Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1509 Submissions

[21] viXra:1509.0274 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-28 23:13:09

Gravitation

Authors: Adrian Ferent
Comments: 14 Pages. I discovered the graviton: the impulse of the graviton, the energy of the graviton, the speed of the graviton, the frequency of the graviton and the mass of the graviton. That is why my theory is a Quantum Gravity theory.

It is our ultimate task to discover a new quantum theory which breaks the wall of Planck scale and creates a new frontier. I found another wall, the Ferent wall beyond the Planck wall. I replaced Max Planck equation E = h × f with the Ferent equation for the energy of a photon: E = h × f + a × f I discovered the impulse of the graviton: p = a / λ I replaced Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle Δp × Δx ≥ h / 4π with Ferent Uncertainty Principle: Δp × Δx ≥ a I discovered a new electromagnetic theory. The graviton has negative impulse, negative mass and negative energy. I am the first who understood and explained that the gravitons with the speed of light are too slow to keep the constellations and the galaxy together. I explained the gravitation with the speed of the gravitons bigger than the speed of light. The mass of a body, of a system M = m1 + im2 where m1 is the real mass and m2 is the imaginary mass, it is the rest mass of the gravitons. I calculated the volume of the universe at Planck wall and the volume of the universe at Ferent wall. My quantum gravity theory shows that the gravitons are too small to be detected by today’s technology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] viXra:1509.0273 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-02 21:04:16

Geddankerexperiment for Initial Temperature, Particle Count and Entropy Affected by Initial D.o.f and Fluctuations of Metric Tensor and the Riemannian Penrose Inequality, with Applications

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: Re do of equation 12, with explanations of dimensional scaling put in ; 6 Pages. For Marcel Grossman 14. Details put in as to Riemannian Penrose inequality only being used here due to a non zero scale factor, initially.

Initial temperature, particle count are tied into entropy genration, and we make a reference to the Riemannian Penrose inequality, in terms of , if it is an equality what it says about admissible frequencies, as to the early universe. The author is fully aware of the Riemannian Penrose inequality's usual application, black hole physics. Its application to early universe cosmology is due to assuming a non zero, but extremely small initial scale factor at the start of inflation. The frequency, of Eq.(12) is proportional to [1/ distance] with the distance ~ Area to the 1/3rd power. Which is used as a bound to make sense of the range of frequencies assumed in this problem
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] viXra:1509.0248 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-27 04:09:47

Gravitational Wave Detector Restarted

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 8 Pages.

We are more than ready to hear the plucked strings of space-time. Last Friday, the revamped LIGO took its first observations – a step towards picking up the ripples that Einstein predicted should come from exotic cosmic collisions. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star' - unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] viXra:1509.0237 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-26 13:22:57

The Origin of the Space Roar

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 7 Pages.

The space roar is the unsolved problem in cosmology and particle physics. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory, we showed that the ARCADE 2 and other literature the space roar for frequencies from 22 MHz to 10 GHz follows from the motion of the very early Universe in relation to the ground state of the luminal Einstein spacetime, follows also from the expansion of the Universe, and from the decays of the quadrupoles of charged pions and of the bottom quark-antiquark pairs into photons. Derived here the excess power-law spectrum in addition to a CMB temperature of 2.725 +- 0.001 K is consistent with observational data. Here as well we calculated the precise mass of the bottom quark: 4167.58 MeV. We showed also that production of the Higgs bosons during the period of time the CMB was produced cannot be neglected in a theory of the early Universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1509.0229 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-25 07:38:03

The Maximum Amount of Information in Matter

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 2 Pages.

In this paper, we obtain new results on the estimation of the maximum amount of information in material objects. Is considered for comparison and analysis, the limit of entropy of Bekenstein-Hawking. In the final part of the article derived the formula of the maximum amount of information for any physical system.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1509.0222 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-15 23:37:53

Theory of Everything by Illusion 2.0

Authors: Kimmo Rouvari
Comments: 5 Pages.

Theory of Everything is The Holy Grail in physics. Physicists and like all over the world have searched the theory for a very long time. Modern day technological advances are finally opening the vast universe in all scales for curious human beings to explore. What we have accomplished is two theoretical platforms, relativity theories and quantum mechanics which are usable in their own domains. Obviously we have done good but we are still missing the theory. Due to all unsuccessful searches for the theory some people have suggested that there won't be such a theory. Theory of Everything by Illusion 2.0 is based on the good ideas in previous Theory of Everything by Illusion. In an addition, few new ideas have emerged and at the same time few old, not so good, ideas have vanished as well.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1509.0221 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-24 10:41:58

Distortion of Space Caused by Photons

Authors: Jesus Sanchez
Comments: 11 Pages. Published on the General Science Journal on 25th September 2015.

The void space does not have any meaning as itself. The space exists only when a particle (a fermion or a boson) occupies it. This means, if new particles appear in a region of space, the quantity of space increases in that area, creating distortions in that area of space, distortions that we call gravitation. A type of bosons, the photons, transmit the electromagnetic field using their energy. But in parallel, they create new space by its existence itself. If a particle emits photons, apart from the electromagnetic field, creates space by the new space occupied/created by the photons emitted. This new space creates distortions that correspond to gravitation effects. We will see, that the space created by a photon (and any other elemental particle) is related to the Planck length constant. Following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic calculations we will arrive to the factor Gm/c²r for distortions of space caused by a mass. We will see that this is exactly the factor predicted by the Schwarzschild equation of general relativity. Also, following the model and using only geometric and electromagnetic equations, we will arrive to the factor 1/sqrt{1-(v²/c²)} as the relation between a moving mass and a motionless mass. The same relation predicted by special relativity equations. Besides, the immediate question using this model of how it is possible that particles have different masses and charges will be answered.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1509.0217 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-24 05:52:47

Metric Operator Equations for Quantum Gravity

Authors: L.A.N. de Paula
Comments: 8 Pages.

The search for a consistent theory of quantum gravity has motivated the development of radically different approaches. This seeks consists of constructing a mathematical apparatus that encapsulates both concepts of quantum theory and general relativity. However, none approach has been definitive and the problem remains open. As the quantization of the metric is an alternative, this paper shows how a metric operator may be explicitly obtained by introducing a temporal operator, defining an induced metric and invoking some spacetime symmetries. This makes it possible to relate the effective acoustic metric to the model proposed here. The metric operator equations are expressed in terms of a hamiltonian operator describing the degrees of freedom of quantum vaccum whose dynamics gives rise to the metric field. These findings may help understand and study the quantum vacuum at Planck scale, consisting of one more tool for the community working on quantization of gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1509.0215 [pdf] replaced on 2016-02-23 14:10:27

About The Geometry of Cosmos

Authors: Dimitris Mastoridis, Konstantinos Kalogirou
Comments: 30 Pages.

The current paper presents a new idea that it might lead us to the Grand Unified Theory. A concrete mathematical framework has been provided that could be appro- priate for one to work with. Possible answers were given concerning the problems of dark matter and dark energy as well as the \penetration" to vacuum dominant epoch, combining Quantum Physics with Cosmology through the existence of Higg's boson. A value for Higg's mass around 125,179345 Gev/c^2 and a value for vacuum density around 4,41348x10^-5Gev/cm^3 were derived . Via Cartan's theorem a proof regarding the number of bosons existing in nature (28) has been presented. Additionally, the full Lagrangian of our Cosmos (including Quantum Gravity) was accomplished.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1509.0212 [pdf] replaced on 2015-10-09 09:38:17

Holographic Principle Derived from Mach Principle

Authors: Alexander Kritov
Comments: 6 Pages.

The author provides the evidence that Holographic principle may be formally derived from Mach’s principle and from two Large Number Numerical Coincidences hypothesized in recent author’s work. Those, two main paradigms of the physics Holographic principle and Mach’s principle may be connected with the use of Large Number Numerical Coincidences – new formal and exact relations for big Dirac’s number.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1509.0188 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-21 01:53:02

Gravity in Curved Phase-Spaces : Towards Geometrization of Matter

Authors: Carlos Castro
Comments: 20 Pages. Submitted to IJMPA

After reviewing the basic ideas behind Born's Reciprocal Relativity theory, the geometry of the (co) tangent bundle of spacetime is studied via the introduction of nonlinear connections associated with certain $nonholonomic$ modifications of Riemann--Cartan gravity within the context of Finsler geometry. The curvature tensors in the (co) tangent bundle of spacetime are explicitly constructed leading to the analog of the Einstein vacuum field equations. The geometry of Hamilton Spaces associated with curved phase spaces follows. An explicit construction of a gauge theory of gravity in the $8D$ co-tangent bundle $ T^*M$ of spacetime is provided, and based on the gauge group $ SO (6, 2) \times_s R^8$ which acts on the tangent space to the cotangent bundle $ T_{ ( x, p) } T^*M $ at each point $ ({\bf x}, {\bf p})$. Several gravitational actions associated with the geometry of curved phase spaces are presented. We conclude with a discussion about the geometrization of matter, QFT in accelerated frames, {\bf T}-duality, double field theory, and generalized geometry.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1509.0173 [pdf] replaced on 2015-12-23 19:07:35

Gedankenexperiment for Refining the Unruh Metric Tensor Uncertainty Principle Via Schwartzshield Geometry and Planckian Space-Time with Initial Nonzero Entropy and Applying the Riemannian-Penrose Inequality and Initial Kinetic Energy for a Lower Bound to

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 27 Pages. re setting of the document, as it may be accepted for publication via JHEPGC: Also will be part of conference proceedings Wess school, Summer 2015 , Bratislavia, Slovakia

This paper is, with the permission of Stepan Moskaliuk similar to what he will put in the conference proceedings of the summer teaching school and workshop for Ukrainian PhD physics students as given in Bratislava, as of summer 2015. With his permission, this paper will be in part reproduced here for this journal.First of all, we restate a proof of a highly localized special case of a metric tensor uncertainty principle first written up by Unruh. Unruh did not use the Roberson-Walker geometry which we do, and it so happens that the dominant metric tensor we will be examining, is variation in . The metric tensor variations given by , and are negligible, as compared to the variation . Afterwards, what is referred to by Barbour as emergent duration of time is from the Heisenberg Uncertainty principle(HUP) applied to in such a way as to give, in the Planckian space-time regime a nonzero minimum non zero lower ground to a massive graviton, . The lower bound to the massive graviton, is influenced by and kinetic energy which is in the Planckian emergent duration of time as . We find from version of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP), that the quantum value of the Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle (HUP) is likely not recoverable due to . I.e. is consistent with non-curved space, so no longer holds. This even if we take the stress energy tensor approximation where the fluid approximation is used. Our treatment of the inflaton is via Handley et al, where we consider the lower mass limits of the graviton as due to when the inflaton is many times larger than a Potential energy, with a kinetic energy (KE) proportional to , with initial degrees of freedom, and T initial temperature .Leading to non-zero initial entropy as stated in Appendix A. In addition we also examine a Ricci scalar value at the boundary between Pre Planckian to Planckian regime of space-time, setting the magnitude of k as approaching flat space conditions right after the Planck regime. Furthermore, we have an approximation as to initial entropy production. N ~ Finally, this entropy is N, and we get an initial version of the cosmological “constant” as Appendix D which is linked to initial value of a graviton mass. Appendix E, is for the Riemannian- Penrose inequality, which is either a nonzero NLED scale factor or quantum bounce as of LQG. Note that , Appendix F gives conditions so that a pre Planckian kinetic energy( inflaton) value greater than Potential energy occurs, which is foundational to the lower bound to Graviton mass. We will in the future add more structure to this calculation so as to confirm via a precise calculation that the lower bound to the graviton mass, is about 10^-70 grams. Our lower bound is a dimensional approximation so far. We will make it exact. We conclude in this document with Appendix G, which is comparing our Pre Planckian space-time metric Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle with the generalized uncertainty principle in quantum gravity. Our result is different from the one given by Ali, Khali and Vagenas in that our energy fluctuation, is not proportional to that of processes of energy connected to Black hole physics, and we also allow for the possibility of Pre Planckian time. Whereas their result, (and the generalized string theory Heisenberg Uncertainty principle) have a more limited regime of interpolation of final results. We do come up with equivalent bounds to recover and the deviation of fluctuations of energy, but with very specific bounds upon the parameters of Ali, Khali, and Vegenas, but this has to be more fully explored. Finally, we close with a comparison of what this new Metric tensor uncertainty principle presages as far as avoiding the Bicep 2 mistake, and the different theories of gravity, as reviewed in Appendix H
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1509.0143 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-16 22:24:14

Newton Einstein Relation on Gravity

Authors: Aloysius Sebastian
Comments: 7 Pages.

Our present concept about gravity is related with the mass and distance of the object. Still we are following the Newtonian concepts of gravity to measure the gravity of objects. Albert Einstein has made a great work on the concept of gravity, after Newton. But still we are trying to know more about gravity. According to me gravity is the property of energy. One must have to explain gravity on the basis of energy and it should be agree with the Newtonian theory of Gravity and law of conservation of Energy. I am agreeing that mass is also a form of energy. But I prefer to find gravity in accordance with the total energy of a system. I am going to find a relation to Newton’s theory of Gravity and Einstein’s Equivalency principle (E = mc2). Here I am making an attempt on this field. I am sure that I am on the right track. I am not placing any new equations here. I am using the existing equations in physics to find the gravity through my thoughts. The way which I am using these equations are may be strange. Sometimes I am thinking in reverse order, first I have found the gravity with the concept of energy. For that I am applying a constant ‘’A’’ to relate Newtonian concepts to Einstein’s Equation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1509.0117 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-12 09:26:56

Gibadullin's Theory of Everything

Authors: Gibadullin Artur
Comments: 9 Pages.

About Gibadullin's theory of everything. The main idea is that "The whole Universe is composed of times, the times play a key role in all processes and phenomena"
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1509.0111 [pdf] submitted on 2015-09-11 02:27:43

Complex Networks and Quantum Gravity

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

Mathematicians investigating one of science's great questions—how to unite the physics of the very big with that of the very small—have discovered that when the understanding of complex networks such as the brain or the Internet is applied to geometry the results match up with quantum behavior. [6] Vectors are great for describing the motion of a particle. But now suppose you need to analyze something more complicated, where multiple magnitudes and directions are involved. Perhaps you’re an engineer calculating stresses and strains in an elastic material. Or a neuroscientist tracing the changing forces on water flow near nerve cells. Or a physicist attempting to describe gravity in the cosmos. For all that, you need tensors. And they might even help you unify gravitational theory with quantum physics. [5] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate by the diffraction patterns. The accelerating charges explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the wave particle duality and the electron’s spin also, building the bridge between the Classical and Relativistic Quantum Theories. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1509.0084 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-26 08:22:23

The Inelastic Cross Section Versus the Centre-of-Mass Energy for Proton-Proton Collisions

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 3 Pages.

Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we calculated the inelastic cross section versus the centre-of-mass energy for proton-proton collisions. For centre-of-mass energies lower than 34.2 TeV, the obtained theoretical results overlap with the Standard-Model predictions but for energies of proton higher than 17.1 TeV, contrary to the Standard-Model prediction, there appears the asymptote: cross-section = 82.5 mb = constant. It follows from the fact that due to the production of the 17.1 TeV Higgs-boson-like particles, the protons cannot be accelerated above energy 17.1 TeV. Just whole surplus proton energy is instantaneously emitted. It is associated with the internal structure of the core of baryons. Emphasize that calculated here the cross section for energy 13 TeV (73.1 mb) is the central value obtained in the ATLAS experiment.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1509.0078 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-26 08:17:46

The Masses and Origin of the 3 : 2 Twin-Peak QPOs Frequency Ratio in the Microquasars

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

High frequency quasi-periodic oscillations (HF QPOs) are characteristic for the X-ray power-density spectra of a few microquasars and low mass X-ray binaries. Sometimes there appear the twin peak QPOs and then the frequency ratio for the peaks is close or equal to 3/2. Mostly the QPOs models assume oscillations of toroidal structures near black holes or neutron stars. At present, there is no consensus on the origin of QPOs. Here we present the model of the twin-peak QPOs as a result of oscillations defined by torus and a ring inside it. We use the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), especially the revised theory of black holes and accretion discs. Within presented here model we calculated the masses of the twin peak QPO microquasars. Obtained theoretical results are consistent with observational data. But accuracy of the observational data is very low whereas of the theoretical results is very high so future more precise observational data can be used to verify presented here model. We showed some analogy between the phenomena inside the core of baryons and the phenomena leading to the twin peak QPOs i.e. we showed some analogy between particle physics and cosmology.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1509.0076 [pdf] replaced on 2015-11-27 16:10:49

Mass Ratio Calculation of Rho Mesons to the Proton

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 2 Pages. This could be predictive of a more accurate mass off the Rho Mesons

The Rho Mesons mass is not known as well as the Pions and Kaons. This paper uses the same technique for proposing a method that gives clues to the mass ratio of mesons to the Proton. This is for the mesons made of, at least one, up or down quarks or their anti quarks. The structure of the equations are such that the masses are related to a type of probability.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1509.0032 [pdf] replaced on 2015-09-18 18:20:32

Inverse Fourth-Power Gravity Acting Between not Closed Inertial Masses

Authors: Shinsuke Hamaji
Comments: 10 Pages.

The mass in Einstein’s energy-mass equivalence equation has two possible interpretations, whether it is limited to the invariant mass, or it applies to all energy. This paper argues that all of the energy (kg m2 s−2) has a mass (kg: a degree of weight and inertial resistance). The inertial mass is a mass that was further scaled the gravitational mass to be increased with kinetic energy. The inertial mass of elementary particle in an atomic system also varies similarly by scaling. Thereby the scalable inertial masses of elementary particles constituting the atomic add the gravitation that cannot be ignored as compared with the Coulomb force. We call this effect “Inverse fourth power (1/r4) gravity” to distinguish it from universal gravitation of the universal gravitational constant. Using these mechanisms, we explain the proton radius puzzle and the statistical error found with the muon anomalous magnetic moment. This paper demonstrates a new way of integrating general relativity and quantum theory by separating the scalable inertial mass and the gravitational mass.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1509.0002 [pdf] replaced on 2016-01-26 08:13:33

Cross-Sections for Scattering of Neutrinos on Nucleons and Electrons

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Within the Standard Model (SM) it is assumed that neutrinos are scattered on quarks and that quark and gluon contributions to the proton’s spin are the same. Such assumptions lead to conclusion that cross section for neutrino is about two times higher than for antineutrinos (the cross-section problem) - it is consistent with experimental data. On the other hand, the RHIC experiment shows that the gluon and quark contributions to proton’s spin, in some approximation, indeed are the same, about 20-30 percent of the total proton’s spin but we can see that it does not solve the proton spin crisis so the SM assumptions concerning the neutrinos are not clear. Here we solved the cross-section problem in a different way. According to the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), the baryons have an atom-like structure and the spin and charge of the core of baryons are both directly associated with the torus composed of the carriers of gluons i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs. In centre of the torus is the condensate composed as well of such pairs. Structure of the bare electrons is similar. The phenomena concerning the condensates solve the cross-section problem. Here, within SST, we calculated as well for an isoscalar target and electrons the total neutrino and antineutrino charged-current (CC) cross-sections divided by neutrino energy as a function of neutrino energy. Obtained results are very close to experimental data.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1509.0001 [pdf] replaced on 2017-04-11 08:31:01

Atomic, Nuclear and Gravitational Binding Energy in a Unified Model

Authors: Bernard Riley
Comments: 9 Pages. Spreadsheet error noticed; graphs containing the sun removed.

Atomic electron binding energies, nuclear binding energies and the gravitational binding energies of planetary bodies are all connected to Planck scale within a coherent model based on the geometry of a standard string theory background.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory