[18] **viXra:1604.0336 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-25 12:35:36*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages. Updated Paper

The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances could give the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called Bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible form of the equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from -pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung radiation and Cherenkov type radiation deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a proton.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] **viXra:1604.0323 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-20 08:13:27*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 16 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s BIDUM version 1.1), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE, together with the concept of biological information (BI) which is also measurable in qbits.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] **viXra:1604.0297 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-08-01 08:33:24*

**Authors:** Risto Raitio

**Comments:** 6 Pages. Published version: Open Access Library Journal, 3, e2788 (2016). New title. Slightly expanded.

I consider a statistical mechanical model for black holes as atoms of spacetime with the
partition function sum taken over area eigenvalues as given by loop quantum gravity. I
propose a unied structure for matter and spacetime by applying the area eigenvalues
to a black hole composite model for quarks and leptons. Gravitational baryon number
non-conservation mechanism is predicted. Argument is given for unified field theory be
based on gravitational and electromagnetic interactions only. The non-Abelian gauge
interactions of the standard model are briefly
discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] **viXra:1604.0280 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-18 16:19:40*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 7 Pages. It will be given a home in the next 2 weeks, ie, a journal

We use the work of de Vega, Sanchez, and Comes (1997), to approximate the ‘particle density’ of a ‘graviton gas’ This ‘particle density’ derivation is compared with Dolgov’s (1997) expression of the Vacuum energy in terms of a phase transition. The idea is to have a quartic potential , and then to utilize the Bogomol’nyi inequality to refine what the phase transition states. We utilize Ng, Infinite quantum information procedures to link our work with initial entropy and other issues and close with a variation in the HUP: in the start of the expansion of the universe.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] **viXra:1604.0251 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-17 02:56:34*

**Authors:** Carlos Castro

**Comments:** 10 Pages. Submitted to Physical Review D

Modifications of the Weyl-Heisenberg algebra $ [ { \bf x}^i, {\bf p}^j ] = i \hbar g^{ij} ( {\bf p } ) $ are proposed where the classical limit $g_{ij} ( p ) $ corresponds to a metric in (curved) momentum spaces. In the simplest scenario, the $ 2D$ de Sitter metric of constant curvature in momentum space furnishes
a hierarchy of modified uncertainty relations leading to a minimum value for the position uncertainty $ \Delta x $. The first uncertainty relation of this hierarchy has the same functional form as the $stringy$ modified uncertainty relation with a Planck scale minimum value for $ \Delta x = L_P $ at $ \Delta p = p_{Planck} $.
We proceed with a discussion of the most general curved phase space scenario (cotangent bundle of spacetime) and provide the noncommuting phase space coordinates algebra in terms of the symmetric $ g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } $ and nonsymmetric $ g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $ metric components of a Hermitian complex metric
$ g_{ \mu \nu} = g_{ ( \mu \nu ) } + i g_{ [ \mu \nu ] } $, such $ g_{ \mu \nu} = (g_{ \nu \mu})^*$. Yang's noncommuting phase-space coordinates algebra, combined with the Schrodinger-Robertson inequalities involving angular momentum eigenstates, reveals how a quantized area operator in units of $ L_P^2$ emerges like it occurs in Loop Quantum Gravity (LQG). Some final comments are made about Fedosov deformation quantization, Noncommutative and Nonassociative gravity.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] **viXra:1604.0242 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-18 01:29:58*

**Authors:** Francis M. Sanchez

**Comments:** 2 Pages. From From QSCP-XX Colloquium, Varna, Septembre 2015, traducted in French.

A simple graphic representation, called Topologica Axis, of the main physical parameters shows the string main series n = 2 + 4p. Most of the induced holographic-type relations are shown to be already well-known. The main string theory values n = 26 and n = 10 correspond respectively to the Hubble radius and the Hydrogen atom diameter. The value n = 6 seems to imply a massive gluon. The value n = 30 would correspond to a Grandcosmos. Direct application of the Holographic principle relies its volume to the dramatic number 137.036^137.036.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] **viXra:1604.0240 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-27 09:44:21*

**Authors:** Sylwester Kornowski

**Comments:** 7 Pages.

There can be many scenarios to explain the deviation of the measured cross sections by HERA from the predicted cross sections within the Standard Model (SM) for the deep inelastic electron-proton scattering especially at higher energy transfer. Here we present new-physics scenario that follows from the atom-like structure of baryons, structure of bare electrons and electroweak theory described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST). The ratio of cross sections for momentum transfer 100 GeV obtained within SST and SM is 0.977 - this result obtained within SST is consistent with the HERA data (the SM result is inconsistent with the HERA data). For momentum transfer about 265 GeV such ratio is 0.843 +- 0.002 - this result obtained within SST is inconsistent with theoretical result (about 0.9) that follows from the beyond the Standard Model (BSM) contributions to electron-quark scattering with the non-zero effective quark radius. It means that future more precise measurements for momentum transfer about 265 GeV should determine which theory (SST or BSM-theory) is correct. Applying the Kasner solution to the Einstein’s field equations, we answered as well the question why many results obtained within the SST and Quantum Chromodynamics (they are the very different theories) are the same and why many SST results are the best ones.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] **viXra:1604.0230 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-14 07:08:08*

**Authors:** W.Berckmans

**Comments:** 18 Pages.

This article presents a methodology to express the Physical Reality of our cosmos, its content and its evolution, as the outcome of a deductive axiomatic process starting from nihil and taking into consideration a limited set of presuppositions, a single creation event and 6 simple base laws.
The recurrent application of these laws on the subsequent states of the cosmos must lead to a version with a content and a behavior which is, at least at detailed level and in qualitative terms, reconcilable with any observation or confirmed law of physics.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] **viXra:1604.0208 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-05-01 05:49:19*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

In this paper I will first show that Coulomb's electrostatic force formula is mathematically exactly the same as Newton's universal gravitational force at the very bottom of the rabbit hole --- that is for two Planck masses. Still, the electrostatic force is much stronger than the gravity force when we are working with any non-Planck masses. We show that the difference in strength between the gravity and the electromagnetism is likely due to the fact that electromagnetism can be seen as aligned matter (``superimposed" gravity), and standard gravity is related to non-aligned matter (waves). Mathematically the difference between gravity and electromagnetism is simply linked to a joint probability factor; this is probably one for aligned matter (electromagnetism) and is close to zero for gravity. Actually, the dimensionless gravitational coupling constant is directly related to this gravitational probability factor. Based on this new view, we claim to have unified electromagnetism and gravity. This paper could have major implications for our entire view on physics from the largest to the smallest scales. For example, we show that electron voltage and ionization can basically be calculated from the Newtonian gravitational escape velocity when it is adjusted to take aligned matter (electromagnetism) into account. Up until now, we have had electromagnetism and gravity; from now on there is GravityElectroMagnetism!

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] **viXra:1604.0198 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-21 04:45:28*

**Authors:** Espen Gaarder Haug

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

In this paper we are rewriting the gravitational coupling constant in a slightly different form than has been shown before (without changing its value). This makes it simpler to understand what is meant and what is not meant by a “dimensionless gravitational coupling constant.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] **viXra:1604.0193 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 16:03:51*

**Authors:** P.R. Silva

**Comments:** 08 pages, 10 references

Non-linear Klein-Gordon-Yukawa equations, jointly with time-energy uncertainty relations, are used as a means to estimate the extinction time of a black hole. In a first step we produce the expression originally obtained by Hawking. In a second step we found a massive boson mediating the black hole decay. This boson can also be associated to the size of a vanishingly interacting string. Finally a modification is done in the treatment performed in the first step, going in the direction of Page’s results for the black hole decay time.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] **viXra:1604.0175 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-11 07:29:51*

**Authors:** Johan Noldus

**Comments:** 3 Pages.

As is well known, the standard Kolmogorov deﬁnition of probability may not be adequate for describing the physical world. In this work, we weaken the Kolmogorovian axioms and depart slightly from its measure theoretical context enabling one to describe systems with an inﬁnite number of degrees of freedom. The resulting framework is more broad and physical than Kolmogorov’s and constitutes the basis for the understanding of Quantum Theory as envisioned by this author.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] **viXra:1604.0173 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-10 16:17:47*

**Authors:** Andrew Beckwith

**Comments:** 10 Pages.

We use a quantum tunnelling equation as given by V. Balck in the proceedings “Relativity and Gravitation, 100 years after Einstein in Prague” to delineate a relationship between spatial dimensions, and energy. Afterwards, we then scale the energy as related to formation of primordial black holes, in the onset of the big bang, and how they decay, to evaluate graviton production, and by extension graviton ‘particle’ induced entropy. The first section affirms that in principle we may have far fewer dimensions than was deemed necessary in string theory. In doing so, we compare the results with earlier work done where we used an argument by Haggard and Rovelli as far as the introduction of quantum effects, in the early universe. Note that Haggard and Rovelli delineated an outer radius as to the range of quantum effects, which extends past the Schwartzshield radius This is defined as 7/3 times the mass of the initial cosmological system. We also have a range of perturbative effects as delineated by Turok’s article which gives a range of values

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] **viXra:1604.0166 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-07-31 03:46:15*

**Authors:** Andrei Lucian Dragoi

**Comments:** 62 Pages. Last update on: 31.07.2016

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: a first important consequence is that it’s impossible to destroy Shannon entropy/information without increasing the Boltzmann entropy of a system [3,4]; another important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [5]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [6,7]. In this BIDUM version 1.1[5,6,7][8]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter, spacetime vacuum and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta and PI should be treated as a central fundamental notion in any type of TOE (Theory of Everything), together with the concept of biological information (BI) in a unified concept of biophysical information (BPI) [9].

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] **viXra:1604.0135 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-04-15 15:41:20*

**Authors:** Michael John Sarnowski

**Comments:** 4 Pages. Corrected Typos

When a particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. When a charged particle is accelerated it emits radiation called bremsstrahlung radiation. Inside a proton are the many configurations of the nucleons. It is proposed here, and likely proposed by others that there may be some equivalent process that there is a constant acceleration of charged particles or superluminal movement of charged particles that causes the mass of the proton or other particles.
In the case of the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, the possible equation was found first. This paper is an attempt of an explanation and derivation for the equation that very closely, within the known Codata 2014 mass ratio of the proton to the neutron, gives the mass ratio of the proton to the neutron. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from –pi/2 to pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] **viXra:1604.0115 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-06 07:12:45*

**Authors:** N.S. Baaklini

**Comments:** 17 pages, 55 equations, 6 references

We present results of applying our divergence-free effective action quantum field theory techniques to a scalar model with gravity-like, non-polynomial interactions characterized by a dimensional coupling constant. This treatment would give a clear perspective regarding the viability of applying the divergence-free approach to quantum gravity. Issues regarding the masslessness of the effective graviton, while the virtual counterpart is massive, as well as, regarding the invariance of the basic Lagrangian, are discussed.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] **viXra:1604.0029 [pdf]**
*submitted on 2016-04-04 12:14:19*

**Authors:** Jonathan Crabb

**Comments:** 2 Pages.

We propose a new theory of subatomic particles that replaces the existing theory of "quarks" and "string theory". Instead, we consider a new approach: what if the atoms were actually made of light?

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] **viXra:1604.0024 [pdf]**
*replaced on 2016-06-01 13:37:02*

**Authors:** Michael Harney

**Comments:** 11 Pages.

The Wave Structure of Matter is used to describe the operation of the EM drive, with the thrust differential shown to be proportional to the square of the group velocity in the cavity, which is in turn found to be inversely-proportional to cos(phi), where phi is the taper angle of the cone-shaped cavity. Comparisons of calculated thrusts with measured results shows agreement with Shawyer and Tajmar’s results. Improvements in thrust are found by adding a gain medium to the cavity that will increase the number of photons through stimulated emissions.

**Category:** Quantum Gravity and String Theory