Quantum Gravity and String Theory

1605 Submissions

[22] viXra:1605.0296 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-29 18:41:02

A Resonance of Orbitals, Cherenkov Radiation, Bremsstrahlung Ratio for Electron Mass

Authors: Michael John Sarnowski
Comments: 6 Pages.

What happens deeper than quantum mechanics? Perhaps deeper quantum mechanics with the same laws. The following paper shows how a possible resonance of Cherenkov Radiation with the ratio of Bremsstrahlung-Parallel Bremsstrahlung under special circumstances with processes that are like the Bohr model of the hydrogen atom could give the mass ratio of the electron to the neutron. It would suggest that all of the activity within the nucleons are powered by a main power driver and that quarks are far from fundamental. When a charged particle travels faster than light it emits Cherenkov radiation. An equation is developed below that uses the coupling dependence and Cherenkov radiation angles summing the radiation angles from pi/2 to -pi/2 angles and integrating through what may appear to be multiple levels of dimensions. This equation then uses a component of Bremsstrahlung radiation and proposes that there may be some relationship to both Bremsstrahlung, Cherenkov type radiation, and an orbital type model at a deeper than the nucleons that causes some type of resonance that stabilizes the masses of the fundamental particles. This resonance is demonstrated for a rough idea for the electron.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[21] viXra:1605.0293 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-30 03:24:21

Modification of the Reactor Neutrino Model

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 4 Pages.

The measured prompt spectra in the RENO experiment show an excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV relative to the prediction from a most commonly used model. This observation suggests that we should modify the current reactor neutrino model. Here, applying the atom-like structure of baryons described within the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the excess of reactor electron-antineutrinos around 5 MeV. We also explain why in the average nuclear fission there is released about 4.5% of energy as the radiation of neutrinos. The calculated within SST excess of the ~ 5 MeV events should constitute about 2.6% of the total observed reactor neutrinos. This result is close to the RENO result ~ 3%.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[20] viXra:1605.0291 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 17:43:45

A Pulsation Hypothesis Leads a Super String and a Quark Theory.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 5 Pages.

A string theory of the elementary particle size. The defect of the early string theory. A hadron of mass zero. The quark which came close. The theory was not able to explain the state. Quark A and quark B. The vibration of the same thing. Both are not separate existence. A matter wave holds a quark. A matter wave lets a quark vibrate. A matter wave is elastic body. One quark turns into quark A, quark B, quark C. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is three-dimensional space. The trip (the horizon) of the wave is film space. The mass of the hadron is zero in that. All the mass becomes the light in that.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[19] viXra:1605.0284 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-28 02:10:46

Counting Bits, Numerical Entropy, and Its Relationship to a Presumed Cosmological ‘constant’ and Modified Hup for Initial Inflaton Value

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 6 Pages.

We look at early universe space-time and a linkage between quantum bits of information along the lines of what was done by Yan – Gang Miao, Ying- Jie Zhao , and compare it with quantum computing and cosmology which was brought up by Ganbini, Porto and Pullin. Namely the purported number of quantum computing operations. If the two are equivalent, there is an implied relationship to determine an optimal radial distance. Afterwards, we use that in conjunction with a modified Heisenberg Uncertainty principle to come up with some fundamental cosmological phenomenology. In particular a first ever guess as to the value of an initial inflaton. Key words, Quantum Computing , Cosmological constant, Modified HUP, inflaton
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[18] viXra:1605.0266 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-26 03:13:30

I Correct a Contribution in Front, "A Figure of Gravity and the Electromagnetic Force". 

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 2 Pages.

I correct a contribution in front, "a figure of gravity and the electromagnetic force".  This is a right figure.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[17] viXra:1605.0252 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 13:39:47

Elementary Particle Pulsation Principle Hypothesis.

Authors: Terubumi Honjou
Comments: 22 Pages.

The author announced the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis in the Physical Society of Japan of 1980. To date, I study an elementary particle pulsation hypothesis. This page is the gravity in the elementary particle pulsation hypothesis and an article about the electromagnetic force.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[16] viXra:1605.0249 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-24 06:17:22

Using Gravo-Electric and Gravo-Magnetic Fields as a Way to Compute Minimum Allowed Initial Frequency, at Start of Universe

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 10 Pages.

Starting off with the Usual Energy Density for Electro-Magnetic fields, we adopt Padmanbhan’s Gravo – Electric and Gravo Magnetic field formulation to come up with an initial frequency, at the start of the universe, and then using work done by the author, take the inverse of this frequency as a way to initiate a practical time step, which will then be related to earlier work the Author did. The miminum time step iteratively relates to a “cosmological constant” initial value, and a range of initial GW frequencies which for a scale factor which would correspond to GW of about 10^36 Hertz, red shifted to 10^4 Hertz in the modern era. If the scale factor were of the order of 10^-55, the GW waves initially would be as high as 10^42 Hertz which would be red shifted to 10^10 Hertz, for relic GW. All this assumes that the graviton rest mass remains invariant about 10^-62 grams in the aftermath of the creation of the universe.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[15] viXra:1605.0244 [pdf] replaced on 2017-01-09 04:20:17

Quantum Controller of Gravity

Authors: Fran De Aquino
Comments: 7 Pages.

A new type of device for controlling gravity is here proposed. This is a quantum device because results from the behaviour of the matter and energy at subatomic length scale. From the technical point of view this device is easy to build, and can be used to develop several devices for controlling gravity.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[14] viXra:1605.0222 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-21 15:14:22

The Origin of the Illusory Periodic Changes in the Gravitational Constant

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

Anderson et al. have found that experimental values for gravitational constant, G, are oscillatory with a period of P = 5.899 +- 0.062 yr and an amplitude of A = (0.001619 +- 0.000103) F, where F is a factor that is the inverse of the 11 powers of ten expressed in SI Base Units. The period P correlates with the 5.9 year periodic signal in length of day (LOD). Previously it was assumed that changes in LOD follow from fluid core motions and inner-core coupling. But the origin of the G/LOD correlation is still not explained. Next, Schlamminger et al. have found that corrections to the G data reported by Anderson et al. significantly weaken the G/LOD correlation. But in Table III there appears the fit sinusoidal function for G with period fixed at 5.93 year. Here, applying the Scale-Symmetric Theory (SST), we show the origin of the periodic changes in LOD and the illusory changes in G and the origin of the experimental amplitude of G that is illusory as well. The calculated period of LOD and illusory period of G are both 5.941 yr whereas illusory amplitude of G is 0.00183 F. Here, the 5.941 year periodic signal in LOD we interpret as due to advection of the virtual cloud, composed of the virtual electron-positron pairs produced by Earth, caused by its interactions with the dark-matter (DM) structures that overlap with the Earth orbit. Such advection follows from the confinement and entanglement of virtual electrons and positrons and DM structures. The advection causes periodic increase in mass of Earth and measuring apparatus. The amplitude of the changes in mass of Earth follows directly from masses of nucleons (we must take into account the nuclear binding energy) and electrons. The changes in mass lead to the illusion of periodic changes in G. The SST results are consistent with experimental data. Moreover, SST shows that the real changes in G can be infinitesimal only.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[13] viXra:1605.0203 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-19 23:41:15

Modified Uncertainty Principle and the Holographic Wave Function

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 3 Pages.

Modified uncertainty principle Heisenberg defines a minimum scale of the space length.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[12] viXra:1605.0157 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-14 10:48:47

Review of Tokamak Physics as a Way to Construct a Device Optimal for Graviton Detection and Generation Within a Confined Small Spatial Volume, as Opposed to Dyson’s “infinite Astrophysical Volume” Calculations.

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 17 Pages. quantum gravity, classical gravity and HUP together.

Review of arguments in refutation of Dyson’s alleged prohibition against use of device physics as to determining if Gravitons can be determined to exist is followed up by use of a hot Plasma within a Tokamak in a re do of the amplitude of alleged Gravitational waves. This overlaps with gravitons, and we follow up with an analysis of the pertinent form of Gravitons, i.e. do we have massless or massive gravitons. The strain value of h~10^-25 to 10^-27 are obtained. . Such low strain values are extremely close to brane world GW, and strain values in early universe cosmology. We conclude with statements as to comparing our basic results with those of Yan-Gang Miao, Ying-Jie Zhao as to their generalized HUP which gives support to the suppositions given in our comparison of the character of gravitons which are initially at the start of inflation versus those of our present era, as measured by the Tokamak
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[11] viXra:1605.0156 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-15 02:11:26

Spacetime and Matter as Emergent Phenomena, Theory of Everything

Authors: Andrey N. Smirnov
Comments: Pages. Published in "Global journal of physics", Vol 4 No 3

In this article, I propose radical super-deterministic non-gauge theory of emergent spacetime and matter, in which spacetime and matter are emergent properties of more fundamental entity. Properties of such more fundamental entity were analyzed, approach how to build emergent spacetime and matter with observable properties was proposed. It was shown how nondeterministic laws of quantum mechanics with gauge fields arise from super-determinism of underlying entity. The theory of emergent spacetime and matter (ESTM-theory later), as shown in the article, is compatible with Special Relativity, General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics with Standard Model and cosmology. Quantum Mechanics was reformulated in background-independent form. It was shown how Heisenberg's uncertainty principle arises in super-determinism of ESTM-theory. Changes in locality are proposed. Changes in equations of General Relativity are proposed in the article, same as changes to overall conceptual model of gravitation. Question is quantum gravitation exists is open mathematical question in ESTM-theory and it can be solved by more detailed analysis of equations of ESTM-theory. SU(3) symmetry was derived in ESTM-theory and it was shown what Standard Model can be approximate solution of ESTM-theory. ESTM-theory unify all forces include gravitation; all forces are derived from one field.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[10] viXra:1605.0151 [pdf] replaced on 2016-07-31 03:38:08

(Last Update On: 31.07.2016) Addendum – the Table of All the Abbreviations Used in Bidum Version 1.1

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 6 Pages. Last update on: 31.07.2016

Dear readers, I appreciate your time and patience to read/try to read my article. However, this is not a simple article: as it describes the universe in informational terms (as it is a model of the universe; Bio-Info-Digital-Universe-Model [BIDUM]) and has almost 60 pages, it tends to be more like a manual in which I have reformulated a lot of classical and modern concepts of physics. Like any manual/book-like article, the abbreviations are inevitable, as I also try to impose new general concepts (together with their abbreviations which I try to propose too). If I had used the classical terms with a minimal abbreviational strategy, the phrases would become very complex and hard to read as the explanations have a lot of parenthesis (as I practice a tree-like multi-level phrase structures). The main abbreviations I have imposed is for fundamental physical concepts I try to present and I always first explain them (and mention them between parenthesis). These are the most frequent: (elementary) quantum particle ([E]QP), gauge-boson (GB), non-gauge particle (NGP), physical information (quantity/quanta) (PI[q/qua]), biological information (quantity/quanta) (BI[q/qua]), biophysical information (quantity/quanta) (BPI[q/qua]), physical observer (PO), biological observer (BO), Fine Structure Constant (FSC), GCC (gravitational coupling constant), fundamental forces/fields (FFs): strong nuclear force/field (SNF), weak nuclear force/field (WNF), electromagnetic force/field (EMF), (electro)gravitational force/field (EGF), super string theory (SST), M-theory (MT) etc. The majority of the rest of them are standard abbreviations used in standard physical language. I have also anticipated the difficulty of reading this manual-like article, that is why I have also created this separate file with all the abbreviations used in my BIDUM. Important remark: this update is also due Sergey G. Fedosin which I want to thank again as he convinced my once again that this table of abbreviations is a must to share with all my readers.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[9] viXra:1605.0149 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-13 19:50:22

A Wave-Particle Duality Interpretation Based on Dark Energy

Authors: Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha
Comments: 11 Pages.

Every elementary particle or quantic entity may be partly described in terms not only of particles, but also of waves. It expresses the inability of the classical concepts particle or wave to fully describe the behavior of quantum-scale objects. In this paper, we show that X-particles of dark energy can create the wave appearance of a quantum-scale particle, and argue that the particle is indeed a particle. Our theory is deterministic and local, and is based on classical mechanics. Double-slit experiment and quantum entanglement are explained by the X-particle interpretation.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[8] viXra:1605.0135 [pdf] replaced on 2016-05-20 08:10:27

(Short Essay) An Info-Digital Universe (Toy) Model (Idum) (In Brief) Using the Hypothetical Gravitonic Qubit as the Basic Unit of the Physical Information

Authors: Andrei Lucian Dragoi
Comments: 11 Pages.

A growing trend in physics is to define the physical world as being made up of information [1]. An important direct relationship between information and entropy is demonstrated by the Maxwell's demon thought experiment [2]: an important consequence is that information may be interchangeable with energy [3]. Wheeler’s “it from bit” principle (hypothesis) is also famous [4,5]. In this essay (which is a short essentialised summary of the author’s Bio-IDUM (BIDUM) version 1.1 [6]), I argue that energy and time are indissolubly connected and can be integrated in a concept of physical information (PI) measurable in qbits (qubits) as an alternative interpretation to the (classical and quantum) angular momentum: energy, matter and their behaviors may be considered proprieties of different PI-quanta.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[7] viXra:1605.0133 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-12 20:59:21

Dark Energy Forms a Gravitational Field Resulting in the Uncertainty Principle

Authors: Wook Koh, Soonhoi Ha
Comments: 9 Pages.

As an origin of dark energy, an X-particle with repulsive force proportional to energy density has been proposed [1]. In this paper, we will develop the X-particle theory further, and postulate how dark energy could form a ubiquitous gravitational field and inertial reference of frames, and why they might be the reason for the uncertainty principle. Like photon, an X-particle has only relativistic mass, and acts like a particle that has a definite position and momentum. It creates spaces between them by forces of gravitational attraction and repulsion. However, unlike photon that travels in space, an X-particle only needs to pass signals to its neighboring particles to form the ubiquitous gravitational field. This model could explain how gravitational signals propagate at the speed of light, how their values are stored in X-particles, and why the uncertainty principle could arise from this.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[6] viXra:1605.0102 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 14:30:22

Semi-Classical Electrodynamics

Authors: J. P. Lestone
Comments: 11 Pages. 2 figures, presented at the APS April Meeting Salt Lake City 2016

Quantum electrodynamics is complex and its associated mathematics can appear overwhelming for those not trained in this field. Here, semi-classical approaches are used to obtain a more intuitive feel for several QED processes including electrostatics, Compton scattering, and the anomalous magnetic moment of leptons. These intuitive arguments lead to a possible answer to the question of the nature of charge. By invoking a far-field L=0 photon-particle interaction cross section of piƛ2, with the inclusion of near-field effects, the model calculated elementary charge is q=1.602177x10^-19 C with a corresponding calculated inverse fine structure constant of alpha^-1=137.036.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[5] viXra:1605.0092 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-09 22:52:29

Reviewing Dyson’s Analysis of Gravitons, to Investigate Tokamak Graviton Detection, and Gerstsenshtein Coupling Between Photons and Gravitons

Authors: Andrew Beckwith
Comments: 18 Pages.

In a 2013 paper, Freeman Dyson presented thought experiments challenging the detectability of gravitons via LIGO interferometry and via the Gertsheshtein effect. Dyson assumed a distance of several light years would be required for detection of the interaction between gravitational waves (GWs) and tenuous B fields and photons, making gravitons experimentally undectable. In this paper, we present contrary theoretical evidence for detectability of near-field interaction of gravitons, photons, and a magnetic field. Our first example of 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working is due to a GW generated by a tokamak with a interaction of GW, B field, and photons, in a volume on the order of a few cubic meters. The 100% probability of the Gertshenshtein effect working leads to gravitons interacting with a strong uniform magnetic field, resulting in photons which are detected by appropriate instrumentation. In addition, we will also comment upon another issue, that of relic GW, as may be generated by a new uncertainty principle as elucidated by the author. And how that effects relic considerations as to inflaton physics. I.e. the frequency range of the early universe GW (gravitons?) and those of gravitons (GW) produced by the Tokamak may be one and the same i.e. very pronounced overlap. And we explain why. Key words: Gertenshtein effect, LIGO, Octonionic, Pre Octonionic, Modified HUP( Heisenberg Uncertainty Principle)
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[4] viXra:1605.0087 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-10 04:06:15

The Holographic Wave Function

Authors: Kuyukov Vitaly
Comments: 3 Pages.

In this paper we study the nature of space - time based on the geometry of the holographic surface .
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[3] viXra:1605.0073 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-07 05:01:30

More Sources of Gravity Waves

Authors: George Rajna
Comments: 10 Pages.

A team of researchers with the University of Lisbon has created simulations that indicate that the gravitational waves detected by researchers with the LIGO project, and which are believed to have come about due to two black holes colliding, could just have easily come from another object such as a gravaster (objects which are believed to have their insides made of dark energy) or even a wormhole. In their paper published in Physical Review Letters, the team describes the simulations they created, what was seen and what they are hoping to find in the future. [6] In a landmark discovery for physics and astronomy, international scientists said Thursday they have glimpsed the first direct evidence of gravitational waves, or ripples in space-time, which Albert Einstein predicted a century ago. [5] Scientists at the National Institute for Space Research in Brazil say an undiscovered type of matter could be found in neutron stars (illustration shown). Here matter is so dense that it could be 'squashed' into strange matter. This would create an entire 'strange star'-unlike anything we have seen. [4] The changing acceleration of the electrons explains the created negative electric field of the magnetic induction, the electromagnetic inertia, the changing relativistic mass and the Gravitational Force, giving a Unified Theory of the physical forces. Taking into account the Planck Distribution Law of the electromagnetic oscillators also, we can explain the electron/proton mass rate and the Weak and Strong Interactions.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[2] viXra:1605.0070 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-06 20:10:49

“Reality is Nothing But a Mathematical Structure, Literally”

Authors: Adel Sadeq
Comments: 9 Pages. The simulation programs links are in color at the end of each section.

In This essay I shall derive the laws of nature from a simple mathematical system from a postulate that reality is indeed a mathematical structure. The system can be simulated by a computer program to generate many results that agree with Quantum mechanics. Also I will show that the system can be put in regular more familiar mathematical formalism. The postulate lead to assume particles are made of random lines were one end originates in a small region representing the particle and it extends to all other points in space and some ending on other particles. The points are really nothing but random numbers, hence reality is nothing but some relation between random numbers. Moreover, the lines are responsible for the interaction by a process of crossing or not crossing or meeting.The start point and the end point of these lines define space and the length of the line is interpreted as energy, time is just a change of state. The system unifies space, time, matter, energy and interaction, all in one coherent picture, so particles and the laws of nature governing them appear naturally. The simulations generate some basic Quantum Mechanics results and the 1/r law as in quantum field Theory. There are many other results such as the hydrogen 1s level where the universal constants like c, h, e and their relation that lead to Fine Structure constant automatically fall out of the simulation. Two such simulations are carried out; one is Bohr like model and the other Schrodinger like equations solution and show the equivalency. Also, the mass of the electron appear naturally using a simulation which is an extension of the Bohr model which in turn leads to the predicting the size of the proton. The system automatically displays the non-local behavior and explains the EPR in simple terms and shows the origin of spin. Some interesting formulas connecting proton to electron mass ratio, FSC and electron g-factor are produced. While it is shown that coulomb potential is produced by line crossing, Gravity appears when lines meet at a region of Planck's length(gravity needs more investigation).
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory

[1] viXra:1605.0030 [pdf] submitted on 2016-05-04 02:36:31

The CMB Axis of Evil

Authors: Sylwester Kornowski
Comments: 5 Pages.

The cosmic microwave background (CMB) is the thermal radiation due to the time of recombination. The temperature variations on very large angular scales observed by WMAP and Planck are both larger than expected (there appears the CMB axis of evil) and, contrary to smaller-scale fluctuations, aligned with each other. The initial inflation in the big-bang model suggests that both deviations cannot be realized by Nature. The CMB axis of evil, if it exists, leads to the distinguished frame of reference in the Universe and is a sign of new cosmological phenomena. There are many ideas to explain the deviations in CMB. If we neglect the trivial explanation that the applied statistics is incomplete then there are two important ideas: that CMB is a local variation of an infinite universe or some characteristic features of finite/”small” universe. It was shown in 2003 (A. de Oliveira-Costa, M. Tegmark, M. Zaldarriaga, A. Hamilton) that “the simplest small universe model where the universe has toroidal topology with one small dimension of order half the horizon scale, in the direction towards Virgo, could explain three independent anomalies involving the quadrupole and octopole but the applied S-statistic and the circle test on the WMAP data show that we should rule out this model”. Here we present a solution that follows from the Scale-Symmetric Theory. Due to the phase transitions of inflation field (i.e. of the Higgs field), the expansion of the Universe (the “soft” big bang) was separated in time from the inflation (the big bang). The dark matter had initially toroidal topology with internal helicity and inside such 3-dimensional torus with central condensate there were two very thin (in cosmic scale) baryonic loops (the loops had left-handed internal helicity and antiparallel unitary spins). It leads to the CMB axis of evil. We solved a few other cosmological problems as well.
Category: Quantum Gravity and String Theory