[14] **viXra:1502.0250 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-19 13:32:11*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

It is true that the superluminal dark photons responsible for quantum entanglement mimic the electromagnetic interactions but they cannot be detected directly i.e. they are dark. The dark matter is entangled with visible matter due to the superluminal dark photons carried by the superluminal entanglons the luminal Einstein-spacetime components consist of. Information can be sent with superluminal speed between entangled particles but appearing entanglement is created when luminal particles are very close one from another - it leads to conclusion that we cannot send information with superluminal speed because at first we must separate the entangled luminal particles. But when such separation is made then superluminal information is possible - it leads to the superluminal entanglement in quantum physics. Arrangements of the entangled Einstein-spacetime components in the physical matter and mental matter are different. For example, the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components on a torus/electric-charge are perpendicular to surface of the torus whereas the unitary spins of the Einstein-spacetime components in the loops the thoughts consist of are tangent to the loops. It causes that the mental matter is flexible (the mental solitons are flexible) whereas the physical matter is rigid i.e. the bare particles are rigid.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1502.0193 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2018-06-14 08:19:10*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

This is an updated paper on the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. There is a similar updated one for the electron at the following location http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0068v4.pdf and for the muon and tauon at http://vixra.org/pdf/1612.0122v1.pdf what is interesting about all this is the mass ratios are all interrelated and the equation for the tauon and muon are very similar.
When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1502.0171 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-20 12:13:12*

**Authors:** Janko Kokosar

**Comments:** 20 Pages. Published also in FQXi Essay Contest 2015

Extraordinary mathematicality of physics is also shown by dimensionlessness of Planck spacetime and mass. At the same time the Planck granularity of spacetime also shows that physics can be simulated by a binary computer. So physics is informational. But mathematics is not everything in physics, consciousness cannot be solely explained by mathematics. The reason that quantum gravity (QG) does not yet exist is the lack of knowledge about spacetime as background. Quantum mechanics is not complete, because foundational principle is not yet known, and because consciousness and QG are not yet explained. The free will and quantum randomness are similar unexplained phenomena. Even philosophy is important in physics, because what mathematics cannot describe in physics is ontology. And, intuition affects what is mainstream physics. Simplicity and clearness of physics and mathematics of physics are important not only for beginners, but also for the development of the fundamental physics. Uncertainty principle is so simple that maybe it could be derived without the use of wave functions. On the simplicity and clearness of fundamental physics it can be done a lot.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1502.0157 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-18 12:28:51*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Within the Scale-Symmetric Theory we showed that the structure of proton leads to the Theory of Chaos and that, due to the gluon-photon transition, such structure leaks from protons. We proved that the structure of the non-chaotic star KIC 5520878 mimics the internal structure of the core of baryons. The more precise observations should show that the ratio of the two principal frequencies for KIC 5520878 is 1.5711 (the today observations lead to 1.57) and that the ratio has nothing with the golden ratio 1.618…. Moreover, notice that the ratio of the radius of the equator of the torus in the core of proton to the radius of the gluon loops the neutral pions consist of is 1.5 so there should be stars with such ratio of principal frequencies also. The same concerns the quasars.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1502.0132 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-18 11:18:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we showed the origin of the Einstein-spacetime, dark-energy and dark-matter particle. Such particle carries unitary spin and very small gravitational mass. It is the neutrino-antineutrino pair which we will refer to as the Planck boson. The superluminal non-gravitating energy frozen in the Planck boson is about 119 powers of ten higher than its gravitational mass. Detection of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs is much difficult than neutrinos because their resultant weak charge is equal to zero. The different properties of dark energy and dark matter follow from the quantum entanglement. Emphasize that the particle associated with the Einstein spacetime, dark matter and dark energy is the same particle so there should be some phenomena that distinguish the dark matter from dark energy. The obtained here theoretical results for abundances in the today Universe (i.e. for visible matter we obtained 4.91%, for dark matter 26.46%, for dark energy 68.63%) and the ratio of dark and visible matter 5.389, are consistent with the Planck results (CMB + lensing) at the 68% levels. The Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV is not the Standard Model particle associated with the Higgs mechanism. Such Higgs boson is the condensate composed of confined Einstein-spacetime components (it is due to the Mexican-hat mechanism) so it is the composite Higgs boson. The real Higgs mechanism describing the transition from the non-gravitating tachyons/pieces-of-space the Higgs field consists of to the lightest gravitating objects, i.e. to the stable neutrinos all Principle-of-Equivalence particles consist of, is beyond the Standard Model and General Relativity. Such mechanism is described within SST.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1502.0097 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 03:07:45*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

On link http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040 it is described the first (Universal) and the second (local) space deformation, which change the geometric structure of the isotropic space. These geometric deformations created the dynamic space, the Universe, and the space holes (bubbles of empty space), the early form of matter. The Gosdas’s Theory of Dynamic Space describes how the neutron cortex is structured around the space holes with the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) of space at the light speed, defining on the one hand this elementary motion as quantum time in the units region and on the other the completion of the elementary phenomenon (i.e. the creation of a particle, photon etc.) as quantum time in the formations region. So, an electrical and geometric deformation of the neutron cortex occurs, as the third space deformation, resulting in the creation of surface electric charges (quarks) in the neutron cortex, to which the particles spin is due.
The inevitable end of the primary neutron is its breaking (beta decay), due to the growing space cohesive pressure, as the neutron is accelerated centrifugally to the Universe periphery. The presence of the proton and electron has result in induction of the electrical units of dynamic space, with the creation of the inverted electric (nuclear) field and the outer electric field.
Finally, the physical meaning of Planck’s constant is interpreted, as the product of two Nature entities: of the above quantum time in the formations region and of the energy talantonion (oscillator), which is the foundation of motion.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1502.0085 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-02-17 00:49:32*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Replaced Lorentz Transformation with Lorentz Factor

The Sphere Discontinuity Theory of the Universe proposes that the Universe is a sphere made of spheres, that again is made of spheres. This theory proposes a theory of why the Universe and particles can be modeled as a hollow spheres but still not be a hollow sphere, but rather a sphere with very few discontinuities in relation to the spheres overall size. Further, it paints a picture of the structure of the levels of the Universe and its properties. To further extend the Sphere Discontinuity Theory it will be shown how the discontinuities can account for the Lorentz Factor

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1502.0071 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 12:22:07*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the non-perturbative quantum electrodynamics of electron is presented. We calculated the lower and upper limits for the fine structure constant (1/137.035999053(11194)). The error is equal to the value of the coupling constant for the electron-proton weak interactions. The obtained results are very close to the experimental values which follow from the experimental values of the electron charge and reduced Planck constant (1/137.35999053(12095)). As expected, the error is a little higher than the theoretical value. There appeared papers in which theoretical and experimental values of the fine structure constant have much higher accuracy than the quantities which appear in its definition. In this paper is proven that the higher accuracies are groundless. Using the combined value of the fine structure constant (the experimental central value plus the theoretical limits), 1/137.035999053(11194), we obtain a theoretical value of the electron anomaly 0.001159652191(95). The weak interactions cause that this value cannot have higher accuracy. Within SST are calculated physical constants and other quantities which appear in definitions, from the fundamental initial conditions. The initial parameters lead to 1/137.036001 and 0.001159652174. We can see that both results are consistent with the determinations. Emphasize that today the mainstream QED contains the 12,672 diagrams (number of terms is tremendous) whereas presented here non-perturbative QED contains only one diagram with six terms. The difference follows from an improperly understood weak interactions and the production of virtual pairs in the Einstein spacetime. To calculate all needed quantities we do not need supercomputers, we used the Microsoft Office Excel with 13 decimal places.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1502.0036 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-17 07:59:22*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Relativistic mass follows from constancy of the speed of light in “vacuum” and the law of conservation of spin. Relativistic mass appears in grainy spacetime. The Einstein-spacetime components (the neutrino-antineutrino pairs) have gravitational mass and luminal speed but they are the non-relativistic objects. In the Einstein spacetime can appear virtual objects. A virtual object consists of a particle-antiparticle pair or a condensate carrying positive mass and of a gravitational-mass “hole” carrying negative mass. The gravitational fields are not directly associated with the luminal Einstein spacetime, they are directly associated with the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field. Today production of virtual objects in the Higgs field is impossible - it is the reason that we cannot unify directly (within the same methods) gravity with electromagnetic, strong and weak interactions i.e. a direct unification of gravity and Standard Model is impossible.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1502.0023 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-03 12:49:33*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 10 Pages. 10 references

Flory’s model of a polymer deals with three characteristics lengths, namely: the monomer’s length, the chain’s length and the length of the radius of gyration. A first analogy can be established between this model and that of the electrical conductivity of good metals at the room temperature, by taking the Compton’s length, the electron mean free path and the Fermi’s length. A second analogy is considered, thinking the universe world line as a segmented chain, where we have the Planck’s length, the radius of the observable universe and the length associated to the cosmological constant. A characteristic time for the evolution of the universe is obtained (not the Hubble’s time), and it is compared with a possible proton’s decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1502.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:42:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Using the approximation of constant pressure , a thermodynamic identity for GR as given by Padmanabhan is applied to Early universe graviton production, We build upon an earlier result in doing this calculation. Previously, we reviewed a relationship between the magnitude of an inflaton, the resultant potential, GW frequencies and also GW wavelengths. The NLED approximation makes full use of the Camara et.al. result about density and magnetic fields to ascertain when the density is positive or negative , meaning that at a given magnetic field strength, if one uses a relationship between density and pressure at the start of inflation one can link the magnetic field to pressure. From there an estimated initial temperature is calculated. This temperature scales down if the initial entropy grows.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1502.0012 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 21:49:53*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages. Submitted to IOP DICE 2014 conference proceedings, in December 2014

We find that having the scale factor close to zero due to a given magnetic field value in an early universe magnetic field affects how we would interpret Mukhanov’s chapter on “self reproduction” of the universe in in his reference. The stronger an early-universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H, with H the early-universe Hubble constant, per Planck time interval in evolution. We form DM from considerations as to a minimum time step, and then generate DM via axions. Through Ng’s quantum infinite statistics, we compare a DM count, giving entropy. The remainder of the document is in terms of DE as well as comparing entropy in galaxies versus entropy in the universe, through a lens of Mistra’s quantum theory of the big bang

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1502.0011 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 22:04:56*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

Using Tokamaks to identify and possibly detect GW generated due to processes identified with Plasma Fusion burning, in Tokamaks, with experimental equipment.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1502.0005 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-02-01 09:09:26*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

We use the results of A. Montiel et al, as to the contribution of energy density of non linear magnetic components to RW inflationary physics, as well as the standard of ephemeris time to come up with a standard of bound to early universe graviton mass. In doing so, we also ascertain that using the derived evolution equations that the mass of the graviton today could be different from the early universe value with obtain in closed form. Our results also indicate that quintessence, i.e. a time varying cosmological “constant” parameter, will in the case of large initial values of this “cosmological constant” inevitably lead to a singularity. . If one has a magnetic field contributing to a non zero initial scale factor, we will be assuming that the “cosmological constant” remains invariant during space-time expansion. The case of a fast roll physics treatment of inflation is gone over in the end, as a counter point to some of the discussion so offered. I.e. a fast roll, approximation means that the simple cancellation given below in Eq.(3) is no longer assumed. Which would influence the value of initial graviton mass. I.e. heavy gravity in the case of the elimination of slow roll is almost 20 orders of magnitude larger in initial magnitude for gravitons than the observations today portend for massive gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory