[30] **viXra:1602.0366 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-28 23:42:28*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 22 Pages.

[1]. The duality of particles and waves.
[2] .Solve the mystery of the double-slit experiment.
[3]... may be gravity wave detection experiments double-slit experiment?
[4]... contemporary version ether experiments.
[5]... candidates for dark matter and dark energy.
[6]... interpretation of the double-slit experiment matter waves.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[29] **viXra:1602.0365 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-29 00:12:02*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Theory of the condensates produced due to the confinement of the Einstein-spacetime components (i.e. of the neutrino-antineutrino pairs), described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), shows that some of the spectral lines in the diphoton mass spectrum with invariant mass larger than 200 GeV up to 2000 GeV for proton-proton collisions obtained in the LHC experiments are not due to statistical fluctuation but due to strictly defined phenomena - a new phenomenon needs more than 2-standard deviations and the width/invariant-mass ratio about 0.0265 for two-sigma. Here we described such phenomena within a coherent model for lines with invariant mass about 209 GeV, 742 GeV and 1579 GeV (in previous papers we showed that such model leads to the Higgs boson with a mass of 125 GeV). To explain the spectrum, most important are the atom-like structure of baryons, density of the Einstein spacetime, the quadrupole symmetry and masses of nucleons, pions and the two lightest quarks.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[28] **viXra:1602.0347 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-27 12:23:05*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

Dark energy pulsating principle.
Photon has a mass by the pulsation of the 4-dimensional space.
Photon's mass is zero in 3-dimensional space.
Photon is a particle of Carter, Klein States.
Chapter 5. The discovery of dark matter.
[1] Pulsation principle of particle hypothesis and dark matter.
[2] A perfect candidate for dark matter.
[3] Have discovered dark matter equivalent to a perfect candidate.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[27] **viXra:1602.0332 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-26 01:52:44*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

dimensional space.
Particle is pulsating in the 4-dimensional space.
[1]. May be found in 4-dimensional space.
[2]. Elementary pulsation principle found the four-dimensional space
[3]. Discover kept looking for Einstein's four-dimensional space.
[4]. Diagram of the 4-dimensional space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[26] **viXra:1602.0317 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 16:47:43*

**Authors:** Kuyukov Vitaly

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Black holes have a thermodynamic description, the entropy is proportional to the area of the event horizon . Numerical results in the LIGO data provides the basis for the definitive conclusion of thermodynamics of black holes . When there is a merger of two black holes , gravitational wave carries a large part of the entropy in the cosmos .

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[25] **viXra:1602.0312 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-24 13:51:28*

**Authors:** D.Mastoridis, K.Kalogirou

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

Abstract
The current paper presents the theoretical formulas for the W, Z, e, µ, ν masses’ val-
ues.The formulas lead to values for Z = 91.17239(8)Gev/c^2
.W = 80.37268(3)Gev/c^2
,e =
0.51096(8)Mev/c^2
,µ = 105.65263(6)Mev/c^2
,τ = 1776.48(7)Mev/c^2
.Possible answers to
EPR problem were given.The singularity problem in Big Bang problem is examined.This
paper is the extension of the ”About the Geometry of Cosmos”

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[24] **viXra:1602.0296 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-23 04:34:48*

**Authors:** Jose P Koshy

**Comments:** 9 Pages. The fifteenth and the final paper based on reality.

For the first time in the history of physics, a complete 'Theory of Everything” is proposed. This paper is the last in a series of papers based on reality, and gives a complete description of the theory, and refers to the earlier papers for details. Whether it is the right theory or not, I leave it to the community of physicists to decide.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[23] **viXra:1602.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 09:29:23*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

[1]. dark energy in 1998, validated by the discovery of the accelerating expansion of the universe.
[2] Elementary particles pulsating principle and dark energy pulsating principle.
[3] dark energy information.
[4]... present a strong candidate for dark energy.
[5]... dark energy exist in 4-dimensional space.
[6]. mechanism of particle mass due to pulsation of the dark energy.
[7] dark energy pulsating show Supersymmetry.
[8] dark energy and the energy of the vacuum space equivalent mechanism.
[9] dark energy and the Higgs field.
[10] Elementary particles mass generation mechanism.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[22] **viXra:1602.0278 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-22 05:06:58*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

The strong coupling alpha_s for energy equal to the mass of the Z boson is one of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model (SM). By 2014 this value was 0.1185 +- 0.0006. But the recent LHC experiments (paper was submitted on December 16, 2015) changed this value to a new world average: 0.1177 +- 0.0013 (arXiv:1512.05194). The new value is consistent with the value predicted within the Scale-Symmetric (SST) already 3 years ago: 0.1176 +- 0.0005. This result was published in vixra on December 16, 2012 (vixra:1212.0105). Moreover, the interval +- 0.0005 predicted by SST does not follow from uncertainties but from natural processes so uncertainties defined in LHC experiments cannot be lower than this interval. Notice that the SST result as a whole lies inside the interval defined by the new LHC experiments and that the central values differ by 0.0001 only. We can say that at high energies, the SM mimics the SST results but at low energies, contrary to SST, the SM does not lead to precise values, for example, within SM we cannot calculate the exact mass and spin of proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] **viXra:1602.0272 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 19:25:48*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

Equivalent pulse hypothesis empty dead space and micro black holes.
Photon micro-black hole is in the graviton.
Black hole-photon in graviton.
Equivalent to the black holes in the universe-wide.
Micro-black hole
Empty depletion pulse hypothesis space.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] **viXra:1602.0256 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-21 02:11:17*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 8 Pages.

[1] elementary pulsation principle concepts
[2] elementary pulsation principle existing facts and concepts
Rationale conceived hypothesis [3] elementary pulsation principle and its history
The first step to [4] elementary pulsation principle of birth
Geometric model of pulsating particles [5]
[6] elementary pulsation principle summary
[7] the principles of particle oscillation hypothesis. (Original 1980 release)
Grounds to assume that energy [8] particles pulsates at high speed.
[9] elementary pulsation principle applied to concepts concept basis
Stage characteristics table [10] elementary pulsation principle
Diagram of the uncertainty principle of quantum mechanics [11]
[12] elementary pulsation principle applied, and conceptual thinking
Concepts of theoretical physics [13] elementary pulsation principle to solve (1-33)

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] **viXra:1602.0224 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-18 08:16:42*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 24 Pages.

Thoughts on vacuum energy, with questions of feasibility admitted into the deliberations

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] **viXra:1602.0220 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-10-29 06:51:36*

**Authors:** Michael Tzoumpas

**Comments:** 12 Pages.

On a previous paper (see http://viXra.org/abs/1410.0040) it is described the structure of the isotropic space of infinite dimensions by the electrically opposite elementary units (in short: units) and, also, it is described the spherical deformation of this isotropic space as a dynamic space of finite dimensions, the Universe. Τhis first space deformation creates the cohesive forces, which cause the chaotic (huge) cohesive pressure. The allocation of these forces in the Universe, as a function of distance from the Universe center, will be developed in this paper.
The explanation of Michelson-Morley experiment is based on actual and apparent equal reduction of light speed. The actual reduction of light speed happens only when light is transmitted on material moving systems, on which the cohesive pressure P0 of the proximal space is reduced. The aberration of light can be used as a detection criterion of the absolute motion. Lorentz factor is the result of a mathematical settlement of the problem encountered with the Michelson-Morley experiment. This same reduction factor (Lorentz factor) appears also in the Theory of Dynamic Space at the Galilean transformations, by calculating the actual reduction of the light speed on material moving systems, without the second postulate of Relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1602.0211 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-02-17 14:01:09*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages.

Earlier we proved that the virtual electromagnetic interactions in Quantum Physics (QP) mimic the electroweak interactions described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). Here we show that General Theory of Relativity (GR) mimics the inspiral of the luminal Einstein spacetime near masses that is described within SST. This phenomenon leads to value about 1.75 arc seconds for the deflection of light by Sun for distance equal to its radius. Superiority of SST over QP and GR follows from the fact that described phase transitions during the inflation lead to the internal structure and interactions of the two-component spacetime and of bare particles. Knowing this part of Nature, we can significantly simplify the mathematical descriptions of fundamental phenomena.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1602.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-17 03:12:23*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

Einstein's theory of general relativity predicts that accelerating masses emit gravitational waves. And last week, a century after this prediction was made, the LIGO collaboration announced their first direct detection of gravitational waves. But this was only the beginning – we expect many more events, and these will put Einstein's theory to the test with unprecedented accuracy. What, if anything, does this mean for physicists' efforts to find a theory of quantum gravity – the still missing combination of general relativity with quantum mechanics? [11] Physicists have searched for a theory of quantum gravity for 80 years. Though gravitons are individually too weak to detect, most physicists believe the particles roam the quantum realm in droves, and that their behavior somehow collectively gives rise to the macroscopic force of gravity, just as light is a macroscopic effect of particles called photons. But every proposed theory of how gravity particles might behave faces the same problem: upon close inspection, it doesn't make mathematical sense. Calculations of graviton interactions might seem to work at first, but when physicists attempt to make them more exact, they yield gibberish — an answer of " infinity. " " This is the disease of quantized gravity, " Stelle said. [8] Even if gravitons are there, it's probable that we would never be able to perceive them. Perhaps, assuming they continue inside a robust model of quantum gravity, there may be secondary ways of proving their actuality. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1602.0186 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-16 11:59:36*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 6 Pages.

Cosmological constant.
Λ is dark energy. Its Λ set to zero.
Universal gravitation constant is zero when all things become vacuum.
In the equation above all things, to assume G sin ω t variable g gravity equation. This G is zero when everything vacuum State; It is equivalent to the horizon of dark energy pulsating principle energy waveform diagram, showing the 3-d film universe. Photons and other subatomic particles, and all objects on the Earth, and human nature, Earth, stars, galaxies and space, man and flashes at the Planck time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1602.0177 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-16 17:23:06*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

There are at least three unsolved basic problems concerning the interpretation of the LIGO data. They are as follows: the total-angular-momentum problem for final black hole as a result of inspiralling binary black holes (the final spin is lower than expected), instability of the gravitational waves (the transverse motions lead to superluminal speeds in the luminal Einstein spacetime), and the low-frequency problem (very low accuracy for frequencies lower than 35 Hz causes that a part of LIGO spectrum is untrustworthy). The unsolved problems cause that the predictions of the General Theory of Relativity (GR) concerning the LIGO data mimic the true phenomena described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). SST shows that there is the shortest distance between inspiralling black holes so their merger is impossible, shows that instead the gravitational waves there are the ordered motions/flows in the luminal Einstein spacetime that lead to the dark-matter mechanism, and that the LIGO strain-time spectrum is a result of the quantized orbits which are obligatory for binary systems of black holes. SST shows that there is the lower limit for mass of gravitational black holes (24.81 solar masses). Here we calculated the mass emitted during the distinguished transitions (about 3.93 solar masses). We present the frequency-time function, we calculated the time distances between the successive crests of the strain-time wave. To obtain the observed maximum frequency about 250 Hz, we must assume that the binary system is in time distance about 1.2 Gyr. Obtained results within SST are close to the LIGO data except the low-frequency data that are outside the operating range of LIGO - a future more precise measurements should show whether presented here the SST model is correct.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1602.0169 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-14 23:24:38*

**Authors:** Brian Shuster

**Comments:** 56 Pages.

This paper deconstructs Special and General Relativity and re-presents a new view of Relativity - that the speed of light is better represented as "perpendicular movement away from mass in four-dimensional spacetime" or motion only in Spatial dimensions. The speed of light should be infinite if it were not for an inherent uncertainty that applies to geometric angles at the spacetime point where they originate. Because of the uncertainty at their origin point, the "perpendicular" direction light travels away from mass is imperfect. This uncertainty is always constant, and thus, the angle of light away from mass is always a constant, rendering the speed of light a constant for all observers with any mass. The paper explores the implications of this notion and finds the nature of gravity in the process.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1602.0147 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-13 02:30:46*

**Authors:** Pierre A. Mandrin

**Comments:** 4 pages.

A variety of quantum gravity models (including spin foams) can be described using a path integral formulation. A path integral has a well-known statistical mechanical interpretation in connection with a canonical ensemble. In this sense, a path integral describes the thermodynamic equilibrium of a local system in a thermal bath. This interpretation is in contrast to solutions of Einstein's Equations which depart from local thermodynamical equilibrium (one example is shown explicitly). For this reason, we examine an extension of the path integral model to a (locally) non-equilibrium description. As a non-equilibrium description, we propose to use a global microcanonical ensemble with constraints. The constraints reduce the set of admissible microscopic states to be consistent with the macroscopic geometry. We also analyse the relation between the microcanonical description and a statistical approach not based on dynamical assumptions which has been proposed recently. This analysis is of interest for the test of consistency of the non-equilibrium description with general relativity and quantum field theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1602.0140 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-12 07:43:05*

**Authors:** Sudhanva Joshi

**Comments:** 9 Pages.

For many centuries now, scientists have been trying to find the origin of time.Perhaps,on more deeper thoughts what is TIME itself? Some think it as some sort of cymatic matter,some think that it is the result of uniform flow of space-time continuum while others think it as quantitative term for ‘existence’. But nobody knows till now what exactly is time?what does it stand for?will it ever end? Etc.In this paper,I have simply tried some tricks with Einsteins field equations to get an exact low energy solution for possible physical properties of TIME.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1602.0128 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-11 11:56:16*

**Authors:** P. R. Silva

**Comments:** 04 pages, 09 references, short note

The holographic principle is applied to the weak interactions as a means of estimating the zero-point energy of a gas of degenerate neutrinos filling the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1602.0088 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-07 07:48:22*

**Authors:** George Rajna

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

Does entanglement have a weight? A positive answer to this question would have far reaching consequences, since entanglement is the core resource of some of the most exciting applications of the field of quantum information. [7] The magnetic induction creates a negative electric field, causing an electromagnetic inertia responsible for the relativistic mass change; it is the mysterious Higgs Field giving mass to the particles. The accelerating electrons explain not only the Maxwell Equations and the Special Relativity, but the Heisenberg Uncertainty Relation, the Wave-Particle Duality and the electron's spin also, building the Bridge between the Classical and Quantum Theories. The Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators explains the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions by the diffraction patterns. The Weak Interaction changes the diffraction patterns by moving the electric charge from one side to the other side of the diffraction pattern, which violates the CP and Time reversal symmetry. The self maintained electric potential of the accelerating charges equivalent with the General Relativity space-time curvature, and since it is true on the quantum level also, gives the base of the Quantum Gravity. The diffraction patterns and the locality of the self-maintaining electromagnetic potential explains also the Quantum Entanglement, giving it as a natural part of the relativistic quantum theory.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1602.0073 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-06 12:01:59*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 20 Pages.

Catalogue。
Introduction。
Theoretical physics, Chapter 1: current conditionsand issues
[1] modern physics in the challenge
[2] elementary pulsation principle and dark energy pulsating principle
[3] Einstein kept looking for 4-dimensional space
[4]The geometry of the universe
[5] all equations, quantum gravity theory

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1602.0062 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-05 12:31:12*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

[1] modern physics goals, Super grand unified theory hypothesis
[2] in 1980, elementary pulsation principle announced in Japan physical society
an announcement in the Japan physical society in 1980 [3] cinii National Institute of Infomatics to be stored.
[4] on the Internet Encyclopaedia Wikipedia articles
An illustrated guide [5] nuclear forces, gravity, electromagnetic force
[6] elementary pulsation principle forces, gravity, electromagnetic force of unity
[7] pulsation principle model for finite nuclei structure.
Front and back of the same photon's [8] photons and quantum gravity

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1602.0052 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 13:11:35*

**Authors:** Terubumi Honjou

**Comments:** 5 Pages.

Hypothesis.
Pulsating waves of dark energy "Super cord" is.
1) line on energy waveform pulsation principle hypothesis in Super string of geometric models and hypotheses.
2) ultra thong has a large intermittent intermittent point, corresponding to quantum field theory.
3), reducing the size of the extra dimensions in micro space, not a fine time.
4) pimp 振eru traditional, almost no correspondence with various physics concepts in the low temperature.
5) pulsations in the four-dimensional space of string is any observation in the present world of low temperature and experimental facts
Be explained naturally. And unity of all the forces of the natural world, to unite in one place of all.
6) of new geometric model of superstring theory, dark energy, dark matter, nuclear forces, gravity and
To illustrate the mechanism of electromagnetic force, as a function of the same photon to illustrated the gravity and electromagnetic forces.
7) third primary revolution by Schwartz et al, the second revolution by Witten. No. 3: leather shown here
Life by elementary pulsation principle extra dimensions in ultra fine time compact will be.
8) particle processes the waves stroke the film universe in which we live during a time of waves of negative particles
Are trapped. Three types of 3-dimensional space (9 d) and time 1 d in total ten-dimensional.
9) electromagnetic force acts in the film universe, gravity acts in the negative particle processes to function intermittently.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1602.0038 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-04 03:03:22*

**Authors:** L.saidani

**Comments:** 17 Pages.

It is a new theory based on an algorithmic approach. Its only element is called nokton. These rules are precise. The infinities are completely absent whatever the system studied. It is a theory with discrete space and time. The theory is only at these beginnings.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1602.0035 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-03 08:21:30*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 30 Pages. Completely re done document. May be accepted by JHEPGC, which has Christian Corda as head editor

Could a causal discontinuity lead to an explanation of fluctuations in the CMBR radiation spectrum? Is this argument valid if there is some third choice of set structure (for instance do self referential sets fall into one category or another?). The answer to this question may lie in (entangled?)
vortex structure of space time, along the lines of structure similar to that generate in the laboratory by Ruutu. Self-referential sets may be part of the generated vortex structure, and we will endeavor to find if this can be experimentally investigated. If the causal set argument and its violation via this procedure holds, we have the view that what we see a space time ‘drum’ effect with the causal discontinuity forming the head of a ‘drum’ for a region of about 10 10 bits of ‘information’ before our present universe up to the instant of the big bang itself for a time region less than ~ 10 to the minus 44 seconds in duration, with a region of increasing bits of ‘information’ going up to 120 10 due to vortex filament condensed matter style forming
through a symmetry breaking phase transition. We address the issue of what this has to do with Bicep 2, the question of scalar-tensor gravity versus general relativity, how to avoid the detection of dust generated Gravity wave signals as what ruined the Bicep 2 experiment and some issues information flow and causal
structure has for our CMBR data as seen in an overall summary of these issues in Appendix X, of this document. Appendix XI mentions how to differentiate between scalar-Tensor gravity, and General relativity whereas Appendix XII, discusses how to avoid the Bicep 2 mistake again. While Appendix VIII gives us a simple data for a graviton power burst which we found instructive. We stress again, the importance of obtaining clean data sets so as to help us in the eventual detection of gravitational waves
which we regard as decisively important and which we think by 2025 or so which will be an
important test to discriminate in a full experimental sense the choice of general relativity and other gravity theories, for the evolution of cosmology. Which is one of the foundational issue we hope to answer. Finally, Appendix VII brings up a model for production for gravitons, which is extremely simple.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1602.0016 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-02 06:40:36*

**Authors:** Abdullah Shehada

**Comments:** 6 Pages

In this paper a new effect have been taken into account which has ever been used before
in physics, this effect related to two different fields, Quantum physics and General Relativity.
This effect takes name: Time Dilatation as an Effect of Approaching Planck Length, this effect is completely different from the gravitational time dilatation in general relativity and time dilatation due to closing to the speed of light in special relativity. The new effect becomes obvious and strong for the particles that have high energies and very small diameters. Experiments in particle physics and astrophysics had got conclusion that the particles may travel faster than the speed of light in vacuum, such as MINOS experiment and Fermilab1979 in particle experiments and supernova SN1987A and Gamma Ray Bursts (GRBs) in astronomy field. And that seems violating the theory of relativity, but this theory can explain all these unusual observations easily and doesn't violating the theory of relativity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1602.0013 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-02-01 22:17:43*

**Authors:** J. P. Lestone

**Comments:** 4 pages, 2 figures

We consider the possibility that electromagnetism is caused by the exchange of unphysical L=0 photons between fundamental particles with properties that resemble quantum black holes. This force is infinite if the known far-field cross section is assumed. However, the divergence is generated at low energy where the photon wavelengths are large and the far-field limit fails. An estimate of the near-field correction removes the infinity and leads to an estimate of the inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1~139. A speculative scaling of a term controlling the near-field correction by 1/(1+alpha) gives the result alpha^-1=137.038. A suggested speculative link to the higher-order QED corrections to the anomalous magnetic moment of the electron gives alpha^-1=137.036 and a calculated elementary charge q=1.602177x10^-19 C. These calculations suggest elementary particles are quantum black holes.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1602.0008 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-03-14 10:43:50*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Published in: Open Access Library Journal, 3: e2487 (2016). http://dx.doi.org/10.4236/oalib.1102487

I propose first a simple model for quantum black holes based on a harmonic oscillator describing the black hole horizon covered by Planck length sized squares carrying soft hair. Secondly, I discuss a more involved statistical model with the partition function sum taken over black hole stretched horizon constituents which are black holes themselves. Attempting a unified quantum structure for spacetime, black holes and matter, I apply the statistical model picture also to matter particles using a composite model for quarks and leptons.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory