the gravitational field as a parameter occurs in geometric flows Ricci .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1501.0213 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 07:55:23*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

It is assumed in the mainstream cosmology that at the Chandrasekhar limit the white dwarfs explode due to the conditions in a Fermi gas. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed that there appears the tower of the Chandrasekhar limits and that the stars/white-dwarfs with the threshold masses explode via a neutron-star state. Neutron stars behave as liquid crystal. There are the needed flat structures and the elongated rectangular prisms. There appears the upper limit for mass of neutron star, i.e. of the neutron black hole, equal to 24.81 solar masses. But due to perfect energy flow from core of a star toward its surface there as well appear at least three Chandrasekhar limits i.e. masses of stars which explode as Type Ia supernovae via sudden collapse of whole star to the neutron-star state which leads to violent full volumetric explosion so there is not created a neutron-star remnant – the threshold masses are 1.395, 11.20 and 0.891 solar masses. The first mass is the very well known Chandrasekhar limit whereas the second was the mass of, for example, the SN 1987A supernova. Energy is carried by the condensates of the Einstein-spacetime components that are the black holes in respect of the weak interactions or is carried by energetic neutrinos. The condensates with a mass of 52.828 MeV are produced in centres of muons, with a mass of 424.124 MeV are produced in centres of baryons, whereas the characteristic energy of neutrinos is the one fourth of the mass of neutral pion (33.743 MeV). Their number densities increase rapidly for the threshold masses of stars. Here, as well, are calculated the lower (0.000768 s) and upper (4,228 s) limits for spin periods of pulsars i.e. for stars with neutron core and iron crust. Presented here model is very simple and leads to observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1501.0206 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-22 03:58:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Even if gravitons are there, it’s probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron’s spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories.
The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry.
The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1501.0183 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-14 08:09:24*

**Authors:** Robert Watson

**Comments:** 19 Pages.

Kaluza's 1921 theory of gravity and electromagnetism using a fifth wrapped-up spatial dimension is inspiration for many modern attempts to develop new physical theories. Here an alternative approach is presented that more fully unifies gravity and electromagnetism. Emphasis is placed on admitting important electromagnetic fields not present in Kaluza's original theory without constraints, and on deriving a Lorentz force law. This is done by identifying 5D momentum with a kinetic charge. By doing so the usual assumption of Ricci flatness corresponding to sourceless electromagnetic fields is replaced by the weaker constraint of vanishing 5D momentum outside of charge models. A weak field limit is also used. An electromagnetic limit is imposed by assuming a constant scalar field. A further extended postulate set involving a super-energy divergence law and a conformal factor is also suggested that allows for a varying scalar field, within what then becomes a type of geometrical conformal gauge theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1501.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 13:36:55*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a recapitulation concerning evolution of our Cosmos and we point the pivotal differences between the new cosmology and the mainstream cosmology. We start from the superluminal non-gravitating inflation field (the Higgs field) and via the succeeding phase transitions of such field, we described evolution of the cosmic-object/Protoworld that appeared after the inflation/big-bang but before the expansion/”soft”-big-bang of the Universe. Evolution of the Protoworld leads to the origin of dark energy and dark matter. They both are associated with flows in the grainy luminal gravitating Einstein spacetime. The matter-antimatter asymmetry results from internal helicity of the vortex/Protoworld which, due to a fluctuation, appeared in the Einstein spacetime. The asymmetry has nothing with an asymmetry in behaviour of matter and antimatter. Due to the duality of relativity, the Universe is about 21.6 Gyr old (Ludwig et al. (2009) derived solar ages up to 22.3 Gyr) but we cannot see the initial period about 7.75 Gyr of evolution of the quasars. It is not true that the neutrons in neutron stars behave as a Fermi gas. There are at least three Chandrasekhar limits which leads to supernova explosions without neutron-star remnant. We described also evolution of quasars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1501.0165 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-16 13:32:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) shows that the Chandrasekhar limits indeed concern the neutron stars but they are not a Fermi gas that obeys Fermi-Dirac statistics - they are a crystal that behaves as a ferromagnetic. Due to the atom-like structure of baryons, the binding energy for all neutrons has the same value so the factors which appear in the Chandrasekhar limit are incorrect. There are at least two Chandrasekhar limits i.e. about 11.2 solar masses and 1.394 solar masses which is the mass of the Type Ia supernovae. The clouds, that later transform into the globular clusters, are produced on Schwarzschild surface of the quasars and are carried by the relativistic jets. Calculated here the upper limit for the initial mass of the old globular clusters in the halo of the Milky-Way Galaxy is 155,200 solar masses. Quasars with greater mass produce more massive globular clusters. The obtained theoretical upper limit for the mass is consistent with observational facts.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1501.0123 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-12 08:20:10*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Based upon an essay (by Brown) in the Spring, 2015 FQXi contest, quoted comments from Witten are presented followed by quoted comments from Milgrom in response to Witten’s comments. Brown’s viewpoint is then given, followed by quoted statements made by Kroupa in 2011.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1501.0122 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-12 00:36:10*

**Authors:** Rodney Bartlett

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Yes, can I take your order, Ma'am?
The reality? Wow, that's a big order - but I'll put it in the smallest package I can.
Do you want fries with that - or would you prefer a doughnut?
(a moment passes while Penny, the waitress, goes to the kitchen and returns)
Here's your reality - and your doughnut. Enjoy your meal!
This article was posted on the FQXi Community’s “Ultimate Reality” page - http://fqxi.org/community/forum/topic/1928 - which says, “If you have an unconventional, alternative model of reality, then this is the place to discuss it. (This is for contributors who have preliminary ideas and would like feedback, but do not have an academic paper or arXiv preprint and have not given a conference talk based on their ideas.)” My article refers to the article "Quantum Life" by Zeeya Merali - Discover Magazine, December 2014.
Zeeya’s article about quantum biology fascinated me! Then it got me thinking of sentences I’d written on subjects like quantum entanglement, artificial intelligence, and macro-entanglement of matter on larger-than-subatomic (even cosmic) scales. I started writing just to see where my ideas went. In next to no time, paragraphs about cosmic things and topics like time travel were filling up the computer screen. My article almost got deleted then because I thought I couldn’t stop straying from the topic at hand. At the last moment, the idea that everything was being unified occurred to me. And I decided to go ahead and explore the connections “From Quantum Entanglement To Quantum Biology To Quantum Universe”.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1501.0119 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-15 13:43:25*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present the mathematically very simple theory of nuclear binding energy. We start from the Newtonian dynamics. It leads to binding energy proportional to coupling constant (or running coupling) of interaction and inversely proportional to distance between interacting objects. Applying the new formula, as some examples, we calculated binding energy of electron in ground state in hydrogen atom (13.6 eV), mean binding energy per nucleon in the alpha particle (7.07 MeV), mean binding energy per nucleon in the nucleus of iron atom (8.79 MeV), in nucleus of nobelium atom (7.21 MeV), for nucleus of oxygen atom (7.91 MeV) and for nuclei containing more than 56 nucleons. We present also the theory of deuteron. Obtained results are consistent with experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1501.0111 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 02:49:22*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 (see chapter A, paragraph 7) it is described the Universal antigravity force as the first Nature force. Additionally, there are the particulate antigravity force and the nuclear antigravity force. The particulate antigravity force will be developed below, while the nuclear one, important for the nuclei structure, it is developed on link http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0210.
On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 (see chapter B, paragraphs 1 and 3) the Genesis of the space hole (bubble of empty space) in the area close to the Universe center creates the gravity pressure, as a new form of pressure in the region of the particle gravitational field. This pressure causes condensation of the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) of space and reduction of the space cohesive pressure. Therefore, the gravity pressure replaces part of the space cohesive pressure. It converts the cohesive forces of space to gravitational ones, due to the presence of the space hole (local deformation).
This change of the cohesive pressure in the region of the particle creates particulate antigravity pressure gradient and therefore repulsive antigravity force opposite to the gravity attraction between two particles.
The fact that the rate of the particulate antigravity force declines rapidly with the distance from the particle attributes to this phenomenon a theoretical significance concerning the structure of black holes. The reason is that only at the small scale of the particle core vacuum the particulate antigravity pressure gradient has a calculable rate.
It is noted that Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space describes the black holes as a form of grid space matter, consisting of polyhedral cells, like bubbles in a foamed liquid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1501.0096 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-14 15:00:26*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Many great physicists criticized the renormalization as an incoherent method of neglecting infinities in an arbitrary way. Dirac said that renormalization “is just not sensible mathematics”. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we proved that the mainstream QED is incomplete and is based on a few wrong assumptions. QED leads to experimental data only due to the free parameters. It is not true that there is not upper limit (cutoff) for energy of virtual pairs and it is not true that bare particles are sizeless. The elimination of these two wrong assumptions causes that the modified QED (MQED) is very simple and free from infinities so from renormalization as well. In reality, an electron-positron pair at first appears as a binary system of loops with condensates in their centres both composed of entangled Einstein-spacetime components. Next, due to the superluminal quantum entanglement of the luminal Einstein-spacetime components, the binary system immediately transforms into binary system of tori/electric-charges. With each torus/electric-charge is associated loop, condensate responsible for weak interactions and only one virtual electron-positron pair. Due to the superluminal quantum entanglement, electron disappears in one place and appears in another one, and so on - it is the quantum behaviour of electron. Most important is the fact that both descriptions of magnetic moment and spin of an electron, i.e. via the initial loop plus condensate and via the torus/electric-charge plus loop plus condensate plus virtual pair, are equivalent. Both descriptions lead to the same ratio of magnetic moment of electron to Bohr magneton: 1.0011596521735. This result is very close to experimental data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1501.0065 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-05 04:26:47*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Vectors are great for describing the motion of a particle. But now suppose you need to analyze something more complicated, where multiple magnitudes and directions are involved. Perhaps you’re an engineer calculating stresses and strains in an elastic material. Or a neuroscientist tracing the changing forces on water flow near nerve cells. Or a physicist attempting to describe gravity in the cosmos. For all that, you need tensors. And they might even help you unify gravitational theory with quantum physics. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1501.0059 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-04 12:23:52*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

The gravity of a black hole swallows the matter around it. The link between tensor networks and quantum entanglement may prove useful in studying the physics of black holes, some physicists propose. [5]
The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1501.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-01-13 06:34:08*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 12 Pages. Submitted to Physics Letters B

It is proposed how the Extended Relativity Theory in $C$-spaces (Clifford spaces) allows a unified formulation of point particles, strings, membranes and $p$-branes, moving in ordinary target spacetime backgrounds, within the description of a single $polyparticle$ moving in $C$-spaces. The degrees of freedom of the latter are provided by Clifford polyvector-valued coordinates (antisymmetric tensorial coordinates). A correspondence between the $p$-brane ($p$-loop) wave functional ``Schroedinger-like" equations of Ansoldi-Aurilia-Spallucci and the polyparticle wave equation in $C$-spaces is found via the polyparticle/$p$-brane duality/correspondence. The crux of exploiting this correspondence
is that it might provide another unexplored avenue to quantize $p$-branes (a notoriously difficult and unsolved problem) from the more straightforward quantization of the polyparticle in $C$-spaces, even in the presence of external interactions. We conclude with some comments about the $compositeness$ nature of the polyvector-valued coordinate operators in terms of ordinary $p$-brane coordinates via the evaluation of $n$-ary commutators.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1501.0017 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 21:31:33*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The notion of induced second quantization is introduced as an
unavoidable aspect of the induction procedure for metric and spinor connection, which is the key element of TGD. Induced second quantisation provides insights about the QFT limit, about generalizes Feynman diagrammatics, and about TGD counterpart of second quantization of strings which appear in TGD as emergent objects. Zero energy ontology (ZEO) naturally
restricts the anti-commutation relations inside causal diamonds defining quantum coherence regions so that the counterintuitive implication that all identical particles of the Universe are in totally symmetric/antisymmetric state is avoided. The relation of statistics to negentropic entanglement and the new view about position measurement provided by ZEO are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1501.0010 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-01-01 22:29:19*

**Authors:** M. Pitkänen

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

Twistors Grassmannian formalism has made a breakthrough in N=4 supersymmetric gauge theories and the Yangian symmetry suggests that much more than mere technical breakthrough is in question. Twistors seem to be tailor made for TGD but it seems that the generalisation of twistor structure to that for 8-D imbedding space H=M^{4}× CP_{2} is necessary. M^{4} (and S^{4} as its Euclidian counterpart) and CP_{2} are indeed unique in the sense that they are the only 4-D spaces allowing twistor space with Kähler structure.
The Cartesian product of twistor spaces P_{3}=SU(2,2)/SU(2,1)× U(1) and F_{3} defines twistor space for the imbedding space H and one can ask whether this generalized twistor structure could allow to understand both quantum TGD and classical TGD defined by the extremals of Kähler action. In the following I summarize the background and develop a proposal for how to construct extremals of Kähler action in terms of the generalized twistor structure. One ends up with a scenario
in which space-time surfaces are lifted to twistor spaces by adding CP_{1} fiber so that the twistor spaces give an alternative representation for generalized Feynman diagrams.
There is also a very closely analogy with superstring models. Twistor spaces replace Calabi-Yau manifolds and the modification recipe for Calabi-Yau manifolds by removal of singularities can be applied to remove self-intersections of twistor spaces and mirror symmetry emerges naturally. The overall important implication is that the methods of algebraic geometry used in super-string theories should apply in TGD
framework.
The physical interpretation is totally different in TGD. The landscape is replaced with twistor spaces of space-time surfaces having interpretation as generalized Feynman diagrams and twistor spaces as sub-manifolds of P_{3}× F_{3}replace Witten's twistor strings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1501.0009 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-14 14:55:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we described composition and calculated masses of the Upsilon mesons. This follows from the atom-like structure of baryons. Applying the modified quantum chromodynamics, within the SST, we can calculate the masses of quarks. This leads to conclusion that SST is the superior theory to the Standard Model in initial conditions. Calculated mass of b quark is 4190 MeV. Here, we showed that the Type 1S Upsilon meson is both a structure containing b-b(anti) quark pair (theoretical mass of such structure is 9460.1 MeV), or mesonic nucleus (theoretical mass of such nucleus is 9465.1 MeV). Due to the oscillations between these two different structures having practically the same mass and spin and parity, the full width of the Type 1S Upsilon meson is very small. Calculated masses of Types 1S, 2S, 3S, 4S, 10860 and 11020 Upsilon mesons are very close to experimental data. They all have unitary spin and negative parity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory