[9] **viXra:1504.0244 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:22:44*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 9 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 464-472

In conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number, the extra space dimensions are compactized. In string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly, and there is no compactization. Dimension number decreases with decreasing speed of light. and increasing rest mass. The 4D particle has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. The two different oscillations between 10D and 4D are the stepwise oscillation passing through every dimension number and the direct oscillation oscillating directly between 10D and 4D without the intermediate dimension numbers. Dark energy represents the stepwise oscillation, and dark energy becomes observable only when it has 4D space-time. 4D baryonic matter and 4D dark matter represent the direct oscillation directly from 10D to 4D. Our universe is the dual cyclic universe of the dark energy universe and the baryonic-dark matter universe. The Big Bang in the baryonic-dark matter universe produced irreversible kinetic energy that stopped the reversible direct oscillation. The reversible direct oscillation will resume after the Big Crush to remove irreversible kinetic energy. Our cyclic universe started from the zero-energy universe through the four-stage transformation. The theoretical calculated percentages of dark energy, dark matter, and baryonic matter are 68.3, 26.4, and 5.3, respectively, in agreement with observed 68.3, 26.8, and 4.9, respectively. According to the calculation, dark energy started in 4.28 billion years ago in agreement with the observed 4.71 billion years ago.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1504.0243 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-30 05:42:41*

**Authors:** Ding-Yu Chung

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Published in Journal of Modern Physics, 2014, 5, 1234-1243

In this paper, all elementary particles (leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson) can be placed in the periodic table of elementary particles based on string theory with oscillating space-time dimension number, instead of conventional string theory with fixed space-time dimension number. Dimension number oscillates between 11D and 10D and between 10D and 4D reversibly. The oscillation of space-time dimension number (D) is accompanied by mass dimension number (d) to represent mass. Space-time dimension number decreases with increasing mass dimension number, decreasing speed of light and increasing rest mass. 4D particle originally is 4D10d particle, and has the lowest speed of light and the highest rest mass. According to the proposed cosmology, the non-gravitational 4D10d particles were sliced into 4D4d core particles surrounded by 6 separated mass dimensions as the 6 dimensional orbitals constituting the non-gravitational forces (electromagnetism, strong, and weak). The combination of the 6 dimensional orbitals and the gravitational 4D10d particle resulted in the 7 dimensional orbitals. As the periodic table of elements based on the atomic orbitals, the periodic table of elementary particles is based on the combination of the two asymmetrical sets of the 7 dimensional orbitals. One set as the principal dimensional orbitals is mainly for leptons and gauge bosons, and another set as the auxiliary orbitals is mainly for individual quarks. The calculated constituent masses of leptons, quarks, gauge bosons, and the Higgs boson are in good agreement with the observed values. For examples, the calculated mass of top quark is 176.5 GeV in good agreement with the observed 173.34 GeV, and the calculated average mass of the Higgs boson is 128.8 GeV in good agreements with the observed 125 or 126 GeV.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1504.0238 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-29 15:14:43*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 02 pages, 04 links

In the present letter the time evolution of the universe is compared with the growth of a polymer chain. It is proposed a link between the Evolving Block Universe, a model by Ellis and Rothman, with the Self Avoiding Random Walk Model. An old popular song: “Que Sera, Sera”, nicely fits to the model’s unpredictability.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1504.0225 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-28 05:27:49*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

A recent article in Physical Review Letters proposed a new way to detect gravitons. The setup could be done in a lab, which is in stark contrast to the usual view that you’d need a Jupiter-mass detector orbiting a neutron star to detect gravitons. It’s one of those “if we pull this off we’ll eat like kings” experiments…so naturally we should be a little skeptical. [6]
Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1504.0179 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-07 17:49:31*

**Authors:** Ernesto Lopez Gonzalez

**Comments:** 31 Pages.

Background: In previous papers it was set out that matter could be considered to be formed by gravitational pulsations in a hexadimensional space with anisotropic curvature, since solutions to Einstein's field equations presented all of the characteristics of a particle then. Results: Four solutions to the gravitational wave equation have been found . These solutions can be assimilated to four neutrinos and complement to the previous solution identified with the electron. Since this set of solutions does not allow the existence of hadrons is postulated the existence of a central hole in the plane of the compacted dimensions. By assuming this postulate we can obtain complementary solutions formed by a surface wave plus any of the other five solutions. These solutions are called glutinos. Linear combinations of these solutions can explain the huge variety of known particles, allowing not only to identify their different charges, but also justify the existence of a multilinear system for hadron masses as advocated by Palazzi. The proposed system also predict the size of mesons and baryons, and the internal distribution of charges. Regarding interactions, they occur via three non-linear mechanisms: by changing the refractive index, deforming and dragging on propagation medium (space-time). No other interaction is possible . The first two are the source of the gravitational interaction, the residual nuclear force and the London interaction, while the latest is the origin of interactions similar to the electromagnetic interaction. These interactions have been called electrostrong, electromagnetic and electroweak interaction. We can obtain mathematically these interactions from the probability density of the wavefunction or from the wavefunction gradient.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1504.0156 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-22 13:18:00*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory that leads to the atom-like structure of baryons, the antiproton-to-proton ratio in the energy coordinates and some qualitative and partially quantitative description of proton flux as a function of rigidity are presented. Obtained results are consistent with the AMS data.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1504.0145 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-04-19 07:15:51*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Unambiguous detection of individual gravitons, though not prohibited by any fundamental law, is impossible with any physically reasonable detector. The reason is the extremely low cross section for the interaction of gravitons with matter. [5]
The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions. Since the gravitational force is basically a magnetic force the matter-antimatter gravitational repulsion makes sense.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1504.0123 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-22 13:12:52*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

A single equation within Theory of Everything would be infinitely complex so we should formulate a fractal skeletal theory which should lead to the much simpler partial theories. In such theory should not appear free parameters and the indeterminate mathematical forms. The Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST) is such a skeletal theory. Its structure looks as a Christmas tree. Here, within a model which is self-similar/dual to the structure of baryons, applying the SST, we calculated the median effective radius of the Type 1 cosmological voids in observed redshift coordinates, number of such voids in the Universe, the quantized median effective radii of such voids, radius of the WMAP Cold Spot and the Cosmological Ruler. Obtained results are consistent with observational facts. Moreover, there is calculated the expected void abundance. Presented here theoretical results suggest that the picture of the high-redshift Universe obtained within the mainstream cosmology is misshapen.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1504.0031 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-04-10 12:55:26*

**Authors:** Shinsuke Hamaji

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

The charge radius (r = 2λ/π) of Fermion closes at ±1/2 spin from the Compton wavelength (λ = h/mc) of Photon (Boson). These ±1/2 spin means having the axiality to space-time. "The proton radius (0.841 fm) was calculated from the proton mass" and "The proton radius obtained by measuring the Lamb shift in muonic hydrogen" are consistent. Closed Yukawa potential at charge radius is going to reduce the linear density in accordance with 1/r potential, and become material density of mass (1.672E-27 kg/m), which is published on the 1 meter scale. How the fermion to acquire the radius and mass pave the way for quantum gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory