[13] **viXra:1505.0230 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-31 02:18:14*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Cleaned up and reformatted. Part of what was / is for a Marcel Grossman contribution

We initially look at a non singular universe representation of entropy, based in part on what was brought up by Muller and Lousto, and then generalize it to the question of initial time step as a function of NLED (non linear Electrodynamics) . Speculations as to the contribution of initial entropy to massive gravitons is also included. In addition, the non singular nature of an initial cosmology configuration , with its emphasis upon initial density proportional to 1 over the fourth power of an initial scale factor will lead to an initial time step of the order of Planck time, as opposed to the GR equation which postulates time set at t = 0 initially.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1505.0227 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 07:22:37*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we analyse the internal interactions in the dark-matter structures and the weak interactions via leptons of the dark-matter structures entangled with the hadronic and leptonic matter.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1505.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-30 03:44:13*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 13 Pages.

In this paper, the inductive-inertial phenomenon G is developed, as well as the force FG, which acts on the units of the dynamic space (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040). This explains the nature of the magnetic forces, that are Coulomb’s electric forces (see http://viXra.org/abs/1503.0210) between grouping units (namely electric charges or forms of the electric field), created by the accelerated electron. Also, Coulomb's Law for magnetism, the physical significance of magnetic intensities and the strangeness of the fluctuation of nucleons magnetic moment are interpreted.
De Broglie’s wave-particle is Gosdas’s motion wave (wave-like form) and his wave function replaces Schrödinger’s equation. So, the wave phenomena of particles, the atomic orbitals and the wave-particle «paradox» are interpreted.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1505.0178 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-25 06:28:23*

**Authors:** A.W. Beckwith

**Comments:** 16 Pages. submitted to the Gravity journal of Hindawi press

We use a linkage between gravitation and electrodynamics the author shared with Unnishkan . In doing so, we find that a time step minimization procedure given by Peebles may be given further definition as to fine tune an NLED contribution to time step, which the author then links to gravity due to adopting the fifth force formalism of Fishbach . The rest of the document takes, then a derivation of a linkage between the number of gravitons, a minimum grid size, and the time evolution of Hubbles parameter, to ascertain a minimum number, n, of initial gravitons produced, which in turns of Ng’s infinite quantum statistics can be then a measure of entropy. This ‘count’ of gravitons is compared with Ng’s infinite quantum statistics versions of entropy, initially, as well as comments as to how to avoid having zero entropy initially. As to structure formation, we find that the stronger an early universe magnetic field is, the greater the likelihood of production of about 20 new domains of size 1/H with H the magnitude of the early universe Hubble’s constant, per Planck time interval in evolution.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1505.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 07:17:04*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

Experimentalists used an entangled state of two photons to show that time is going in different way for internal and external observers. Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show that such scenario concerns the elliptical states of electron in atoms. There are two different entangled circular states of an elliptical state. The jumps of entanglon (entanglons are responsible for quantum entanglement) between them cause that global energy is static whereas an internal observer associated with one of two entangled circular states (the clock) sees evolution of the other circular state. It is the duality of time from quantum entanglement. Similar mechanism concerns two mass states of proton and of neutron but there is exchanged not an entanglon but electric charge between the very dense gluon fields in nucleons. The exchanges lead to the mean fractional charges of such gluon fields.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1505.0162 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-09 20:36:17*

**Authors:** S. Bogue, T. Bogue, E Bogue

**Comments:** 14 Pages.

This theory of Quantum Gravity will describe the physical process which causes the force of Gravity due to interactions between the Vacuum Energy and matter/energy in the universe. Mass/energy interacts with the quantum vacuum and create locally uneven distribution of the vacuum energy density. All mass and energy will be accelerated towards the area of the vacuum with a lower energy density. The acceleration will occur in discrete, quantized amounts due to statistical interactions with the vacuum energy while avoiding the near instantaneous collapse of the universe in to a singularity most theories involving vacuum energy predict. This theory predicts the acceleration due to gravity, proper value of G, gravitational lensing of light, and time dilation within this quantized gravitational field.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1505.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-17 22:33:27*

**Authors:** Gy. Szondy

**Comments:** 16 Pages. Presentation of the seminar 2015.04.29 at Eötvö Lorand University (ELTE)

In Special Relativity minkowski four-force is known to be perpendicular to the four-velocity and four-momentum vector. In the ‘50s Károly Novobátzky worked out the generalization of this four-force. We will shortly explain how this formalism can be used to describe conservative fields and how it leads to a Scalar-Tensor gravity that also fits the mathematical background of GPS. We also explain how this Scalar-Tensor gravity related to General Relativity and how can we derive the necessary scalar function (gravitation potential) from the Ricci scalar of the metric tensor. As a final thought we introduce an enhancement of a quantum particle model, where rest mass depends on backgound curvature - explaining the correspondance between gravitation potential and background curvature as revealed in the ST theory above.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1505.0124 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-01-23 07:13:36*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Here, within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we present a new interpretation of the Quantum Mechanics i.e. the superluminal interpretation (SIQM). Werner Heisenberg used term “the ideological superstructures” to the hidden-variables theory. All known mainstream interpretations of quantum mechanics deserve such a term. It follows from the fact that all mainstream interpretations neglect physical consistency of the 3-dimensional wave functions. A wave function which fills up the Universe cannot be a coherent physical object when distant points of the wave function cannot communicate with superluminal speed. Just period of a local change in the wave function (due to a luminal Standard-Model interaction) cannot be shorter than size of the wave function divided by superluminal speed. The Planck length is the lower limit for size of gravitating particles. Objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length must be non-gravitating so non-relativistic and they must be superluminal. The SST, due to the succeeding phase transitions of the superluminal non-gravitating Higgs field, leads from the objects with sizes smaller than the Planck length (so superluminal) to objects with sizes close to the Planck length (so luminal) and larger. The question is not whether there are in existence some superluminal entanglons responsible for quantum entanglement but why we cannot see their motion directly. And the answer is very simple - just they are not the Standard-Model objects, their size is much smaller than the Planck length and the degree of filling of spacetime is very low.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1505.0080 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-11 03:19:58*

**Authors:** Andrey N. Smirnov

**Comments:** 25 Pages.

In this article, I propose new paradigm of physics. The paradigm leads to simple and unified picture of world. Such simplification and unification has cost of several key concepts of philosophy, including Being. I propose very radical hypothesis of emergent space-time-matter, in which space-time-matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. The hypothesis of emergent reality (ER- hypothesis later) shows how it is possible to find space-time-matter from a more fundamental, static field and space without time and matter. In the article, I show how it is possible to unify quantum mechanics and general relativity in one conceptual model, how to unify all existing forces. Changes in equations of general relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. New model of Big Bang is described and new cosmological model is proposed. New law for recession velocity was proposed, the hypothesis predicts what Hubble law is not applicable at large distance. ER-hypothesis predicts what Theory of Everything is non-gauge theory and cannot be based on space of states. The ER-hypothesis also describes possible parallel universes, propose way of theoretical finding of parallel universes, and way to calculate interactions between parallel universes. Theory of time is described in the article.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1505.0071 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2015-05-09 09:28:40*

**Authors:** David Brown

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

In his 2007 publication “Physics based calculation of the fine structure constant “ J. P. Lestone suggested that “the photon emission and absorption area A of an electron is controlled by a length scale” where the length scale is near the Planck length. What might be some of the implications of Lestone’s hypothesis? Renormalization in quantum electrodynamics deals with infinite integrals that arise in perturbation theory. Does Lestone’s hypothesis have important implications for renormalization? I conjecture that, EVEN AFTER QUANTUM AVERAGING, Maxwell’s equations might be false at the Planck scale, because Lestone’s heuristic string theory might be empirically valid. Let ρ represent the electric charge density (charge per unit volume). I conjecture that, in equation (19b) on page 23 of Einstein’s “The Meaning of Relativity” (5th edition), ρ should be replaced by the expression ρ/ (1 – (ρ^2 / (ρ(max))^2))^(1/2), where ρ(max) is the maximum of the absolute value of the electric charge density in the physical universe. Polchinski (2003) offered “two general principles of completeness: (1) In any theoretical framework that requires charge to be quantized, there will exist magnetic monopoles. (2) In any fully unified theory, for every gauge field there will exist electric and magnetic sources with the minimum relative Dirac quantum n = 1 (more precisely, the lattice of electric and magnetic charges is maximal).” It seems to me that Polchinski’s two general principles are likely to be correct if and only if nature is infinite. This brief communication considers two conjectures: String theory with the infinite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles occur in nature. String theory with the finite nature hypothesis is empirically valid if and only if magnetic monopoles do not occur in nature.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1505.0068 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 16:59:54*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 23 Pages. Submitted to IJGMMP.

A Moyal deformation of a Clifford $ Cl (3, 1) $ Gauge Theory of (Conformal) Gravity is performed for canonical noncommutativity (constant $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters). In the very special case when one imposes certain constraints on the fields, there are $no$
first order contributions in the $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ parameters to the Moyal deformations of
Clifford gauge theories of gravity. However, when one does $not$ impose constraints on the fields, there are first order contributions in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ to the Moyal deformations in variance with the previous results obtained by other authors and based on different gauge groups. Despite that the generators of $U(2,2), SO(4,2), SO(2,3)$ can be expressed in terms of the Clifford algebra generators this does $not$ imply that these algebras are isomorphic to the Clifford algebra. Therefore one should not expect identical results to those obtained by other authors. In particular, there are Moyal deformations of the Einstein-Hilbert gravitational action with a cosmological constant to first order in $\Theta^{\mu \nu }$ . Finally, we provide a mechanism which furnishes a plausible cancellation of the huge vacuum energy density.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1505.0051 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-06-17 09:22:32*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 17 Pages. Starobinsky model included, text and Latex typos corrected.

We propose a model scheme of microscopic black holes. We assume that at the center of the hole there is a spin 1/2 core field. The core is proposed to replace the singularity of the hole. Possible frameworks for non-singular models are discussed briefly.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1505.0010 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2015-05-10 12:48:16*

**Authors:** Joan Manuel Rodriguez Nunez.

**Comments:** 28 Pages. This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the

This theory is do not perfect scoeres, but you can say that if you have a roulette, and in continous movement, the 90 percent is light, the 9 percent is energy and 1 percent is mass, you can say that the energy is 9 times the velocity of the mass, and the light is 10 times and 90 times the velocity of the mass, and energy, but if you add 90 percent, plus 9 percent, plus 1 percent, you can say that is equal 100 percent, light, mass, and energy., and this is the effect of this camp, this is the same case about the gravity forcé is the same form, but in effect of camp.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory